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  1. Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM) and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are specific federal regulatory requirements that require the identification of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in many of the residential buildings that are being demolished or renovated by a municipality.

  2. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  3. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Asbestos-Containing Vermiculite

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Letters and guidance that detail the requirements of asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants as is applies to vermiculite asbestos-containing material during residential demolitions

  4. Regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. The performance of these activities may generate asbestos-containing waste because asbestos was formerly used in many building materials, including floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheets, insulating boards, and insulating cements. The regulatory requirements governing the disposal of these wastes depend on: (1) the percentage of asbestos in the waste and whether the waste is friable (easily crumbled or pulverized); (2) other physical and chemical characteristics of the waste; and (3) the State in which the waste is generated. This Information Brief provides an overview of the environment regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste. It does not address regulatory requirements applicable to worker protection promulgated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct), the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA), or the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  5. Asbestos/NESHAP regulated asbestos-containing-materials guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    In the initial Asbestos NESHAP rule promulgated in 1973, a distinction was made between building materials that would readily release asbestos fibers when damaged or disturbed and those materials that were unlikely to result in significant fiber release. The terms friable and nonfriable were used to make this distinction. EPA has since determined that, if severely damaged, otherwise nonfriable materials can release significant amounts of asbestos fibers. Regulated Asbestos-Containing Material (RACM) is (a) friable asbestos material, (b) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that has become friable, (c) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that will be or has been subjected to sanding, grinding, cutting, or abrading, or (d) Category 2 nonfriable ACM that has a high probability of becoming or has become crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by the forces expected to act on the material in the course of demolition or renovation operations. The purpose of the document is to assist asbestos inspectors and the regulated community in determining whether or not a material is RACM and thus subject to the Asbestos NESHAP.

  6. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  7. EPA's Program for Asbestos Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    1979-01-01

    Comments from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning three recommendations (in an article in a previous issue of this journal about inspecting schools for asbestos-containing materials) that are in direct conflict with those offered by EPA. (MLF)

  8. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Judithann Ruth

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures thereof. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  9. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.R.

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C{sub 8}{single_bond}C{sub 15} alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  10. [Effect of low concentration of asbestos-containing dust].

    PubMed

    Kogan, F M; Kashanskiĭ, S V; Plotko, E G; Berzin, S A; Bogdanov, G B

    1993-01-01

    Dust, particularly fibrous, in atmosphere of Asbest town was characterized. Pulmonary cancer mortality in Asbest town and towns of nearby area were compared and no significant difference was found. Overall pulmonary cancer mortality was higher in the region than in Asbest. Obtained data served as a basis for discussion on the action threshold of asbestos-containing dust. MAC for asbestos fibers in atmosphere is reported to be 0.06 respirable fibers per ml.

  11. Mineral Carbonation Using Asbestos-Containing Cement Board Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral carbonation appears to be one of the plausible methods for the practical fixation of CO2. Carbon consumption and sequestration by carbonation reactions involving alkaline elements such as Ca and Mg have been developed. Suitable feedstocks for CO2 sequestration are mineral carbonation using Ca/Mg-silicates. Asbestos-containing cement board waste consists of chrysotile asbestos which is one of the Mg-silicate and cement. Chrysotile is one of the raw materials to form carbonate mineral for CO2 fixation in previous studies and cement contains a quantity of calcium which is able to react with CO2. Generally, asbestos-containing cement board waste is dumped in controlled waste sites in South Korea. However, this cannot be regarded as an ultimate solution because dispersion of asbestos fibers in the air is an intrinsic risk during dumping operations and in the long-term management. An alternative solution is thermal transformation of asbestos-containing material into non-hazardous phase. Therefore, the aims of the study were to sequester CO2 using asbestos-containing cement board waste via mineral carbonation and to detoxify chrysotile asbestos in cement board waste via heat treatment. Two steps of experiments were designed: (1) synthesis of a carbonate mineral (i.e., calcite and magnesite), via the physicochemical reactions of fragmented cement board with CO2 and (2) transformation of fibrous asbestos into non-fibrous material through heat treatment. Physicochemical and mineralogical properties of cement board waste were investigated by TG-DTA , XRF, XRD, SEM, and EDS analyses. XRD analysis showed that the calcite (CaCO3) was formed after reaction of fragmented cement board with CO2. Mineralogical characteristics showed minerals such as chrysotile [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4] and calcite (CaCO3) in the reactions of fragmented cement board with CO2 were transformed into calcite (CaCO3), calcium oxide (CaO), and quartz (SiO2) by heat treatment. SEM-EDS analyses showed that

  12. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  13. [Treatment of asbestos-containing waste products to prevent harm to the lungs ].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Higashi, Toshiaki; Chiba, Osamu; Ishiwata, Hiroyuki; Takanami, Tetsuo

    2009-05-01

    The amount of industrial wastes with asbestos such as dismantled construction materials has increased. We have reviewed the effect of asbestos-containing products subjected to harmless treatment on the lungs. Usually, the harmless treatment of asbestos is confirmed by the disappearance of fibrous materials and crystal structures by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. However, it is very important to perform animal studies and in vitro studies in order to examine the effect of the treated asbestos-containing products on the lungs. From previous treatments of asbestos using acids or high temperature, almost treated materials tended to show decreased toxicity in vitro and in vivo studies. There are some reports of the adverse effects of the treatment. If new harmless treatments of asbestos are developed, it is necessary to perform animal studies and in vitro studies of asbestos-containing products using new harmless treatments.

  14. ENGINEERING CONTROL PRACTICES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS DURING DRILLING OF ASBESTOS-CONTAINING FLOORING MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the implementation and testing of control measures to reduce airborne asbestos generated by the drilling of asbestos-containing flooring materials, an OSHA Class III asbestos maintenance activity. Bosch 11224 and 11222 rotary drills were fitted with shrouds ...

  15. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  16. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  17. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  18. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  19. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  20. Foam composition for treating asbestos-containing materials and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob; Krupkin, Natalia Vera; Kuespert, Daniel Reid; Nishioka, Gary Masaru; Lau, John Wing-Keung; Palmer, Nigel Innes

    1998-04-28

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, at least about 0.1% by weight of a source of fluoride ions, and a stable foam forming amount of a foaming agent system having both cationic and non-ionic functionality. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition in the form of a foam also disclosed.

  1. Foam composition for treating asbestos-containing materials and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Krupkin, N.V.; Kuespert, D.R.; Nishioka, G.M.; Lau, J.W.K.; Palmer, N.I.

    1998-04-28

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, at least about 0.1% by weight of a source of fluoride ions, and a stable foam forming amount of a foaming agent system having both cationic and non-ionic functionality. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition in the form of a foam also disclosed.

  2. Asbestos-containing materials and airborne asbestos levels in industrial buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangjun; Suk, Mee-Hee; Paik, Nam Won

    2010-03-01

    Recently in Korea, the treatment of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in building has emerged as one of the most important environmental health issues. This study was conducted to identify the distribution and characteristics of ACM and airborne asbestos concentrations in industrial buildings in Korea. A total of 1285 presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) samples were collected from 80 workplaces across the nation, and 40% of the PACMs contained more than 1% of asbestos. Overall, 94% of the surveyed workplaces contained ACM. The distribution of ACM did not show a significant difference by region, employment size, or industry. The total ACM area in the buildings surveyed was 436,710 m2. Ceiling tile ACM accounted for 61% (267,093 m2) of the total ACM area, followed by roof ACM (32%), surfacing ACM (6.1%), and thermal system insulation (TSI). In terms of asbestos type, 98% of total ACM was chrysotile, while crocidolite was not detected. A comparison of building material types showed that the material with the highest priority for regular management is ceiling tile, followed by roof, TSI, and surfacing material. The average airborne concentration of asbestos sampled without disturbing in-place ACM was 0.0028 fibers/cc by PCM, with all measurements below the standard of recommendation for indoor air quality in Korea (0.01 fibers/cc).

  3. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc.

  4. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Robert N.; Spooner, Charles M.

    Part 2 of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance manuals consists of more detailed information on asbestos identification and control methods. Available information on sprayed asbestos-containing materials in buildings is summarized. Guidelines are presented for the detection and monitoring, removal or encapsulation, and disposal of…

  5. Comparison of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the NESHAP Method for Demolition of Asbestos-Containing Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Asbestos NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires the removal of all Regulated Asbestos-Containing Material (RACM) prior to the demolition of the buildings that fall under the auspices of the NESHAP. This removal process can be a costly and ti...

  6. Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings: A Guidance Document. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked with the states to develop a program for accurate information and guidance to deal with the problem of school buildings constructed with asbestos-containing materials. This is the first of two guidance manuals that are a major part of this program and are being mailed to all public school…

  7. Asbestos release from whole-building demolition of buildings with asbestos-containing material.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Robert A; Hargesheimer, John; Fourie, Walter

    2007-12-01

    The whole-building demolition method, which entails one-or two-story buildings pushed down by heavy equipment, loaded into trucks, and hauled away, is generally the most cost-effective means to remove small buildings. For taller buildings, a crane and wrecking ball may be used initially to reduce the height of the building. Demolitions might release asbestos fibers from friable asbestos-containing material (ACM). Fibers also might be released from nominally nonfriable ACM (Categories I and II nonfriable ACM) if it becomes friable after rough handling throughout the whole-building demolition process. This paper reports on asbestos air monitoring from two demolition projects involving ACM. In one building, Category II nonfriable ACM was present because it could not be removed safely prior to demolition. Both projects had large quantities of gypsum wallboard with ACM joint compound and ACM flooring. One building had large quantities of ACM spray-on ceiling material. During the demolitions personal air monitoring of the workers and area air monitoring downwind and around the sites were conducted. The monitoring found the concentrations of fibers detected by phase contrast microscopy were generally well below the permissible exposure limits (PEL) of workers. Electron microcopy analysis of samples at or near the PEL indicated most of the fibers were not asbestos, and the actual asbestos exposure was often below the detection limit of the procedure. The buildings were kept wet with fire hoses during the demolition and that required large quantities of water, 20,000-60,000 gal/day (75-225 m(3)/day). Earlier studies found little asbestos release from buildings containing only nonfriable ACM demolished by this method. This project found a negligible release of asbestos fibers, despite the presence of nonfriable materials that might become friable, such as ACM joint compound and spray-on ACM ceiling coating.

  8. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A high sensitive and selective testing method for asbestos in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes was developed. • Asbestos can be determined at a limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg g{sup −1}. • High temperature melting treatment samples were determined by this method. Asbestos fiber concentration were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup 6} g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50 mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup −6} f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  9. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47-170×10(-6) f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  10. STATUS REPORT ON THE EVALUATION OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD – A COMPARISON TO THE NESHAP METHOD OF DEMOLITION OF ASBESTOS CONTAINING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on preliminary data and conclusions. The Alternative Asbestos...

  11. Community health risk assessment after a fire with asbestos containing fallout

    PubMed Central

    Bridgman, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A factory fire in Tranmere, Merseyside, England, deposited asbestos containing fallout in an urban area. There was considerable community anxiety for months after the incident. Therefore an assessment of the long term health risks of this acute environmental incident were requested by the local health authority.
METHODS—The facts of the incident were gathered and appraised from unpublished and press reports, involved personnel, and further analysis of material collected at the time of the incident. The literature on the long term health risks of asbestos was reviewed, and combined with evidence on asbestos exposure to estimate community health risk.
RESULTS—Risk was almost entirely from exposure to fire fallout of chrysotile in asbestos bitumen paper covering the factory roof. Amosite was only detected in a few samples and in trace amounts. The number of people who lived in the area of fallout was 16 000 to 48 000. From a non-threshold model with assumptions likely to overestimate risk, the lung cancer risk is estimated to be undetectably small. Risk of mesothelioma from chrysotile exposure, and risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma from amosite exposure were based on observational studies and were estimated to be even lower than that of lung cancer risk from chrysotile exposure. Academically, there are assumptions that while reasonable cannot be proven, for example, the validity of extrapolating observed risk from much higher exposures to lower exposures, estimates of individual exposure, and that there is no threshold for asbestos to cause cancer.
CONCLUSIONS—The author is unaware of a similar study on long term health risks in a community exposed to asbestos in a fire. It is concluded that, using methods that do not underestimate risk, risk is undetectably small. Practical lessons from this methodology and approach to health risk assessment are discussed.


Keywords: asbestos; environmental pollutants; mesothelioma; health risk

  12. The presence of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation or other asbestos-containing materials in homes and the potential for living space contamination.

    PubMed

    Spear, Terry M; Hart, Julie F; Spear, Tessa E; Loushin, Molly M; Shaw, Natalie N; Elashhab, Mohamed I

    2012-10-01

    Asbestos-contaminated vermiculite attic insulation (VAI) produced from a mine near Libby, Montana, may be present in millions of homes along with other commercial asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The primary goal of the research described here was to develop and test procedures that would allow for the safe and effective weatherization of low-income homes with asbestos. The presence of asbestos insulation was confirmed by bulk sampling of the suspect asbestos material. The homes were then tested for the presence of asbestos fibers in the living spaces. All 40 homes containing VAI revealed the presence of amphibole asbestos in bulk samples. Asbestos (primarily chrysotile) was confirmed in bulk samples of ACM collected from 18 homes. Amphibole asbestos was detected in the living space of 12 (26%) homes, while chrysotile asbestos was detected in the living space of 45 (98%) homes. These results suggest that asbestos sources in homes can contribute to living space contamination.

  13. Morphological changes during enhanced carbonation of asbestos containing material and its comparison to magnesium silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Gadikota, Greeshma; Natali, Claudio; Boschi, Chiara; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2014-01-15

    The disintegration of asbestos containing materials (ACM) over time can result in the mobilization of toxic chrysotile ((Mg, Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4)) fibers. Therefore, carbonation of these materials can be used to alter the fibrous morphology of asbestos and help mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions, depending on the amount of available alkaline metal in the materials. A series of high pressure carbonation experiments were performed in a batch reactor at PCO2 of 139atm using solvents containing different ligands (i.e., oxalate and acetate). The results of ACM carbonation were compared to those of magnesium silicate minerals which have been proposed to permanently store CO2 via mineral carbonation. The study revealed that oxalate even at a low concentration of 0.1M was effective in enhancing the extent of ACM carbonation and higher reaction temperatures also resulted in increased ACM carbonation. Formation of phases such as dolomite ((Ca, Mg)(CO3)2), whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O) and glushinskite (MgC2O4·2H2O) and a reduction in the chrysotile content was noted. Significant changes in the particle size and surface morphologies of ACM and magnesium silicate minerals toward non-fibrous structures were observed after their carbonation.

  14. Removal of Asbestos-Containing Coatings (ACC) from gas transmission pipelines. Final report, January 1991-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, L.E.; Blackburn, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Corrosion control coatings on transmission pipelines may contain asbestos as a secondary component of the coating. Current environmental and health regulations require a wet removal process for asbestos materials that provides close control of airborne emissions and asbestos fibers in effluent water. Modification of current line-traveling, water jet equipment was successfully completed in developing an economic removal process for asbestos-containing coatings (ACC). Materials handling components were added in yard experiments that permitted water jet removal, slurry filtration, and residue containerization meeting emission control levels, while providing pipe cleanliness suitable for recoating. Field evaluations under in-the-ditch and over-the-ditch conditions on 16-, 26- and 30-inch pipelines verified the achievement of design coating removal rates and asbestos emission control that meets current regulations.

  15. Evaluation of asbestos exposure within the automotive repair industry: a study involving removal of asbestos-containing body sealants and drive clutch replacement.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2008-12-01

    Two independent assessments were performed of airborne asbestos concentrations generated during automotive repair work on vintage vehicles . The first involved removal of asbestos-containing seam sealant, and the second involved servicing of a drive clutch. Despite the relatively high concentrations (5.6-28%) of chrysotile fibers detected within bulk samples of seam sealant, the average asbestos concentration for personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples during seam sealant removal was 0.006 f/cc (fibers/cubic centimeter of air). Many other air samples contained asbestos at or below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). Pneumatic chiseling of the sealant material during removal resulted in 69% of area air samples containing asbestos. Use of this impact tool liberated more asbestos than hand scraping. Asbestos fibers were only detected in air samples collected during the installation of a replacement clutch. The highest asbestos corrected airborne fiber concentration observed during clutch installation was 0.0028 f/cc. This value is approximately 100 times lower than Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1f/cc. The airborne asbestos concentrations observed during the servicing of vintage vehicles with asbestos-containing seam sealant and clutches are comparable to levels reported for repair work involving brake components and gaskets.

  16. Potential health hazards associated with exposures to asbestos-containing drywall accessory products: A state-of-the-science assessment.

    PubMed

    Phelka, Amanda D; Finley, Brent L

    2012-01-01

    Until the late 1970s, chrysotile asbestos was an ingredient in most industrial and consumer drywall accessory products manufactured in the US. In 1977, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) issued a ban of consumer patching compounds containing "respirable, free-form asbestos" based on their prediction of exceptionally high rates of asbestos-related diseases among individuals using patching compounds for as little as a few days. Although hundreds of thousands of workers and homeowners handling these products may have experienced exposure to asbestos prior to the ban, there has been no systematic effort to summarize and interpret the information relevant to the potential health effects of such exposures. In this analysis, we provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the scientific studies assessing fiber type and dimension, toxicological and epidemiological endpoints, and airborne fiber concentrations associated with joint compound use. We conclude that: 1) asbestos in drywall accessory products was primarily short fiber (< 5 µm) chrysotile, 2) asbestos in inhaled joint compound particulate is probably not biopersistent in the lung, 3) estimated cumulative chrysotile exposures experienced by workers and homeowners are below levels known to be associated with respiratory disease, and 4) mortality studies of drywall installers have not demonstrated a significantly increased incidence of death attributable to any asbestos-related disease. Consequently, contrary to the predictions of the CPSC, the current weight of evidence does not indicate any clear health risks associated with the use of asbestos-containing drywall accessory products. We also describe information gaps and suggest possible areas of future research.

  17. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  18. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-09-12

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO₂eq to 132,141 tonCO₂eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide.

  19. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO2eq to 132,141 tonCO2eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide. PMID:27626433

  20. A Guide to Performing Reinspections under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

    Under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires each elementary and secondary school to perform an inspection for asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) and to prepare an asbestos management plan. The AHERA regulations further require a reinspection of the ACBM at…

  1. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  2. Biological effects and comparative cytotoxicity of thermal transformed asbestos-containing materials in a human alveolar epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Giantomassi, Federica; Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Santarelli, Lory; Tomasetti, Marco; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Lucarini, Guendalina; Governa, Mario; Pugnaloni, Armanda

    2010-09-01

    Asbestos fibres can be transformed into potentially non-hazardous silicates by high-temperature treatment via complete solid-state transformation. A549 cells were exposed to standard concentrations of raw cement asbestos (RCA), chrysotile and cement asbestos subjected to an industrial process at 1200 degrees C (Cry_1200 and KRY.AS, respectively), raw commercial grey cement (GC). Cell growth rate and viability (MTT test) were detected in vitro. RCA and KRY.AS subjected to comprehensive microstructural study by electron microscopy were further in vitro assayed to compare their cytotoxic potential by morphostructural studies, proliferation index (Ki-67 antigen), apoptosis induction (AO/EB staining) assays and detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the fluorescent DCFA dye. More severe cytotoxic damage was induced by RCA than by KRY.AS after each incubation period. Exposure to KRY.AS and GC resulted in comparable cell growth rates and cytotoxic effects. Cells incubated with RCA showed greater apoptotic induction and ROS production and a lower cell proliferation index than those exposed to KRY.AS. Chrysotile asbestos and RCA subjected to heat treatment underwent complete microstructure transformation. The final product of heat treatment of cement asbestos, KRY.AS, was considerably more inert and had lower cytotoxic potential than the original asbestos material in all in vitro tests.

  3. Thermochemical destruction of asbestos-containing roofing slate and the feasibility of using recycled waste sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seong-Nam; Jeong, Seongkyeong; Lim, Hojoo

    2014-01-30

    In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of using a thermochemical technique on ∼17% chrysotile-containing roofing sheet or slate (ACS), in which 5N sulfuric acid-digestive destruction was incorporated with 10-24-h heating at 100°C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the polarized light microscopy (PLM) results have clearly shown that raw chrysotile asbestos was converted to non-asbestiform material with no crystallinity by the low temperature thermochemical treatment. As an alternative to the use of pricey sulfuric acid, waste sulfuric acid discharged from a semiconductor manufacturing process was reused for the asbestos-fracturing purpose, and it was found that similar removals could be obtained under the same experimental conditions, promising the practical applicability of thermochemical treatment of ACWs. A thermodynamic understanding based on the extraction rates of magnesium and silica from a chrysotile structure has revealed that the destruction of chrysotile by acid-digestion is greatly influenced by the reaction temperatures, showing a 80.3-fold increase in the reaction rate by raising the temperature by 30-100°C. The overall destruction is dependent upon the breaking-up of the silicon-oxide layer - a rate-limiting step. This study is meaningful in showing that the low temperature thermochemical treatment is feasible as an ACW-treatment method.

  4. Asbestos-containing materials in school buildings: Bulk-sample analysis quality-assurance program. Bulk sample rounds 16, 17 and 18

    SciTech Connect

    Starner, K.K.; Perkins, R.L.; Harvey, B.W.; Westbrook, S.H.

    1990-02-01

    The report presents the performance results of laboratories participating in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth rounds of the Bulk Sample Analysis Quality Assurance Program sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). Round 16 of the program operated along the guidelines established in previous rounds and was a voluntary quality assurance program. The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act of 1986 (AHERA), directed the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish and maintain a laboratory accreditation program for bulk sample analysis of asbestos. The program began in October 1988 by evaluating enrolled polariscope laboratories in the interim prior to the initiation of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for bulk asbestos laboratories, sponsored by NIST.

  5. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

  6. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan C...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 763—Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan I. Asbestos Model Accreditation...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan C...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 763—Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan I. Asbestos Model Accreditation...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan C...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 763—Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan I. Asbestos Model Accreditation...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan C...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 763—Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan I. Asbestos Model Accreditation...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan C...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 763—Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan I. Asbestos Model Accreditation...

  11. Guide to the asbestos NESHAP as revised November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The specific authority of EPA regarding asbestos is listed under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act entitled 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants' (NESHAP). The particular standard, that addresses asbestos is contained in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Part 61, Subpart M. These regulations generally specify emission control requirements for the milling, manufacturing and fabricating of asbestos, for activities associated with the demolition and renovation of asbestos-containing buildings, and for the handling and disposal of asbestos-containing waste material. The major intention of the regulations is to minimize the release of asbestos fibers during all activities involving the handling and processing of asbestos and asbestos-containing material.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763—Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste For the...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763—Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste For the...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763—Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste For the...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763—Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste For the...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763—Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste For the...

  17. H. R. 5369: a bill to require asbestos manufacturers to submit information on their asbestos products to the Environmental Protection Agency. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, August 8, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Asbestos Information Act of 1986 requires asbestos manufacturers to submit information on their asbestos products to the Environmental Protection Agency. It also requires owners of buildings containing asbestos to inspect the buildings and take samples of asbestos before initiating civil actions aimed at recovering costs or seeking relief relating to the presence, abatement, or management of asbestos or asbestos-containing material. The information developed under the analysis must accompany any civil action.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Interim Method of the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples E Appendix E to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials... Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples Section 1. Polarized Light Microscopy 1.1Principle...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Interim Method of the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples E Appendix E to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials... Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples Section 1. Polarized Light Microscopy 1.1Principle...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Interim Method of the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples E Appendix E to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials... Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples Section 1. Polarized Light Microscopy 1.1Principle...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Interim Method of the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples E Appendix E to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials... Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples Section 1. Polarized Light Microscopy 1.1Principle...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Interim Method of the Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples E Appendix E to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials... Determination of Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples Section 1. Polarized Light Microscopy 1.1Principle...

  3. Asbestos-in-Schools: A Guide to New Federal Requirements for Local Education Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    In 1986, the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) was signed into law requiring the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations which provide a comprehensive framework for addressing asbestos problems in secondary and elementary schools. The new rule, The Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule, requires all…

  4. Guide to performing reinspections under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires each elementary and secondary school to perform an inspection for asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) and to prepare an asbestos management plan. The AHERA regulations further require a reinspection of the ACBM at least once every 3 years. The reinspection guide will assist: Local Education Agencies (LEAs); AHERA designated persons, Asbestos inspectors, and Management planners in meeting the specific requirements for an AHERA reinspection. Further, it provides guidance for improving the accuracy and quality of information available about ACBM during the reinspection. The reinspection period provides an excellent opportunity for schools to re-evaluate and update their programs for managing asbestos. EPA recently issued general guidelines for asbestos in buildings in an advisory letter from the EPA Administrator which was sent to all LEAs. The guide addresses only the Federal requirements for reinspections. A school may also be subject to State or local requirements not discussed here.

  5. Asbestos in Poland: occupational health problems.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Swiątkowska, Beata; Szubert, Zuzanna; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2011-06-01

    The presentation addresses current problems of health risk and health effects associated with exposure to asbestos, including data on historical exposure and on currently valid occupational exposure limits. The quantity and types of the raw material used for the production of various asbestos products have also been discussed in relation to the particular types of asbestos-induced occupational diseases. The authors describe the medical care system for former asbestos workers and those currently exposed during removal of asbestos-containing products. The national system for medical certification of occupational asbestos-related diseases and the compensation procedure have been outlined as well. According to the parliamentary Act of 1997, importing, manufacture and sale of asbestos and asbestos-containing materials are prohibited in Poland. Thus, the assessment of asbestos exposure and the monitoring of health conditions of workers at asbestos-processing plants have become irrelevant. However, the delayed health effects attributable to past exposure continue to be the matter of concern for public health. Likewise, the environmental pollution from asbestos waste landfills in the vicinity of asbestos-processing plants (where high levels of asbestos fibre in ambient air have been recorded) will continue to be a serious public health problem. Presently, two programmes aimed at minimising the adverse effects of asbestos on population health are underway. One of them is the governmental programme for "Elimination of asbestos and asbestos-containing products used in Poland, 2002-2032". The programme was updated in 2009 to cover the workers contracted to perform demolition works and provide protective covers to asbestos waste landfills. This will be the exposed group who need prophylactic health care. The other is a programme of prophylactic examinations for former asbestos workers and is referred to as the AMIANTUS programme. Both programmes have been briefly described.

  6. Asbestos in Plaster and Wall Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This collection of letters and clarification on final rules provides guidance on Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for asbestos-containing join compounds, and asbestos-containing materials found in plaster and wall systems.

  7. Asbestos in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

  8. Controlling Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPA Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Spurred by recent medical findings, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a program to help educators check their schools for asbestos-containing materials and correct any hazardous conditions which are found. (Author/RE)

  9. Information for Owners and Managers of Buildings that Contain Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal requirements for the renovation and demolition of buildings and guidance on developing and maintaining an operations and maintenance program to manage asbestos-containing materials in buildings.

  10. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  11. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  12. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  13. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  14. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  15. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  16. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  17. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  18. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  19. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  20. EPA announces final regulation to ban new asbestos products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency on July 6 banned almost all asbestos-containing products in the United States in stages over the next seven years. The ban will apply to new product manufacture, importation and processing. It affects at least 94 percent of US production and imports, based on 1985 production-volume estimates. Virtually all asbestos-containing products will be replaced with safer alternatives. The final rule, promulgated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (section 6) bans, manufacturing, importing and processing of most US asbestos products in three stages, beginning with certain products on Sept. 1, 1990, and with others on the same date in 1993 and 1996. Corresponding bans on distribution will occur in 1992 and 1997. A primary factor in determining the stage at which a category of products should be banned was the agency's projection of the availability of a safe substitute for each asbestos product. Exposure to asbestos, a fibrous mineral, has been linked to a number of fatal diseases, including lung cancer, mesothelioma (a cancer of the chest and abdominal linings), gastro-intestinal cancer and asbestosis. It also is associated with a variety of other diseases. Controlling the risks posed by asbestos exposure has been especially troublesome because asbestos fibers are odorless, typically minute in size, easily suspended in air and extremely durable. Humans often are exposed unknowingly to asbestos fibers with little means of protection.

  1. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Air > Indoor > Indoor Air Pollutants and Health Asbestos What is asbestos? Asbestos refers to a group of naturally occurring, ... in others. 2 What are the sources of asbestos? Deteriorating, damaged or disturbed products—such as insulation, ...

  2. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  3. 75 FR 59261 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Asbestos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule and Revised Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan Rule; EPA ICR No. 1365.09... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This ICR, entitled: ``Asbestos-Containing Materials...

  4. Public Law 99-519: Title II--Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency's rule on local educational agency inspection for, and notification of, the presence of friable asbestos-containing material in school buildings included neither standards for the proper identification of asbestos-containing material and appropriate response actions with respect to friable asbestos-containing…

  5. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  6. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Roofing Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance Manual and letters that clarify the applicability of the asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to the removal of asbestos-containing roofing material including tiles, and piping during demolition

  7. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a state: This map displays locations where Asbestos is known to be present. On This Page ... Where can I get more information? ToxFAQs™ for Asbestos ( Asbesto ) CAS#: 1332-21-4 PDF Version, 34 ...

  8. Handling and Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Comnud to task tie Civil Entineering Laboratory to devlop p uidance on appropriate practices for handing and dasposal of asbest -ontalning product. I...Hayward Chemical Co. 1280 N. 10th St. Box 2383 San Jose, CA 95112 Kansas City , KS 66110 Vineland Chemical Co. Box 745 Vineland, NJ 08360 NOTE Wetting...D. Good). Panama City FL: Code 713 (J. Quirk) Panama City . FL. Code 715 (J. Mittleman) Panama City . FL. Libiary Panama City . FL NAVCOMMAREAMSTRSTA

  9. Evaluation of asbestos levels in two schools before and after asbestos removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karaffa, M.A.; Chesson, J.; Russell, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requirements and recent EPA guidelines, the study evaluates these historical data by standard statistical methods to determine if abated work areas meet proposed clearance criteria. The objectives of this statistical analysis were to compare (1) airborne asbestos levels indoors after removal with levels outdoors, (2) airborne asbestos levels before and after removal of asbestos, and (3) static sampling and aggressive sampling of airborne asbestos. The results of this evaluation indicated the following: the effect of asbestos removal on indoor air quality is unpredictable; the variability in fiber concentrations among different sampling sites within the same building indicates the need to treat different sites as separate areas for the purpose of clearance; and aggressive sampling is appropriate for clearance testing because it captures more entrainable asbestos structures. Aggressive sampling lowers the chance of declaring a worksite clean when entrainable asbestos is still present.

  10. Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smither, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the structure and properties of asbestos, its importance in industry, and its world-wide use and production. Discusses asbestos-related diseases and suggests ways of preventing them, adding that current research is trying to make working with asbestos safer. (GA)

  11. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group is represented by a single asbestiform variety-chrysotile. There also are five commercial asbestiform varieties of amphiboles-anthophyllite asbestos, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. Nearly all of the asbestos mined after the mid-1990s was chrysotile. Only very small amounts of actinolite, anthophyllite, and tremolite asbestos may be mined in a few countries. Asbestos was mined in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Kazakhstan, and Russia in 2010; world production was estimated to be 1.97 × 106 tons. Properties that made asbestos valuable for industrial applications were their thermal, electrical, and sound insulation properties; inflammability; matrix reinforcement (cement, plastic, and resins); adsorption capacity (filtration, liquid sterilization); wear and friction properties (friction materials such as brakes and clutches); and chemical inertia (except in acids). These properties led to the use of asbestos in about 3,000 products by the 1960s. Since about 1995, asbestos-cement products, including pipe and sheets, accounted for more than 95% of global asbestos consumption as other uses of asbestos have declined. Global consumption of asbestos was estimated to have been about 1.98 × 106 tons in 2009. The leading consuming countries in 2009 were Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand, each with more than 100,000 tons of consumption.

  12. Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the Asbestos Releasability Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative Asbestos Control Method shows promise in speed, cost, and efficiency if equally protective. ORD conducted side by side test of AACM vs NESHAP on identical asbestos-containing buildings at Fort Chaffee. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on pr...

  13. [Chrysotile asbestos: biological effects, the work environment highest allowable concentration and neoplasm risk].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, H; Wiecek, E

    2000-01-01

    The authors present the most essential data on physical and chemical properties of chrysotile, sources of its emission, the extent of occupational exposure, and biological effect, used in setting MAC values for chrysotile-containing dusts. Exploitable asbestos deposits do not exist in Poland, but admixtures of asbestos minerals have been found in some deposits of mineral raw materials located in the area of Lower Silesia (melafir, gabbro, dolomite. ore, nickel, magnesite, serpentinite). In the 1970s, about 100,000 tonnes of asbestos, containing 90% of chrysotile, were used annually in Poland. This figure decreased to 30,000 tonnes in 1991. In 1985 the use of crocidolite asbestos was stopped, and in 1999, the use of asbestos-containing products was banned by the virtue of the legal act. At present, the Minister of Economy in agreement with the Minister of Environmental Protection sets regularly the list of asbestos-containing products permitted for the production or in the customs area. Nowadays, the range of dust concentrations in plants which use asbestos products amounts to 0.1-0.6 mg/m3 for total dust and 0.002-0.07 f/cm3 for respirable mineral fibres; and during exploitation of rock raw material deposits 0.7-280 mg/m3, and 0.01-3.3 f/cm3, respectively. During the years 1976-96, 1520 cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases were diagnosed. This figure included 1314 cases of asbestosis, 154 cases of lung cancer and 52 cases of pleura mesothelioma. MAC values for chrysotile and chrysotile-containing dusts are: 0.2 f/cm3 and 1 mg/m3.

  14. Asbestos Imperative: What You Must Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Under federal regulation, all friable asbestos must be removed from buildings before undertaking major renovation or demolition. The American Council on Education is filing a national voluntary class action suit to recover from asbestos manufacturers the costs of removing asbestos-containing materials. (MLW)

  15. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  16. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Mike L.

    1982-01-01

    The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

  17. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the asbestos industry in 1997 is discussed. World production of asbestos in 1997 was estimated to be 2.07 Mt. Consumption in the U.S. fell 3 percent to 21 kt, and it is expected to continue to decline at a rate of 2–4 percent per year.

  18. Environmental projects. Volume 4: Asbestos survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1988-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), near Barstow, California, operates in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. Many of the buildings and structures at the GDSCC were erected before it became known that asbestos posed a hazard to human health. Thus, because of concern with asbestos, two field surveys were conducted at the GDSCC in October/November 1986 and in September 1987 to locate, classify, and quantify all asbestos-containing materials in buildings, structures, roofs and boilers. The report describes the results of the two surveys and describes methods for both asbestos management and asbestos abatement. The surveys found that GDSCC practices involving asbestos are conscientious and forward-thinking. A program, due to start in FY 1988 and to be completed in FY 1990, is planned to remove all friable (easily pulverized) asbestos-containing materials discovered during the two field surveys for asbestos at the GDSCC.

  19. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  20. Selected References on Asbestos: Its Nature, Hazards, Detection, and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This document provides teachers with sources of information about the nature, hazards, detection, and control of asbestos. Because many school buildings include asbestos-containing materials, teachers and other school personnel must be aware of the potential dangers to students and to themselves and take steps to have asbestos hazards contained or…

  1. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  2. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  3. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  4. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  5. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  6. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

  7. Asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Asbestos ; CASRN 1332 - 21 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  8. An Australian stocks and flows model for asbestos.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Sally; Pickin, Joe

    2016-10-01

    All available data on asbestos consumption in Australia were collated in order to determine the most common asbestos-containing materials remaining in the built environment. The proportion of asbestos contained within each material and the types of products these materials are most commonly found in was also determined. The lifetime of these asbestos containing products was estimated in order to develop a model that projects stocks and flows of asbestos products in Australia through to the year 2100. The model is based on a Weibull distribution and was built in an excel spreadsheet to make it user-friendly and accessible. The nature of the products under consideration means both their asbestos content and lifetime parameters are highly variable, and so for each of these a high and low estimate is presented along with the estimate used in the model. The user is able to vary the parameters in the model as better data become available.

  9. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  10. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  11. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  12. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  13. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  14. Use Of Superacids To Digest Chrysotile And Amosite Asbestos In Simple Mixtures Or Matrices Found In Building Materials Compositions

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, Leon; Webster, Ronald P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a flouro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP(O)(OH).sub.2, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided

  15. Use of super acids to digest chrysotile and amosite asbestos in simple mixtures or matrices found in building materials compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Petrakis, L.; Webster, R.P.

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP{sub 0}(OH){sub 2}, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided.

  16. Cameron Station remedial investigation: Final asbestos survey report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-02-01

    Woodward-Clyde Federal Services (WCFS) conducted a comprehensive asbestos survey of the facilities at Cameron Station as part of its contract with the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) to perform a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) at the base. The purpose of the survey which was initiated August 23, 1990 in response to the Base Realignment And Closure Environmental Restoration Strategy (BRAC), was to identify friable and non-friable asbestos-containing material (ACM), provide options for abatement of asbestos, provide cost estimates for both abatement and operations and maintenance costs, and identifying actions requiring immediate action in Cameron Station`s 24 buildings. BRAC states that only friable asbestos which presents a threat to health and safety shall be removed; non-friable asbestos or friable asbestos which is encapsulated or in good repair shall be left in place and identified to the buyer per GSA agreement. The investigation followed protocols that met or exceeded the requirements of 40 CFR 763, the EPA regulations promulgated under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA).

  17. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  18. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Asbestos. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Virta, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of a regulation enacted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that phases out the use of asbestos went into effect on August 27, 1990. Health and liability issues continued to be a major factor in determining the economic stability of several former producers of asbestos products. The number of firms that produce asbestos-containing products continued to decline in response to these issues. Domestic asbestos production increased slightly from that of 1989, but consumption decreased 25%, from 55,306 to 41,348 tons. Asbestos was consumed domestically for roofing products, 37%; friction products, 26%; asbestos-cement pipe, 15%; packing and gaskets, 8%; and other, 14%.

  19. Guidelines for asbestos remediation at Italian superfund sites.

    PubMed

    Paglietti, F; Malinconico, S; Di Molfetta, V; Giangrasso, M

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries. Although Italy banned asbestos in 1992, up until that date it had been one of the main producer nations of asbestos and asbestos-containing materials, and asbestos-related contamination is still widespread in the country. To reduce asbestos-related health effects, Italy has adopted many laws and regulations regarding exposure thresholds and remediation tools. Even so, there are legislative gaps that are making it difficult to manage related risks especially in the operative phase. The lack of standard procedures at a national level regarding emergency shutdown and remediation as well as reference thresholds for specific risk situations creates difficulties and different actions when dealing with the cleanup of Italian asbestos superfund sites. The authors propose operative guidelines for asbestos remediation at Italian superfund sites. INAIL, the reference national organization for asbestos-related matters, acting as an advisor to a number of state, regional, and local authorities, examined the main asbestos-related risk situations in Italy and proposed the most appropriate actions to take. The detailed analysis of many actual cases of risk, in part through inspections and the management of cleanup actions at asbestos Italian superfund sites, resulted in proposals to modify existing procedures and thresholds, which were subsequently discussed with all national, regional, and local scientific bodies. After more than two years of work and discussion at a national level, INAIL-DIPIA-Asbestos Group drafted new Guidelines for Asbestos Remediation at Italian Superfund sites, and officially submitted them to the Environment Ministry. The Ministry then adopted the document in regard to all asbestos Italian superfunds. This recently released document is also a useful reference for contaminated sites at a regional and local level. The operative Guidelines for Asbestos Remediation at Italian Superfund sites may also be of use at an

  20. Overview On Alternate Asbestos Control Method Research And NESHAP Comparison - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  1. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  2. EVALUATION OF AEROSOLIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND RELATED FIBERS FROM BULK MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings; and, 2. Update on the Evaluation of Aerosolization of Asbestos and Related Fibers from Bulk Materials. This abstract a...

  3. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  4. Guidance Manual: Asbestos Operations & Maintenance Work Practices. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Building Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This technical manual provides detailed guidance to building owners, asbestos program managers, and operations and maintenance (O&M) workers for managing asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in buildings. The manual addresses four different types of ACM found in buildings and three different levels of precaution which may be warranted by…

  5. Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of 1979. 96th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    This report by the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives endorses H.R. 3282, the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of 1979, and also presents minority views of ten members of the committee. The purpose of this legislation is to authorize a systematic federal program for identifying and controlling…

  6. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 2: ULTRA HIGH SPEED BURNISHING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during ultra high speed (UHS) burnishing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under two levels of floor care condition (poor and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by...

  7. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned.

  8. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  9. Asbestos is still with us: repeat call for a universal ban.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    All forms of asbestos are proven human carcinogens, causing malignant mesothelioma and a host of other types of cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk; there is no safe threshold of exposure to asbestos. When evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos became incontrovertible, a worldwide ban was called for on asbestos use, mining, and manufacturing. Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products; many countries that have banned other forms of asbestos still permit the use of chrysotile asbestos. This exemption has no basis in medical science, but reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos industry. To protect the health of all people, the Collegium Ramazzini calls again on all countries of the world to join in the international endeavor to ban all forms of asbestos. An international ban on asbestos is urgently needed.

  10. Asbestos remediation, removal, and containment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the cleanup of asbestos pollution and asbestos construction remediation. Articles discuss cleanup of asbestos-polluted water, removal of asbestos insulation from public and private buildings, and control of air pollution during removal. Asbestos containment by impervious coatings, exposure control in industrial workplaces, and removal from drinking water are also covered. Analysis, monitoring, and control techniques for asbestos abatement are included. Toxicity and effects on health from asbestos exposure are referenced in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Asbestos in Our Schools. Taming the Silent Killer. A Handbook for Association Leaders Produced by NEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    In 1984, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that friable asbestos-containing materials were present in 31,000 school buildings throughout the country. Once inhaled, asbestos fibers may remain in the lungs indefinitely and can lead to various diseases. This handbook is intended to provide administrators--in nontechnical…

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE OF ASBESTOS/SUBSTITUTES FROM COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS USE AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the first time, the release of respirable asbestos fibers has been quantified in terms of standard mechanical forces using widely accepted methodology and specified QA/QC procedures. Both fabrication of new products from asbestos containing materials and repair or removal of ...

  13. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING, BURNISHING, AND STRIPPING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Low-speed spray-buffin...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ASBESTOS OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS IN NEW JERSEY SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) was encouraged over alternative approaches of asbestos management in the past. However, in-place management and operstions nd maintenance programs are currently viewed by the EPA as the most appropriate overall strategy for managemen...

  15. Evaluation of encapsulants for sprayed-on asbestos-containing materials in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mirick, W.; Schmidt, E.W.; Melton, C.W.; Anderson, S.J.; Nowacki, L.J.

    1987-10-01

    About 150 water-based liquid coatings sprayable by conventional airless paint-spraying equipment were applied to two-inch-thick sprayed mineral wool test matrices mounted overhead. After curing, specimens of the encapsulated test matrix were tested for fire resistance, flame spreading index, smoke, and toxic-gas release. Cohesive and adhesive strengths were measured as well as impact resistance. Thirteen materials met all of the criteria established for satisfactory performance and twenty-one others met most of the criteria.

  16. Standardization of Protocol for the Sampling, Testing and abatement of Asbestos Containing Joint Compound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    090 2487 4975 7462 9949 1243 7 7424 :7471 : 799 2 6 057 732 207 4134 6207 8268 70336 72433 744N0 7384 043 091 224 4487 6722 93 77203 73444 798 779266...339.3 452.4 565.5 6786 791.7 904.8 10179 084 1.16 142.9 2865.8 428.7 571.6 714.5 857.4 1D00.3 1143.2 12860 089 1.46 122.0 244.1 366.1 488.2 610.2 732.3...6694 7306 0.44 1.25 59.5 118.9 178.4 237.8 297.3 356.7 4162 4756 $ 351 0.45 1.46 52.8 105.6 158.4 211.2 2640 3168 3696 4724 75 2 0,77 0,95 138.7 277.3

  17. Microwave-driven asbestos treatment and its scale-up for use after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sumi, Takuya; Ito, Shigeyuki; Dillert, Ralf; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Shinohara, Naoki

    2014-06-17

    Asbestos-containing debris generated by the tsunami after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, was processed by microwave heating. The analysis of the treated samples employing thermo gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and phase-contrast microscopy revealed the rapid detoxification of the waste by conversion of the asbestos fibers to a nonfibrous glassy material. The detoxification by the microwave method occurred at a significantly lower processing temperature than the thermal methods actually established for the treatment of asbestos-containing waste. The lower treatment temperature is considered to be a consequence of the microwave penetration depth into the waste material and the increased intensity of the microwave electric field in the gaps between the asbestos fibers resulting in a rapid heating of the fibers inside the debris. A continuous treatment plant having a capacity of 2000 kg day(-1) of asbestos-containing waste was built in the area affected by the earthquake disaster. This treatment plant consists of a rotary kiln to burn the combustible waste (wood) and a microwave rotary kiln to treat asbestos-containing inorganic materials. The hot flue gas produced by the combustion of wood is introduced into the connected microwave rotary kiln to increase the energy efficiency of the combined process. Successful operation of this combined device with regard to asbestos decomposition is demonstrated.

  18. [Is one single exposure to asbestos life-threatening?].

    PubMed

    Baas, Paul; Burgers, J A Sjaak

    2014-01-01

    The media occasionally reports on possible asbestos exposure during demolition of houses in an urban setting. The risk for the development of any asbestos-related cancer in these settings is considered to be lower than for that in occupational exposure. Offermans et al. examined a Dutch cohort of 58,279 workers in the period from 1986 to 2007. They concluded that the risk of lung cancer, laryngeal cancer and mesothelioma increased with exposure to asbestos. The risk of development of lung cancer was higher for anyone with increased years of exposure to asbestos fibre combined with a smoking habit. The study was well conducted, but exact data on fibre concentration and type of asbestos are lacking. We suggest that occasional exposure to asbestos poses hardly any risk for the general population. However, rules and regulations for the removal of asbestos-containing material remain important as asbestos exposure remains a serious health risk, especially in smokers.

  19. Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

  20. Evaluation of asbestos abatement techniques. Phase 2. Encapsulation with latex paint. Final report, May 1984-November 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Margeson, D.P.; Ogden, J.; Bauer, K.; Bergman, F.J.

    1986-07-01

    Airborne asbestos levels were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before, during and after encapsulation of asbestos-containing material with latex paint in a suburban junior high school. The ceilings of the school were covered with a sprayed-on material containing chrysotile asbestos. Air samples were collected at four types of sites: indoor sites with unpainted asbestos material scheduled for painting, indoor sites with asbestos material which had been painted 16 months prior to the study, indoor sites with no asbestos material, and outdoor sites on the roof of the building. Bulk samples were collected prior to painting and analyzed by polarized light microscopy (PLM) to characterize the asbestos-containing material.

  1. Airborne asbestos exposure during light aircraft brake replacement.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2009-08-01

    Asbestos containing materials are a component of many vehicle brake systems, including those found in some light aircraft. To characterize the asbestos exposure that results from the installation and maintenance of these components, an aircraft fitted with asbestos containing brake pads had brake changes performed while both area and personal air samples were taken. The brake changing process took place in a closed, unventilated aircraft hanger and all operations were performed according to the manufacturer's recommended procedure. Personal air samples did not detect any measurable amount of asbestos fibers during the brake changing or subsequent cleanup procedures. Analysis of personal samples (n=9) using phase contrast microscopy indicated airborne fiber concentrations at or below 0.003f/ml as 8-h time weighted averages (TWAs) and less than 0.069f/ml averaged over 28-30min sampling periods. Airborne chrysotile fibers were detected by two area air samples with fiber concentrations remaining at or below 0.0013f/ml over an 8-h TWA. These results indicate that normal brake changing work practices on aircraft with asbestos containing brake pads does not produce a harmful level of asbestos exposure for aircraft mechanics.

  2. Contact Us about Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to contact EPA for more information on asbestos, including state and regional contacts, EPA’s Asbestos Abatement/Management Ombudsman and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Assistance Information Service (TSCA Hotline).

  3. Asbestos Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homepage > Asbestos / Prevention > Asbestos Information: Mesothelioma and Asbestos Asbestos Information e-News Signup Click Here to Sign ... making asbestos poisoning prime time news. Explore More Asbestos Information The Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation offers resources ...

  4. Get ready for the new asbestos standard

    SciTech Connect

    Onderick, W.A.

    1995-10-09

    On October 1, OSHA`s revised asbestos rules became law, and with them are many changes from the previous 1986 standard. The presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) rule is one of the bigger changes in the revised standard. OSHA has declared that owners must presume that there are certain high-risk asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in facilities built prior to 1981, unless bulk sample results prove them to be nonasbestos. The impact of this provision forces companies to think carefully before presuming where asbestos is or where it is not. Companies must also heed the EPA Asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which require inspections and bulk sampling to identify materials prior to renovation or demolition. Short and long term needs should be examined when analyzing how to comply with the PACM provision. There are four options available. Option 1: Ignore the standard and face potential enforcement fines. Option 2: Presume all materials in pre-1981 buildings contain asbestos and simply post additional warning signs. Option 3: Survey or resurvey the facilities to be in compliance with the PACM ruling. Option 4: Conduct more comprehensive surveys. Option 3 is discussed in some detail.

  5. No meeting of the minds on asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The debate on the health hazards of asbestos has become so polarized that researchers from one camp no longer go to the other camp's meetings. One view suggests that a spate of asbestos-triggered diseases would strike thousands of construction workers, firemen, custodians, and other people exposed to microscopic asbestos fibers that crumble from building and pipe insulation, brake pads, and hundreds of other sources. Other researchers believe that chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type in the US, poses relatively little health risk to the general public at the levels of exposure generally encountered, and that expensive removal of properly maintained asbestos-containing materials such as insulation and cement is not warranted.

  6. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  7. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with work on asbestos fire sleeve materials.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Harbison, Stephen C; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2011-11-01

    Asbestos-containing fire sleeves have been used as a fire protection measure for aircraft fluid hoses. This investigation was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos fiber exposure experienced by mechanics who work with fire sleeve protected hoses. Duplicate testing was performed inside a small, enclosed workroom during the fabrication of hose assemblies. Personal air samples taken during this work showed detectable, but low airborne asbestos fiber exposures. Analysis of personal samples (n=9) using phrase contract microscopy (PCM) indicated task duration airborne fiber concentrations ranging from 0.017 to 0.063 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) for sampling durations of 167-198 min, and 0.022-0.14 f/ml for 30 min samples. Airborne chrysotile fibers were detected for four of these nine personal samples, and the resulting asbestos adjusted airborne fiber concentrations ranged from 0.014 to 0.025 f/ml. These results indicate that work with asbestos fire sleeve and fire sleeve protected hose assemblies, does not produce regulatory noncompliant levels of asbestos exposure for persons who handle, cut and fit these asbestos-containing materials.

  8. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

  9. Asbestos in buildings: what standards are needed

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, W.; Lieff, M.

    1985-06-01

    The reaction of school jurisdictions over the known hazards of airborne asbestos inhalation points out the need for better standards and inspection requirements. A National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) report emphasizes the need for standards in several areas, and a Canadian study concurred on the need for standards even though it found the risk from exposure to asbestos in buildings was not significant. The author notes other laboratory tests and efforts to develop a standard for friable asbestos containing materials and encapsulants for asbestos building materials when a hazard is identified. Consensus standards will provide uniform and coherent procedures for controlling the problem to replace the emotion, confusion, and unnecessary costs of the affected interests.

  10. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  11. Use of reagents to convert chrysotile and amosite asbestos used as insulation or protection for metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, Leon

    2000-12-12

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material, covering metal pipes or other metal surfaces, to non-regulated, environmentally benign-materials, and inhibiting the corrosion of the metal pipes or other metal surfaces. The composition comprises a combination of at least two multiple-functional group reagents, in which each reagent includes a Fluro acid component and a corrosion inhibiting compoment. A method for converting asbestos-containing material, covering metal pipes or other metal surfaces, to non-regulated, environmentally benign-materials, and inhibiting the corrosion of the metal pipes or other metal surfaces is also provided.

  12. 75 FR 78336 - Finding of No Significant Impact From the Expansion, Renovation, Operation and Maintenance of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... existing structures, GSA shall engage an Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act certified inspector to inspect all structures to be demolished. If Regulated Asbestos Containing Material is present in...

  13. Further Development of Selective Dyeing Method for Detecting Chrysotile Asbestos in Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Maeta, N.; Fujimaki, H.; Hashida, T.

    2008-02-01

    Extensive usage of chrysotile asbestos has resulted in the remains of large numbers of chrysotile asbestos-containing buildings to be surveyed. We have recently developed a simple dyeing method for detecting chrysotile asbestos in building materials, which involves pretreatment with calcium-chelating agent and dyeing treatment with magnesium-chelating organic dyes. In this study, we further developed a method which eliminates dyed asbestos substitutes containing magnesium, potentially present in building materials. In the new method, post-treatment with formic acid was conducted to dissolve the non-chrysotile asbestos materials in order to delineate dyed chrysotile asbestos. The calcium-masking process was also shown to be an essential process even when the post-treatment was conducted. It was shown that the new method developed in this study may enable us to dye chrysotile asbestos only without detecting asbestos substitutes in building materials.

  14. Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, L.

    1998-06-09

    A composition and methods are disclosed for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid. 2 figs.

  15. Chemical agents for conversion of chrysotile asbestos into non-hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Petrakis, Leon

    1998-06-09

    A composition and methods for converting a chrysotile asbestos-containing material to a non-regulated environmentally benign solid which comprises a fluoro acid decomposing agent capable of dissociating the chrysotile asbestos to non-regulated components, wherein non-regulated components are non-reactive with the environment, and a binding agent which binds the non-regulated components to form an environmentally benign solid.

  16. Privacy Act System of Records: Libby Asbestos Exposure Assessment Records, EPA-48

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Libby Asbestos Exposure Assessment Records System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedure.

  17. Asbestos is still with us: repeat call for a universal ban.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    All forms of asbestos are proven human carcinogens. All forms of asbestos cause malignant mesothelioma, lung, and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk, and there is no safe threshold of exposure to asbestos. Asbestos cancer victims die painful lingering deaths. These deaths are almost entirely preventable. When evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos became incontrovertible, the concerned parties, including the Collegium Ramazzini, called for a universal ban on the mining, manufacture and use of asbestos in all countries around the world. Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries, and safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with asbestos. Nonetheless, a large number of countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products. And in many countries that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called "controlled use" of chrysotile asbestos continues to be permitted, an exemption that has no basis in medical science but rather reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. To protect the health of all people in the world--industrial workers, construction workers, women and children, now and in future generations--the Collegium Ramazzini calls again today on all countries of the world, as we have repeatedly in the past, to join in the international endeavor to ban all forms of asbestos. An international ban on asbestos is urgently needed.

  18. BOA II: pipe-asbestos insulation removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Mutschler; Boehmke, S.; Chemel, B.; Piepgras, C.

    1996-12-31

    BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal costly and inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  19. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.; Ulerich, N.; Nocito, T.

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective of this three-phase program is to develop an integrated process for treating asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The integrated process will attempt to minimize processing and disposal costs. The objectives of Phase 1 were to establish the technical feasibility of asbestos decomposition, inorganic radionuclide nd heavy metal removal, and organic volatilization. Phase 1 resulted in the successful bench-scale demonstration of the elements required to develop a mixed waste treatment process for asbestos-containing material (ACM) contaminated with radioactive metals, heavy metals, and organics. Using the Phase 1 data, a conceptual process was developed. The Phase 2 program, currently in progress, is developing an integrated system design for ACM waste processing. The Phase 3 program will target demonstration of the mixed waste processing system at a DOE facility. The electromagnetic mixed waste processing system employs patented technologies to convert DOE asbestos to a non-hazardous, radionuclide-free, stable waste. The dry, contaminated asbestos is initially heated with radiofrequency energy to remove organic volatiles. Second,the radionuclides are removed by solvent extraction coupled with ion exchange solution treatment. Third, the ABCOV method converts the asbestos to an amorphous silica suspension at low temperature (100{degrees}C). Finally the amorphous silica is solidified for disposal.

  20. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos.

  1. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

  2. Asbestos in public hospitals: are employees at risk?

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Henroy P; Postlethwait, Edward; Delzell, Elizabeth; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Oestenstad, R Kent

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos is an established human carcinogen. Asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM) are used in surfacing materials, thermal system insulation (TSI), and miscellaneous materials, and they have been used in buildings in Jamaica in the past. The objective of the study described here was to identify ACBM, its characteristics, and its determinants in Jamaican hospitals. A walk-through survey of all hospitals was undertaken and 152 bulk samples were collected from 26 public and private hospitals. The samples were analyzed using polarized light microscopy. Sixteen (61.5%) hospitals had ACBM used mainly as TSI. The ACBM in most cases was friable and in a poor condition indicative of fiber release and contained the fibers chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. The age of hospitals was not associated with the presence of ACBM. Results indicated potential risk of asbestos exposure in hospitals. The hospital authorities should formulate and implement an asbestos policy for hospitals and undertake proper management of asbestos in all hospitals.

  3. Asbestos is still with us: repeat call for a universal ban.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    All forms of asbestos are proven human carcinogens. All forms of asbestos cause malignant mesothelioma, lung, laryngeal, and ovarian cancers, and may cause gastrointestinal and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Asbestos cancer victims die painful lingering deaths. These deaths are almost entirely preventable. When evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos became incontrovertible, concerned parties, including the Collegium Ramazzini, called for a universal ban on the mining, manufacture, and use of asbestos in all countries around the world (J Occup Environ Med. 1999;41:830-832). Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries, and safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with asbestos. Nonetheless, a large number of countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products. And in many countries that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called "controlled use" of chrysotile asbestos is exempted from the ban, an exemption that has no basis in medical science but rather reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban all forms of asbestos. An international ban on asbestos is urgently needed.

  4. Evaluation of asbestos exposure during brake repair and replacement.

    PubMed

    Kakooei, Hossein; Hormozy, Maryam; Marioryad, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos fiber of brake repair job (auto mechanics) has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos fiber concentrations in the breathing zone of auto mechanics between July 2008 and December 2008. The asbestos fiber concentrations of 60 personal air samples collected from 30 cars and trucks brake replacement and they were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The geometric means of the personal monitoring fiber concentrations were 0.92 PCM f/ml and 0.46 PCM f/ml respectively in car and passenger heavy truck auto shops. There was a significant differences in the asbestos fiber concentrations between the car and truck auto shops (p=0.006). Based on these findings, auto mechanics who worked with asbestos containing brake may have been exposed to asbestos concentrations approximately 7 times higher than the current occupational safety and health agency (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/ml. Fiber morphology and energy dispersive X-ray analysis by SEM revealed that amphibole fibers such as tremolite and actinolite existed in the brakes dust and that the vast majority (>30%) of the airborne chrysotile fibers were greater than 1 μm in diameter. It can be concluded that the imported chrysotile asbestos contains trace amounts of tremolite and actinolite fibers and they are responsible for the high airborne asbestos levels and occupational exposure to amphibole asbestos in auto mechanics job in Iran. Thus, it is to be expected that the auto mechanics will suffer negative health effects due to exposure to the serpentine and amphibole asbestos fibers.

  5. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  6. Asbestos and other ferruginous bodies: their formation and clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Churg, A. M.; Warnock, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of asbestos bodies from the general population have confirmed that these structures, like asbestos bodies from the lungs of asbestos workers, contain an asbestos core. In members of the general population this core is almost always an amphibole, whereas asbestos workers may have bodies formed on either amphibole or chrysotile. Most adults have a few bodies, and increasing numbers are seen in blue collar workers and others who handle small amounts of the fiber, with the highest levels being seen in asbestos workers. In men with minimal or extensive occupational exposure, asbestos bodies are formed on the commercial fibers, amosite and crocidolite, whereas women also form a significant number of bodies on the noncommercial fibers, anthophyllite and tremolite. These findings suggest that women may be exposed to specific asbestos-containing products, eg, cosmetic talc. The commercial fibers found in women and white collar men probably reflect atmospheric pollution with asbestos. At the highest levels of exposure, numbers of asbestos bodies correlate in a general way with the presence of asbestosis, although no precise value has been determined above which asbestosis is always found. In persons with much lower or environmental exposure, there does not appear to be any correlation between numbers of bodies and disease, in particular between numbers of bodies and carcinoma of the lung or gastrointestinal tract. The situation for mesothelioma is uncertain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6101235

  7. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-12-31

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  8. EPA's Notification of Rules and Regulations Regarding the Demolition of Asbestos-Containing Structures, and Related Questions and Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memorandum from EPA Deputy Administrator to Assistant Administrators and Regional Administrators and attachment communicating NESHAP, CERCLA, TSCA, OSHA requirements sent recommendation of the Inspector General in Report No. 1 2-P-01 25.

  9. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Chrostowski, P.C.; Foster, S.A.; Anderson, E.L. )

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 {times} 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 {times} 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  10. [Exposure to asbestos and the indoor environment].

    PubMed

    Billon-Galland, M-A; Martinon, L; Andujar, P; Ameille, J; Paris, C; Brochard, P; Pairon, J-C

    2011-06-01

    A link between the inhalation of asbestos fibres and the outcome of benign and malignant respiratory diseases has been established from numerous epidemiological data in occupational settings. Occupational exposure limit values have been established with a gradual lowering of these over time. Conversely, there are few epidemiological data dealing with exposure in the indoor environment. However, numerous materials and products containing asbestos (MPCA) are present in the indoor environment, due to their widespread use in the construction sector in the years between 1960 and 1990. The regulations were changed from the late 1990s, leading to a systematic inventory of the presence of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. The aim of this manuscript is to clarify the different types of MPCA encountered in the indoor environment, to describe the techniques used to highlight asbestos depending on the nature of the materials, the regulatory requirements relating to asbestos in non-occupational situations, and to update on the state of knowledge on asbestos-related diseases in the indoor environment.

  11. Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

  12. 78 FR 2333 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Pollutants: Asbestos Management and Control; State of New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services... re-codified ``Env-Sw 2100: Management and Control of Asbestos Disposal Sites Not Operated after July 9, 1981,'' and the amended ``Env-A 1801-1807.01: Asbestos Management and Control,''...

  13. 78 FR 2362 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Pollutants: Asbestos Management and Control; State of New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services... the readopted and re-codified ``Env-Sw 2100: Management and Control of Asbestos Disposal Sites not Operated after July 9, 1981,'' and the amended ``Env-A 1801-1807.01: Asbestos Management and...

  14. Asbestos School Hazard Abatement. Hearing on H.R. 3677, a Bill To Reauthorize the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act of 1984, before the Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    A House of Representatives subcommittee convened to consider legislation (H.R. 3677) to reauthorize the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act of 1984 (ASHAA) that provides financial assistance to needy school districts in the form of loans and grants for asbestos-related activities. The hearing record contains the text of H.R. 3677, testimony, and…

  15. Airborne asbestos concentration from brake changing does not exceed permissible exposure limit.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Van Orden, Drew R; Banasik, Marek; Harbison, Raymond D

    2003-08-01

    The use in the past, and to a lesser extent today, of chrysotile asbestos in automobile brake systems causes health concerns among professional mechanics. Therefore, we conducted four separate tests in order to evaluate an auto mechanic's exposure to airborne asbestos fibers while performing routine brake maintenance. Four nearly identical automobiles from 1960s having four wheel drum brakes were used. Each automobile was fitted with new replacement asbestos-containing brake shoes and then driven over a predetermined public road course for about 2253 km. Then, each car was separately brought into a repair facility; the brakes removed and replaced with new asbestos-containing shoes. The test conditions, methods, and tools were as commonly used during the 1960s. The mechanic was experienced in brake maintenance, having worked in the automobile repair profession beginning in the 1960s. Effects of three independent variables, e.g., filing, sanding, and arc grinding of the replacement brake shoe elements, were tested. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of fibers, asbestos fibers, total dust, and respirable dust. The results indicated a presence in the air of only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of other types of asbestos. Airborne chrysotile fiber exposures for each test remained below currently applicable limit of 0.1 fiber/ml (eight-hour time-weighted average).

  16. Application of Microwave Energy at Treatment of Asbestos Cement (Eternit)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znamenáčková, Ingrid; Dolinská, Silvia; Lovás, Michal; Hredzák, Slavomír; Matik, Marek; Tomčová, Jana; Čablík, Vladimír

    2016-10-01

    Asbestos is the common name applied to a group of natural, fibrous silicate minerals, which were once one of the most popular raw materials to be used in building materials. Asbestos was mainly used for the production of assortment asbestos cement products. Today it is generally known that asbestos belongs to the group of hazardous materials and shows carcinogenic activity. It is therefore advisable to attempt to dispose of asbestos minerals in asbestos-containing materials and to convert them into a harmless material. One of methods may be microwave thermal decomposition of asbestos minerals. The research was used for old etemit roof ceiling. X-ray analysis indicated the presence of undesirable chrysotile. Its thermal destruction was carried out in a microwave oven in the power of 2500 W. In case the heating time was 15 min, X-ray analysis was confirmed chrysotile change into harmless minerals. Thermal analysis was used for characterization and the thermal behaviour of the asbestos cement sample.

  17. 40 CFR 763.122 - What does this subpart require me to do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.122 What does this subpart... standards in 29 CFR 1910.1001. (c) Repair, cleaning, or replacement of asbestos-containing clutch plates and brake pads, shoes, and linings, or removal of asbestos-containing residue from brake drums or...

  18. 40 CFR 763.122 - What does this subpart require me to do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.122 What does this subpart... standards in 29 CFR 1910.1001. (c) Repair, cleaning, or replacement of asbestos-containing clutch plates and brake pads, shoes, and linings, or removal of asbestos-containing residue from brake drums or...

  19. 40 CFR 763.122 - What does this subpart require me to do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.122 What does this subpart... standards in 29 CFR 1910.1001. (c) Repair, cleaning, or replacement of asbestos-containing clutch plates and brake pads, shoes, and linings, or removal of asbestos-containing residue from brake drums or...

  20. 40 CFR 763.122 - What does this subpart require me to do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.122 What does this subpart... standards in 29 CFR 1910.1001. (c) Repair, cleaning, or replacement of asbestos-containing clutch plates and brake pads, shoes, and linings, or removal of asbestos-containing residue from brake drums or...

  1. 40 CFR 763.122 - What does this subpart require me to do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.122 What does this subpart... standards in 29 CFR 1910.1001. (c) Repair, cleaning, or replacement of asbestos-containing clutch plates and brake pads, shoes, and linings, or removal of asbestos-containing residue from brake drums or...

  2. Asbestos in Schools--A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A magazine insert contains six short articles that deal with school district compliance with the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). Display advertisements by asbestos-related firms accompany the insert. (MLF)

  3. Analysis of the asbestos permissible-exposure-level threshold standard. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.W.

    1991-06-01

    This thesis examines the reasoning of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to set stringent exposure levels for airborne asbestos in the work place. Technical recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Bureau of Mines, and the American conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists were presented to OSHA for consideration. OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set industry standards for permissible exposure levels (PEL) of airborne asbestos. Exposure to asbestos poses a health hazard to workers, their families, and consumers of asbestos products. Because it poses an unreasonable risk human life, OSHA has repeatedly lowered the Permissible Exposure Levels and the EPA will ban the manufacture, importation, processing and commercial distribution of asbestos containing products from the United States in phases by 1997. These decisions may have been made too hastily because of the long latency (15-40 years) period before cancer develops, and the added risks that smoking imposes.

  4. Asbestos is still with us: repeat call for a universal ban.

    PubMed

    Ramazzini, Collegium

    2010-07-01

    All forms of asbestos are proven human carcinogens. All forms of asbestos cause malignant mesothelioma, lung, laryngeal, and ovarian cancers, and may cause gastrointestinal and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk, and there is no safe threshold of exposure to asbestos. Nonetheless, a large number of countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products. And still today in many countries that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called "controlled use" of chrysotile asbestos continues to be permitted, an exemption that has no basis in medical science but rather reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. To protect the health of all people in the world - industrial workers, construction workers, dental professionals, women, and children, now and in future generations - the Collegium Ramazzini calls again today on all countries of the world, as we have repeatedly in the past, to join in the international endeavor to ban all forms of asbestos. An international ban on asbestos is urgently needed.

  5. Predicting the mortality from asbestos-related diseases based on the amount of asbestos used and the effects of slate buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Yongku; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2016-01-15

    Asbestos has been used since ancient times, owing to its heat-resistant, rot-proof, and insulating qualities, and its usage rapidly increased after the industrial revolution. In Korea, all slates were previously manufactured in a mixture of about 90% cement and 10% chrysotile (white asbestos). This study used a Generalized Poisson regression (GPR) model after creating databases of the mortality from asbestos-related diseases and of the amount of asbestos used in Korea as a means to predict the future mortality of asbestos-related diseases and mesothelioma in Korea. Moreover, to predict the future mortality according to the effects of slate buildings, a comparative analysis based on the result of the GPR model was conducted after creating databases of the amount of asbestos used in Korea and of the amount of asbestos used in making slates. We predicted the mortality from asbestos-related diseases by year, from 2014 to 2036, according to the amount of asbestos used. As a result, it was predicted that a total of 1942 people (maximum, 3476) will die by 2036. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis according to the influence index, it was predicted that a maximum of 555 people will die from asbestos-related diseases by 2031 as a result of the effects of asbestos-containing slate buildings, and the mortality was predicted to peak in 2021, with 53 cases. Although mesothelioma and pulmonary asbestosis were considered as asbestos-related diseases, these are not the only two diseases caused by asbestos. However the results of this study are highly important and relevant, as, for the first time in Korea, the future mortality from asbestos-related diseases was predicted. These findings are expected to contribute greatly to the Korean government's policies related to the compensation for asbestos victims.

  6. The transformation sequence of cement-asbestos slates up to 1200 degrees C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, A F; Cavenati, C; Zanatto, I; Meloni, M; Elmi, G; Gualtieri, M Lassinantti

    2008-04-01

    Cement-asbestos is the main asbestos containing material still found in most of the European countries such as Italy. Man- and weathering-induced degradation of the cement-asbestos slates makes them a source of dispersion of asbestos fibres and represents a priority cause of concern. This concern is the main prompt for the actual policy of abatement and disposal of asbestos containing materials in controlled wastes. An alternative solution to the disposal in dumping sites is the direct temperature-induced transformation of the cement-asbestos slates into non-hazardous mineral phases. This patented process avoids the stage of mechanical milling of the material before the treatment, which improves the reactivity of the materials but may be critical for the dispersion of asbestos fibres in working and life environment. For the first time, this paper reports the description of the reaction path taking place during the firing of cement-asbestos slates up to the complete transformation temperature, 1200 degrees C. The reaction sequence was investigated using different experimental techniques such as optical and electron microscopy, in situ and ex situ quali-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction. The understanding of the complex reaction path is of basic importance for the optimization of industrial heating processes leading to a safe recycling of the transformed product. For the recycling of asbestos containing materials, the Italian laws require that the product of the crystal chemical transformation of asbestos containing materials must be entirely asbestos-free, and should not contain more than 0.1 wt% fraction of the carcinogenic substances such as cristobalite. Moreover, if fibrous phases other than asbestos (with length to diameter ratio >3) are found, they must have a geometrical diameter larger than 3 microm. We have demonstrated that using an interplay of different experimental techniques, it is possible to safely verify the complete transformation of asbestos

  7. The asbestos cancer epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The asbestos cancer epidemic may take as many as 10 million lives before asbestos is banned worldwide and exposures are brought to an end. In many developed countries, in the most affected age groups, mesothelioma may account for 1% of all deaths. In addition to mesotheliomas, 5-7% of all lung cancers can be attributed to occupational exposures to asbestos. The asbestos cancer epidemic would have been largely preventable if the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) had responded early and responsibly. The WHO was late in recognizing the epidemic and failed to act decisively after it was well under way. The WHO and the ILO continue to fail to address the problem of asbestos mining, manufacturing, and use and world trade of a known human carcinogen. Part of the problem is that the WHO and the ILO have allowed organizations such as the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and other asbestos industry advocates to manipulate them and to distort scientific evidence. The global asbestos cancer epidemic is a story of monumental failure to protect the public health. PMID:14998741

  8. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  9. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  10. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  11. 40 CFR 763.160 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos..., importation, processing, and distribution in commerce of the asbestos-containing products identified and...

  12. 40 CFR 763.160 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos..., importation, processing, and distribution in commerce of the asbestos-containing products identified and...

  13. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  14. 40 CFR 763.175 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos... the manufacture, import, processing, or distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products...

  15. 40 CFR 763.95 - Warning labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.95 Warning labels. (a) The local education agency shall...: ASBESTOS. HAZARDOUS. DO NOT DISTURB WITHOUT PROPER TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT....

  16. 40 CFR 763.160 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos..., importation, processing, and distribution in commerce of the asbestos-containing products identified and...

  17. 40 CFR 763.160 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos..., importation, processing, and distribution in commerce of the asbestos-containing products identified and...

  18. Government and Navy knowledge regarding health hazards of asbestos: a state of the science evaluation (1900 to 1970).

    PubMed

    Franke, Kara; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated dozens of published and unpublished documents describing the knowledge and awareness of both the scientific community and governmental entities, particularly the US Navy, regarding the health hazards associated with asbestos over time. We divided our analysis into specific blocks of time: 1900-1929, 1930-1959, and 1960-1970. By 1930, it was clear that high occupational exposure to asbestos caused a unique disease (asbestosis). Between about 1938 and 1965, a considerable amount of exposure and epidemiology data were collected by various scientific and government organizations. Between 1960 and 1970, mesothelioma was clearly linked to exposure to amphibole asbestos. Nonetheless, the Navy continued to require the use of asbestos-containing materials on ships, but also recommended that proper precautions be taken when handling asbestos. We concluded that the Navy was arguably one of the most knowledgeable organizations in the world regarding the health hazards of asbestos, and that it attempted to implement procedures that would minimize the opportunity for adverse effects on both servicemen and civilians. Finally, it is apparent from our research that through at least 1970, neither the military nor the private sector believed that the myriad of asbestos-containing products considered "encapsulated" (e.g. gaskets, brakes, Bakelite) posed a health hazard to those working with them.

  19. Asbestos publications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    NIOSH publications and testimony on the health effects of exposure to asbestos were included in this compilation as full text articles or abstracts. Additional NIOSH publications on asbestos were listed in a bibliography. The information in this report included occupational safety and health guidelines for asbestos from NIOSH; respiratory diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma); work related lung disease surveillance report; and the NIOSH analytical methods for fibers, asbestos fibers, chrysotile asbestos, and bulk asbestos. Also contained in this report was NIOSH's testimony of January 24, 1991 on OSHA's proposed rule on occupational exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite; and NIOSH's statement of April 26, 1990 before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances, Environmental Oversight, Research and Development, Committee on Environment and Public Works.

  20. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-10-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  1. BOA: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Abatement Robot System

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.

    1996-06-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  2. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  3. Asbestos, the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  4. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    SciTech Connect

    Kehler, Kurt

    2012-07-01

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  5. Porcelain factory worker with asbestos-related mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Meng-Ting; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan J

    2009-10-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumor among the general population, but for people exposed to asbestos, the lifetime risk is high. A 58-year old man presented with suffering from chest pain, upper back pain, shortness of breath, and coughing that had continued for several months. A chest X-ray revealed right-side pleural effusion; however, pleural biopsy from drainage treatment confirmed a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. According to his occupational and environmental history, the patient had worked continuously in a porcelain factory for 30 years. The specific characteristics of his work, making asbestos wallboards and gaskets, entailed working in high-temperature conditions with a high fine-particle content in the atmosphere. The high working temperature caused asbestos debris and dust to fall down regularly from the wallboards, however, it was not until recently that the patient had started to wear personal protection. Asbestos is a significant source of hazardous exposure in old buildings, and this case serves as a reminder of the importance of asbestos-related exposure history, which facilitated the correct diagnosis of pulmonary malignant mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials that are now banned or regulated are still present in older buildings and remain an exposure hazard; they continue to be a serious health concern in many countries.

  6. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2000-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous-asbestos mixed-waste stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles in based solely on bore sampling, which is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started 1998 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  7. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    1999-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous- asbestos mixed-waste-stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles involve bore sampling, and is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started on 10/1/98 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  8. Exposure to airborne asbestos associated with simulated cable installation above a suspended ceiling.

    PubMed

    Keyes, D L; Chesson, J; Ewing, W M; Faas, J C; Hatfield, R L; Hays, S M; Longo, W E; Millette, J R

    1991-11-01

    Installing cable above a suspended ceiling in the presence of asbestos-containing fireproofing is an example of an activity that may disturb in-place asbestos and associated dust and debris. Two simulations of cable installation were conducted in a room of an unoccupied school to test the extent of such disturbance and resulting elevations in airborne asbestos. Average airborne asbestos concentrations in the room increased over 500-fold during the simulations, with several samples exceeding 50 structures per cubic centimeter (s/cm3), as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an indirect preparation technique. Elevated concentrations persisted during a subsequent cleaning of horizontal surfaces in the room and for several hours thereafter. Personal samples collected on the cable installers yielded TEM measurements averaging approximately 68 s/cm3 for the two simulations.

  9. In situ ESEM study of the thermal decomposition of chrysotile asbestos in view of safe recycling of the transformation product.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Tonelli, Massimo

    2008-08-15

    The thermal transformation of asbestos into non-hazardous crystalline phases and their recycling is a promising solution for the "asbestos problem". The most common asbestos-containing industrial material produced worldwide is cement-asbestos. Knowledge of the kinetics of thermal transformation of asbestos fibers in cement-asbestos is of paramount importance for the optimization of the firing process at industrial scale. Here, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used for the first time to follow in situ the thermal transformation of chrysotile fibers present in cement-asbestos. It was found that the reaction kinetics of thermal transformation of chrysotile was highly slowed down in the presence of water vapor in the experimental chamber with respect to He. This was explained by chemisorbed water on the surface of the fibers which affected the dehydroxylation reaction and consequently the recrystallization into Mg-silicates. In the attempt to investigate alternative and faster firing routes for the decomposition of asbestos, a low melting glass was mixed with cement-asbestos and studied in situ to assess to which extent the decomposition of asbestos is favored. It was found that the addition of a low melting glass to cement-asbestos greatly improved the decomposition reaction and decreased the transformation temperatures.

  10. Globalization and the transfer of hazardous industry: asbestos in Mexico, 1979-2000.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc A; Markowitz, Steven; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Sanchez Roman, Francisco Raúl; Vázquez Grameix, Juan Humberto

    2003-01-01

    This study quantified asbestos use in Mexico in the past decade and evaluated available data on mortality due to malignant mesothelioma in Mexico between 1979 and 2000. Mortality data were analyzed from secondary databases of the Mexican Social Security System and the Ministry of Health. Data on the import and export of asbestos in Mexico were obtained from the Ministry of Trade and Industrial Development of Mexico. Deaths due to pleural mesothelioma significantly increased in this period. Although the import of asbestos declined, the number of Mexican products that contain asbestos tripled. Export of Mexican asbestos-containing products to Central America grew rapidly in the last ten years of the study. Mexico continues the appreciable use of asbestos and has experienced a significant increase in the occurrence of the sentinel asbestos-related disease, malignant mesothelioma. Given the many limitations to the control of hazardous work exposures in Mexico, a ban on asbestos is advocated as the most feasible means of limiting an epidemic of asbestos-related disease.

  11. 40 CFR 763.165 - Manufacture and importation prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.165 Manufacture... following asbestos-containing products, either for use in the United States or for export: flooring felt...

  12. 40 CFR 763.167 - Processing prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.167 Processing prohibitions. (a..., any of the asbestos-containing products listed at § 763.165(a). (b) After August 26, 1996, no...

  13. 40 CFR 763.169 - Distribution in commerce prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.169 Distribution in commerce... States or for export, any of the asbestos-containing products listed at § 763.165(a). (b) After August...

  14. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.171 Labeling requirements. (a) After August 27, 1990, manufacturers, importers, and processors of all asbestos-containing products that...

  15. 40 CFR 763.167 - Processing prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.167 Processing prohibitions. (a..., any of the asbestos-containing products listed at § 763.165(a). (b) After August 26, 1996, no...

  16. Fast Flux Test Facility Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS, J.A.

    1999-04-13

    Procedure Number HNF-PRO-408, revision 0, paragraph 1.0, ''Purpose,'' and paragraph 2.0, ''Requirements for Facility Management of Asbestos,'' relate building inspection and requirements for documentation of existing asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) per each building assessment. This documentation shall be available to all personnel (including contractor personnel) entering the facility at their request. Corrective action was required by 400 Area Integrated Annual Appraisal/Audit for Fiscal Year 1992 (IAA-92-0007) to provide this notification documentation. No formal method had been developed to communicate the location and nature of ACBM to maintenance personnel in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) 400 Area. The scope of this Data Package Document is to locate and evaluate any ACBM found at FFTF which constitutes a baseline. This includes all buildings within the protected area. These findings are compiled from earlier reports, numerous work packages and engineering evaluations of employee findings.

  17. Buffing, burnishing, and stripping of vinyl asbestos floor tile

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.; Edwards, A.; Clark, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during the three principal types of preventative maintenance (low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping) used on asbestos-containing floor tiles. These were done under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured before and during each floor care procedure to determine the magnitude of the increase in airborne asbestos levels during each procedure. Airborne total fiber concentrations were also measured for comparison with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cm{sup 3}. Low-speed spray-buffing and wet-stripping were evaluated on pre-existing floor conditions and three levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor, medium, and good). Ultra high-speed burnishing and wet-stripping were evaluated on two levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor and good). Floor care conditions were defined in consultation with the Chemical Specialty Manufacturers Association and other representatives of floor-care chemical manufacturers. Controlled studies were conducted in an unoccupied building at the decommissioned Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois, with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force. The building offered approximately 8600 ft{sup 2} of open floor space tiled with 9-inch by 9-inch resilient floor tile containing approximately 5% chrysotile asbestos.

  18. Assessment of asbestos in drinking water in alexandria, egypt.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Gihan; Akel, Mekkawy

    2006-01-01

    Over the past several years, the presence of fibrous asbestos particulates has been observed in a number of municipal water supplies throughout the USA, Canada, and several other regions all over the world. The possible health hazards which these fibers present have spurred a great deal of interest in the problems of detection and removal of the submicroscopic particulates in water. Asbestos is a group of fibrous metamorphic silicate minerals that is ubiquitous in the environment as a result of its extensive industrial use and the dissemination of fibers from natural sources. The health hazards associated with inhalation of asbestos in the occupational environment have long been recognized including asbestosis, bronchial carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and possibly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and larynx. It is introduced into water by the dissolution of asbestos-containing minerals and ores, and from industrial effluents, atmospheric pollution and erosion of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water. In Alexandria, most of the pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water are asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe system. Drinking water samples (1 liter each) were collected in glass containers from different regions in Alexandria and filtered in cellulose filters (mixed cellulose ester type filters of pore size 0.2 mum) within less than 48 hours. Filters were allowed to dry, gold plated and scanned microscopically. Asbestos fibers were detected in all water samples collected from regions having A/C pipe drainage system. No fibers detected in regions, where the pipe distribution system was poly venyl pipe system or changed from A/C pipe to cast iron pipe system. The determination of asbestos fibers in drinking water of Alexandria should have particular concern because of the health hazards that might be associated with their presence.

  19. Mesothelioma and asbestosis in a young woman following occupational asbestos exposure: Short latency and long survival: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bitchatchi, Enrique; Kayser, Klaus; Perelman, Marina; Richter, Elihu D

    2010-12-16

    A 27-year-old female white-collar worker was diagnosed in 1998 with mesothelioma eight and one-half years following first exposure as a bystander to debris in a site in which asbestos-containing building materials were being dismantled and rebuilding work took place. Prodromal back pain had been present for a year and a half. She underwent extrapleural pneumectomy and received an intrapleural infusion of cisplatin post-operatively. Exposure to asbestos was verified by contemporary reports and lung biopsy, which demonstrated asbestos bodies and microscopic interstitial fibrosis -conforming evidence for asbestosis. The patient is alive and well 12 years after diagnosis and 14 years after onset of symptoms. The combination of an extremely short latency period and long survival following occupational exposure to asbestos dust is unique.

  20. Mesothelioma and asbestosis in a young woman following occupational asbestos exposure: Short latency and long survival: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A 27-year-old female white-collar worker was diagnosed in 1998 with mesothelioma eight and one-half years following first exposure as a bystander to debris in a site in which asbestos-containing building materials were being dismantled and rebuilding work took place. Prodromal back pain had been present for a year and a half. She underwent extrapleural pneumectomy and received an intrapleural infusion of cisplatin post-operatively. Exposure to asbestos was verified by contemporary reports and lung biopsy, which demonstrated asbestos bodies and microscopic interstitial fibrosis -conforming evidence for asbestosis. The patient is alive and well 12 years after diagnosis and 14 years after onset of symptoms. The combination of an extremely short latency period and long survival following occupational exposure to asbestos dust is unique. PMID:21162719

  1. H. R. 2177: A bill Asbestos Notification Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, May 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    A bill has been introduced in the House of Representatives to promote local awaremess of asbestos disposal by requiring asbestos removers to notify designated State and local officials of the disposal date, origin, amount, and location of asbestos being disposed of in their jurisdiction.

  2. Evaluation of asbestos-abatement techniques. Phase 1. Removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Margeson, D.P.; Ogden, J.; Reichenbach, N.G.; Bauer, K.

    1985-10-01

    Airborne asbestos levels were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and phase constrast microscopy (PCM) before, during, and after removal of sprayed-on acoustical plaster from the ceilings of four suburban schools. Air samples were collected at three types of sites: indoor sites with asbestos-containing material (ACM), indoor sites without ACM (indoor control), and sites outside the building (outdoor control). Bulk samples of the ACM were collected prior to the removal and analyzed by polarized light microscopy (PLM). A vigorous quality-assurance program was applied to all aspects of the study. Airborne asbestos levels were low before and after removal. Elevated, but still relatively low levels were measured outside the work area during removal. This emphasizes the need for careful containment of the work area.

  3. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  4. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  5. Exposure to airborne asbestos in thermal power plants in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Damiran, Naransukh; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Frank, Arthur L; Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) in Mongolia use various types of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) in thermal insulation of piping systems, furnaces, and other products. Objective: To investigate the occupational exposure of insulation workers to airborne asbestos in Mongolian power plants. Methods: Forty-seven air samples were collected from four power plants in Mongolia during the progress of insulation work. The samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The average phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos fiber concentration was 0.93 f/cm3. Sixteen of the 41 personal and one of the area samples exceeded the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) short-term exposure limit of 1.0 f/cm3. If it is assumed that the short-term samples collected are representative of full-shift exposure, then the exposures are approximately 10 times higher than the US OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure limit of 0.1 f/cm3. Conclusion: Power plant insulation workers are exposed to airborne asbestos at concentrations that exceed the US OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit. Action to mitigate the risks should be taken in Mongolia. PMID:25730489

  6. Proactive Regulation Reduces Asbestos Exposures in Lake County, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, D.; Ley, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Lake County Air Quality Management District adopted its rule for Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in 1996 with the goal of preventing impacts and exposures through education, proactive project design, and common sense. Utilizing detailed GIS mapping and streamlined mitigation measures, the District maintains an effective program to reduce the hazard of NOA in our community. Measures for NOA are also incorporated into the County Grading Ordinance, and most small projects fall under those rules. Larger projects require a Serpentine Dust Control Plan from the District that provides clear mitigation measures, with the focus primarily on dust prevention. This cooperative approach results in a comprehensive effort to minimize potential health hazards from naturally occurring asbestos. Compliance is more easily achieved when workers are informed of the hazards and potential for exposure, and the rules/mitigation measures are clear and simple. Informed individuals generally take prompt corrective action to protect themself and those around them from the potential for breathing asbestos-containing dust. This proactive program results in improved community health by preventing exposure to asbestos.

  7. Exposure to chrysotile asbestos associated with unpacking and repacking boxes of automobile brake pads and shoes.

    PubMed

    Madl, A K; Scott, L L; Murbach, D M; Fehling, K A; Finley, B L; Paustenbach, D J

    2008-08-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys and epidemiologic studies of auto mechanics have shown that these workers are not at an increased risk of asbestos-related disease; however, concerns continue to be raised regarding asbestos exposure from asbestos-containing brakes. Handling new asbestos-containing brake components has recently been suggested as a potential source of asbestos exposure. A simulation study involving the unpacking and repacking of 105 boxes of brakes (for vehicles ca. 1946-80), including 62 boxes of brake pads and 43 boxes of brake shoes, was conducted to examine how this activity might contribute to both short-term and 8-h time-weighted average exposures to asbestos. Breathing zone samples on the lapel of a volunteer worker (n = 80) and area samples at bystander (e.g., 1.5 m from worker) (n = 56), remote area (n = 26) and ambient (n = 10) locations collected during the unpacking and repacking of boxes of asbestos-containing brakes were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Exposure to airborne asbestos was characterized for a variety of parameters including the number of boxes handled, brake type (i.e. pads versus shoes) and the distance from the activity (i.e. worker, bystander and remote area). This study also evaluated the fiber size and morphology distribution according to the International Organization for Standardization analytical method for asbestos. It was observed that (i) airborne asbestos concentrations increased with the number of boxes unpacked and repacked, (ii) handling boxes of brake pads resulted in higher worker asbestos exposures compared to handling boxes of brake shoes, (iii) cleanup and clothes-handling tasks produced less airborne asbestos than handling boxes of brakes and (iv) fiber size and morphology analysis showed that while the majority of fibers were free (e.g. not associated with a cluster or matrix), <30% were respirable and even fewer were of the size range (>20 microm length

  8. VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. The AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary ...

  9. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Asbestos and Cancer Risk What is asbestos? Asbestos is a group of minerals that occur ... in some countries. How are people exposed to asbestos? People can be exposed to asbestos in different ...

  10. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    PubMed Central

    Frassy, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Rusmini, Marco; Maianti, Pieralberto; Marchesi, Andrea; Nodari, Francesco Rota; Via, Giorgio Dalla; Albonico, Carlo; Gianinetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d'Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification's accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified. PMID:25166502

  11. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources.

  12. Mapping asbestos-cement roofing with hyperspectral remote sensing over a large mountain region of the Italian Western Alps.

    PubMed

    Frassy, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Rusmini, Marco; Maianti, Pieralberto; Marchesi, Andrea; Rota Nodari, Francesco; Dalla Via, Giorgio; Albonico, Carlo; Gianinetto, Marco

    2014-08-27

    The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d'Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification's accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified.

  13. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part II: Awareness and responses of plumbers to working with asbestos during a survey in parallel with personal sampling.

    PubMed

    Bard, Delphine; Burdett, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Throughout the European Union, millions tonnes of asbestos were used in the manufacture of products for building and for industrial installations. Today, in the UK, it is estimated that over half a million non-domestic premises alone have asbestos-containing materials in them and it is recognized that those working in building maintenance trades continue to be at significant risk. In part II, the awareness of UK plumbers to when they are working with asbestos was investigated and compared with the monitored levels reported in part I. The plumbers were issued by post with passive samplers, activity logs to monitor a working week and a questionnaire. The activity logs were used to assess whether maintenance workers were knowingly or unknowingly exposed to airborne asbestos fibres during a course of a working week. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on their: age, employment status, current and past perception of the frequency which they work with asbestos and knowledge of the precautions that should be taken to limit exposure and risk. Approximately 20% of workers reported on the sample log that they had worked with asbestos. There was a high correlation (93%) between the sampling log replies that they were knowingly working with asbestos and measured asbestos on the passive sampler. However, some 60% of the samples had >5 microm long asbestos structures found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggesting that the plumbers were aware of about only one-third of their contacts with asbestos materials throughout the week. This increased to just over one half of the plumbers being aware of their contact based on the results for phase contrast microscopy (PCM) countable asbestos fibres. The results from the questionnaire found that over half of the plumbers replying thought that they disturb asbestos only once a year and 90% of them thought they would work with asbestos for<10 h year-1. Their expectations and awareness of work with

  14. The health impact of nonoccupational exposure to asbestos: what do we know?

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Marcel; Luce, Danièle

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the epidemiologic data that confirm the risks of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer and other respiratory damage associated with non-occupational exposure to asbestos, in circumstances where exposure levels are usually lower than those found in the workplace: domestic and para-occupational exposure to asbestos-containing material (ACM) among people living with asbestos workers or near asbestos mines and manufacturing plants, environmental exposure from naturally occurring asbestos in soil, and non-occupational exposure to ACM in buildings. Data synthesis Studies concerning natural asbestos in the environment show that exposure that begins at birth does not seem to affect the duration of the latency period, but do not allow to know whether early exposure increases susceptibility; they do not suggest that susceptibility differs according to sex. Solid evidence demonstrates an increased risk of mesothelioma among people whose exposure comes from a para-occupational or domestic source. The risk of mesothelioma associated with exposure due to living near an industrial asbestos source (mines, mills, asbestos processing plants) is clearly confirmed. No solid epidemiologic data currently justify any judgment about the health effects associated with passive exposure in buildings containing asbestos. Most of the studies on non-occupational sources reported mainly amphibole exposure, but it cannot be ruled out that environmental exposure to chrysotile may also cause cancer. Conclusion Non-occupational exposure to asbestos may explain about 20% of the mesotheliomas in industrialized countries, but it is does not seem possible to estimate the number of lung cancers caused by these circumstances of exposure. PMID:19617842

  15. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  16. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  17. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  18. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  19. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  20. Asbestos: No Easy Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos in the schools has become a serious problem. Current activity in inspecting for asbestos and plans for corrective action are discussed. Suggestions are offered administrators in choosing contractors for asbestos removal. (MLF)

  1. Asbestos: Protect Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Protect Your Family How to Identify Materials That May Contain Asbestos ... Improper removal may actually increase your and your family’s exposure to asbestos fibers. Top of Page Asbestos ...

  2. Quantification of short and long asbestos fibers to assess asbestos exposure: a review of fiber size toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. Based on the WHO (World Health Organization) definition, the current regulations focalise on long asbestos fibers (LAF) (Length: L ≥ 5 μm, Diameter: D < 3 μm and L/D ratio > 3). However air samples contain short asbestos fibers (SAF) (L < 5 μm). In a recent study we found that several air samples collected in buildings with asbestos containing materials (ACM) were composed only of SAF, sometimes in a concentration of ≥10 fibers.L−1. This exhaustive review focuses on available information from peer-review publications on the size-dependent pathogenetic effects of asbestos fibers reported in experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. In the literature, the findings that SAF are less pathogenic than LAF are based on experiments where a cut-off of 5 μm was generally made to differentiate short from long asbestos fibers. Nevertheless, the value of 5 μm as the limit for length is not based on scientific evidence, but is a limit for comparative analyses. From this review, it is clear that the pathogenicity of SAF cannot be completely ruled out, especially in high exposure situations. Therefore, the presence of SAF in air samples appears as an indicator of the degradation of ACM and inclusion of their systematic search should be considered in the regulation. Measurement of these fibers in air samples will then make it possible to identify pollution and anticipate health risk. PMID:25043725

  3. DEFINITION FOR ASBESTOS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Malcolm; Kuntze, Richard A.; Clifton, Robert A.; ,

    1984-01-01

    A definition of asbestos is proposed. Under this definition, the term asbestos applies to six naturally occurring minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties, which are in part derived from their asbestiform habit. The six minerals are the serpentine mineral chrysotile and the amphibole minerals grunerite asbestos (also referred to as amosite), riebeckite asbestos (also referred to as crocidolite), anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Individual mineral particles, however processed and regardless of their mineral name, are not demonstrated to be asbestos if the length-to-width ratio is less than 20:1.

  4. Summary of personal monitoring data for asbestos-related maintenance work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Franaszek, S.M.; Kelly, R.J.

    1996-05-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) consists of 665 structures with approximately 6 million square feet of space. Many of the buildings date from the 1940`s to 1980`s and contain asbestos-containing materials (ACM). Maintenance and Operation activities, as well as full scale asbestos abatement and repair, has been conducted for many years. One result of all this activity is that a substantial database of personal monitoring data has been collected. This database is a collection of reported (Fed OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) information, including 8-hour Time Weighted Averages (TWA) and 30-minute Excursion Limit (EL) samples. Because this data represented a wide variety of asbestos removal techniques, materials and sampling strategies and industrial hygienists, a rigorous statistical comparison is of limited value. By summarizing the data by procedure category, procedures likely to result in significant exposures can be identified.

  5. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Hollins, Dana M; Devlin, Kathryn D; Donovan, Ellen P; Dopart, Pamela J; Scott, Paul K; Perez, Angela L

    2014-08-01

    Exposures to airborne asbestos during the removal and installation of internal gaskets and packing associated with a valve overhaul were characterized and compared to published data according to different variables (e.g., product, equipment, task, tool, setting, duration). Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected during twelve events simulating gasket and packing replacement, clean-up and clothing handling. These samples were analyzed using PCM and TEM methods and PCM-equivalent (PCME) airborne asbestos concentrations were calculated. A meta-analysis was performed to compare these data with airborne asbestos concentrations measured in other studies involving gaskets and packing. Short-term mechanic and assistant airborne asbestos concentrations during valve work averaged 0.013f/cc and 0.008f/cc (PCME), respectively. Area samples averaged 0.008f/cc, 0.005f/cc, and 0.003f/cc (PCME) for center, bystander, and remote background, respectively. Assuming a tradesman conservatively performs 1-3 gasket and/or packing replacements daily, an average 8-h TWA was estimated to be 0.002-0.010f/cc (PCME). Combining these results in a meta-analysis of the published exposure data showed that the majority of airborne asbestos exposures during work with gaskets and packing fall within a consistent and low range. Significant differences in airborne concentrations were observed between power versus manual tools and removal versus installation tasks. Airborne asbestos concentrations resulting from gasket and packing work during a valve overhaul are consistent with historical exposure data on replacement of asbestos-containing gasket and packing materials involving multiple variables and, in nearly all plausible scenarios, result in average airborne asbestos concentrations below contemporaneous occupational exposure limits for asbestos.

  6. Chrysotile asbestos detoxification with a combined treatment of oxalic acid and silicates producing amorphous silica and biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Valouma, Aikaterini; Verganelaki, Anastasia; Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, Pagona; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-03-15

    This study was primarily imposed by the ever increasing need for detoxification of asbestos and asbestos containing materials (ACM), with potential application onsite. The present work investigates potential detoxification of pure chrysotile (Chr) asbestos via a combined treatment of oxalic acid dihydrate (Oxac) (Η2C2Ο4·2Η2Ο) with silicates, such as tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) (SiH20C8O4) and pure water glass (WG) (potassium silicate) (K2SiO3). These reagents used in the experimental procedure, do not cause adverse effects on the environment and are cost effective. The results of FTIR, XRD, optical and scanning microscopy coupled with EDS analyses indicated that all of the applied treatments destructed the Chr structure and yielded silica of amorphous phase and the biomaterial glushinskite from the Oxac reacted with brucite [Mg(OH)2] layer. Each of the proposed formulations can be applied for the detoxification of asbestos, according to priorities related to the specific products of the recovery treatment. Therefore, Oxac acid leaching followed by the TEOS addition is preferred in cases of glushinskite recovery; TEOS treatment of asbestos with subsequent Oxac addition produced amorphous silica production; finally Oxac acid leaching followed by WG encapsulated the asbestos fibers and can be used in cases of onsite asbestos and ACM detoxification.

  7. [Immunological aspects of asbestos-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kanceljak-Macan, Bozica

    2009-11-01

    Asbestos is a generic name for a group of silicate minerals. The most common are chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite and anthophyllite. Exposure to asbestos may cause asbestos-related non-malignant diseases of the lung and pleura, including asbestosis, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural fibrosis, small airway disease, and malignant diseases such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Inhaled asbestos fibres deposit in the distal regions of the respiratory system where they interact with epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, and trigger active immunological response which leads to a slowly progressing lung fibrosis. Asbestos may affect immunocompetent cells and induce malignant transformation of mesothelial cells. It is still not clear whether asbestos causes mesothelioma directly or indirectly. There is a general opinion that malignant mesothelioma is a complex tumour that results from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations over many years. There is no specific antibody for malignant mesothelioma as yet which could act as a single diagnostic tool. Recent studies have demonstrated that asbestos acts on peripheral T cells as superantigen and that in malignant mesothelioma patients there is an overexpression of the Bcl-2 gene on peripheral CD4+ T cells. These findings contribute to better understanding of biological effects of asbestos in respect to the duration and intensity of exposure.

  8. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  9. The Attorney General's Asbestos Liability Report to the Congress. Pursuant to Section 8(b) of the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act of 1980. Committee Print, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The Attorney General was directed by Congress to prepare a report on whether the United States could recover, from any persons determined liable, the amounts expended to detect, contain, or remove hazardous asbestos products from schools. The general background portion of this report contains the results of the factual research and investigation.…

  10. 40 CFR 763.97 - Compliance and enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.97 Compliance and enforcement. (a... Title II of the Act should direct the complaint to the Governor of the State or the EPA Asbestos... identified as a citizen complaint pursuant to section 207(d) of Title II of TSCA. The EPA Asbestos...

  11. 40 CFR 763.97 - Compliance and enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.97 Compliance and enforcement. (a... Title II of the Act should direct the complaint to the Governor of the State or the EPA Asbestos... identified as a citizen complaint pursuant to section 207(d) of Title II of TSCA. The EPA Asbestos...

  12. 40 CFR 763.97 - Compliance and enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.97 Compliance and enforcement. (a... Title II of the Act should direct the complaint to the Governor of the State or the EPA Asbestos... identified as a citizen complaint pursuant to section 207(d) of Title II of TSCA. The EPA Asbestos...

  13. 40 CFR 763.97 - Compliance and enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.97 Compliance and enforcement. (a... Title II of the Act should direct the complaint to the Governor of the State or the EPA Asbestos... identified as a citizen complaint pursuant to section 207(d) of Title II of TSCA. The EPA Asbestos...

  14. 40 CFR 763.97 - Compliance and enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.97 Compliance and enforcement. (a... Title II of the Act should direct the complaint to the Governor of the State or the EPA Asbestos... identified as a citizen complaint pursuant to section 207(d) of Title II of TSCA. The EPA Asbestos...

  15. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Asbestos Asbestos This page requires that javascript be enabled for ... Hazards and Toxic Substances Hazardous Waste What is asbestos? Asbestos is the name given to a group ...

  16. Ambient monitoring of asbestos in selected Italian living areas.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Mangano, Dario; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Ricchi, Anna; Foresti, Elisabetta; Lesci, Giorgio; Roveri, Norberto; Mariotti, Mauro; Pecchini, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an intensive monitoring activity of the particulate, fall-out and soil of selected living areas in Italy with the aim to detect the asbestos concentration in air and subsequent risk of exposure for the population in ambient living environments, and to assess the nature of the other mineral phases composing the particulate matrix. Some areas were sorted out because of the presence of asbestos containing materials on site whereas others were used as blank spots in the attempt to detect the background environmental concentration of asbestos in air. Because the concentration of asbestos in ambient environments is presumably very low, and it is well known that conventional low-medium flow sampling systems with filters of small diameter (25mm) may collect only a very small fraction of particulate over a short period, for the first time here, an intense monitoring activity was conducted with a high flow sampling system. The high flow system requires the use of large cellulose filters with the advantage that, increasing the amount of collected dust, the probability to collect asbestos fibers increases. Both the protocol of monitoring and analysis are novel and prompted by the need to increase the sensitivity towards the small number of expected fibers. With this goal, the collection of fall-out samples (the particulate falling into a collector filled with distilled water during the monitoring shift) and soil samples was also accomplished. The analytical protocol of the matrix particulate included preliminary X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), optical microscopy and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Correlations with climatic trends and PM10 concentration data were also attempted. The surprising outcome of this work is that, despite the nature of the investigated site, the amount of dispersed asbestos fibers is very low and invariably lower than the theoretical method detection limits of the SEM and TEM techniques for

  17. How to Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: The AHERA Designated Person's Self Study Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA document is designed to assist Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) designated persons in understanding their responsibilities to help local education agencies comply with federal asbestos in schools regulations.

  18. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.92 Training and periodic.... Training shall include, but not be limited to: (i) Information regarding asbestos and its various uses and forms. (ii) Information on the health effects associated with asbestos exposure. (iii) Locations of...

  19. 40 CFR 763.84 - General local education agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.84 General local education... Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos standard for construction, the EPA worker protection... exterminators) who may come in contact with asbestos in a school are provided information regarding...

  20. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.92 Training and periodic.... Training shall include, but not be limited to: (i) Information regarding asbestos and its various uses and forms. (ii) Information on the health effects associated with asbestos exposure. (iii) Locations of...

  1. 40 CFR 763.98 - Waiver; delegation to State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.98 Waiver; delegation to State. (a... implement a program of asbestos inspection and management that contains requirements that are at least as... provisions or proposed provisions relating to its program of asbestos inspection and management in...

  2. 40 CFR 763.91 - Operations and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.91 Operations and maintenance. (a... protection. Local education agencies must comply with either the OSHA Asbestos Construction Standard at 29 CFR 1926.1101, or the Asbestos Worker Protection Rule at 40 CFR 763.120, whichever is applicable....

  3. 40 CFR 763.84 - General local education agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.84 General local education... Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos standard for construction, the EPA worker protection... exterminators) who may come in contact with asbestos in a school are provided information regarding...

  4. 40 CFR 763.98 - Waiver; delegation to State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.98 Waiver; delegation to State. (a... implement a program of asbestos inspection and management that contains requirements that are at least as... provisions or proposed provisions relating to its program of asbestos inspection and management in...

  5. 40 CFR 763.98 - Waiver; delegation to State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.98 Waiver; delegation to State. (a... implement a program of asbestos inspection and management that contains requirements that are at least as... provisions or proposed provisions relating to its program of asbestos inspection and management in...

  6. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.92 Training and periodic.... Training shall include, but not be limited to: (i) Information regarding asbestos and its various uses and forms. (ii) Information on the health effects associated with asbestos exposure. (iii) Locations of...

  7. 40 CFR 763.91 - Operations and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.91 Operations and maintenance. (a... protection. Local education agencies must comply with either the OSHA Asbestos Construction Standard at 29 CFR 1926.1101, or the Asbestos Worker Protection Rule at 40 CFR 763.120, whichever is applicable....

  8. 40 CFR 763.84 - General local education agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.84 General local education... Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos standard for construction, the EPA worker protection... exterminators) who may come in contact with asbestos in a school are provided information regarding...

  9. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.92 Training and periodic.... Training shall include, but not be limited to: (i) Information regarding asbestos and its various uses and forms. (ii) Information on the health effects associated with asbestos exposure. (iii) Locations of...

  10. 40 CFR 763.84 - General local education agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.84 General local education... Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos standard for construction, the EPA worker protection... exterminators) who may come in contact with asbestos in a school are provided information regarding...

  11. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.92 Training and periodic.... Training shall include, but not be limited to: (i) Information regarding asbestos and its various uses and forms. (ii) Information on the health effects associated with asbestos exposure. (iii) Locations of...

  12. 40 CFR 763.84 - General local education agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.84 General local education... Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos standard for construction, the EPA worker protection... exterminators) who may come in contact with asbestos in a school are provided information regarding...

  13. 40 CFR 763.91 - Operations and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.91 Operations and maintenance. (a... protection. Local education agencies must comply with either the OSHA Asbestos Construction Standard at 29 CFR 1926.1101, or the Asbestos Worker Protection Rule at 40 CFR 763.120, whichever is applicable....

  14. 40 CFR 763.98 - Waiver; delegation to State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.98 Waiver; delegation to State. (a... implement a program of asbestos inspection and management that contains requirements that are at least as... provisions or proposed provisions relating to its program of asbestos inspection and management in...

  15. 40 CFR 763.98 - Waiver; delegation to State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.98 Waiver; delegation to State. (a... implement a program of asbestos inspection and management that contains requirements that are at least as... provisions or proposed provisions relating to its program of asbestos inspection and management in...

  16. 40 CFR 763.91 - Operations and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.91 Operations and maintenance. (a... protection. Local education agencies must comply with either the OSHA Asbestos Construction Standard at 29 CFR 1926.1101, or the Asbestos Worker Protection Rule at 40 CFR 763.120, whichever is applicable....

  17. 40 CFR 763.91 - Operations and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.91 Operations and maintenance. (a... protection. Local education agencies must comply with either the OSHA Asbestos Construction Standard at 29 CFR 1926.1101, or the Asbestos Worker Protection Rule at 40 CFR 763.120, whichever is applicable....

  18. Working with asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, L.A.; Duncan, D.T.

    1981-05-15

    Adverse health effects associated with the overexposure to airborne asbestos fibers are asbestosis, a nonmalignant scarring of lung tissue, mesothelioma, and respiratory cancer. Controls used to prevent excessive exposure to airborne asbestos fibers are discussed and illustrated. (JGB)

  19. Evaluation of take home (para-occupational) exposure to asbestos and disease: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Ellen P; Donovan, Brooke L; McKinley, Meg A; Cowan, Dallas M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-10-01

    The potential for para-occupational (or "take-home") exposure to a number of chemicals has been recognized for over 60 years. We conducted a literature review in order to characterize reported cases of asbestos-related disease among household contacts of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. Over 200 published articles were evaluated. Nearly 60 articles described cases of asbestos-related disease thought to be caused by para-occupational exposure. Over 65% of these cases were in persons who lived with workers classified as miners, shipyard workers, insulators, or others involved in the manufacturing of asbestos-containing products, with nearly all remaining workers identified as craftsmen. 98% of the available lung samples of the persons with diseases indicated the presence of amphibole asbestos. Eight studies provided airborne asbestos concentrations during (i) handling of clothing contaminated with asbestos during insulation work or simulated use of friction products; (ii) ambient conditions in the homes of asbestos miners; and (iii) wearing previously contaminated clothing. This review indicates that the literature is dominated by case reports, the majority of which involved household contacts of workers in industries characterized, generally, by high exposures to amphiboles or mixed mineral types. The available data do not implicate chrysotile as a significant cause of disease for household contacts. Also, our analysis indicates that there is insufficient information in the published literature that would allow one to relate airborne asbestos concentrations in a workplace to those that would be generated from subsequent handling of contact with clothing that had been contaminated in that environment. Ideally, a simulation study could be conducted in the future to better understand the relationships between the airborne concentrations in the workplace and the fiber characteristics that influence retention on fabric, as well as the concentrations that can

  20. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study of flange and valve repair work and an assessment of exposure variables.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Devlin, Kathryn D; Perez, Angela L; Hollins, Dana M; Cowan, Dallas M; Scott, Paul K; White, Katherine; Cheng, Thales J; Henshaw, John L

    2015-02-01

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate worker and area exposure to airborne asbestos associated with the replacement of asbestos-containing gaskets and packing materials from flanges and valves and assess the influence of several variables previously not investigated. Additionally, potential of take home exposures from clothing worn during the study was characterized. Our data showed that product type, ventilation type, gasket location, flange or bonnet size, number of flanges involved, surface characteristics, gasket surface adherence, and even activity type did not have a significant effect on worker exposures. Average worker asbestos exposures during flange gasket work (PCME=0.166 f/cc, 12-59 min) were similar to average worker asbestos exposures during valve overhaul work (PCME=0.165 f/cc, 7-76 min). Average 8-h TWA asbestos exposures were estimated to range from 0.010 to 0.062 f/cc. Handling clothes worn during gasket and packing replacement activities demonstrated exposures that were 0.71% (0.0009 f/cc 40-h TWA) of the airborne asbestos concentration experienced during the 5 days of the study. Despite the many variables considered in this study, exposures during gasket and packing replacement occur within a relatively narrow range, are below current and historical occupational exposure limits for asbestos, and are consistent with previously published data.

  1. Asbestos fibres in the lungs of an American mechanic who drilled, riveted, and ground brake linings: a case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Murray M

    2015-05-01

    In North America and Europe, the use of asbestos in friction products was discontinued before the end of the 20th century. In the developing world, the use of asbestos-containing friction products continues. In 2010, Cely-Garcia and colleagues (Cely-Garcia et al., 2012) sampled three brake repair shops located in Bogota, Colombia. Both asbestos and non-asbestos containing brake linings were sold separately or attached to a shoe. When brake linings are sold separated from the shoe, they must be manipulated to attach them to the shoe before installation. The process starts with the removal of the old brake shoe from the vehicle's brake drum. If the existing brake shoe is to be reused, the old lining needs to be removed and the old shoe must be ground to prepare it for a new lining. Riveting requires drilling holes in the linings and shoes and before installing rivets, the lining must be countersunk. The borders of the lining are bevelled. On some occasions, the entire exposed surface of the lining is ground to make it thinner. Once attached to the shoe, the edges of brake linings may extend beyond the shoe. In this case, it is necessary to cut or grind the edges to match the lining to the shoe before bevelling or grinding. The authors reported that 'the sampling results indicate that the brake mechanics sampled are exposed to extremely high asbestos concentrations (i.e. based on transmission electron microscopy counts), suggesting that this occupational group could be at excess risk of asbestos-related diseases'.

  2. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  3. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  4. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Mutschler, E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the BOA system, a mobile pipe-external crawler used to remotely strip and bag (possibly contaminated) asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations across the DOE weapons complex. The mechanical removal of ACLIM is very cost-effective due to the relatively low productivity and high cost involved in human removal scenarios. BOA, a mechanical system capable of removing most forms of lagging (paper, plaster, aluminum sheet, clamps, screws and chicken-wire), and insulation (paper, tar, asbestos fiber, mag-block) uses a circular cutter and compression paddles to cut and strip the insulation off the pipe through compression, while a HEPA-filter and encapsulant system maintain a certifiable vacuum and moisture content inside the system and on the pipe, respectively. The crawler system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. Key design parameters and performance parameters are developed and used in performance testing. Since the current system is a testbed, we also discuss future enhancements and outline two deployment scenarios (robotic and manual) for the final system to be designed and completed by the end of FY `95. An on-site demonstration is currently planned for Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  5. Asbestos in public and commercial buildings: A literature review and synthesis of current knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-25

    The Health Effects Institute-Asbestos Research assembled an expert Panel to review the literature on asbestos in public and commercial buildings, and make recommendations for future research. The Panel concluded that: (1) Asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) in good repair is unlikely to expose general building occupants to fiber concentrations above those found outside such buildings. The added life-time risk of cancer for such occupants in well-maintained buildings appears to be lower than the risks from other pollutants such as radon and environmental tobacco smoke. (2) Janitorial, custodial, maintenance, and renovation workers may disturb or damage ACBM and episodically produce relatively high fiber concentrations; therefore the added life-time cancer risk in such workers may be appreciably higher than the risk to general building occupants. (3) Asbestos removal workers are at the highest risk of potential exposure. Good work practice and respiratory protection are essential to avoid dangerous exposure of such workers. (4) Determining exposure risks and forms of prevention or remediation warranted in a building are site-specific tasks. Uncontrolled disturbance of ACBM should be avoided. In well-maintained buildings, improper removal or improper abatement action can cause persistent increases of fiber levels.

  6. The Performance of Available Approaches for Quantifying Airborne Exposure to Asbestos Generated from Natural Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, D.

    2012-12-01

    General options for quantifying airborne (exposure) concentrations to asbestos include (1) direct measurement, (2) simulation, and (3) emission/dispersion modeling (of measured asbestos concentrations in the source material). Suitable options for particular applications depend on whether one is evaluating current or future and short-term episodic or long-term average exposures. Moreover, because the character and the magnitude of exposure must both be determined for many applications, methods suitable for air- or bulk-phase measurements must exhibit appropriate performance. After all, it is only when we understand precisely what exposure estimates represent that we can interpret them meaningfully. What is known about the suitability and performance of various options for quantifying asbestos exposures generated from natural deposits will be reviewed in this talk with particular emphasis on an approach in which emission and dispersion of asbestos-containing dusts are modeled from bulk-phase measurements collected using the modified elutriator method (a method designed explicitly for this particular application).

  7. When a School Asbestos Problem Surfaces, Be Prepared to Move Carefully, Act Swiftly--And Still Suffer the Sting of Bitter Public Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Victor J.

    1985-01-01

    When asbestos is discovered in a school, close the school and call the Environmental Protection Agency, then designate one administrator as a spokesperson for the media. It is important not only to manage the problem but to deal well with the public and the press, too. (MD)

  8. Asbestos-related disease.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, E; de Klerk, N; Musk, A W

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation of airborne asbestos fibres causes several diseases. These include asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma as well as pleural effusion, discrete (plaques) or diffuse benign pleural fibrosis and rolled atelectasis. The lag time between exposure and the development of disease may be many decades, thus the health risks of asbestos continue to be relevant despite bans on the use of asbestos and improvements in safety regulations for those who are still exposed. Asbestos was mined and used extensively in Australia for over 100 years and Australia is now experiencing part of a worldwide epidemic of asbestos-related disease. This review provides insight into the history and epidemiology of asbestos-related disease in Australia and discusses relevant clinical aspects in their diagnosis and management. The past and current medico-legal aspects of asbestos as well as currently evolving areas of research and future projections are summarized.

  9. Asbestos in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Schreier, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book consists of six chapters which cover asbestos types and health effects; asbestos properties, mineralogy, distribution, and analysis; asbestos in the aquatic environment; asbestos in the soil environment; asbestos and plant growth; and other environmental concerns. The book is useful and is recommended for those interested in asbestos in soil and water and in a general review of asbestos sources. The book is not recommended for those interested in asbestos sampling and analysis or in a critical review of human health effects resulting from asbestos exposure. 400 refs.

  10. The impact of asbestos in Illinois public schools

    SciTech Connect

    Marucco, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) was signed into law providing a framework for addressing asbestos problems in secondary and elementary schools. This study examines the perceived attitudes of Illinois School personnel relative to the impact of asbestos in their buildings. Conclusions are: (1) All districts regardless of size, type, and enrollment have the largest concentration of non-friable asbestos in floor tile. (2) All school districts are surveying their asbestos and report that they are managing it properly following AHERA and state guidelines; removal is the most accepted method of abatement. (3) Administrators, schools boards, teachers, and maintenance staff in general showed a high concern about asbestos abatement. (4) Governmental agencies have exerted the greatest pressure on school districts to manage existing asbestos properly. (5) External pressure does not appear to influence school districts regarding asbestos abatement. (6) Current attitudes and activities would change little if AHERA were repealed. (7) Asbestos abatement activities have taken place when schools are vacated. (8) Most administrators regard radon, leaded water, toxic chemicals, indoor air quality, and air pollution equal to or more threatening than asbestos.

  11. How To Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: AHERA Designated Person's Self-Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires schools to appoint an asbestos management coordinator called the "AHERA (Asbestos Hazardous Emergency Response Act) designated person" (DP) who is responsible for a number of asbestos-related activities. This manual presents some recommendations designed to help those persons appointed…

  12. The role of smoking and exposure to asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers in a questionable case of mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Gula, Mary Jean; Roggli, Victor L; Churg, Andrew

    2003-10-01

    A remaining uncertainty in the U.S. cohort study of man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) workers is whether asbestos exposure contributed to 10 questionable cases of mesothelioma. We report further details on one case from our previous mesothelioma investigation, including results of a recent lung tissue analysis. Case is a 68 year-old white male employed 1951-54 in a rock/slag wool plant where asbestos-containing products were manufactured. Cause of death was recorded as "mesothelioma, malignant, right pleural cavity" (ICD9: 163.9). Analysis for presence of asbestos bodies identified 18,300 asbestos bodies per gram of wet lung tissue (AB/gm), which greatly exceeds the normal range of 0-20 AB/gm. No MMVFs were identified in this sample. We conclude that this patient's tumor was not a mesothelioma, but a carcinoma possibly arising in the lung or mediastinum, and that this case supports the view that the few suspected mesotheliomas found in the U.S. cohort may have been caused by asbestos exposure.

  13. Historical ambient airborne asbestos concentrations in the United States - an analysis of published and unpublished literature (1960s-2000s).

    PubMed

    Abelmann, Anders; Glynn, Meghan E; Pierce, Jennifer S; Scott, Paul K; Serrano, Samantha; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor concentrations of airborne asbestos have been measured throughout the US over time. However, a thorough review and analysis of these data has not been conducted. The purpose of this study is to characterize asbestos concentrations in ambient air by environment type (urban, rural) and by decade, using measurements collected in the absence of known asbestos emission sources. A total of 17 published and unpublished studies and datasets were identified that reported the results of 2058 samples collected from the 1960s through the 2000s across the US. Most studies did not report asbestos fiber type, and data based on different analytical methods (e.g. Phase Contrast Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, etc.) were combined in the dataset; however, only fibers ≥5 μm in length were considered. For a small subset of the measurements (n = 186, 9.0%), a conversion factor was used to convert mass-based data (e.g. ng/m(3)) to count-based values (i.e. f/cc ≥5 μm). The estimated overall mean and median ambient asbestos concentrations for the 1960s through 2000s were 0.00093 f/cc and 0.00022 f/cc, respectively. Concentrations generally increased from the 1960s through the early 1980s, after which they declined considerably. While asbestos use decreased throughout the 1970s, these results indicate that ambient concentrations peaked during the early 1980s, which suggests the possible contribution of abatement or demolition activities. Lastly, ambient asbestos concentrations were higher in urban than rural settings, which is consistent with the greater use of asbestos-containing materials in more densely populated areas.

  14. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commission (CPSC) banned the use of asbestos in wallboard patching compounds and gas fireplaces because the asbestos ... and a variety of other trades. Demolition workers, drywall removers, asbestos removal workers, firefighters, and automobile workers ...

  15. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  16. Transformation of the released asbestos, carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes from composite materials and the changes of their potential health impacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Setyan, Ari

    2017-02-20

    Composite materials with fibrous reinforcement often provide superior mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties than the matrix. Asbestos, carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely used in composites with profound impacts not only on technology and economy but also on human health and environment. A large number of studies have been dedicated to the release of fibrous particles from composites. Here we focus on the transformation of the fibrous fillers after their release, especially the change of the properties essential for the health impacts. Asbestos fibers exist in a large number of products and the end-of-the-life treatment of asbestos-containing materials poses potential risks. Thermal treatment can transform asbestos to non-hazardous phase which provides opportunities of safe disposal of asbestos-containing materials by incineration, but challenges still exist. Carbon fibers with diameters in the range of 5-10 μm are not considered to be respirable, however, during the release process from composites, the carbon fibers may be split along the fiber axis, generating smaller and respirable fibers. CNTs may be exposed on the surface of the composites or released as free standing fibers, which have lengths shorter than the original ones. CNTs have high thermal stability and may be exposed after thermal treatment of the composites and still keep their structural integrity. Due to the transformation of the fibrous fillers during the release process, their toxicity may be significantly different from the virgin fibers, which should be taken into account in the risk assessment of fiber-containing composites.

  17. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors.

  18. Asbestos in water sources of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit.

    PubMed

    Kashansky, Sergey V; Slyshkina, Tatiana V

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides measurements of asbestos fiber levels in water sources from the area of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit. All study water samples contained asbestos fibers at concentrations one to three orders below the values standardized in the USA (7 x 10(6) fibers/liter). All the identified fibers belonged to chrysotile asbestos and no amphibole asbestos, such as tremolite asbestos, has been identified. The anthropogenic load of asbestos fibers in Asbest City's environment is increasing in the volume of 5.770 x 10(14) fibers/liter or 10.2 kg of chrysotile asbestos. The authors consider it advisable to continue studies to measure asbestos levels in the water sources in the areas located in the vicinity of other Russian asbestos deposits.

  19. Asbestos in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Thousands of schools contain dangerous asbestos which threatens the safety of students and teachers. The Environmental Protection Agency can be contacted to inspect and advise on this problem. Suggestions are offered for school personnel who suspect their school may contain asbestos. (DF)

  20. All about Asbestos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Asbestos has been used in the construction of elementary, middle, and high school ceilings, floor tile adhesives, pipe and structural beam insulations, science laboratory benches, wire gauss on ring stands, fume hood panels, general insulation, and more during the 1950s through early 1970s. Why? Primarily asbestos was selected because of its…

  1. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  2. Exposure to airborne asbestos during removal and installation of gaskets and packings: a review of published and unpublished studies.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Clark, Katherine; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, questions have been raised about the health risks to persons who have been occupationally exposed to asbestos-containing gaskets and packing materials used in pipes, valves, and machinery (pumps, autos, etc.). Up until the late 1970s, these materials were widely used throughout industrial and maritime operations, refineries, chemical plants, naval ships, and energy plants. Seven simulation studies and four work-site industrial hygiene studies of industrial and maritime settings involving the collection of more than 300 air samples were evaluated to determine the likely airborne fiber concentrations to which a worker may have been exposed while working with encapsulated asbestos-containing gaskets and packing materials. Each study was evaluated for the representativeness of work practices, analytical methods, sample size, and potential for asbestos contamination (e.g., insulation on valves or pipes used in the study). Specific activities evaluated included the removal and installation of gaskets and packings, flange cleaning, and gasket formation. In all but one of the studies relating to the replacement of gaskets and packing using hand-held tools, the short-term average exposures were less than the current 30-min OSHA excursion limit of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc) and all of the long-term average exposures were less than the current 8-h permissible exposure limit time-weighted average (PEL-TWA) of 0.1 f/cc. The weight of evidence indicates that the use of hand tools and hand-operated power tools to remove or install gaskets or packing as performed by pipefitters or other tradesmen in nearly all plausible situations would not have produced airborne concentrations in excess of contemporaneous regulatory levels.

  3. Asbestos in Asia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Su Lyn; Zainudin, Rizka; Kazan-Allen, Laurie; Robinson, Bruce W

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a global killer. Despite lessons learned in the developed world on the use of asbestos and its hazardous pulmonary consequences, its use continues to increase in Asia. Although some countries such as Japan, Korea and Singapore have curtailed the use of this mineral, there are numerous countries in Asia that continue to mine, import and use this fibre, particularly China, which is one of the largest consumers in the world. Numerous factors ranging from political and economic to the lack of understanding of asbestos and the management of asbestos-related lung disease are keys to this observed trend. Awareness of these factors combined with early intervention may prevent the predicted Asian 'tsunami' of asbestos diseases.

  4. Asbestos banned in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eduardo J

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, Argentina gave priority to asbestos in its National Plan for the Sound Management of Chemicals, and it was the subject of a Technical Task Force on Occupational Cancer. After five years of public hearings in which government, workers, industry advocates, environmentalists, clinicians, scientists, and consumers participated, it was agreed that asbestos exposure is a risk factor for both workers and the general population, and that Argentina should provide to its people the same protections adopted by many developed countries. Pressure from asbestos industry groups initially delayed the inclusion of chrysotile asbestos in the proposed ban, but on January 1, 2003, the mining and import of all forms of asbestos were banned in Argentina.

  5. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joanna, Comp.

    Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

  6. Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from asphalt-based roofing products.

    PubMed

    Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Sheehan, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate exposure from specific products to evaluate potential risk from roof repair activities. Five asbestos-containing fibered roof coatings and plastic cements, representing a broad range of these types of products, were tested in exposure simulations. These products were applied to representative roof substrates. Release of asbestos fibers during application and sanding of the product shortly thereafter (wet sanding) were tested initially. Other roof substrates were cured to simulate a product that had been on a rooftop for several months and then were tested to evaluate release of fibers during hand sanding and hand scraping activities. Additional tests were also conducted to evaluate asbestos release during product removal from tools and clothing. Two personal (n = 84) and background/clearance (n = 49) samples were collected during each 30-min test and analyzed for total fiber concentration [phase-contrast microscopy (PCM)] and for asbestos fiber count [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. PCM concentrations ranged from <0.005 to 0.032 fibers per cubic centimeter (f cc(-1)). Chrysotile fibers were detected in 28 of 84 personal samples collected. TEM concentrations ranged from <0.0021 to 0.056 f cc(-1). Calculated 8-h time-weighted averages (TWAs) ranged from 0.0003 to 0.002 f cc(-1) and were comparable to the background TWA concentration of 0.0002 f cc(-1) measured in this study. Based on these results, it is unlikely that roofers were exposed to airborne asbestos concentrations above the current or historical occupational guidelines during scraping and sanding of these products during roof repair.

  7. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  8. 40 CFR 763.87 - Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.87 Analysis. (a) Local education agencies shall have bulk samples, collected under § 763.86 and submitted for analysis, analyzed for asbestos using...

  9. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  10. 40 CFR 763.87 - Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.87 Analysis. (a) Local education agencies shall have bulk samples, collected under § 763.86 and submitted for analysis, analyzed for asbestos using...

  11. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  12. 40 CFR 763.87 - Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.87 Analysis. (a) Local education agencies shall have bulk samples, collected under § 763.86 and submitted for analysis, analyzed for asbestos using...

  13. 40 CFR 763.179 - Confidential business information claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.179 Confidential... asbestos on human health and the environment? If your answer is yes, explain....

  14. 40 CFR 763.99 - Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.99 Exclusions. (a) A local education agency shall not be... that school. (4) The lead agency responsible for asbestos inspection in a State that has been granted...

  15. 40 CFR 763.87 - Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.87 Analysis. (a) Local education agencies shall have bulk samples, collected under § 763.86 and submitted for analysis, analyzed for asbestos using...

  16. 40 CFR 763.99 - Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.99 Exclusions. (a) A local education agency shall not be... that school. (4) The lead agency responsible for asbestos inspection in a State that has been granted...

  17. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  18. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  19. 40 CFR 763.99 - Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.99 Exclusions. (a) A local education agency shall not be... that school. (4) The lead agency responsible for asbestos inspection in a State that has been granted...

  20. 40 CFR 763.87 - Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.87 Analysis. (a) Local education agencies shall have bulk samples, collected under § 763.86 and submitted for analysis, analyzed for asbestos using...

  1. 40 CFR 763.99 - Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.99 Exclusions. (a) A local education agency shall not be... that school. (4) The lead agency responsible for asbestos inspection in a State that has been granted...

  2. 40 CFR 763.99 - Exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.99 Exclusions. (a) A local education agency shall not be... that school. (4) The lead agency responsible for asbestos inspection in a State that has been granted...

  3. Environmental health survey in asbestos cement sheets manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Ansari, F A; Bihari, V; Rastogi, S K; Ashquin, M; Ahmad, I

    2007-01-01

    About 673 small-scale asbestos mining and milling facilities and 33 large - scale asbestos manufacturing plants, (17 asbestos-cement product manufacturing plants and 16 other than asbestos-cement product plants) are situated in India. The present study reveals the exposure of commercial asbestos (chrysotile) in the occupational as well as ambient air environment of the asbestos-cement (AC) sheets industry using membrane filter method of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The fibre concentrations in 15 samples collected in the occupational environment at ingredient feeding site, sheet-producing site, fibre godown were 0.079, 0.057 and 0.078 f/cc, respectively and in five samples from surrounding ambient air at factory gate resulted fibre concentration of 0.071 f/cc. All the samples have shown fibre concentration lower than the threshold limit values (TLVs) prescribed by BIS. Morphological analysis of samples, further under phase contrast and polarized microscopy indicates the presence of chrysotile asbestos, which acts as carcinogen as well as co-carcinogen. A clinical examination of exposed subjects reveals that there was no case of clubbing, crepitation, ronchi and dyspnea on exertion; however, obstruction and restriction were 10.9 per cent and 25 per cent in exposed subjects, respectively while in control there were 12 per cent and 28 per cent, respectively. The study revealed that chrysotile asbestos is emitted in the occupational as well as ambient environment that may cause adverse health impact.

  4. Some Facts About Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    For information on historic asbestos mines, historic prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., see: Eastern U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/); Central U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2006-1211 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/); Rocky Mountain States ---> Open-File Report 2007-1182 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/); Southwest U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2008-1095 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). For commodity statistics and information see: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/asbestos/

  5. Dry removal of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Elias, J D

    1981-08-01

    A method for the dry removal of friable asbestos has been developed. The Workplace Safety and Health Branch in Manitoba's Limited have co-operated in the production of an improved procedure. It was employed for the first time in the fall of 1979 when the Industrial Hygiene Section was asked for advice about removal of asbestos from a Winnipeg School Division warehouse. Fans were used to maintain the work area under negative pressure to prevent the spread of asbestos throughout the building. The exhaust air was filtered to prevent environmental contamination, and special precautions were taken to protect workers.

  6. Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

    2006-03-01

    For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were

  7. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  8. Asbestos and Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert W.; Foliart, Donna E.; Wong, Otto

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos is among several factors cited as possible causes of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer. More than 45 published studies have presented mortality data on asbestos-exposed workers. For each cohort, we listed the observed and expected rates of deaths from types of gastrointestinal cancer based on the latest published follow-up. Summary standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were then derived. Finally, we calculated summary SMRs for total gastrointestinal tract cancer for three occupational groups: asbestos factory workers, insulators/shipyard workers and asbestos miners. Statistically significant elevations in summary SMRs were found for esophageal, stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer in all asbestos-exposed workers. Esophageal cancer summary SMRs remained significantly elevated when data were reanalyzed to include only those cohorts with death certificate diagnoses for cause of observed deaths. However, summary SMRs were not statistically significant for stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer after reanalysis. Summary SMRs by occupational group showed a significant elevation for total gastrointestinal cancer in insulators/shipyard workers. The elevation was not significant after reanalysis. Based on the results after reanalysis, the elevations in summary SMRs for stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer are of a magnitude that could result from diagnostic and investigator error. We conclude that more studies are required before stomach and colorectal cancers are documented as asbestos-related diseases. PMID:4036114

  9. Mineralogy of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Sporn, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos collectively refers to a group of naturally occurring fibrous minerals which have been exploited in numerous commercial and industrial settings and applications dating to antiquity. Its myriad uses as a "miracle mineral" owe to its remarkable properties of extreme resistance to thermal and chemical breakdown, tensile strength, and fibrous habit which allows it to be spun and woven into textiles. Abundant in nature, it has been mined considerably, and in all continents save Antarctica. The nomenclature concerning asbestos and its related species is complex, owing to the interest held therein by scientific disciplines such as geology, mineralogy and medicine, as well as legal and regulatory authorities. As fibrous silicates, asbestos minerals are broadly classified into the serpentine (chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, tremolite, anthophyllite, actinolite) groups, both of which may also contain allied but nonfibrous forms of similar or even identical chemical composition, nonpathogenic to humans. Recently, fibrous amphiboles, not historically classified or regulated as asbestos (winchite, richterite), have been implicated in the causation of serious disease due to their profusion as natural contaminants of vermiculite, a commercially useful and nonfibrous silicate mineral. Although generally grouped, classified, and regulated collectively as asbestos, the serpentine and amphibole groups have different geologic occurrences and, more importantly, significant differences in crystalline structures and chemical compositions. These in turn impart differences in fiber structure and dimension, as well as biopersistence, leading to marked differences in relative potency for causing disease in humans for the group of minerals known as asbestos.

  10. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  11. Asbestos exposure in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Gaensler, E.A. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos-related diseases are dose-related. Among these, asbestosis has occurred only with the heavy exposures of the past, is a disappearing disease, and is of no concern with the very small exposures from building occupancy. A possibly increased incidence of lung cancer has been included in risk analysis, but probably is also related to high exposure in that both epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a link between the process of alveolar inflammation and fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. The major concern has been mesothelioma in that it has occurred with much lower household and neighborhood exposure. Additionally, anxiety concerning buildings with ACM has been heightened by finding of friable asbestos in about 20% of public buildings, discovery of environmental asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in autopsies, and demonstration of a linear relationship between exposure and lung cancer risk in occupational groups, inviting extrapolation to a much lower dose. Legislative and regulatory mandates, promotional activities of abatement companies, adverse court decisions placing the onus of repairs on asbestos manufacturers, and a pandemic of mediagenic disease' all have contributed to panic among building owners, school boards, insurers, and others. In that there is neither clinical nor epidemiologic support for asbestos-related disease from building occupancy, risk estimates have been based on extrapolation from past experience with generally high-dose occupational exposure. However, only a few epidemiologic studies have contained quantitative estimates of exposure, and these have been measured in terms of all particles, with conversion to asbestos fibers uncertain and the fiber type and dimension largely unknown.

  12. Airborne concentrations of asbestos onboard maritime shipping vessels (1978-1992).

    PubMed

    Murbach, Dana M; Madl, Amy K; Unice, Ken M; Knutsen, Jeffrey S; Chapman, Pamela S; Brown, Jay L; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2008-06-01

    The exposure of shipyard workers to asbestos has been frequently investigated during the installation, repair or removal of asbestos insulation. The same level of attention, however, has not been directed to asbestos exposure of maritime seamen or sailors. In this paper, we assemble and analyze historical industrial hygiene (IH) data quantifying airborne asbestos concentrations onboard maritime shipping vessels between 1978 and 1992. Air monitoring and bulk sampling data were compiled from 52 IH surveys conducted on 84 different vessels, including oil tankers and cargo vessels, that were docked and/or at sea, but these were not collected during times when there was interaction with asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). One thousand and eighteen area air samples, 20 personal air samples and 24 air samples of unknown origin were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM); 19 area samples and six samples of unknown origin were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 13 area air samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, 482 bulk samples were collected from suspected ACMs, including insulation, ceiling panels, floor tiles, valve packing and gaskets. Fifty-three percent of all PCM and 4% of all TEM samples were above their respective detection limits. The average airborne concentration for the PCM area samples (n = 1018) was 0.008 fibers per cubic centimeter (f cc(-1)) (95th percentile of 0.040 f cc(-1)). Air concentrations in the living and recreational areas of the vessels (e.g. crew quarters, common rooms) averaged 0.004 f cc(-1) (95th percentile of 0.014 f cc(-1)), while air concentrations in the engine rooms and machine shops averaged 0.010 f cc(-1) (95th percentile of 0.068 f cc(-1)). Airborne asbestos concentrations were also classified by vessel type (cargo, tanker or Great Lakes), transport status (docked or underway on active voyage) and confirmed presence of ACM. Approximately 1.3 and 0% of the 1018 area samples

  13. A common-sense approach to asbestos in roofing

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, W.R. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    The word asbestos carries an ominous connotation to many plant engineers and building owners. Many are caught up in the hype surrounding asbestos abatement. Others are confused about how to face the questions surrounding this mysterious, dangerous, and often misunderstood substance. Asbestos issues cast a particularly perplexing spell over decisions about how to deal with the material in the removal of roofing systems. The product is an excellent roofing choice because it is fire-resistant, durable, and nonrotting. And most significantly on the other hand, asbestos causes three deadly diseases: lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma (cancer of the lung lining and always fatal). This danger prompted enactment of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) in the early 1980s. The regulation required every K-12 school in the US to develop a management plant for dealing with asbestos. Since then, much has been done to raise awareness of the issues surrounding this material. The standard`s earliest form based removal requirements primarily on exposure levels. A 1994 revision, however, extended stringent removal requirements to all roof removal work involving asbestos, regardless of exposure level. This paper looks at the regulations, concerns, considerations, and procedures for dealing with the problem.

  14. Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Asbestos, a mineral known to cause cancer in humans, is present in an unknown number of schools where it may be hazardous to the health of students and employees. Although the Federal Government has programs designed to address the asbestos situation, it has not determined in what specific circumstances asbestos is a hazard. Therefore, State and…

  15. Asbestos-related lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos is a versatile fibrous mineral that can cause lung disease and death. Asbestosis, benign pleural disease, lung cancer, and mesothelioma can all result from inhaling asbestos. The history of disease and exposure risks are discussed. The difficult assessment of risk and the long latency period for development of disease demand evaluation and regular surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers.22 references.

  16. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russek, William F.

    1980-01-01

    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  17. A Report on Asbestos Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centifonti, Gary J.; Gerber, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of studies in New Jersey schools documented asbestos abatement and management activities in 17 schools representing 20 abatement sites. Findings demonstrate that school officials must increase their awareness of asbestos issues, improve the oversight of asbestos abatement and management programs, and improve lines of communication among…

  18. Asbestos: From Beginning to End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Richard C.; Cain, Gary K.

    In conjunction with a bond proposal for energy related items, the North County Public Schools (Missouri) undertook the task of removing friable asbestos Missouri school district undertook the task of removing friable asbestos from schools. Specifications for asbestos abatement prepared by the district administrative office were reviewed by the…

  19. Asbestos and gastrointestinal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.W.; Foliart, D.E.; Wong, O.

    1985-07-01

    Exposure to asbestos is among several factors cited as possible causes of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer. More than 45 published studies have presented mortality data on asbestos-exposed workers. For each cohort, the authors listed the observed and expected rates of deaths from types of gastrointestinal cancer based on the latest published follow-up. Summary standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were then derived. Finally, summary SMRs were calculated for total gastrointestinal tract cancer for three occupational groups: asbestos factory workers, insulators/shipyard workers and asbestos miners. Statistically significant elevations in summary SMRs were found for esophageal, stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer in all asbestos-exposed workers. Esophageal cancer summary SMR remained significantly elevated when data were reanalyzed to include only those cohorts with death certificate diagnoses for cause of observed deaths. However, summary SMRs were not statistically significant for stomach and total gastrointestinal tract cancer after reanalysis. Summary SMRs by occupational group showed a significant elevation for total gastrointestinal cancer in insulators/shipyard workers. The elevation was not significant after reanalysis. 59 references, 5 tables.

  20. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Jean C.; Serve, Kinta M.; Noonan, Curtis W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

  1. Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from artificially weathered asphalt-based roofing products.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Patrick; Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Floyd, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Historically, asbestos-containing roof cements and coatings were widely used for patching and repairing leaks. Although fiber releases from these materials when newly applied have been studied, there are virtually no useful data on airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with the repair or removal of weathered roof coatings and cements, as most studies involve complete tear-out of old roofs, rather than only limited removal of the roof coating or cement during a repair job. This study was undertaken to estimate potential chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures specific to these types of roofing products following artificially enhanced weathering. Roof panels coated with plastic roof cement and fibered roof coating were subjected to intense solar radiation and daily simulated precipitation events for 1 year and then scraped to remove the weathered materials to assess chrysotile fiber release and potential worker exposures. Analysis of measured fiber concentrations for hand scraping of the weathered products showed 8-h time-weighted average concentrations that were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for asbestos. There was, however, visibly more dust and a few more fibers collected during the hand scraping of weathered products compared to the cured products previously tested. There was a notable difference between fibers released from weathered and cured roofing products. In weathered samples, a large fraction of chrysotile fibers contained low concentrations of or essentially no magnesium and did not meet the spectral, mineralogical, or morphological definitions of chrysotile asbestos. The extent of magnesium leaching from chrysotile fibers is of interest because several researchers have reported that magnesium-depleted chrysotile fibers are less toxic and produce fewer mesothelial tumors in animal studies than normal chrysotile fibers.

  2. Vitrification of asbestos wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Blary, F.; Rollin, M.

    1995-12-31

    In 1990, EDF decided to test the use of the plasma torch in waste destruction processes. These tests facilitated the creation of a mobile industrial plant for the vitrification of asbestos waste. Asbestos is valued for its insulating properties and its resistance to fire, but has the formidable drawback that its inhalation causes serious respiratory diseases (cancer) in man. Nowadays therefore this waste, most often originating from the renovation or demolition of contaminated buildings, has to be disposed of. The process developed by INERTAM is vitrification by plasma torch: i.e. high temperature thermal treatment (T > 1,600 C) which fuses and homogenizes materials. INERTAM thus carries out the total destruction of the asbestos fibers by fusion and achieves a significant reduction in specific volume (80%) of the waste and an inert, stable material (the ``vitrificate`` or fusion residue) able to be re-used in road techniques.

  3. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) Report. Hamilton Army Airfield, Novato, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    category based on evidence of a hazardous substance release and petroleum storage. It may also have asbestos-containing material. 1.3 GEOGRAP CAL AND...LEASED TO W. D.- "ACRES LESSER INTERESTS I IL 1950. ACQUISITION AFTER i IMJIX 1940 ACRES FEE ’-1026.0 W.301) SEGMENT IN(EX ACRES tRANSF’D TO W:-D. 3. NO...Jul 1964 CONTOUR LINE i-- Ist IndAFOCEFD to SPD doted 9 Oct 1964 AFRCE-SPR Ltr doted 20 Apr 1965 (cancels SPD-RE; q DISPOSAL compiled from SEGMENT ŕ

  4. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  5. Plasma vitrification of asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Asbestos is a mineral in the form of long, thread-like fibers. Asbestos fibers have been among the best insulators of pipes, boilers, ducts, tanks, etc., in buildings, ships, and industrial furnaces. Over 150,000 metric tons of asbestos were consumed in the United States in 1984. The Environmental Protection Agency has declared asbestos fibers a known human carcinogen. And today, asbestos insulators are being replaced by manmade non-hazardous fibers. Millions of tons of replaced asbestos fiber insulators are in storage, awaiting the demonstration of effective alternative disposal technologies. Plasma vitrification has been demonstrated during May, June and July 1995 as a viable, cost-effective, safe technology for asbestos fiber disposal. A low-mass plasma arc heater is submerged under the waste asbestos insulating materials, and the intense heat of the plasma flame heats and melts the fibers. The by-product is dark, non-hazardous glass pellets. The vitrification process renders the asbestos waste safe for use as road construction aggregates or other fill materials. This paper will describe the results of start-up of a 1 ton-per-hour Plasma Mobile Asbestos Vitrification (MAV) Plant at a DOD Site in Port Clinton, Ohio. The Plasma MAV Plant is being demonstrated for the on-site disposal of 1.5 million pounds of Amosite asbestos fibers.

  6. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  7. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite,...

  8. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite,...

  9. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite,...

  10. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite,...

  11. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Asbestos standard. 71.702 Section 71.702... Contaminants § 71.702 Asbestos standard. (a) Definitions. Asbestos is a generic term for a number of... fibrils. Asbestos means chrysotile, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), crocidolite,...

  12. Retrospective exposure assessment of airborne asbestos related to skilled craftsmen at a petroleum refinery in Beaumont, Texas (1940-2006).

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela; Paustenbach, Dennis; Balzer, J LeRoy; Mangold, Carl

    2007-07-01

    Despite efforts over the past 50 or more years to estimate airborne dust or fiber concentrations for specific job tasks within different industries, there have been no known attempts to reconstruct historical asbestos exposures for the many types of trades employed in various nonmanufacturing settings. In this paper, 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) asbestos exposures were estimated for 12 different crafts from the 1940s to the present day at a large petroleum refinery in Beaumont, TX. The crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, and maintenance workers. This analysis quantitatively accounts for (1) the historical use of asbestos-containing materials at the refinery, (2) the typical workday of the different crafts and specific opportunities for exposure to asbestos, (3) industrial hygiene asbestos air monitoring data collected at this refinery and similar facilities since the early 1970s, (4) published and unpublished data sets on task-specific dust or fiber concentrations encountered in various industrial settings since the late 1930s, and (5) the evolution of respirator use and other workplace practices that occurred as the hazards of asbestos became better understood over time. Due to limited air monitoring data for most crafts, 8-h TWA fiber concentrations were calculated only for insulators, while all other crafts were estimated to have experienced 8-h TWA fiber concentrations at some fraction of that experienced by insulators. A probabilistic (Monte Carlo) model was used to account for potential variability in the various data sets and the uncertainty in our knowledge of selected input parameters used to estimate exposure. Significant reliance was also placed on our collective professional experiences working in the fields of industrial hygiene, exposure assessment, and process engineering over the last 40 yr. Insulators at this refinery were

  13. Libby Amphibole asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Libby Amphibole asbestos ; CASRN Not Applicable Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Developme

  14. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are ... as the peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location ...

  15. Innovative approach to asbestos removal

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E J

    1984-01-01

    The most common asbestos materials used at the Savannah River site include: steam pipe insulation; powerhouse boiler insulation; wallboards; roofing materials; and cement products. Asbestos was also found in a number of other materials: aprons; gaskets; laboratory hot pads; and talcum powder used for gloves. Techniques for removal; personnel training; mechanical ventilation; and personnel isolation techniques are described for completing asbestos removal safely and without boiler downtime. (PSB)

  16. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and...

  17. 40 CFR 763.86 - Sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling. 763.86 Section 763.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.86 Sampling. (a) Surfacing material. An accredited...

  18. 40 CFR 763.86 - Sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling. 763.86 Section 763.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.86 Sampling. (a) Surfacing material. An accredited...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763...

  20. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections....

  1. 40 CFR 763.86 - Sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling. 763.86 Section 763.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.86 Sampling. (a) Surfacing material. An accredited...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763...

  3. 40 CFR 763.86 - Sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling. 763.86 Section 763.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.86 Sampling. (a) Surfacing material. An accredited...

  4. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections....

  5. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763...

  7. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and...

  8. 40 CFR 763.86 - Sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling. 763.86 Section 763.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.86 Sampling. (a) Surfacing material. An accredited...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 763...

  11. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections....

  12. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections....

  13. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections....

  14. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and...

  15. 40 CFR 763.88 - Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment. 763.88 Section 763.88 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.88 Assessment. (a)(1) For each inspection and...

  16. 40 CFR 763.175 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos... penalties in section 16 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2615) for each violation. (e) The Agency may seek to enjoin the manufacture, import, processing, or distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products...

  17. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... banned the distribution in U.S. commerce of this product under section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control... ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.171 Labeling requirements. (a)...

  18. Use of asbestos building materials in Malaysia: legislative measures, the management, and recommendations for a ban on use.

    PubMed

    Safitri Zen, Irina; Ahamad, Rahmalan; Gopal Rampal, Krishna; Omar, Wahid

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has partially banned the use of asbestos. The prohibition of asbestos building materials in schools, clinics, and hospitals built by government started in 1999. Since 2005, prohibition has also been applied to all government buildings. However, asbestos construction materials such as roof and ceiling tiles are still sold in the market. There are no acts or regulations prohibiting the use of asbestos in private buildings in Malaysia. Asbestos was first used for industrial purposes in Malaysia in the 1960s and the first regulations related to asbestos have been around since the 1980s. Non-governmental organizations have been pushing the government to impose a total ban since the 1980s. Asbestos is still used in the manufacturing sector under the "control use" concept. The study found difficulties in established and validated medical record data on asbestos-related diseases. This paper reviews existing asbestos-related regulations and guidelines in Malaysia and discusses the urgency for a total ban in the use of asbestos in building materials in the country. In the meanwhile, stricter enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations related to the use and exposure of asbestos among workers in the manufacturing, construction, maintenance, and demolition sectors has been in place.

  19. History of asbestos related disease

    PubMed Central

    Bartrip, P

    2004-01-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  20. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  1. 77 FR 1728 - Privacy Act of 1974; Publication of Five New Systems of Records; Amendments to Five Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    .... 31105); the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (15 U.S.C. 2651); the International Safe Container.... the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (15 U.S.C. 2651); d. the International Safe Container...

  2. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  3. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  4. Recycling the product of thermal transformation of cement-asbestos for the preparation of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker.

    PubMed

    Viani, Alberto; Gualtieri, Alessandro F

    2013-09-15

    According to recent resolutions of the European Parliament (2012/2065(INI)), the need for environmentally friendly alternative solutions to landfill disposal of hazardous wastes, such as asbestos-containing materials, prompts their recycling as secondary raw materials (end of waste concept). In this respect, for the first time, we report the recycling of the high temperature product of cement-asbestos, in the formulation of calcium sulfoaluminate cement clinkers (novel cementitious binders designed to reduce CO₂ emissions), as a continuation of a previous work on their systematic characterization. Up to 29 wt% of the secondary raw material was successfully introduced into the raw mix. Different clinker samples were obtained at 1250 °C and 1300 °C, reproducing the phase composition of industrial analogues. As an alternative source of Ca and Si, this secondary raw material allows for a reduction of the CO₂ emissions in cement production, mitigating the ecological impact of cement manufacturing, and reducing the need for natural resources.

  5. [Asbestos-related lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Lotti, M

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of tumour death and a large percentage of it is associated with tobacco smoking. Epidemiology has shown that asbestos cumulative exposures increase the risk of lung cancer to a variable extent, depending on the manufacturing process and the specific job. The risk appears relatively small (< or = 2) and is detectable after massive exposures only. Clinical diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer is based upon medical history (exposures > 25 ff.ml years double the risk), possible lung fibrosis and counts of asbestos bodies and fibers in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissues. Pleural plaques do not correlate with the cumulative exposures that are associated with lung cancer. The multiplicative interaction between smoke and asbestos is only detectable when the risk associated with asbestos exposure is increased, i.e. after high exposures.

  6. Iron in asbestos chemistry and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Aust, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the various aspects regarding the carcinogenicity of asbestos and associated reactions catalyzed by iron. Attention is focused on the following: structure of asbestos; physical properties of asbestos involved in carcinogenesis; reactions catalyzed by iron; reactions catalyzed by asbestos; fiber inactivation; physiological effects; and mutations and cancer. 183 refs.

  7. Asbestos and Inconel combined to form hot-gas seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooster, C. W., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Hot-gas seal prevents warpage tendencies in large flange joints exposed to high temperatures, such as those present in large space vehicle engine exhausts. Two Inconel wire mesh cores are held in place by an asbestos cloth cover that acts as a spacer to form the seal.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of asbestos-induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Beri, Rohinee; Mueller, Amanda; Kamp, David W

    2010-11-05

    Asbestos causes pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) and malignancies (bronchogenic lung cancer and mesothelioma) by mechanisms that are not fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence show that alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis is a crucial initiating and perpetuating event in the development of pulmonary fibrosis following exposure to a wide variety of noxious stimuli, including asbestos. We review the important molecular mechanisms underlying asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis. Specifically, we focus on the role of asbestos in augmenting AEC apoptosis by the mitochondria- and p53-regulated death pathways that result from the production of iron-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage. We summarize emerging evidence implicating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in AEC apoptosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a disease with similarities to asbestosis. Finally, we discuss a recent finding that a mitochondrial oxidative DNA repair enzyme (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase; Ogg1) acts as a mitochondrial aconitase chaperone protein to prevent oxidant (asbestos and H(2)O(2))-induced AEC mitochondrial dysfunction and intrinsic apoptosis. The coupling of mitochondrial Ogg1 to mitochondrial aconitase is a novel mechanism linking metabolism to mitochondrial DNA that may be important in the pathophysiologic events resulting in oxidant-induced toxicity as seen in tumors, aging, and respiratory disorders (e.g. asbestosis, IPF). Collectively, these studies are illuminating the molecular basis of AEC apoptosis following asbestos exposure that may prove useful for developing novel therapeutic strategies. Importantly, the asbestos paradigm is elucidating pathophysiologic insights into other more common pulmonary diseases, such as IPF and lung cancer, for which better therapy is required.

  9. New detoxification processes for asbestos fibers in the environment.

    PubMed

    Turci, Francesco; Colonna, Massimiliano; Tomatis, Maura; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Fubini, Bice

    2010-01-01

    Airborne asbestos fibers are associated with many serious detrimental effects on human health, while the hazard posed by waterborne fibers remains an object of debate. In adopting a precautionary principle, asbestos content in water needs to be kept as low as possible and polluting waters with asbestos should be avoided. Turci et al. (2008) recently reported a method for the decontamination of asbestos-polluted waters or landfill leachates from chrysotile that combines power ultrasound (US) with oxalic acid (Ox), an acidic chelating molecule. In the previous study, the occurrence of antigorite, a polymorph of serpentine, the mineral group encompassing chrysotile asbestos, acted as a confounding factor for complete removal of chrysotile from water. The effects of US + Ox on pure chrysotile asbestos from Val Malenco, Italian Central Alps, were examined in this investigation. In the absence of mineral contaminants, a more rapid removal of pure chrysotile from water was undertaken with respect to the previous specimen. After only 12 h of combined US + Ox acid treatment, imaging (SEM) of mineral debris indicated complete loss of fibrous habit. In addition, crystallography and vibrational features of chrysotile were not detectable (x-ray powder diffraction [XRPD] and micro-Raman spectroscopy) and elemental analysis showed a low Mg/Si ratio, i.e., the loss of the brucitic layer in chrysotile (x-ray fluorescence, XRF). Some nanometric rod-shaped debris, observed in the previous study and tentatively recognized as serpentine antigorite, was now found to be made of amorphous silica, which is relatively safe and noncarcinogenic to humans, providing further assurance regarding the safety of treated product. Thus, data indicated the proposed method was effective in detoxifying waterborne chrysotile asbestos fibers.

  10. [Evaluation of exposure of workers to asbestos dust in asbestos-processing plants].

    PubMed

    Stroszejn-Mrowca, G; Wiecek, E

    1985-01-01

    Working environments have been tested in plants producing asbestos products, asbestos-cement products, textile asbestos products, asbestos-caoutchouc plates, asbestos boards and asbestos frictional materials for automotive industry, Measurements of total dust concentrations and concentrations of asbestos fibres 5 micron long supported workers' exposure investigations. Basing on literature data on the working environment at the Mining Metallurgical Plant in Szklary, the health risk for workers producing nickel from ores containing asbestos mixtures has been analysed. The asbestos-exposure in asbestos-processing plants has been found to be still considerable despite modernization of the plants. Particularly dangerous to health have been regarded the conditions at asbestos spinning-mills and the Mining-Metallurgical Plant at Szklary, where even average asbestos concentrations considerably exceed the threshold limit values.

  11. Overview of Asbestos Issues in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required. PMID:19543418

  12. Overview of asbestos issues in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2009-06-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required.

  13. Biological effects of asbestos fibers on human cells in vitro--especially on lymphocytes and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ueki, A

    2001-04-01

    Biological effects of asbestos fibers were reviewed in relation to the polyclonal activation of human lymphocytes and to the release of free radicals from human neutrophils in vitro. Chrysotile, crocidolite, and amosite asbestos activate CD4+ T lymphocytes polyclonally, followed by activation-induced cell death (a type of apoptosis). The activation is HLA class II dependent, and certain Vbeta repertoire, e.g. Vbeta 5.3, are detected among the fractionated T cells with a high Ca++ level that had been stimulated by asbestos fibers. These observations support the possibility that asbestos acts as a superantigen, and that asbestos stimulate lymphocytes repeatedly in vivo. It has been reported that asbestos-induced cytotoxicity can be suppressed by the scavengers of superoxide or hydroxyl radical. Some of these scavengers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or retinoic acid are known as inducers of cell differentiation. The biological functions of DMSO for cell differentiation of HL-60 cells to neutrophils are suppressed by co-culturing of crocidolite asbestos, because DMSO reacts with the hydroxyl radical released after the stimulation with crocidolite and spent itself. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited the effects of crocidolite, reacting rapidly with *O2- before the secondary release of *OH. It seems to be probable that asbestos fibers, especially crocidolite, suppress the tissue cell differentiation by releasing free radicals and by wasting inducers of cell differentiation as radical scavengers.

  14. Asbestos exposure indices

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.

    1988-06-01

    The ability of inhaled asbestos to produce asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma in both humans and animals is well established, and asbestos exposures in the occupational and general community environment are recognized as significant hazards. However, it has not been possible to establish realistic and credible dose-response relationships, primarily because of the authors inability to define which constituents of the aerosols produce or initiate the pathological responses. It is generally acknowledged that the responses are associated with the fibers rather than the nonfibrous silicate mineral of the same chemical composition. Available data from experimental studies experimental studies in animals exposed by injection and inhalation to fibers of defined size distributions are reviewed, along with data from studies of fiber distributions in lungs of exposed humans in relation to the effects associated with the retained fibers. It is concluded that asbestosis is most closely related to the surface area of retained fibers, that mesothelioma is most closely associated with numbers of fibers longer than approx. 5 ..mu..m and thinner than approx. 0.1 ..mu..m, and that lung cancer is most closely associated with fibers longer than approx. 10 ..mu..m and thicker than approx. 0.15 ..mu..m. The implications of these conclusions on methods for fiber sampling and analyses are discussed.

  15. Progress and New Problems Mark Your Battle Against School Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a survey of asbestos in the schools and the status of asbestos regulations enforcement policy. Reviews the status of asbestos litigation and recovery of abatement costs. Provides suggestions for choosing asbestos abatement contractors. (MD)

  16. Asbestos-related morbidity in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Gupta, Rohit K

    2003-01-01

    In India, locally mined asbestos is not enough for its current needs, hence a great deal of asbestos is imported from Canada. Asbestos products manufacturers have prevailed upon the government to reduce tariffs on imported material. The efforts of the health and safety professionals who joined with nongovernmental organizations to form the Ban Asbestos Network of India (BANI) are being consistently sabotaged by the industry, using its influence and false propaganda that chrysotile asbestos can be safely used in a controlled manner. Weak legislation and lack of data are being exploited by the industry to convince policymakers that asbestos use in India has caused no major health problems. Despite this, the ban-asbestos movement has gained momentum and was able to persuade government to consider banning asbestos use. With the growing strength of the movement it is expected that asbestos manufacturers may find it increasingly difficult to manipulate the government in the future.

  17. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F.; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-15

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 {sup o}C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY.AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY.AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO{sub 5}]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY.AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  18. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 °C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY·AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY·AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3)] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO(5)]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY·AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  19. Asbestos-Induced Gastrointestinal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok Jo; Williams, David; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David W

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases, such as malignancies and asbestosis, remain a significant occupational and public health concern. Asbestos is still widely used in many developing countries despite being a recognized carcinogen that has been banned over 50 countries. The prevalence and mortality from asbestos-related diseases continue to pose challenges worldwide. Many countries are now experiencing an epidemic of asbestos-related disease that is the legacy of occupational exposure during the 20th century because of the long latency period (up to 40 years) between initial asbestos exposure and exhibition of disease. However, the gastrointestinal (GI) cancers resulting from asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review, we summarize some of the recent epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and then focus on the evidence implicating asbestos in causing GI malignancies. We also briefly review the important new pathogenic information that has emerged over the past several years that may account for asbestos-related gastrointestinal cancers. All types of asbestos fibers have been implicated in the mortality and morbidity from GI malignancies but the collective evidence to date is mixed. Although the molecular basis of GI cancers arising from asbestos exposure is unclear, there have been significant advances in our understanding of mesothelioma and asbestosis that may contribute to the pathophysiology underlying asbestos-induced GI cancers. The emerging new evidence into the pathogenesis of asbestos toxicity is providing insights into the molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies for asbestos-related diseases in future management. PMID:27158561

  20. CRITIQUE—Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Murray S.; White, Paul D.; Preuss, Peter W.

    1981-01-01

    The paper by Dr. William Hallenbeck of the University of Illinois on pp. 23 32 of this issue of Environmental Management contains an estimate of the risk of respiratory cancer resulting from exposure to asbestos fibers emitted from asbestos-containing hairdryers. The study, which is described as a worst case analysis, concludes that the use of these hairdryers would result in a maximum of 0.15 deaths from respiratory cancer per year in the United States, based on a median case estimate of asbestos fiber emission from hair-dryers. This estimate of risk was developed using data from one epidemiologic study. In this critique, we suggest that the use of other epidemiologic studies and the inclusion of other minor, reasonable changes to the basic assumptions made by Hallenbeck could significantly change the estimate in the direction of greater risk. Indeed, the use of other epidemiologic studies in the risk estimate results in an increase in the predicted risk of up to 3 orders of magnitude. Inclusion of changes both in the epidemiologic study used and in certain model assumptions results in an increased risk prediction of over 4 orders of magnitude in the extreme. Since there is no definitive basis on which to include or exclude certain assumptions or relevant studies, the risk estimate at best must be represented as a range of values. Such a range demonstrates the inherent uncertainties associated with estimating the risk to humans from known carcinogens. The size of the range developed in this analysis may actually be underestimated since no attempt has been made to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the choice of the dose-response model.

  1. Asbestos and its lethal legacy.

    PubMed

    Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2002-04-01

    Asbestos has become the leading cause of occupationally related cancer death, and the second most fatal manufactured carcinogen (after tobacco). In the public's mind, asbestos has been a hazard since the 1960s and 1970s. However, the knowledge that the material was a mortal health hazard dates back at least a century, and its carcinogenic properties have been appreciated for more than 50 years.

  2. AMI cautions against attacks on asbestos replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The asbestos industry claims that alternative materials pose risks comparable to asbestos are not only unfounded, they have users of substitutes by limiting the options available if asbestos is banned. EPA will determine if the millions of tons of asbestos still imported into the US each year represents an unreasonable risk. Risk involves issues of toxicity and exposure. There are no data indicating that alternatives are comparable to asbestos. Rather, the information we do have shows that alternative materials are safe substitutes for asbestos.

  3. Asbestos exposure and neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J.; Churg, J.; Hammond, E.C.

    1984-07-06

    Builiding trades insulation workers have relatively light, intermittent, exposure to asbestos. Of 632 insulation workers, who entered the trade before 1943 and were traced through 1962, forty-five died of cancer of the lung or pleura, whereas only 6.6 such deaths were expected. Three of the pleural tumors were mesotheliomas; there was also one peritoneal mesothelioma. Four mesotheliomas in a total of 255 deaths is an exceedingly high incidence for such a rare tumor. In addition, an unexpectedly large number of men died of cancer of the stomach, colon, or rectum (29 compared with 9.4 expected). Other cancers were not increased; 20.5 were expected, 21 occurred. Twelve men died of asbestosis. This landmark article appeared originally in this journal 188:22-26, 1964.

  4. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  5. Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Clinkenbeard, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The map (Plate.pdf), pamphlet (Pamphlet.pdf), and the accompanying datasets in this report provide information for 290 sites in California where asbestos occurs in natural settings, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos and their geological characteristics in California. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map sites where asbestos mineralization occurs in the United States, which includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos localities within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/), and the Northwestern United States (Oregon and Washington) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on reported asbestos mineralization in the United States.

  6. Discovery of Asbestos After Demolition is Underway

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants Applicability Determination about additional friable asbestos material that arises during renovation or demolition being subject to the regulations from the time of creation or discovery

  7. Reinforcement of polymeric structures with asbestos fibrils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, C. A.; Schwartz, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Investigation determines structural potential of asbestos fibrils. Methods are developed for dispersing macrofibers of the asbestos into colloidal-sized ultimate fibrils and incorporating these fibrils in matrices without causing reagglomeration.

  8. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  9. Global problems from exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, A L

    1993-01-01

    Considerable human-derived data the health consequences of asbestos exposure are available. Usually, less information is available from laboratory models of asbestos-related health effects. Animal data mirror the experience in man, and cellular studies help in to understand the mechanistic changes related to asbestos. Although it is clearly carcinogenic, asbestos has shown much variability when examined for its mutagenic activity. Asbestos, a commercial term referring to a family of six naturally occurring mineral fibers, has been widely used around the world. Disease has been recognized into the last century, and at this time every occupational group that has been examined for possible asbestos-related disease has demonstrated it. Disease associated with asbestos makes no distinction based on race or geography, and wherever asbestos is handled it produces disease. With shifting global commercial patterns, disease patterns can be expected to shift also. PMID:8143612

  10. 40 CFR 763.165 - Manufacture and importation prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.165 Manufacture... following asbestos-containing products, either for use in the United States or for export: flooring felt and... asbestos-containing products, either for use in the United States or for export: commercial...

  11. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material is deposited. The warning signs must: (i) Be posted in such a manner and... the site is in continuous operation, the asbestos-containing waste material that has been deposited at... otherwise disturbing any asbestos-containing waste material that has been deposited at a waste disposal...

  12. Asbestos Training Curriculum Project. [Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ron

    This package contains two types of asbestos training materials: (1) an instructor's guide for "Asbestos in the Home: A Homeowner's Course"; and (2) "Asbestos Abatement Certification: Small-Scale Worker Student Manual," a 16-hour course, with instructor's guide. The instructor's guide for the 6-hour homeowner's course contains…

  13. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  14. Thermal removal of asbestos pipeline coating

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.H.

    1997-03-01

    A heat (thermal) technique, not previously used in the US for removing external pipe coating was used to remove asbestos-wrapped coating from 17 miles of 24-inch-diameter pipe. The process was conducted in compliance with all asbestos and air quality regulations, and produced asbestos-free pipe at timely and cost-effective rates.

  15. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  16. Asbestos Testing: Is the EPA Misleading You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Hoag

    1983-01-01

    Experts warn that only electron microscopes can see the smaller fibers of asbestos that are known to cause the most cancers, though the Environmental Protection Agency still endorses optical microscopes for asbestos removal verification. Asbestos testing methods are explained and sources of information are provided. (MLF)

  17. Asbestos: Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, and Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group contains a single asbestiform variety: chrysotile; five asbestiform varieties of amphiboles are known: anthophyllite asbestos, grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. These fibrous minerals share several properties which qualify them as asbestiform fibers: they are found in bundles of fibers which can be easily separated from the host matrix or cleaved into thinner fibers; the fibers exhibit high tensile strengths, they show high length: diameter (aspect) ratios, from a minimum of 20 up to greater than 1000; they are sufficiently flexible to be spun; and macroscopically, they resemble organic fibers such as cellulose. Since asbestos fibers are all silicates, they exhibit several other common properties, such as incombustibility, thermal stability, resistance to biodegradation, chemical inertia toward most chemicals, and low electrical conductivity. The term asbestos has traditionally been attributed only to those varieties that are commercially exploited. The industrial applications of asbestos fibers have now shifted almost exclusively to chrysotile. Two types of amphiboles, commonly designated as amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. The other three amphibole varieties, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and tremolite asbestos, have no significant industrial applications presently.

  18. Uncle Sam Flunks Asbestos Control in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problem of using asbestos to insulate heating and air-conditioning systems in schools and mixing asbestos into ceiling plaster for fireproofing and noise control. Suggests that the Environmental Protection Agency's plan for asbestos removal may be causing problems where none exist. (TW)

  19. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  20. Asbestos' Impact on Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Asbestos is a mineral fiber that has been used commonly in a variety of building construction materials for insulation and as a fire-retardant. EPA and CPSC have banned several asbestos products. Manufacturers have also voluntarily limited uses of asbesto

  1. The epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Niklinski, Jacek; Niklinska, Wieslawa; Chyczewska, Elzbieta; Laudanski, Jerzy; Naumnik, Wojciech; Chyczewski, Lech; Pluygers, Eric

    2004-08-01

    Asbestos has been recognised as a potential health hazard since the 1940s. Of the two major species of asbestos; white asbestos (chrysotile) and blue asbestos (crocidolite), both of which are hazardous. The workers at extraction facilities are at the greatest risk of exposure to asbestos and, therefore, the development of asbestos-related diseases, commonly mesothelioma. However, other individuals at a high risk of exposure include asbestos-cement workers, insulation workers and ship-yard workers. Environmental exposure to asbestos can occur as a result of living in areas either characterised by natural outcrops of asbestos or asbestos-related materials, or those close to asbestos-producing or -using plants. Unfortunately, man-made fibre alternatives to asbestos, such as rock and slag-wool and glass wool, have also been shown to have a detrimental effect on human health. A characteristic of mesothelioma is that there is a long latency period (20-30 years) before the signs and symptoms of the disease become apparent. In addition, diagnosis of the disease can be difficult. The use of biological markers, such as tissue polypeptide antigen, may play a useful role in the early detection of the disease in individuals at risk.

  2. [Asbestos: Social Legal and Scientific Controversies and Unsound Science in the Context with the Worldwide Asbestos Tragedy - Lessions to be Learned].

    PubMed

    Baur, X

    2015-11-01

    8 to 15% of lung cancer cases and nearly all mesothelioma cases are caused by asbestos. Problems in compensation issues refer to high legal as well as insurance barriers in attesting the occupational diseases. Claiming of certain numbers of asbestos bodies or fibers in lung tissue is of special relevance in substantiating legal medical cases. Such evidence, which is disproved by a sound science, is also used by an influential US pathology department. Frequently, also epidemiological evidence with its causal relationships and exposure histories are ignored. Similar misleading arguments are currently found in industrializing countries where white asbestos which is carcinogenic and fibrogenic like other asbestos types, is efficiently promoted as less harm. As a result, the asbestos consumption is increasing in some of these countries. Beyond the worldwide asbestos tragedy a well-designed strategy of certain transnational or global acting industrial interest groups can be recognized. Their plan, hidden from the public eyes, follows rigorously sole economic interests, while leaving the resulting health harm to the public health systems.

  3. Circulating immune complexes in asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Zone, J.J.; Rom, W.N.

    1985-08-01

    Circulating immune complexes, rheumatoid factor, and antinuclear antibodies were evaluated in 25 asbestos insulation workers and 32 brick mason controls. There were 10 asbestos workers with radiographic parenchymal or pleural changes, consistent with their asbestos exposure. There were no differences in antinuclear antibodies or rheumatoid factor between asbestos workers and controls. The asbestos workers had significantly increased levels of IgG and IgA circulating immune complexes. There was a significant correlation between IgA circulating immune complexes and radiographic changes.

  4. Interactions of chrysotile asbestos with erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Brody, A R; Hill, L H

    1983-09-01

    Chrysotile asbestos causes lysis of red blood cells. It has been proposed that the mechanism of hemolysis is mediated through interactions between asbestos and cell membrane glycoproteins. Our studies support this concept and the following results are reported. Electron microscopy shows that asbestos fibers distort red blood cells and bind to cell membranes which may become wrapped around the fibers. This reaction is prevented by pretreatment of the cells with neuraminidase. The distribution of lectins which bind to membrane glycoproteins is altered by treating the cells with asbestos. Cell distortion and membrane deformation consequent to asbestos treatment correlate with a clear increase in the ratio of intracellular Na+:K+ ions.

  5. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Harington, J.S. )

    1991-12-31

    In in vitro test systems, chrysotile is markedly toxic, causes chromosomal aberrations, and is capable of inducing morphological and preneoplastic transformation. In carefully designed animal experiments, chrysotile produces lung cancer and mesothelioma as effectively as do the amphiboles tested. Human population studies do not refute these experimental results. Chrysotile asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, especially for the induction of lung cancer and mesothelioma in exposed populations. For cancers of other sites, with the exception of laryngeal and possibly gastrointestinal cancer, the evidence for association with exposure to all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, is not yet adequate for evaluation.48 references.

  6. Drywall construction and asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Fischbein, A; Rohl, A N; Langer, A M; Selikoff, I J

    1979-05-01

    The rapid development of the drywall construction trade in the United States is described. It is estimated that some 75,000 U.S. construction workers are currently employed in this trade. The use of a variety of spackle and taping compounds is shown to be associated with significant asbestos exposure; air samples taken in the breathing zone by drywall tapers during sanding of taping compounds show fiber concentrations exceeding, by several times, the maximum level permitted by United States Government regulations. These findings are given together with the result of a clinical field survey of drywall construction workers demonstrating that asbestos disease may be an important health hazard in this trade.

  7. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  8. Asbestos induces reduction of tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Maeda, Megumi; Chen, Ying; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Otsuki, Takemi

    2011-01-01

    Asbestos-related cancers such as malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are an important issue in the world. There are many conflicts concerning economical considerations and medical evidence for these cancers and much confusion regarding details of the pathological mechanisms of asbestos-induced cancers. For example, there is uncertainty concerning the degree of danger of the iron-absent chrysotile compared with iron-containing crocidolite and amosite. However, regarding bad prognosis of mesothelioma, medical approaches to ensure the recognition of the biological effects of asbestos and the pathological mechanisms of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis, as well as clinical trials to detect the early stage of mesothelioma, should result in better preventions and the cure of these malignancies. We have been investigating the immunological effects of asbestos in relation to the reduction of tumor immunity. In this paper, cellular and molecular approaches to clarify the immunological effects of asbestos are described, and all the findings indicate that the reduction of tumor immunity is caused by asbestos exposure and involvement in asbestos-induced cancers. These investigations may not only allow the clear recognition of the biological effects of asbestos, but also present a novel procedure for early detection of previous asbestos exposure and the presence of mesothelioma as well as the chemoprevention of asbestos-related cancers.

  9. Acute myelocytic leukemia after exposure to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, T.; Ono, T.; Okada, K.

    1988-08-15

    While the carcinogenicity of asbestos has been established in malignant mesotheliomas and lung cancers, and has recently been suspected in several other types of cancer, asbestos has not been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute leukemias. This article includes two cases of acute myelocytic leukemia in individuals with a long history of exposure to asbestos. Significant numbers of asbestos bodies were detected in specimens of their lungs and bone marrow. In addition, the kind of asbestos in both organs was crocidolite, which is implicated in carcinogenesis. No asbestos bodies were detected in the bone marrow specimens from a control group consisting of ten patients with lung cancer with similar occupational histories. The role of asbestos exposure in the development of leukemia requires further study.

  10. p16INK4A inactivation mechanisms in non-small-cell lung cancer patients occupationally exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Andujar, Pascal; Wang, Jinhui; Descatha, Alexis; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Abd-Alsamad, Issam; Billon-Galland, Marie-Annick; Blons, Hélène; Clin, Bénédicte; Danel, Claire; Housset, Bruno; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Letourneux, Marc; Monnet, Isabelle; Régnard, Jean-François; Renier, Annie; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Jaurand, Marie-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that asbestos fibers constitute the major occupational risk factor and that asbestos acts synergistically with tobacco smoking to induce lung cancer. Although some somatic gene alterations in lung cancer have been linked to tobacco smoke, few data are available on the role of asbestos fibers. P16/CDKN2A is an important tumor suppressor gene that is frequently altered in lung cancer via promoter 5'-CpG island hypermethylation and homozygous deletion, and rarely via point mutation. Many studies suggest that tobacco smoking produces P16/CDKN2A promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer, but the status of this gene in relation to asbestos exposure has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of P16/CDKN2A alterations in lung cancer in asbestos-exposed patients. P16/CDKN2A gene status was studied in 75 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases with well-defined smoking habits, and detailed assessment of asbestos exposure, based on occupational questionnaire and determination of asbestos bodies in lung tissue. The results of this study confirm published data on the effect of tobacco smoke on P16/CDKN2A gene alterations, characterized by significantly higher P16/CDKN2A promoter hypermethylation in heavy smokers (more than 40 pack-years (P-Y)) than in smokers of less than 40 P-Y. These results also demonstrate a higher incidence of loss of heterozygosity and homozygous deletion in asbestos-exposed cases, after adjustment for age and cumulative tobacco consumption, than in unexposed cases (P=0.0062). This study suggests that P16/CDKN2A gene inactivation in asbestos-exposed NSCLC cases mainly occurs via deletion, a feature also found in malignant mesothelioma, a tumor independent of tobacco smoking but associated with asbestos exposure, suggesting a possible relationship with an effect of asbestos fibers.

  11. The Strength of Disease: Molecular Bonds Between Asbestos and Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, E. S.; Lower, S. K.; Wylie, A. G.; Mossman, B. T.

    2008-12-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos has been linked to the development of life-threatening cancers (i.e., mesothelioma) and diseases (i.e., asbestosis), which can sometimes take decades to appear after initial exposure. There is increasing evidence that environmental exposure to asbestos is a significant public health concern in some regions of the United States, and this type of asbestos contamination could lead to an epidemic of mesothelioma for at least the next two decades. Although mines and regions nearby should be safer with stricter protocols for processing asbestos, the long latent period for asbestos-related diseases makes understanding them an ever-present concern. In addition to the many epidemiological studies, laboratory in vitro and in vivo studies on the biochemical effect of asbestos show that the most trusted predictor for disease is the dosage of longer, thinner chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers. However, many scientists agree that incorporating the many physical and chemical properties of the mineral fibers is needed to properly assess their influence. The study of asbestos-related disease is essentially a multidisciplinary task, requiring knowledge from medicine, biochemistry and mineralogy. To bridge the gap between these disciplines, attention needs to be placed on the molecular communication between the asbestos fibers and the biological environments in which they can be deposited. Our work focused on determining the surface chemical response of riebeckite and crocidolite-its asbestiform counterpart-to changes in salinity and pH. As expected, studies on the mineral surface charge using atomic force microscopy (AFM) yielded a slight dependence on pH, as measured by the adhesion force acting on the probe, but not on ionic strength, except at near zero salt concentration. A transition was found for the surface charge of crocidolite above pH 7, where forces at the mineral surface increased. In contrast, the surface charge on riebeckite was

  12. OXALATE DEPOSITION ON ASBESTOS BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical and histopathologic findings in three patients with a deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos are provided. In addition, we test the hypothesis that this oxalate can be generated through a nonenzymatic o...

  13. Oxalate deposition on asbestos bodies.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Roggli, Victor L; Richards, Judy H; Crissman, Kay M; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline D; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2003-08-01

    We report on a deposition of oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos demonstrated in 3 patients. We investigated the mechanism and possible significance of this deposition by testing the hypothesis that oxalate generated through nonenzymatic oxidation of ascorbate by asbestos-associated iron accounts for the deposition of the crystal on a ferruginous body. Crocidolite asbestos (1000 microg/mL) was incubated with 500 micromol H(2)O(2) and 500 micromol ascorbate for 24 hours at 22 degrees C. The dependence of oxalate generation on iron-catalyzed oxidant production was tested with the both the metal chelator deferoxamine and the radical scavenger dimethylthiourea. Incubation of crocidolite, H(2)O(2), and ascorbate in vitro generated approximately 42 nmol of oxalate in 24 hours. Oxalate generation was diminished significantly by the inclusion of either deferoxamine or dimethylthiourea in the reaction mixture. Incubation of asbestos bodies and uncoated fibers isolated from human lung with 500 micromol H(2)O(2) and 500 micromol ascorbate for 24 hours at 22 degrees C resulted in the generation of numerous oxalate crystals. We conclude that iron-catalyzed production of oxalate from ascorbate can account for the deposition of this crystal on ferruginous bodies.

  14. Asbestos in the Schools: Health Hazard for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews asbestos removal legislation and four appropriate abatement methods. Advises school districts to assist principals to develop constructive asbestos management plans and conduct workshops relevant to the health hazards of asbestos. (MLF)

  15. Comparative Risks of Cancer from Drywall Finishing Based on Stochastic Modeling of Cumulative Exposures to Respirable Dusts and Chrysotile Asbestos Fibers.

    PubMed

    Boelter, Fred W; Xia, Yulin; Dell, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Sanding joint compounds is a dusty activity and exposures are not well characterized. Until the mid 1970s, asbestos-containing joint compounds were used by some people such that sanding could emit dust and asbestos fibers. We estimated the distribution of 8-h TWA concentrations and cumulative exposures to respirable dusts and chrysotile asbestos fibers for four worker groups: (1) drywall specialists, (2) generalists, (3) tradespersons who are bystanders to drywall finishing, and (4) do-it-yourselfers (DIYers). Data collected through a survey of experienced contractors, direct field observations, and literature were used to develop prototypical exposure scenarios for each worker group. To these exposure scenarios, we applied a previously developed semi-empirical mathematical model that predicts area as well as personal breathing zone respirable dust concentrations. An empirical factor was used to estimate chrysotile fiber concentrations from respirable dust concentrations. On a task basis, we found mean 8-h TWA concentrations of respirable dust and chrysotile fibers are numerically highest for specialists, followed by generalists, DIYers, and bystander tradespersons; these concentrations are estimated to be in excess of the respective current but not historical Threshold Limit Values. Due to differences in frequency of activities, annual cumulative exposures are highest for specialists, followed by generalists, bystander tradespersons, and DIYers. Cumulative exposure estimates for chrysotile fibers from drywall finishing are expected to result in few, if any, mesothelioma or excess lung cancer deaths according to recently published risk assessments. Given the dustiness of drywall finishing, we recommend diligence in the use of readily available source controls.

  16. Asbestos hazard in the reprocessed textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.M.; Kriebel, D.; Buiatti, E.; Paci, E.; Sini, S.; Vannucchi, G.; Zappa, M.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have identified an excess risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma among workers in the reprocessed textile industry in Prato, Italy. These studies suggested that there may have been asbestos hazard in this industry although exposure was not known to exist. An industrial hygiene investigation was conducted to determine whether there was previous or current asbestos exposure in the industry. Walk-through surveys, environmental sampling, process documentation, and management and worker interviews were conducted in 13 textile reprocessing establishments. Polypropylene bags that once contained asbestos were found in 2 of the 13. Asbestos bags were cut open and used to cover bales of rags which were then distributed throughout the world. Workers were exposed to asbestos while handling the bags which were contaminated with chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. Additional sources of asbestos exposure that may have existed in the past in the industry are also discussed.

  17. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view

    SciTech Connect

    Toft, P.; Meek, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies in Canada, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. The Canadian studies provide no consistent, convincing evidence of increased cancer risks attributable to the ingestion of drinking water contaminated by asbestos, even though the observed asbestos concentrations were relatively high in several communities. Only one study, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, has shown evidence of increased cancer incidence associated with the ingestion of asbestos in drinking water. 6 references.

  18. Asbestos fibers in human lung: forensic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, T.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1981-03-01

    Asbestos is a fibrous mineral which, because of its unique properties, has innumerable applications in many industries and is used in a large variety of consumer products. It has become ubiquitous and is woven, literally and figuratively, into the fabric of our present-day civilization. However, its presence is sometimes unknown and unsuspected by those who are exposed to asbestos by virtue of occupation or environment and inhale its fibers. Exposed workers and even urban dwellers may have a variable lung burden of asbestos fibers. There is indisputable clinical, pathological, experimental and epidemiological proof that, after varying periods of latency, asbestos may cause benign and malignant disease often leading to disability or death. Forensic investigation of suspected asbestos-related deaths includes a life-time occupational history, a complete autopsy, and identification of the asbestos fiber tissue burden. The latter usually requires special procedures.

  19. Asbestos pleural effusion: a clinical entity.

    PubMed Central

    Mårtensson, G; Hagberg, S; Pettersson, K; Thiringer, G

    1987-01-01

    In a case-control study asbestos exposure in 64 consecutive men with idiopathic pleural effusion and 129 randomly sampled age matched male controls was compared. Furthermore, seven women and 64 men with idiopathic pleural effusion were studied, including a three year re-examination, in an attempt to identify characteristics that might distinguish asbestos exposed from non-exposed patients. Asbestos exposure was significantly (p less than 0.01) more frequent in men with idiopathic effusions than in controls. The idiopathic effusions seen in asbestos exposed patients were compatible with the diagnosis "asbestos pleural effusion." Two features were characteristic of patients with asbestos pleural effusion: a chest radiograph at the initial examination showing converging pleural linear structures or rounded atelectasis or a history of recurrent pleural effusion, or both. PMID:3686454

  20. Identification of specific gene copy number changes in asbestos-related lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nymark, Penny; Wikman, Harriet; Ruosaari, Salla; Hollmén, Jaakko; Vanhala, Esa; Karjalainen, Antti; Anttila, Sisko; Knuutila, Sakari

    2006-06-01

    Asbestos is a well-known lung cancer-causing mineral fiber. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that asbestos can cause chromosomal damage and aberrations. Lung tumors, in general, have several recurrently amplified and deleted chromosomal regions. To investigate whether a distinct chromosomal aberration profile could be detected in the lung tumors of heavily asbestos-exposed patients, we analyzed the copy number profiles of 14 lung tumors from highly asbestos-exposed patients and 14 matched tumors from nonexposed patients using classic comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). A specific profile could lead to identification of the underlying genes that may act as mediators of tumor formation and progression. In addition, array CGH analyses on cDNA microarrays (13,000 clones) were carried out on 20 of the same patients. Classic CGH showed, on average, more aberrations in asbestos-exposed than in nonexposed patients, and an altered region in chromosome 2 seemed to occur more frequently in the asbestos-exposed patients. Array CGH revealed aberrations in 18 regions that were significantly associated with either of the two groups. The most significant regions were 2p21-p16.3, 5q35.3, 9q33.3-q34.11, 9q34.13-q34.3, 11p15.5, 14q11.2, and 19p13.1-p13.3 (P < 0.005). Furthermore, 11 fragile sites coincided with the 18 asbestos-associated regions (P = 0.08), which may imply preferentially caused DNA damage at these sites. Our findings are the first evidence, indicating that asbestos exposure may produce a specific DNA damage profile.

  1. Physician's guide to asbestos-related diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-09

    An overview is presented on the health hazards of asbestos. The information is organized as a series of answers to some of the more common questions asked of or by physicians regarding asbestos and health. The common sources of occupational exposure to asbestos are described. Some of the topics of discussion include the diagnosis and treatment of asbestosis, and the relationship between asbestosis and cancer. 12 references, 2 tables.

  2. Replacement of Asbestos Aboard Naval Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-10

    Facing Woven, containing asbestos yarn , tape, or cloth Nonwoven-dutch lining, transnission lining Asbestos-Cement Materials Flat sheets and wallboard, all...Siding shingles and clapboard, including aoccesorlas Roofing shingles Asbets Textiles Yarn , cord, and thread Cloth Other asbestos textiles. including...is further processed into two- ply yarn for weaving into Fiberfrax cloth, tape, and sleeving. Fiberfrax textiles have good insulating ability to

  3. Potential artifacts associated with historical preparation of joint compound samples and reported airborne asbestos concentrations.

    PubMed

    Brorby, G P; Sheehan, P J; Berman, D W; Bogen, K T; Holm, S E

    2011-05-01

    Airborne samples collected in the 1970s for drywall workers using asbestos-containing joint compounds were likely prepared and analyzed according to National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Method P&CAM 239, the historical precursor to current Method 7400. Experimentation with a re-created, chrysotile-containing, carbonate-based joint compound suggested that analysis following sample preparation by the historical vs. current method produces different fiber counts, likely because of an interaction between the different clearing and mounting chemicals used and the carbonate-based joint compound matrix. Differences were also observed during analysis using Method 7402, depending on whether acetic acid/dimethylformamide or acetone was used during preparation to collapse the filter. Specifically, air samples of sanded chrysotile-containing joint compound prepared by the historical method yielded fiber counts significantly greater (average of 1.7-fold, 95% confidence interval: 1.5- to 2.0-fold) than those obtained by the current method. In addition, air samples prepared by Method 7402 using acetic acid/dimethylformamide yielded fiber counts that were greater (2.8-fold, 95% confidence interval: 2.5- to 3.2-fold) than those prepared by this method using acetone. These results indicated (1) there is an interaction between Method P&CAM 239 preparation chemicals and the carbonate-based joint compound matrix that reveals fibers that were previously bound in the matrix, and (2) the same appeared to be true for Method 7402 preparation chemicals acetic acid/dimethylformamide. This difference in fiber counts is the opposite of what has been reported historically for samples of relatively pure chrysotile dusts prepared using the same chemicals. This preparation artifact should be considered when interpreting historical air samples for drywall workers prepared by Method P&CAM 239.

  4. The Importance of Sample Processing in Analysis of Asbestos Content in Rocks and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. D.; Wright, J.

    2012-12-01

    Analysis of asbestos content in rocks and soils using Air Resources Board (ARB) Test Method 435 (M435) involves the processing of samples for subsequent analysis by polarized light microscopy (PLM). The use of different equipment and procedures by commercial laboratories to pulverize rock and soil samples could result in different particle size distributions. It has long been theorized that asbestos-containing samples can be over-pulverized to the point where the particle dimensions of the asbestos no longer meet the required 3:1 length-to-width aspect ratio or the particles become so small that they no longer can be tested for optical characteristics using PLM where maximum PLM magnification is typically 400X. Recent work has shed some light on this issue. ARB staff conducted an interlaboratory study to investigate variability in preparation and analytical procedures used by laboratories performing M435 analysis. With regard to sample processing, ARB staff found that different pulverization equipment and processing procedures produced powders that have varying particle size distributions. PLM analysis of the finest powders produced by one laboratory showed all but one of the 12 samples were non-detect or below the PLM reporting limit; in contrast to the other 36 coarser samples from the same field sample and processed by three other laboratories where 21 samples were above the reporting limit. The set of 12, exceptionally fine powder samples produced by the same laboratory was re-analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and results showed that these samples contained asbestos above the TEM reporting limit. However, the use of TEM as a stand-alone analytical procedure, usually performed at magnifications between 3,000 to 20,000X, also has its drawbacks because of the miniscule mass of sample that this method examines. The small amount of powder analyzed by TEM may not be representative of the field sample. The actual mass of the sample powder analyzed by

  5. Reconstituted asbestos matrix for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1975-01-01

    Method is described for reprocessing commercially available asbestos matrix stock to yield greater porosity and bubble pressure (due to increased surface tension), improved homogeneity, and greater uniformity.

  6. Asbestos Workshop: Sampling, Analysis, and Risk Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    fibrosis (fibrosis of the lining of the cavity holding the lungs) EMDQ March 2012 Chest x - ray showing areas of scarring related to asbestosis. 8...soil) •If the expected number of asbestos structures in a sample is λ, then the probability that there are exactly x asbestos fibers is equal to: •E.g...Estimating Risk for Asbestos Risk = Exposure x Toxicity = [Air] × ET × EF × IUR = f/cm3× hour/hour × day/day × (f/cm3)-1 For asbestos , ED is

  7. Development of the releasable asbestos field sampler.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, John R; Thornburg, Jonathan W; Shaul, Glenn M; Barrett, William M; Hall, Fred D; Konz, James J

    2010-03-01

    The releasable asbestos field sampler (RAFS) was developed as an alternative to activity-based sampling (ABS; personal breathing zone sampling during a simulated activity). The RAFS utilizes a raking motion to provide the energy that releases particulate material from the soil and aerosolizes the asbestos fibers. A gentle airflow laterally transports the generated aerosol inside of a tunnel to one end where filter sampling cassettes or real-time instruments are used to measure asbestos and particulate release. The RAFS was tested in a series of laboratory experiments to validate its performance and then was deployed for field trials in asbestos-contaminated soil at multiple geographical locations. Laboratory data showed the RAFS generated repeatable and representative aerosol particulate concentrations. Field tests showed the RAFS aerosolized asbestos concentrations were statistically correlated with total particle concentrations. Field tests also showed the RAFS aerosolized asbestos concentrations were statistically correlated with asbestos concentrations measured by multiple ABS tests with different activities, different soil/environmental conditions, and at different geographical locations. RAFS provides a direct measurement of asbestos emission from soil in situ without consideration of meteorology and personal activity on the asbestos transport to the breathing zone.

  8. Non-asbestos-related malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Kanbay, Asiye; Ozer Simsek, Zuhal; Tutar, Nuri; Yılmaz, Insu; Buyukoglan, Hakan; Canoz, Ozlem; Demir, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon tumor derived from mesothelial lining cells. MPM has been described as an insidious neoplasm because of its long latency period. The tumor is typically found in patients several decades after asbestos exposure. We herein describe a 26-year-old patient with MPM who presented with pleural effusion. The patient had not been exposed to asbestos or erionite. There are few case reports of non-asbestos-related MPM in young patients. We report this case to remind physicians to consider MPM in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion in young patients without exposure to asbestos or erionitis.

  9. Teratogenicity of asbestos in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Tomoko; Hojo, Motoki; Inomata, Akiko; Ogata, Akio; Hirose, Akihiko; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Nakae, Dai

    2014-04-01

    Possible teratogenicity of 3 different asbestos (crocidolite, chrysotile and amosite) was assessed in CD1(ICR) mice. Dams on day 9 of gestation were given a single intraperitoneal administration at dose of 40 mg/kg body weight of asbestos suspended in 2% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution in phosphate buffered saline, while dams in the control group were given vehicle (10 ml/kg body weight). Dams and fetuses were examined on day 18 of gestation. To compare with the control group, the mean percentage of live fetuses in implantations in the group given crocidolite and the incidence of dams with early dead fetuses in the groups given chrysotile or amosite were increased. While no external or skeletal malformation was observed in the control group, the incidence of external malformation (mainly reduction deformity of limb) in the group given amosite, and the incidences of skeletal malformation (mainly fusion of vertebrae) in the all dosed groups were significantly increased. The result indicated that asbestos (crocidolite, chrysotile and amosite) have fetotoxicity and teratogenicity in mice.

  10. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  11. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-05-12

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, "local" studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 1910.1001 Section 1910.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. (1)...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1910.1001 Section 1910.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. (1)...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Asbestos. 1910.1001 Section 1910.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. (1)...

  2. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  3. Guidelines for catastrophic emergency situations involving asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist regional, state, and local agencies in managing potential asbestos hazards resulting from a catastrophic accident or disaster. The guidelines may be used as a reference for advanced planning or, once the emergency presents itself, to help ensure that, to the extent feasible and compatible with other emergency measures, all appropriate steps are taken to safely handle and dispose of all asbestos, while avoiding unnecessary exposures to asbestos. The guidelines provide information that may be helpful to EPA Regional offices and delegated NESHAP agencies that must respond to emergencies involving asbestos. The guidelines review the experiences of EPA Regional and state enforcement agencies in dealing with asbestos during recent emergencies. Information is included on statutes and regulations that may be applicable in emergency situations, including the emergency provisions of the asbestos NESHAP. Lines of communication within EPA and between EPA and emergency management agencies are discussed. A list of contacts responsible at the state level for emergency and disaster activities is provided. Information is provided to help identify potential sources of asbestos releases, and factors are identified that should be considered in planning for the cleanup and disposal of asbestos.

  4. Pleural mesothelioma and neighborhood asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Fischbein, A.; Rohl, A.N.

    1984-07-06

    Widespread use and occupational exposure to asbestos in US shipyards, particularly during World War II, is one reason for the currently high incidence of asbestos-related diseases, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. There is typically a long latency period between asbestos exposure and resulting disease. A case report is presented which lends additional credence to the earlier suggestion that exposure to asbestos in the neighborhood of the shipyard may be related to the development of malignant mesothelioma in this particular patient. The identification of amosite asbestos fibers in the lung tissue of the patient provides plausible evidence for this etiologic connection. Amosite asbestos is not found in the lungs of persons from the general population, and its occurrence, therefore, indicates either an occupational exposure or an exposure to a specific environmental source. Although only a very small portion of the total amount of asbestos used consists of amosite, this asbestos type is commonly used in shipbuilding and repair and was used a great deal in the shipyard adjacent to which our patient worked.

  5. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Although there were several anecdotal reports from earlier times, the first well documented case of asbestosis was reported in 1906 in a worker engaged in the production of asbestos textiles. In 1917 a report of ten cases of pulmonary fibrosis occurring at a Pennsylvania facility was published. The first detailed epidemiologic study of asbestos workers was undertaken in Great Britain in 1928. The first indication that asbestos might be a human carcinogen came in 1935 with the report of three independently diagnosed cases of lung cancer detected during autopsy of asbestos workers. Epidemiologic studies have now repeatedly demonstrated an association between asbestos exposure and increased mortality due to asbestosis, lung cancer, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, and gastrointestinal cancer. In some studies asbestos exposure has also been associated with increased risks for laryngeal cancer and cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. Studies which have been concerned with exposure to crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and chrysotile were highlighted. Other topics reviewed included asbestos contamination of other minerals, the combined effects of asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke, mortality and pleural radiographic changes, and mixed fiber exposures.

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  9. ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD (AACM) AT GEBO

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the AACM research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbestos NESHAP. This abstract and pr...

  10. Development of the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    A risk assessment for intermittent, low-level exposure to asbestos requires personal breathing concentration data. Currently, activity-based sampling (ABS) is the preferred approach to measurement of a person’s inhalation exposure; i.e., asbestos structures per cubic centimeter ...

  11. Asbestos exposure and upper lobe involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hillerdal, G.

    1982-12-01

    In a study of 1,251 persons with asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal changes, 16 had slowly progressive changes of the upper lobes, involving both pleura and parenchyma, with shrinkage of the lobes. In addition there were 41 cases with less advanced apical changes. Tuberculosis and other possible causes were excluded. It is hypothesized that the changes rate due to asbestos disease.

  12. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  13. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Asbestos. 101-42.1102-1... Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-1 Asbestos. (a) General. (1) Asbestos is the common name for... Environmental Protection Agency classified asbestos as a hazardous air pollutant in 1972. (2) Friable...

  14. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  15. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  16. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 101-42.1102-1... Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-1 Asbestos. (a) General. (1) Asbestos is the common name for... Environmental Protection Agency classified asbestos as a hazardous air pollutant in 1972. (2) Friable...

  17. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  18. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Asbestos. 101-42.1102-1... Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-1 Asbestos. (a) General. (1) Asbestos is the common name for... Environmental Protection Agency classified asbestos as a hazardous air pollutant in 1972. (2) Friable...

  19. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Asbestos. 101-42.1102-1... Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-1 Asbestos. (a) General. (1) Asbestos is the common name for... Environmental Protection Agency classified asbestos as a hazardous air pollutant in 1972. (2) Friable...

  1. What You Should Know about Asbestos Health Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The presence of asbestos health hazards in the schools is particulary serious since children exposed to asbestos are more likely to develop cancer than adults similarly exposed. Health risks of asbestos, scope of the problem, and asbestos testing are discussed. (DF)

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Asbestos. 101-42.1102-1... Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-1 Asbestos. (a) General. (1) Asbestos is the common name for... Environmental Protection Agency classified asbestos as a hazardous air pollutant in 1972. (2) Friable...

  3. Asbestos: Rationale Behind a Proposed Air Quality Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    This article proposes an asbestos air quality standard for Connecticut lower than proposed Federal regulation. Data are given relating mesothelioma incidence to occupational and non-occupational asbestos exposure. New standards lower asbestos emissions from manufacturing operations thus reducing possible asbestos-related fatalities. Rebuttals and…

  4. Characterization of Asbestos Construction Products at Naval Shore Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    in building construction usually are a blend of 5% to 95% asbestos fibers combined with vermiculite, sand, mineral fibers , bentonite clay binders , or... roofing shingles , corrugated sheets, facings of acoustical products, laboratory table tops, electrical conduits, and laminated panels. Asbestos-cement...probably was never used in Navy construction. However, asbestos siding shingles have been used extensively on wood frame buildings. Asbestos roofing

  5. Phase 2 Remedial Investigation Report Army Materials Technology Laboratory Task Order 1 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    inspection report mentions Ni-63 in an HC1 solution, H-3 (tritium) in stearic acid, and Po- 210 ( polonium chloride) being stored in a fume hood in the...ACRONYMS I AAWQC Ambient Acute Water Quality Criteria ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists I ACM Asbestos -containing Material ACS...Environmental Center AHERA Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act E ALARA As Low as Reasonably Achievable Alpha-BHC Alpha-benzenehexachloride IAMC Army Material

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for the Military Family Housing Privatization Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Prevention Plan TCE Trichloroethene TCLP Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure TLF Temporary Lodging Facility TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act U.S...Initiative Robins Air Force Base, Georgia concentrations for the following criteria pollutants: ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide...Georgia ● Asbestos-Containing Building Materials (ACBM) – Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral whose crystals form long, thin fibers and which has

  7. Release of asbestos fibers from weathered and corroded asbestos cement products

    SciTech Connect

    Spurny, K.R.

    1989-02-01

    The controversy on whether weathered and corroded asbestos cement products are emitting biologically significant asbestos fiber concentrations in ambient air has not been resolved. Nor is it known if the weathered and corroded asbestos cement products release asbestos fibers which have the same carcinogenic potency as standard chrysotile. The purpose of this research project was to develop a method for sampling and measuring asbestos fiber emissions from solid planar surfaces (i.e., roofs and facades) consisting of asbestos cement products and to develop methods for studying the physical and chemical changes and the carcinogenic potency of the emitted fibers. Using this method asbestos fiber emissions in ambient air have been measured in the FRG during 1984/1986. The emissions of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns were in the range 10(6) to 10(8) fibers/m2.hr. The ambient air concentrations of these asbestos fibers were for the most part less than 10(3) fibers/m3. It was shown that the emitted asbestos fibers were chemically changed and it was shown with animal experiments that their carcinogenic potency did not differ from the carcinogenicity of standard chrysotile fibers.

  8. 40 CFR 763.80 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.80 Scope and purpose. (a) This rule requires local education agencies to identify friable and nonfriable asbestos-containing material (ACM) in public and... Asbestos Coordinators, or if applicable, a State's lead agency designated by the State Governor,...

  9. 76 FR 11450 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Request; Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools and Asbestos Model Accreditation Plans AGENCY... (ICR) has been forwarded to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval: Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools and Asbestos Model Accreditation Plans; EPA ICR No. 1365.09, OMB No....

  10. 40 CFR 763.80 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.80 Scope and purpose. (a) This rule requires local education agencies to identify friable and nonfriable asbestos-containing material (ACM) in public and... Asbestos Coordinators, or if applicable, a State's lead agency designated by the State Governor,...

  11. 40 CFR 763.80 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.80 Scope and purpose. (a) This rule requires local education agencies to identify friable and nonfriable asbestos-containing material (ACM) in public and... Asbestos Coordinators, or if applicable, a State's lead agency designated by the State Governor,...

  12. 40 CFR 763.80 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.80 Scope and purpose. (a) This rule requires local education agencies to identify friable and nonfriable asbestos-containing material (ACM) in public and... Asbestos Coordinators, or if applicable, a State's lead agency designated by the State Governor,...

  13. 40 CFR 763.80 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.80 Scope and purpose. (a) This rule requires local education agencies to identify friable and nonfriable asbestos-containing material (ACM) in public and... Asbestos Coordinators, or if applicable, a State's lead agency designated by the State Governor,...

  14. Asbestos-induced lung diseases: an update

    PubMed Central

    KAMP, DAVID W.

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos causes asbestosis (pulmonary fibrosis caused by asbestos inhalation) and malignancies (bronchogenic carcinoma and mesothelioma) by mechanisms that are not fully elucidated. Despite a dramatic reduction in asbestos use worldwide, asbestos-induced lung diseases remain a substantial health concern primarily because of the vast amounts of fibers that have been mined, processed, and used during the 20th century combined with the long latency period of up to 40 years between exposure and disease presentation. This review summarizes the important new epidemiologic and pathogenic information that has emerged over the past several years. Whereas the development of asbestosis is directly associated with the magnitude and duration of asbestos exposure, the development of a malignant clone of cells can occur in the setting of low-level asbestos exposure. Emphasis is placed on the recent epidemiologic investigations that explore the malignancy risk that occurs from nonoccupational, environmental asbestos exposure. Accumulating studies are shedding light on novel mechanistic pathways by which asbestos damages the lung. Attention is focused on the importance of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury and repair, the role of iron-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis by the p53- and mitochondria-regulated death pathways. Furthermore, recent evidence underscores crucial roles for specific cellular signaling pathways that regulate the production of cytokines and growth factors. An evolving role for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is also reviewed. The translational significance of these studies is evident in providing the molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies for asbestos-related lung diseases and, importantly, other pulmonary diseases, such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. PMID:19304273

  15. Asbestos ban in India: challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Bhuva, Uttpal B; Katoch, Priyanka

    2006-09-01

    Rapidly industrializing India is described by the International Monetary Fund as a young, disciplined, and vibrant economy with a projected growth of 6.7% for 2005. The total workforce of 397 million has only 7% of workers employed in the organized sector with construction, where asbestos exposure is prevalent, employing 4.4%. The domestic production of asbestos declined from 20,111 tons in 1998-1999 to 14,340 tons in 2002-2003. The imports from Russia and Canada increased from 61,474 tons in 1997-1998 to 97,884 tons in 2001-2002. The production of asbestos cement products went up from 0.68 million tons in 1993-1994 to 1.38 million tons in 2002-2003. The asbestos industry has been delicensed since March 2003. The number of asbestos-based units stood at 32, with the western state of Maharashtra having the largest number. According to official figures, the industry employs 8000 workers. The occupational exposure standard is still 2 fibers/mL, worse still, mesothelioma is not recognized as an occupational disease. The latest cancer registry data have no information on mesothelioma. The health and safety legislation does not cover 93% of workers in the unorganized sector where asbestos exposures are extremely high. Workers remain uninformed and untrained in dealing with asbestos exposure. Enforcement agencies are not fully conscious of the risks of asbestos exposure. Industrial hygiene assessment is seldom carried out and pathologists do not receive training in identifying mesothelioma histopathologically. The lack of political will and powerful influence of the asbestos industry are pushing India toward a disaster of unimaginable proportion.

  16. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  17. Asbestos Exposure among Mitering Workers.

    PubMed

    Phanprasit, Wantanee; Sujirarat, Dusit; Musigapong, Pirutchada; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2012-09-01

    The objectives are to compare the airborne asbestos concentrations resulted from mitering of abestos cement roof sheets by a high-speed motor and a hand saw, and to monitor whether other workers near the test sites are vulnerable to the fibers exceeding the occupational exposure limit. Four test cases were carried out and altogether 7 personal and 4 area air samples were collected. The NIOSH method 7400 was employed for the air samplings and analysis. Using the phase contrast microscopy, fiber counting was conducted under Rule A. The study showed that the fiber concentration medians for personal air samples gathered from the two tools were 4.11 fibers/cc (ranged: 1.33-12.41 fibers/cc) and 0.13 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.01-5.00 fibers/cc) respectively. The median for the area samples was 0.59 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.14-3.32 fibers/cc). Comparing each study case, the concentration level caused by the high-speed motor saw was more than twice that of the hand saw. According to the area samples, the workers nearby the test site are at risk from high exposure to asbestos.

  18. EPA's Administration of the Asbestos in Schools Program. Hearing before the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (September 24, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    Proceedings of a hearing concerning the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) administration of the Asbestos in School Program are presented in this report. Specifically, the hearing's purpose was to examine the EPA's progress in implementing the Asbestos Hazardous Emergency Response Act (AHERA), wherein the agency was responsible for…

  19. Petition to the Environmental Protection Agency to Control Asbestos Emmissions from Spray-On Materials Which Have Been Applied in Public School Buildings for Insulation, Fireproofing, Decorative or Other Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This petition requests the Environmental Protection Agency to promulgate regulations in compliance with section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control Act to control asbestos emissions from spray-on materials containing 1 percent or more asbestos that has been applied in public school buildings for insulation, fireproofing, decorative, or other…

  20. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lemen, R A; Dement, J M; Wagoner, J K

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and is restricted to primarily occupational exposure studies. However, some mention of nonoccupational exposures are made because of their direct relationship to a worker or to a secondary occupational source. Over 100 epidemiological studies are reviewed, dating back to the first case of asbestos-associated disease reported by Montague Murray in 1906. The studies are divided by specific fiber type and by specific disease outcomes and the interaction of asbestos and cigarette smoking is discussed in great detail. PMID:6993197