Science.gov

Sample records for act balance sheet

  1. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). It involves simulated trips down the ...

  2. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  3. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except...

  4. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets and in the...

  5. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets... face of the balance sheets or in the notes thereto. Assets 1. Cash and due from banks. The amounts...

  6. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets and in the...

  7. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except...

  8. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets... face of the balance sheets or in the notes thereto. Assets 1. Cash and due from banks. The amounts...

  9. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  10. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  11. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited...

  12. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited...

  13. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited...

  14. The Great Balancing Act. Nutrition Comes Alive. Level 4. Nutrition Educator's Guide and Work Sheets, Information Sheets, Story, Letters to Parents. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Laurie

    This guide offers a nutrition education program for students in Kindergarten through Grade 6. Activities span all grades as well as activities for the specific level. Nutrition education objectives are stated for each grade level: (1) grade four--students will explore how to balance food intake and energy output for overall health and physical…

  15. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  16. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  17. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  18. The Balancing Act

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2008-05-01

    This essay is being proposed as part of a book titled: "Motherhood: The Elephant in the Laboratory." It offers professional and personal advice on how to balance working in the research field with a family life.

  19. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  20. 14 CFR 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet...) Record here all general and working funds available on demand as of the date of the balance sheet...

  1. 14 CFR Section 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet... AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet...) Record here all general and working funds available on demand as of the date of the balance sheet...

  2. 14 CFR Section 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet... AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet...) Record here all general and working funds available on demand as of the date of the balance sheet...

  3. 14 CFR Section 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet... AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet...) Record here all general and working funds available on demand as of the date of the balance sheet...

  4. 14 CFR Section 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet... AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet...) Record here all general and working funds available on demand as of the date of the balance sheet...

  5. Strategic financial planning: a balance sheet perspective.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O

    1987-02-01

    This paper presents an easily comprehended approach to the strategic financial planning process. It utilizes a balance sheet approach that focuses attention on three key business policy decisions: asset growth rates, debt policy, and equity growth policy. Because the approach taken here does not get involved with the numerous assumptions and projections involved in a typical funds flow approach to financial planning, it is easier to understand and use by both boards and top management. A financial plan is defined as a bridge between two balance sheets. PMID:10301457

  6. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance... certificates which are subject to the special provisions of § 210.6-06 of this part. Balance sheets filed...

  7. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance... certificates which are subject to the special provisions of § 210.6-06 of this part. Balance sheets filed...

  8. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance... certificates which are subject to the special provisions of § 210.6-06 of this part. Balance sheets filed...

  9. A Case Study and Balance Sheet Approach to Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes positive and negative aspects of employment and unemployment in a balance sheet framework. Discusses the value of the balance sheet approach in understanding individual differences in reactions to unemployment. (Author/KS)

  10. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various line items and certain additional... face of the balance sheets or related notes filed for the persons to whom this article pertains...

  11. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various line items and certain additional... face of the balance sheets or related notes filed for the persons to whom this article pertains...

  12. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  13. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance...

  14. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance...

  15. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... 1975 Commercial and Industrial Companies § 210.5-02 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or related...

  16. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance...

  17. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  18. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited balance sheets as of the end of each of the two most recent fiscal years....

  19. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance...

  20. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  1. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various items which, if applicable, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or in the...

  2. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a) The purpose of this rule is to indicate the... the face of the balance sheets and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this...

  3. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance...

  4. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a) The purpose of this rule is to indicate the... the face of the balance sheets and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this...

  5. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various items which, if applicable, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or in the...

  6. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  7. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various items which, if applicable, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or in the...

  8. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  9. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  10. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... 1975 Commercial and Industrial Companies § 210.5-02 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or related...

  11. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... 1975 Commercial and Industrial Companies § 210.5-02 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or related...

  12. 12 CFR 3.33 - Off-balance sheet exposures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-balance sheet exposures. 3.33 Section 3.33...-balance sheet exposures. (a) General. (1) A national bank or Federal savings association must calculate the exposure amount of an off-balance sheet exposure using the credit conversion factors (CCFs)...

  13. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  14. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  15. 12 CFR 217.33 - Off-balance sheet exposures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-balance sheet exposures. 217.33 Section 217... for General Credit Risk § 217.33 Off-balance sheet exposures. (a) General. (1) A Board-regulated institution must calculate the exposure amount of an off-balance sheet exposure using the credit...

  16. 14 CFR 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account...

  17. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration's Dividend Policy for Operators Receiving ODS (46 CFR part 283), accounting information for... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts....

  18. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a) The purpose of this rule is to indicate the... the face of the balance sheets and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this...

  19. 12 CFR 324.33 - Off-balance sheet exposures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-balance sheet exposures. 324.33 Section 324...-Weighted Assets for General Credit Risk § 324.33 Off-balance sheet exposures. (a) General. (1) An FDIC-supervised institution must calculate the exposure amount of an off-balance sheet exposure using the...

  20. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited balance sheets as of the end of each of the two most recent fiscal years....

  1. Balance sheet for phosphorus in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J C

    A balance sheet for the inputs, uses and outputs of phosphorus in the UK economy has been drawn up. The major import is fertilizer, amounting to about 200 kt P per year. After fertilizers, the other imports (in kt P) are in animal feeds (63), detergents (38) and human food (14). The major outputs are sewage (50), animal excreta (26) and refuse (21); soil losses are about 20 kt. The flowpaths for phosphorus through humans, animals and plants are described. The discrepancy of about 210 kt P/yr is explained by the fact that the amount of phosphorus in the soil increases each year by almost as much as the amount of fertilizer phosphorus added. In view of UK dependence on this imported resource it is suggested that priority is given to work which might eventually have some practical application in preventing or reversing the immobilization of phosphorus in the soil. PMID:249678

  2. 14 CFR 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet...

  3. 14 CFR Section 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet...

  4. 14 CFR Section 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet...

  5. 14 CFR Section 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., section 23, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet...

  6. 14 CFR Section 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet...

  7. A balancing act for renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage will play a key role in increasing the use of variable energy sources. Nonetheless, storage is not the only balancing option and the overall design of power systems will incorporate a range of flexible generation, storage and grid-balancing options of different types and scales.

  8. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A; Wahr, John; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance and to ice discharge, which are forced by internal or external (atmospheric/oceanic/basal) fluctuations. Regardless of the measurement method, observations over the last two decades show an increase in ice loss rate, associated with speeding up of glaciers and enhanced melting. However, both ice discharge and melt-induced mass losses exhibit rapid short-term fluctuations that, when extrapolated into the future, could yield erroneous long-term trends. In this paper we review the GrIS mass loss over more than a century by combining satellite altimetry, airborne altimetry, interferometry, aerial photographs and gravimetry data sets together with modelling studies. We revisit the mass loss of different sectors and show that they manifest quite different sensitivities to atmospheric and oceanic forcing. In addition, we discuss recent progress in constructing coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models required to project realistic future sea-level changes. PMID:25811969

  9. Electronic Elections: A Balancing Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Pedro A. D.

    This article aims to share some major lessons learned from the pioneering experience in Brazil with the world's first full national implementation of universal electronic voting. Differing notions of security, and their "collateral entanglements", appear to play a key role and are contrasted in Brazil's pioneering electronic voting saga. After an introduction, we puzzle through what election security may mean. We elaborate on how technological innovations may affect the underlying risks, their nature, corrections and balance. Then we describe some ways in which innovations have been deployed and validated, and how the results are being perceived, before some closing remarks.

  10. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  11. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the...

  14. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  15. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the...

  19. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the...

  20. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  1. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  5. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as...

  6. Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Wingham, D J; Shepherd, A; Muir, A; Marshall, G J

    2006-07-15

    The Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise has long been uncertain. While regional variability in ice dynamics has been revealed, a picture of mass changes throughout the continental ice sheet is lacking. Here, we use satellite radar altimetry to measure the elevation change of 72% of the grounded ice sheet during the period 1992-2003. Depending on the density of the snow giving rise to the observed elevation fluctuations, the ice sheet mass trend falls in the range -5-+85Gtyr-1. We find that data from climate model reanalyses are not able to characterise the contemporary snowfall fluctuation with useful accuracy and our best estimate of the overall mass trend-growth of 27+/-29Gtyr-1-is based on an assessment of the expected snowfall variability. Mass gains from accumulating snow, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and within East Antarctica, exceed the ice dynamic mass loss from West Antarctica. The result exacerbates the difficulty of explaining twentieth century sea-level rise. PMID:16782603

  7. Greenland Ice Sheet: High-Elevation Balance and Peripheral Thinning.

    PubMed

    Krabill; Abdalati; Frederick; Manizade; Martin; Sonntag; Swift; Thomas; Wright; Yungel

    2000-07-21

    Aircraft laser-altimeter surveys over northern Greenland in 1994 and 1999 have been coupled with previously reported data from southern Greenland to analyze the recent mass-balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Above 2000 meters elevation, the ice sheet is in balance on average but has some regions of local thickening or thinning. Thinning predominates at lower elevations, with rates exceeding 1 meter per year close to the coast. Interpolation of our results between flight lines indicates a net loss of about 51 cubic kilometers of ice per year from the entire ice sheet, sufficient to raise sea level by 0.13 millimeter per year-approximately 7% of the observed rise. PMID:10903198

  8. A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R.; Geruo, A.; Barletta, Valentia R.; Bentley, Mike J.; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H.; Bromwich, David H.; Forsberg, Rene; Galin, Natalia; Horwath, Martin; Jacobs, Stan; Joughin, Ian; King, Matt A.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Li, Jilu; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Luckman, Adrian; Luthcke, Scott B.; McMillan, Malcolm; Meister, Rakia; Milne, Glenn; Mouginot, Jeremie; Muir, Alan; Nicolas,Julien P.; Paden, John; Payne, Antony J.; Pritchard, Hamish; Rignot, Eric; Rott, Helmut; Sorensen, Louise Sandberg; Scambos, Ted A.; Yi, Dohngui; Zwally, H. Jay

    2012-01-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods-especially in Greenland and West Antarctica-and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 plus or minus 49, +14 plus or minus 43, -65 plus or minus 26, and -20 plus or minus 14 gigatonnes year(sup -1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 plus or minus 0.20 millimeter year(sup -1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  9. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R; A, Geruo; Barletta, Valentina R; Bentley, Mike J; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H; Bromwich, David H; Forsberg, René; Galin, Natalia; Horwath, Martin; Jacobs, Stan; Joughin, Ian; King, Matt A; Lenaerts, Jan T M; Li, Jilu; Ligtenberg, Stefan R M; Luckman, Adrian; Luthcke, Scott B; McMillan, Malcolm; Meister, Rakia; Milne, Glenn; Mouginot, Jeremie; Muir, Alan; Nicolas, Julien P; Paden, John; Payne, Antony J; Pritchard, Hamish; Rignot, Eric; Rott, Helmut; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Scambos, Ted A; Scheuchl, Bernd; Schrama, Ernst J O; Smith, Ben; Sundal, Aud V; van Angelen, Jan H; van de Berg, Willem J; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Vaughan, David G; Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John; Whitehouse, Pippa L; Wingham, Duncan J; Yi, Donghui; Young, Duncan; Zwally, H Jay

    2012-11-30

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods--especially in Greenland and West Antarctica--and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 ± 49, +14 ± 43, -65 ± 26, and -20 ± 14 gigatonnes year(-1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 ± 0.20 millimeter year(-1) to the rate of global sea-level rise. PMID:23197528

  10. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Ivins, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in the mass of ice stored in Antarctica and Greenland are of considerable societal importance. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is a joint-initiative of ESA and NASA aimed at producing a single estimate of the global sea level contribution to polar ice sheet losses. Within IMBIE, estimates of ice sheet mass balance are developed from a variety of satellite geodetic techniques using a common spatial and temporal reference frame and a common appreciation of the contributions due to external signals. The project brings together the laboratories and space agencies that have been instrumental in developing independent estimates of ice sheet mass balance to date. In its first phase, IMBIE involved 27 science teams, and delivered a first community assessment of ice sheet mass imbalance to replace 40 individual estimates. The project established that (i) there is good agreement between the three main satellite-based techniques for estimating ice sheet mass balance, (ii) combining satellite data sets leads to significant improvement in certainty, (iii) the polar ice sheets contributed 11 ± 4 mm to global sea levels between 1992 and 2012, and (iv) that combined ice losses from Antarctica and Greenland have increased over time, rising from 10% of the global trend in the early 1990's to 30% in the late 2000's. Demand for an updated assessment has grown, and there are now new satellite missions, new geophysical corrections, new techniques, and new teams producing data. The period of overlap between independent satellite techniques has increased from 5 to 12 years, and the full period of satellite data over which an assessment can be performed has increased from 19 to 40 years. It is also clear that multiple satellite techniques are required to confidently separate mass changes associated with snowfall and ice dynamical imbalance - information that is of critical importance for climate modelling. This presentation outlines the approach

  11. A surface mass balance model for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, Marion; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Greuell, Wouter

    2005-12-01

    A surface mass balance model aimed at being coupled to a Global Circulation Model (GCM) for future climate prediction is described and tested for the Greenland Ice Sheet. The model builds on previous modeling designed to be forced by automatic weather station data, and includes surface energy balance as well as processes occurring near the surface such as water percolation and refreezing. Surface albedo is calculated with a new scheme that differentiates the timescale for aging of wet and dry snow and incorporates the effect of a thin layer of water and/or fresh snow at the surface. The model was driven with automatic weather station data from two sites located in the ablation zone in the Kangerlussuaq area (West Greenland), and calculated reasonable annual mass balance values (within 10% in seven out of eight cases) for four individual and consecutive years (1998-2001), using both measured and calculated albedo. This implies that the albedo parameterization is adequate and climate feedbacks affecting the mass balance are well captured. The model was then applied to a distributed 20-km-resolution grid covering the whole ice sheet, and forced with 10 years of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-40) data. With the aim of coupling the model to a GCM, this study focuses on the ability to model the interannual variability in mass balance rather than to assess the present state of balance of the ice sheet. Modeled spatial and temporal wet zone extent compares well with information derived from passive microwave satellite data.

  12. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  13. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  14. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  15. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  16. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  17. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  18. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  19. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  20. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities...

  1. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation...

  2. Nursing Training Act of 1975. Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Nursing.

    The Nursing training Act of 1975 revises and extends the nursing training authorities provided under Title VIII of the Public Health Service Act for a three-year period, thus providing aid to nursing training through September 30, 1978. It provides two new, separate authorities for the support of Advanced Nursing Training and Nursing Practitioner…

  3. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  4. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  5. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  6. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  7. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other...

  8. A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width. PMID:20952786

  9. Balancing act: the ultimate balance nutrition consulting center.

    PubMed

    Engle, L

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional issues often complicate health care but are very important in HIV treatment where diet can play a strong role in drug absorption and effectiveness. A Canadian company has started a for-fee nutritional counseling service called Ultimate Balance. The nutritionists at Ultimate Balance require medical disclosure and extensive telephone interviews with patients, and also review patients' cases and medications. The nutritional guidance provided is controversial, because it is funded by a company that produces nutritional supplements, and counselors sometimes recommend those supplements. A personal experience with the nutritional counseling service is described. Contact information is provided. PMID:11365979

  10. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount... balances. 3. Receivables. (a) State separately amounts receivable from (1) sales of investments;...

  11. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount... balances. 3. Receivables. (a) State separately amounts receivable from (1) sales of investments;...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  13. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  14. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  15. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  16. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  17. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... Companies § 210.6-06 Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount certificates shall comply with the...

  18. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... Companies § 210.6-06 Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount certificates shall comply with the...

  19. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... Companies § 210.6-06 Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount certificates shall comply with the...

  20. Understanding Recent Mass Balance Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderVeen, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to better understand the current transfer of mass between the Greenland Ice Sheet, the world's oceans and the atmosphere, and to identify processes controlling the rate of this transfer, to be able to predict with greater confidence future contributions to global sea level rise. During the first year of this project, we focused on establishing longer-term records of change of selected outlet glaciers, reevaluation of mass input to the ice sheet and analysis of climate records derived from ice cores, and modeling meltwater production and runoff from the margins of the ice sheet.

  1. Airborne Laser Altimetry Mapping of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Application to Mass Balance Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Wright, W.; Yungel, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 and '99, the Arctic Ice Mapping (AIM) program completed resurveys of lines occupied 5 years earlier revealing elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet and identifying areas of significant thinning, thickening and balance. In planning these surveys, consideration had to be given to the spatial constraints associated with aircraft operation, the spatial nature of ice sheet behavior, and limited resources, as well as temporal issues, such as seasonal and interannual variability in the context of measurement accuracy. This paper examines the extent to which the sampling and survey strategy is valid for drawing conclusions on the current state of balance of the Greenland ice sheet. The surveys covered the entire ice sheet with an average distance of 21.4 km between each location on the ice sheet and the nearest flight line. For most of the ice sheet, the elevation changes show relatively little spatial variability, and their magnitudes are significantly smaller than the observed elevation change signal. As a result, we conclude that the density of the sampling and the accuracy of the measurements are sufficient to draw meaningful conclusions on the state of balance of the entire ice sheet over the five-year survey period. Outlet glaciers, however, show far more spatial and temporal variability, and each of the major ones is likely to require individual surveys in order to determine its balance.

  2. Testing the Mass Balance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet During the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, D. J.; Carlson, A. E.; Legrande, A. N.; Anslow, F. S.; Licciardi, J. M.; Caffee, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Recent findings have suggested that the global Last Glacial Maximum occurred 26.5-20 ka. During this time, ice sheets were at their maximum extent and eustatic sea level was nearly 130 m lower than present. Such stability of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets suggests a nearly neutral net mass balance. Here we test the mass balance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum using an energy-mass balance model and two different ice sheet configurations. The energy-mass balance model is forced by simulated climate from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E-R, consistent with Last Glacial Maximum conditions. This coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model contains water isotope tracers throughout the hydrologic cycle, which are used to constrain model skill against water isotopic records. Two model experiments are performed with different Laurentide Ice Sheet configurations: one using the ICE-5G geophysical reconstruction and the other using an alternative reconstruction based on a flow-line model that simulates glacier dynamics over deformable and rigid beds. These two reconstructions have widely contrasting ice sheet geometries at the Last Glacial Maximum, with the ICE-5G reconstruction having a much larger Keewatin Dome over west-central Canada, while the largest mass center according to the flow-line model is in the Labrador Dome over eastern Canada. This disparity in ice sheet geometry may result in large differences in simulated climate and net ice sheet mass balance. Initial results suggest that 1) the ICE-5G ice sheet forces a Last Glacial Maximum climate in conflict with paleoceanographic reconstructions of ocean circulation, whereas the flow-line ice sheet is in better agreement with circulation reconstructions; and 2) the initial increase in boreal summer insolation could trigger a negative mass balance for the Laurentide Ice Sheet by 21 ka, driving ice retreat. We will also compare our mass balance results with existing

  3. Off-balance-sheet financing can generate capital for strategic development.

    PubMed

    Campobasso, F D

    2000-06-01

    To manage their real estate portfolios effectively and obtain funding for strategic development, IDSs should consider adopting off-balance-sheet financing strategies, such as sale-and-leaseback transactions, synthetic leases, and joint-venture arrangements. Under these approaches, real estate assets are moved off of the organization's balance sheet via a partial or complete transfer of ownership to a third-party entity. The organization typically retains a satisfactory degree of control over the assets as lessee in sale-and-leaseback and synthetic-lease arrangements, or limited or minority partner in a joint venture, while freeing up cash to use for other strategic purposes. PMID:11010180

  4. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development. PMID:27066197

  5. Determination of Interannual to Decadal Changes in Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Busalacchi, Antonioa J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the +/- 25% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to +/- 2 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. Although the overall ice mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations can be derived from time-series of ice surface elevations from satellite altimetry, satellite radar altimeters have been limited in spatial coverage and elevation accuracy. Nevertheless, new data analysis shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. In addition, observed seasonal and interannual variations in elevation demonstrate the potential for relating the variability in mass balance to changes in precipitation, temperature, and melting. From 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter mission will provide significantly better elevation accuracy and spatial coverage to 86 deg latitude and to the margins of the ice sheets. During 3 to 5 years of ICESat-1 operation, an estimate of the overall ice sheet mass balance and sea level contribution will be obtained. The importance of continued ice monitoring after the first ICESat is illustrated by the variability in the area of Greenland surface melt observed over 17-years and its correlation with temperature. In addition, measurement of ice sheet changes, along with measurements of sea level change by a series of ocean altimeters, should enable direct detection of ice level and global sea level correlations.

  6. Gravimetric mass balance products for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Horvath, Alexander; Forsberg, Rene; Meister, Rakia; Shepherd, Andrew; Hogg, Anna; Muir, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) mass balance products for both the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) have been developed by the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project. These Gravimetric Mass Balance (GMB) products are derived from satellite gravimetry data acquired by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), which is the only sensor directly sensitive to changes in mass. Using monthly GRACE gravity field solutions covering the period from 2002 until present two different GMB products are derived: (a) time series of monthly mass changes for the entire ice sheet and for individual drainage basins, and (b) gridded mass changes covering the entire ice sheet. The gridded product depicts spatial patterns of mass changes at a formal resolution of about 50 km, although the effective resolution provided by GRACE is about 200-500km. The algorithms used for the product generation have been selected within an open round robin experiment and are optimized to account for the complex GRACE error structures, to advance the limited spatial resolution and to separate signals super-imposed to mass changes of the cryosphere. Here the first release of the ESA CCI GMB products is presented. Both the basin averaged and the gridded products are assessed regarding their signal content and error characteristics. Finally, up-to-date mass balance estimates are presented for both ice sheets. The GMB products are freely accessible through data portals hosted by the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project.

  7. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  8. A Look at Constitutional Checks and Balances: Study Sheets for U.S. History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Nancy

    This document is intended as a resource guide for teachers to use in helping students to understand how the United States system of government operates. It examines the background, historical application, and current debate concerning the principle of checks and balances. Ten study sheets feature various figures and episodes prominently associated…

  9. Teaching about the Income Statement and Balance Sheet in a Beginning Business German Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolf, Uwe

    A review of business German textbooks reveals that few give significant attention to accounting terminology. Both German majors and business majors enrolled in business German need to be introduced to the balance sheet and income statement. It is possible to devote one or two class sessions to accounting by limiting content to a minimal but solid…

  10. Estimates of Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry: Past and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the 20% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to 1.6 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. A principal purpose of obtaining ice sheet elevation changes from satellite altimetry has been estimation of the current ice sheet mass balance. Limited information on ice sheet elevation change and their implications about mass balance have been reported by several investigators from radar altimetry (Seasat, Geosat, ERS-1&2). Analysis of ERS-1&2 data over Greenland for 7 years from 1992 to 1999 shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. Observed seasonal and interannual variations in ice surface elevation are larger than previously expected because of seasonal and interannUal variations in precipitation, melting, and firn compaction. In the accumulation zone, the variations in firn compaction are modeled as a function of temperature leaving variations in precipitation and the mass balance trend. Significant interannual variations in elevation in some locations, in particular the difference in trends from 1992 to 1995 compared to 1995 to 1999, can be explained by changes in precipitation over Greenland. Over the 7 years, trends in elevation are mostly positive at higher elevations and negative at lower elevations. In addition, trends for the winter seasons (from a trend analysis through the average winter elevations) are more positive than the corresponding trends for the summer. At lower elevations, the 7-year trends in some locations are strongly negative for summer and near zero or slightly positive for winter. These

  11. Overview of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance and Dynamics from ICESat Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to determine the present-day mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, identify changes that may be occurring in the surface-mass flux and ice dynamics, and estimate their contributions to global sea-level rise. Although ICESat's three lasers were planned to make continuous measurements for 3 to 5 years, the mission was re-planned to operate in 33-day campaigns 2 to 3 times each year following failure of the first laser after 36 days. Seventeen campaigns were conducted with the last one in the Fall of 2009. Mass balance maps derived from measured ice-sheet elevation changes show that the mass loss from Greenland has increased significantly to about 170 Gt/yr for 2003 to 2007 from a state of near balance in the 1990's. Increased losses (189 Gt/yr) from melting and dynamic thinning are over seven times larger'than increased gains (25 gt/yr) from precipitation. Parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet and the Antarctic Peninsula are losing mass at an increasing rate, but other parts of West Antarctica and the East Antarctic ice sheet are gaining mass at an increasing rate. Increased losses of 35 Gt/yr in Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd.Coast are more than balanced by gains in base of Peninsula and ice stream C, D, & E systems. From the 1992-2002 to 2003-2007 period, the overall mass balance for Antarctica changed from a loss of about 60 Gt/yr to near balance or slightly positive.

  12. On the radial force balance in the quiet time magnetotail current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.

    2016-05-01

    Using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions spacecraft observations of the quite magnetotail current sheet within the r∈[9,35]RE region (r is the radial distance from Earth and RE is Earth's radius), we investigate the thermal plasma pressure distribution along the magnetotail. Taking advantage of flapping motions of an ensemble of current sheets at various distances, we estimate the current density magnitude jy (in GSM coordinates). Comparing the tension force jyBz (Bz is the magnetic field component) with the radial gradient of the plasma pressure demonstrates that this gradient is only a small fraction, ˜10-15%, of the Ampere force exerted on the cross-tail current, in the r > 15RE region. We also estimate the contribution of the electron temperature anisotropy to the pressure balance: in the r > 15RE region the corresponding force can balance only 10-15% of the observed tension force jyBz. Thus, we conclude that about 70% of the tension force is not balanced by the combination of isotropic radial pressure gradient or the electron anisotropy. We discuss mechanisms that could be responsible for balancing the magnetotail current sheet.

  13. A balanced water layer concept for subglacial hydrology in large scale ice sheet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeller, S.; Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Miller, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is currently no doubt about the existence of a wide-spread hydrological network under the Antarctic ice sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain inspired by the Gamburtsev Mountains, Antarctica. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux-basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out, that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.

  14. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  15. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cells of plants are surrounded by strong walls that prevent rupture from internal pressures that can be two or three times that of an automobile tire. In this way, the walls protect the cytoplasm. However, at the same time, the cells can enlarge as they grow. How this balancing act works and how it enlarges the plant were the subject of a recent conference at the University of Delaware in Lewes. The aim was to identify areas for future research that could explain the enlargement of whole plants. There is a large practical need to predict and modify plant enlargement but the additional processes that overlie the molecular ones need to be integrated with the molecular information before a picture will emerge. How best to accomplish this involved input from cross-disciplinary areas in biomechanics, physics and engineering as well as molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure.

  16. From Outlet Glacier Changes to Ice Sheet Mass Balance - Evolution of Greenland Ice Sheet from Laser Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Babonis, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Investigations of ice sheet mass balance and the changing dynamics of outlet glaciers have been hampered by the lack of comprehensive data. In recent years, this situation has been remedied. Satellite laser altimetry data from the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite mission (ICESat), combined with airborne laser altimetry, provide accurate measurements of surface elevation changes, and surface velocities derived from various satellite platforms yield crucial information on changing glacier dynamics. Taken together, a rich and diverse data set is emerging that allows for characterizing the spatial and temporal evolution of ice sheets and outlet glaciers. In particular, it enables quantitative studies of outlet glaciers undergoing rapid and complex changes. Although airborne and laser altimetry have been providing precise measurements of ice sheet topography since the early 1990s, determining detailed and accurate spatial and temporal distribution of surface changes remains a challenging problem. We have developed a new, comprehensive method, called Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC), which estimates surface changes by a simultaneous reconstruction of surface topography from fused multisensor data. The mathematical model is based on the assumption that for a small surface area, only the absolute elevation changes over time but not the shape of the surface patch. Therefore, laser points of all time epochs contribute to the shape parameters; points of each time period determine the absolute elevation of the surface patch at that period. This method provides high-resolution surface topography, precise changes and a rigorous error estimate of the quantities. By using SERAC we combined ICESat and ATM laser altimetry data to determine the evolution of surface change rates of the whole Greenland Ice Sheet between 2003 and 2009 on a high-resolution grid. Our reconstruction, consistent with GRACE results, shows ice sheet thinning propagating

  17. A possible change in mass balance of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the coming century

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmura, A.; Wild, M.; Bengtsson, L.

    1996-09-01

    A high-resolution GCM is found to simulate precipitation and surface energy balance of high latitudes with high accuracy. This opens new possibilities to investigate the future mass balance of polar glaciers and its effect on sea level. The surface mass balance of the Greenland and the Antarctic ice sheets is simulated using the ECHAM3 GCM with T106 horizontal resolution. With this model, two 5-year integrations for the present and doubled carbon dioxide conditions based on the boundary conditions provided by the ECHAM1/T21 transient to what extent the effect of climate change on the mass balance on the two largest glaciers of the world can differ. On Greenland one sees a slight decrease in accumulation and a substantial increase in melt, while on Antarctica a large increase in accumulation without melt is projected. Translating the mass balances into terms of sea-level equivalent, the Greenland discharge causes a sea level rise of 1.1 mm yr{sup {minus}1}, while the accumulation on Antarctica tends to lower it by 0.9 mm yr{sup {minus}1}. The change in the combined mass balance of the two continents is almost zero. The sea level change of the next century can be affected more effectively by the thermal expansion of seawater and the mass balance of smaller glaciers outside of Greenland and Antarctica. 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  19. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  20. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  1. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  2. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7001 Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2), use the following clause: Buy American Act and Balance...

  4. Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry 1992 to 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Cornejo, Helen; Giovinetto, Mario; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2003-01-01

    A major uncertainty in understanding the causes of the current rate of sea level rise is the potential contributions from mass imbalances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Estimates of the current mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet are derived from surface- elevation changes obtained from 9 years of ERS - 1 & 2 radar altimeter data. Elevation time-series are created from altimeter crossovers among 90-day data periods on a 50 km grid to 81.5 S. The time series are fit with a multivariate linear/sinusoidal function to give the average rate of elevation change (dH/dt). On the major Rome-Filchner, Ross, and Amery ice shelves, the W d t are small or near zero. In contrast, the ice shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and along the West Antarctic coast appear to be thinning significantly, with a 23 +/- 3 cm per year surface elevation decrease on the Larsen ice shelf and a 65 +/- 4 cm per year decrease on the Dotson ice shelf. On the grounded ice, significant elevation decreases are obtained over most of the drainage basins of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica and inland of Law Dome in East Antarctica. Significant elevation increases are observed within about 200 km of the coast around much of the rest of the ice sheet. Farther inland, the changes are a mixed pattern of increases and decreases with increases of a few centimeters per year at the highest elevations of the East Antarctic plateau. The derived elevation changes are combined with estimates of the bedrock uplift from several models to provide maps of ice thickness change. The ice thickness changes enable estimates of the ice mass balances for the major drainage basins, the overall mass balance, and the current contribution of the ice sheet to global sea level change.

  5. Economics as if the earth really mattered. Putting balance back on the balance sheet.

    PubMed

    Sherman, D

    1991-09-01

    degradation and technological fixes and human ingenuity will keep prosperity growing. Economic growth is seen as the cure for poverty, unemployment, and other ills. Technology has its shortcomings as pesticides and soil depletion have shown. Food supplies have dropped. Sustainability with all its lack of specificity has come to mean more rapid economic growth in both developed and developing countries, with assumptions of an infinite universe and economic expansion. A steady state economy aims to reduce overconsumption and stop population growth in order to balance the economic system in the ecosystem. PMID:12284468

  6. Asbestos in Schools: Evaluation of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA): A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently completed an evaluation of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulatory program in schools. The purpose of the fact sheet is to inform schools of their initial AHERA successes, note areas for improvement, and provide additional guidance. Major findings pertaining to school building…

  7. Boundary layer stability acts to ballast the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkelhammer, M. B.; Noone, D. C.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; O'Neill, M.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Cox, C.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been reduced over recent decades as a consequence of warming, the impact of which is already detectable on global sea level. However, temperature projections suggest that at interior high-altitude sites on the ice it could be decades or more before warming forces these regions to transition from a dry to wet snow facies. Shifts in boundary layer dynamics, including atmosphere-ice sheet hydrological exchange and cloud radiative forcing could expedite or delay this transition. These processes are important with respect to future ice sheet stability, yet they remain difficult to constrain. Using continuous in situ measurements of vertical profiles of the isotopic composition of water vapor at Summit Camp, the highest observatory on the ice sheet, we document the presence of a hydrologic balance between surface sublimation and condensation fluxes. This exists because of a nearly persistent temperature inversion, which hinders the efficiency with which surface water vapor mixes into the free atmosphere. In the presence of a strong temperature inversion, fog and ice particles form near the ice-atmosphere interface from surface moisture fluxes. When this condensate precipitates on or settles to the surface, it ballasts the ice sheet's mass. A decade-long trend towards lower annual accumulation at Summit may therefore reflect continuous replacement of the near surface atmosphere due to reduced atmospheric stability. If this tendency toward destabilization continues, it could accelerate mass loss at interior sites on the ice sheet. The role of boundary layer stability in ice sheet hydrological budgets discussed here is applicable beyond the accumulation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7001 Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act and...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Balance... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7000 Buy American Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. Buy American Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC 2009)...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7001 Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2)(i), use the following clause: Buy American and Balance...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7001 Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2)(i), use the following clause: Buy American and Balance...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act-Balance... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7000 Buy American Act—Balance of... Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available...

  13. Changes in ice dynamics and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Rignot, Eric

    2006-07-15

    The concept that the Antarctic ice sheet changes with eternal slowness has been challenged by recent observations from satellites. Pronounced regional warming in the Antarctic Peninsula triggered ice shelf collapse, which led to a 10-fold increase in glacier flow and rapid ice sheet retreat. This chain of events illustrated the vulnerability of ice shelves to climate warming and their buffering role on the mass balance of Antarctica. In West Antarctica, the Pine Island Bay sector is draining far more ice into the ocean than is stored upstream from snow accumulation. This sector could raise sea level by 1m and trigger widespread retreat of ice in West Antarctica. Pine Island Glacier accelerated 38% since 1975, and most of the speed up took place over the last decade. Its neighbour Thwaites Glacier is widening up and may double its width when its weakened eastern ice shelf breaks up. Widespread acceleration in this sector may be caused by glacier ungrounding from ice shelf melting by an ocean that has recently warmed by 0.3 degrees C. In contrast, glaciers buffered from oceanic change by large ice shelves have only small contributions to sea level. In East Antarctica, many glaciers are close to a state of mass balance, but sectors grounded well below sea level, such as Cook Ice Shelf, Ninnis/Mertz, Frost and Totten glaciers, are thinning and losing mass. Hence, East Antarctica is not immune to changes. PMID:16782604

  14. Assessing the links between Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance and Arctic climate using Climate Models and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Rodehacke, Christian; Boberg, Fredrik; Langen, Peter; Sloth Madsen, Marianne; Høyer Svendsen, Synne; Yang, Shuting; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Olesen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Changes in different parts of the Arctic cryosphere may have knock-on effects on other parts of the system. The fully coupled climate model EC-Earth, which includes the ice sheet model PISM, is a useful tool to examine interactions between sea ice, ice sheet, ocean and atmosphere. Here we present results from EC-Earth experimental simulations that show including an interactive ice sheet model changes ocean circulation, sea ice extent and regional climate with, for example, a dampening of the expected increase in Arctic temperatures under the RCP scenarios when compared with uncoupled experiments. However, the relatively coarse resolution of the climate model likely influences the calculated surface mass balance forcing applied to the ice sheet model and it is important therefore to evaluate the model performance over the ice sheet. Here, we assess the quality of the climate forcing from the GCM to the ice sheet model by comparing the energy balance and surface mass balance (SMB) output from EC-Earth with that from a regional climate model (RCM) run at very high resolution (0.05 degrees) over Greenland. The RCM, HIRHAM5, has been evaluated over a wide range of climate parameters for Greenland which allows us to be confident it gives a representative climate forcing for the Greenland ice sheet. To evaluate the internal variability in the climate forcing, we compare simulations from HIRHAM5 forced with both the EC-Earth historical emissions and the ERA-Interim reanalysis on the boundaries. The EC-Earth-PISM RCP8.5 scenario is also compared with an EC-Earth run without an ice sheet to assess the impact of an interactive ice sheet on likely future changes. To account for the resolution difference between the models we downscale both EC-Earth and HIRHAM5 simulations with a simple offline energy balance model (EBM).

  15. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997: its impact on U.S. teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dickler, R; Shaw, G

    2000-05-16

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 had a profound impact on the financing and organization of many health care services. The Act disproportionately affected U.S. teaching hospitals, leading to substantial budget reductions in many institutions and the threat of cuts in major programs and services that teaching hospitals provide to communities. This paper examines the overall financial and organizational impact of the Balanced Budget Act on teaching hospitals and considers its effect on residency education. It also discusses to what degree the Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 will mitigate these effects and posits other solutions to the serious financial issues facing teaching hospitals in the United States. PMID:10819706

  16. Estimation of Greenland's Ice Sheet Mass Balance Using ICESat and GRACE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobbe, D.; Ditmar, P.; Lindenbergh, R.

    2007-12-01

    Data of the GRACE gravity mission and the ICESat laser altimetry mission are used to create two independent estimates of Greenland's ice sheet mass balance over the full measurement period. For ICESat data, a processing strategy is developed using the elevation differences of geometrically overlapping footprints of both crossing and repeated tracks. The dataset is cleaned using quality flags defined by the GLAS science team. The cleaned dataset reveals some strong, spatially correlated signals that are shown to be related to physical phenomena. Different processing strategies are used to convert the observed temporal height differences to mass changes for 6 different drainage systems, further divided into a region above and below 2000 meter elevation. The results are compared with other altimetry based mass balance estimates. In general, the obtained results confirm trends discovered by others, but we also show that the choice of processing strategy strongly influences our results, especially for the areas below 2000 meter. Furthermore, GRACE based monthly variations of the Earth's gravity field as processed by CNES, CSR, GFZ and DEOS are used to estimate the mass balance change for North and South Greenland. It is shown that our results are comparable with recently published GRACE estimates (mascon solutions). On the other hand, the estimates based on GRACE data are only partly confirmed by the ICESat estimates. Possible explanations for the obvious differences will be discussed.

  17. A Range Correction for Icesat and Its Potential Impact on Ice-sheet Mass Balance Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Moholdt, G.; Fricker, H. A.; Brunt, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a previously undocumented range error in NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) that degrades elevation precision and introduces a small but significant elevation trend over the ICESat mission period. This range error (the Gaussian-Centroid or 'G-C'offset) varies on a shot-to-shot basis and exhibits increasing scatter when laser transmit energies fall below 20 mJ. Although the G-C offset is uncorrelated over periods less than1 day, it evolves over the life of each of ICESat's three lasers in a series of ramps and jumps that give rise to spurious elevation trends of -0.92 to -1.90 cm yr(exp -1), depending on the time period considered. Using ICESat data over the Ross and Filchner-Ronne ice shelves we show that (1) the G-C offset introduces significant biases in ice-shelf mass balance estimates, and (2) the mass balance bias can vary between regions because of different temporal samplings of ICESat.We can reproduce the effect of the G-C offset over these two ice shelves by fitting trends to sample-weighted mean G-C offsets for each campaign, suggesting that it may not be necessary to fully repeat earlier ICESat studies to determine the impact of the G-C offset on ice-sheet mass balance estimates.

  18. β-sheet interfering molecules acting against β-amyloid aggregation and fibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    Francioso, Antonio; Punzi, Pasqualina; Boffi, Alberto; Lori, Clorinda; Martire, Sara; Giordano, Cesare; D'Erme, Maria; Mosca, Luciana

    2015-04-15

    β-Sheet aggregates and amyloid fibrils rising from conformational changes of proteins are observed in several pathological human conditions. These structures are organized in β-strands that can reciprocally interact by hydrophobic and π-π interactions. The amyloid aggregates can give rise to pathological conditions through complex biochemical mechanisms whose physico-chemical nature has been understood in recent times. This review focuses on the various classes of natural and synthetic small molecules able to act against β-amyloid fibrillogenesis and toxicity that may represent new pharmacological tools in Alzheimer's diseases. Some peptides, named 'β-sheet breaker peptides', are able to hamper amyloid aggregation and fibrillogenesis by interfering with and destabilizing the non native β-sheet structures. Other natural compounds, like polyphenols or indolic molecules such as melatonin, can interfere with β-amyloid peptide pathogenicity by inhibiting aggregation and counteracting oxidative stress that is a key hallmark in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25769517

  19. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  20. Troughs in Ice Sheets and Other Icy Deposits on Mars: Analysis of Their Radiative Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, H. J.

    2000-08-01

    It has long been known that groove-like structures in glaciers and ice sheets can trap more incoming solar radiation than is the case for a 'normal' flat, smooth surface. In this presentation, we shall describe the radiative regimes of typical scarps and troughs on icy surfaces of Mars, and suggest how these features originate and evolve through time. The basis of our analysis is the radiation balance model presented by Pfeffer and Bretherton. Their model considers the visible band radiation regime of a V-shaped groove on a terrestrial ice surface, and shows that absorbed energy can be enhanced by up to 50 percent for grooves with small opening angles and with typical polar values of the solar zenith angle. Our work extends this model by considering: (a) departures from V-shaped geometry, (b) both englacial and surficial dust and debris, and (c) the infrared spectrum. We apply the extended model to various features on the Martian surface, including the spiral-like scarps on the Northern and Southern ice sheets, the large-scale chasms (e.g., Chasm Borealis), and groove-like lineations on valley floors thought to be filled with mixtures of dust and icy substances. In conjunction with study of valley-closure experiments, we suggest that spiral-like scarps and chasms are stable features of the Martian climate regime. We also suggest that further study of scarps and chasms may shed light on the composition (i.e., relative proportions of water ice, carbon-dioxide ice and dust) of the Martian ice sheets and valley fills.

  1. Troughs in Ice Sheets and Other Icy Deposits on Mars: Analysis of Their Radiative Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been known that groove-like structures in glaciers and ice sheets can trap more incoming solar radiation than is the case for a 'normal' flat, smooth surface. In this presentation, we shall describe the radiative regimes of typical scarps and troughs on icy surfaces of Mars, and suggest how these features originate and evolve through time. The basis of our analysis is the radiation balance model presented by Pfeffer and Bretherton. Their model considers the visible band radiation regime of a V-shaped groove on a terrestrial ice surface, and shows that absorbed energy can be enhanced by up to 50 percent for grooves with small opening angles and with typical polar values of the solar zenith angle. Our work extends this model by considering: (a) departures from V-shaped geometry, (b) both englacial and surficial dust and debris, and (c) the infrared spectrum. We apply the extended model to various features on the Martian surface, including the spiral-like scarps on the Northern and Southern ice sheets, the large-scale chasms (e.g., Chasm Borealis), and groove-like lineations on valley floors thought to be filled with mixtures of dust and icy substances. In conjunction with study of valley-closure experiments, we suggest that spiral-like scarps and chasms are stable features of the Martian climate regime. We also suggest that further study of scarps and chasms may shed light on the composition (i.e., relative proportions of water ice, carbon-dioxide ice and dust) of the Martian ice sheets and valley fills.

  2. Small impact of surrounding oceanic conditions on 2007-2012 Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, B.; Fettweis, X.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Erpicum, M.

    2014-03-01

    During recent summers (2007-2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favouring warmer than normal conditions over the GrIS. In addition, it has been suggested that significant anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) may partially explain recent anomalous GrIS surface melt. To assess the impact of 2007-2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR. These simulations suggest that changes in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not significantly impact GrIS SMB, due to the katabatic winds blocking effect. These winds are strong enough to prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST variability, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds are weaker. However, anomalies in SIC and SST could have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, favouring more frequent warm air advection to the GrIS.

  3. Balancing Act: Motherhood, Marriage, and Employment among American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Daphne; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    Data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau (the Current Population Survey and Survey of Income and Program Participation) and other federal agencies were used to examine trends in the ways different cohorts of women born between 1906 and 1975 have attempted to balance motherhood, marriage, and employment. The study focused on the following:…

  4. Balancing Act: Student-Centered and Subject-Centered Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurr, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the middle school philosophy must address physical, psychological, intellectual, social, moral, and ethical needs of young adolescents. Presents 10 different methods of instruction that teachers can utilize to meet students' needs in order to make learning more productive and to balance student-centered and subject-centered…

  5. Balancing Acts: Tenure-Track Faculty in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Andrew; Cesarini, Paul; Chao, Joseph; Mara, Andrew; Rajaei, Hassan; Madigan, Dan

    2005-01-01

    In summer 2003, two of the contributors to this article--Andrew Hershberger, a third-year assistant professor, and Dan Madigan, a faculty development director--met to talk about "balance" in the lives of junior faculty. How, for example, can faculty in the early stages of their careers better negotiate their roles as teachers and scholars at…

  6. The Management of Diversity in Schools--A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vuuren, Herman J.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; van der Walt, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that diversity and its counter-pole universality as such cannot be managed in the normal sense of the word. What can be managed though is the balance between these two poles. Over-emphasis of the one to the detriment of the other will in the long run somehow be penalized. A conceptual-theoretical framework is provided in which…

  7. Radar Interferometry Studies of the Mass Balance of Polar Ice Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to determine the current state of mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Our approach combines different techniques, which include satellite synthetic-aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), radar and laser altimetry, radar ice sounding, and finite-element modeling. In Greenland, we found that 3.5 times more ice flows out of the northern part of the Greenland Ice Sheet than previously accounted for. The discrepancy between current and past estimates is explained by extensive basal melting of the glacier floating sections in the proximity of the grounding line where the glacier detaches from its bed and becomes afloat in the ocean. The inferred basal melt rates are very large, which means that the glaciers are very sensitive to changes in ocean conditions. Currently, it appears that the northern Greenland glaciers discharge more ice than is being accumulated in the deep interior, and hence are thinning. Studies of temporal changes in grounding line position using InSAR confirm the state of retreat of northern glaciers and suggest that thinning is concentrated at the lower elevations. Ongoing work along the coast of East Greenland reveals an even larger mass deficit for eastern Greenland glaciers, with thinning affecting the deep interior of the ice sheet. In Antarctica, we found that glaciers flowing into a large ice shelf system, such as the Ronne Ice Shelf in the Weddell Sea, exhibit an ice discharge in remarkable agreement with mass accumulation in the interior, and the glacier grounding line positions do not migrate with time. Glaciers flowing rapidly into the Amudsen Sea, unrestrained by a major ice shelf, are in contrast discharging more ice than required to maintain a state of mass balance and are thinning quite rapidly near the coast. The grounding line of Pine Island glacier (see diagram) retreated 5 km in 4 years, which corresponds to a glacier thinning rate of 3.5 m/yr. Mass imbalance is even more negative

  8. Balancing act: The Salvation Army in the United States.

    PubMed

    Temme, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The Salvation Army in the United States addresses its mission of serving suffering humanity in Christ's name through a structure that is classically hierarchical while emphasizing local control and autonomy. Programming, community alliances, staffing, and fundraising are local rather than national functions. An example is discussed--the National Branding Promise--where the national office has taken a lead. This has been in response to rapid changes in the media, especially electronic communication. The Salvation Army views its components as its customers and works continuously to adjust the balance between national and local operations. PMID:18551843

  9. Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    2009-11-15

    The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

  10. Mass Balance of the West Antarctic Ice-Sheet from ICESat Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Mass balance estimates for 2003-2008 are derived from ICESat laser altimetry and compared with estimates for 1992-2002 derived from ERS radar altimetry. The net mass balance of 3 drainage systems (Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd) for 2003-2008 is a loss of 100 Gt/yr, which increased from a loss of 70 Gt/yr for the earlier period. The DS including the Bindschadler and MacAyeal ice streams draining into the Ross Ice Shelf has a mass gain of 11 Gt/yr for 2003-2008, compared to an earlier loss of 70 Gt/yr. The DS including the Whillans and Kamb ice streams has a mass gain of 12 Gt/yr, including a significant thickening on the upper part of the Kamb DS, compared to a earlier gain of 6 Gt/yr (includes interpolation for a large portion of the DS). The other two DS discharging into the Ronne Ice Shelf and the northern Ellsworth Coast have a mass gain of 39 Gt/yr, compared to a gain of 4 Gt/yr for the earlier period. Overall, the increased losses of 30 Gt/yr in the Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd DSs are exceeded by increased gains of 59 Gt/yr in the other 4 DS. Overall, the mass loss from the West Antarctic ice sheet has decreased to 38 Gt/yr from the earlier loss of 67 Gt/yr, reducing the contribution to sea level rise to 0.11 mm/yr from 0.19 mm/yr

  11. Constraining ice sheet mass balance trends using Cryosat-2 and laser altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, J.; Bamber, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The mass balance of the Antarctic and Greenland is required to assess their contribution to sea level rise as well as evaluate their sensitivities to variable future forcings. There is general agreement that the ice sheets are losing mass and that loss may be increasing. However, the range of estimates and the uncertainty in those estimates is in many cases, larger than the signal measured, particularly in a regional sense. Cryosat-2 will improve on the legacy satellite measurements from ERS-1 and -2 by using its interferometric model to determine elevation on steep slopes and through it's greater across - track resolution. The new technique will overcome many of the limitations of previous radar altimeters but elevations will still suffer from variable penetration in the firn and errors due to short-wavelength roughness. Building on previous work comparing and combining laser and radar altimeter data, we will assess the uncertainty in elevation due to these limitations. We use NASA Operation Ice Bridge airborne laser altimetry to assess biases in absolute elevation and elevation rates from Cryosat-2 data. We focus on the first 6 months of released data from the mission so that variability in penetration observed can be attributed to seasonal temperature, melt and accumulation variations can be assessed. Unfortunately, coincident airborne data is not currently available so we will assess the impact of the time difference between the datasets as well as presenting comparisons to older, longer time period, NASA ICESat satellite altimetry. The project aims to fully quantify biases and develop algorithms to correct for them and here we present our first comparisons. This will allow us to determine the likely improvement in mass balance estimates from Cryosat-2 as compared to legacy datasets.

  12. Recent ice dynamic and surface mass balance of Union Glacier in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Zamora, R.; Uribe, J. A.; Jaña, R.; Oberreuter, J.

    2014-08-01

    Here we present the results of a comprehensive glaciological investigation of Union Glacier (79°46' S/83°24' W) in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), a major outlet glacier within the Ellsworth Mountains. Union Glacier flows into the Ronne Ice Shelf, where recent models have indicated the potential for significant grounding line zone (GLZ) migrations in response to changing climate and ocean conditions. To elaborate a glaciological base line that can help to evaluate the potential impact of this GLZ change scenario, we installed an array of stakes on Union Glacier in 2007. The stake network has been surveyed repeatedly for elevation, velocity, and net surface mass balance. The region of the stake measurements is in near-equilibrium, and ice speeds are 10 to 33 m a-1. Ground-penetrating radars (GPR) have been used to map the subglacial topography, internal structure, and crevasse frequency and depth along surveyed tracks in the stake site area. The bedrock in this area has a minimum elevation of -858 m a.s.l., significantly deeper than shown by BEDMAP2 data. However, between this deeper area and the local GLZ, there is a threshold where the subglacial topography shows a maximum altitude of 190 m. This subglacial condition implies that an upstream migration of the GLZ will not have strong effects on Union Glacier until it passes beyond this shallow ice pinning point.

  13. Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992 - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2011-01-01

    Published mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) lie between approximately +50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009, which span a range equivalent to 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar-altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (+28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. Although recent reports of large and accelerating rates of mass loss from GRACE=based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion. We find that the extrapolation used in the published IOM estimates for the 15 % of the periphery for which discharge velocities are not observed gives twice the rate of discharge per unit of associated ice-sheet area than the 85% faster-moving parts. Our calculations show that the published extrapolation overestimates the ice discharge by 282 Gt/yr compared to our assumption that the slower moving areas have 70% as much discharge per area as the faster moving parts. Also, published data on the time-series of discharge velocities and accumulation/precipitation do not support mass output increases or input decreases with time, respectively. Our modified IOM estimate, using the 70% discharge assumption and substituting input from a field-data compilation for input from an atmospheric model over 6% of area, gives a loss of only 13 Gt/year (versus 136 Gt/year) for the period around 2000. Two ERS-based estimates, our modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 to 2005 lie in a narrowed range of +27 to - 40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992-2001 is - 47 Gt

  14. Point measurements of mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet using precision vertical Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Gordon S.; Whillans, Ian M.

    2000-07-01

    Rates of ice sheet thickening or thinning in Greenland are measured using the coffee-can technique. This entails computing the difference in the vertical velocity of markers anchored in firn and the long-term rate of snow accumulation. The velocities are obtained from repeat surveys using the Global Positioning System (GPS). With corrections for densification and along-slope flow, this difference is the local mass balance. For two sites in western Greenland (Camp Century and a site just south of the EGIG line (Crawford Point)) results show ice sheet thinning. A third west Greenland site (inland from Upernavik) is close to balance. Two sites, Dye-2 in western Greenland and Summit, are thickening slowly.

  15. Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance modeling in a 131-year perspective, 1950-2080

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen; Hiemstra, Christopher; Christensen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass-balance (SMB) and freshwater influx to the surrounding oceans closely follow climate fluctuations and are of considerable importance to the global eustatic sea level rise. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate variations in the GrIS melt extent, surface water balance components, changes in SMB, and freshwater influx to the ocean. The simulations are based on the IPCC scenario AlB modeled by the HIRHAM4 RCM (using boundary conditions from ECHAM5 AOGCM) from 1950 through 2080. In-situ meteorological station (GC-Net and WMO DMI) observations from inside and outside the GrIS were used to validate and correct RCM output data before it was used as input for SnowModel. Satellite observations and independent SMB studies were used to validate the SnowModel output and confirm the model's robustness. We simulated a {approx}90% increase in end-of-summer surface melt extent (0.483 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2}) from 1950 to 2080, and a melt index (above 2,000-m elevation) increase of 138% (1.96 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} x days). The greatest difference in melt extent occured in the southern part of the GrIS, and the greatest changes in the number of melt days was seen in the eastern part of the GrIS ({approx}50-70%) and was lowest in the west ({approx}20-30%). The rate of SMB loss, largely tied to changes in ablation processes, lead to an enhanced average loss of 331 km{sup 3} from 1950 to 2080, an average 5MB level of -99 km{sup 3} for the period 2070-2080. GrIS surface freshwater runoff yielded an eustatic rise in sea level from 0.8 {+-} 0.1 (1950-1959) to 1.9 {+-} 0.1 mm (2070-2080) sea level equivalent (SLE) y{sup -1}. The accumulated GrIS freshwater runoff contribution from surface melting equaled 160 mm SLE from 1950 through 2080.

  16. Overview and Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2011-01-01

    Mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) in the 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and in more recent reports lie between approximately ?50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009. The 300 Gt/year range is approximately 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (?28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. We also modify the IOM estimate using (1) an alternate extrapolation to estimate the discharge from the non-observed 15% of the periphery, and (2) substitution of input from a field data compilation for input from an atmospheric model in 6% of area. The modified IOM estimate reduces the loss from 136 Gt/year to 13 Gt/year. Two ERS-based estimates, the modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 2005 lie in a narrowed range of ?27 to -40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992 2001 is -47 Gt/year for West Antarctica, ?16 Gt/year for East Antarctica, and -31 Gt/year overall (?0.1 mm/year SLE), not including part of the Antarctic Peninsula (1.07% of the AIS area). Although recent reports of large and increasing rates of mass loss with time from GRACE-based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion

  17. Food balance sheet and household budget survey dietary data and mortality patterns in Europe.

    PubMed

    Naska, Androniki; Berg, Mari-Anna; Cuadrado, Carmen; Freisling, Heinz; Gedrich, Kurt; Gregoric, Matej; Kelleher, Cecily; Leskova, Emilia; Nelson, Michael; Pace, Lucienne; Remaut, Anne-Marie; Rodrigues, Sara; Sekula, Wlodzimierz; Sjöstrom, Michael; Trygg, Kerstin; Turrini, Aida; Volatier, Jean Luc; Zajkas, Gabor; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2009-07-01

    Worldwide dietary data for nutrition monitoring and surveillance are commonly derived from food balance sheets (FBS) and household budget surveys (HBS). We have compared food supply from FBS and food availability data from HBS among eighteen European countries and have estimated the extent to which they correlate, focusing on food groups which are comparably captured by FBS and HBS and for which there is epidemiological evidence that they can have a noticeable impact on population mortality. Spearman's correlation coefficient was +0.78 (P < 10- 3) for vegetables (including legumes),+0.76 (P < 10- 3) for fruits, +0.69 (P < 10- 3) for fish and seafood and +0.93 (P < 10- 3) for olive oil. With respect to meat and meat products, the coefficient was lower at +0.39 (P = 0.08). Moreover, we have examined whether the supply (FBS) or the availability (HBS) of food groups known or presumed to have beneficial effect on the occurrence of CHD and total cancer can predict overall, coronary and cancer mortality in ecological analyses. After controlling for purchasing power parity-adjusted gross domestic product and tobacco smoking we found that for vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, as well as for olive oil, both the FBS and the HBS estimates were inversely associated with all three indicators of mortality, although the number of countries with complete information on all study variables hindered formal statistical documentation (P>0.05 in some instances). FBS and HBS have their own strengths and weaknesses, but they may complement each other in dietary assessments at the population level. PMID:18986595

  18. Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wagner, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    By offering healthy fare and providing nutrition education, school districts across the country are trying to lessen problems of childhood obesity while selling food that kids will eat. Luckily, chicken nuggets and other "fast foods" can taste just as good when made with less fat. (MLH)

  19. Balancing act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This chapter looks at how in the 1960's the laboratory worked to broaden the base of its work. The laboratory began its mission by developing nuclear energy for wartime usage, expanded into nuclear energy, and into broader peaceful application of nuclear energy, but in the late 50's was still primarily based on nuclear physics, or closely related disciplines. Because of problems encountered by several large scale programs, management began to look at broadening the scope of the laboratory, to provide a base not entirely based on nuclear physics, and to take advantage of the caliber of intellectual strengths within the laboratory personnel. Projects which were developed included enhanced work in information sciences, related to analyzing and making available the vast amount of published literature appearing in print. Efforts were directed toward desalination programs, and expanded work in large biology projects. Work was expanded into DNA projects, and cancer research on smoking. Efforts went into civil defense issues. There was an expanded effort to study environmental concerns, from water to air to ground. Nuclear safety issues became an increasingly larger segment of the reactor programs. The laboratory had 14% of it programs consisting of non-nuclear work for agencies other than AEC by 1969, and in general this had been achieved by approaching AEC on these programs one at a time. The lab had developed a much broader program than most other national labs at this time.

  20. On Deriving Requirements for the Surface Mass Balance forcing of a Greenland Ice Sheet Model using Uncertainty Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Larour, E. Y.; Box, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    During July of 2012, the percentage of the Greenland surface exposed to melt was the largest in recorded history. And, even though evidence of increased melt rates had been captured by remote sensing observations throughout the last decade, this particular event took the community by surprise. How Greenland ice flow will respond to such an event or to increased frequencies of extreme melt events in the future is unclear, as it requires detailed comprehension of Greenland surface climate and the ice sheet's sensitivity to associated uncertainties. With established uncertainty quantification (UQ) tools embedded within the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), we conduct decadal-scale forward modeling experiments to 1) quantify the spatial resolution needed to effectively force surface mass balance (SMB) in various regions of the ice sheet and 2) determine the dynamic response of Greenland outlet glaciers to variations in SMB. First, we perform sensitivity analyses to determine how perturbations in SMB affect model output; results allow us to investigate the locations where variations most significantly affect ice flow, and on what spatial scales. Next, we apply Monte-Carlo style sampling analyses to determine how errors in SMB propagate through the model as uncertainties in estimates of Greenland ice discharge and regional mass balance. This work is performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Program.

  1. Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Vizcaino, Miren; Fyke, Jeremy; van Kampenhout, Leo; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-02-01

    We present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) as simulated by the global, coupled ocean-atmosphere-land Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a horizontal resolution of ˜1° in the past, present and future (1850-2100). CESM correctly simulates present-day Antarctic sea ice extent, large-scale atmospheric circulation and near-surface climate, but fails to simulate the recent expansion of Antarctic sea ice. The present-day Antarctic ice sheet SMB equals 2280 ± 131 {Gt year^{-1}} , which concurs with existing independent estimates of AIS SMB. When forced by two CMIP5 climate change scenarios (high mitigation scenario RCP2.6 and high-emission scenario RCP8.5), CESM projects an increase of Antarctic ice sheet SMB of about 70 {Gt year^{-1}} per degree warming. This increase is driven by enhanced snowfall, which is partially counteracted by more surface melt and runoff along the ice sheet's edges. This intensifying hydrological cycle is predominantly driven by atmospheric warming, which increases (1) the moisture-carrying capacity of the atmosphere, (2) oceanic source region evaporation, and (3) summer AIS cloud liquid water content.

  2. Mass Balance Changes and Ice Dynamics of Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets from Laser Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babonis, G. S.; Csatho, B.; Schenk, T.

    2016-06-01

    During the past few decades the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have lost ice at accelerating rates, caused by increasing surface temperature. The melting of the two big ice sheets has a big impact on global sea level rise. If the ice sheets would melt down entirely, the sea level would rise more than 60 m. Even a much smaller rise would cause dramatic damage along coastal regions. In this paper we report about a major upgrade of surface elevation changes derived from laser altimetry data, acquired by NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite mission (ICESat) and airborne laser campaigns, such as Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS). For detecting changes in ice sheet elevations we have developed the Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC) method. It computes elevation changes of small surface patches by keeping the surface shape constant and considering the absolute values as surface elevations. We report about important upgrades of earlier results, for example the inclusion of local ice caps and the temporal extension from 1993 to 2014 for the Greenland Ice Sheet and for a comprehensive reconstruction of ice thickness and mass changes for the Antarctic Ice Sheets.

  3. Organic solar cells using few-walled carbon nanotubes electrode controlled by the balance between sheet resistance and the transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yiyu; Ju, Xiaohui; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Hongbo; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2009-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic devices (OPD) using high conductive transparent few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNT) film prepared by spraying was fabricated as a selective hole collection. Photovoltaic response with different sheet resistance (Rs) and the transparency (T) of FWNT film was investigated. Maximum efficiency of OPD up to 0.61% with the structure of FWNT (T =70%, Rs=86 Ω/◻)/poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6-6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester/Al demonstrates a promising alternative of ITO (0.68%) with almost identical operation. The performance improvement results from the optimal balance between sheet resistance and transparency with three-dimensional network interface between nanotubes and polymers.

  4. Antarctic Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance Estimates from 2003 TO 2015 Using Icesat and CRYOSAT-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huan; Hai, Gang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Shijie; Liu, Jun; Tong, Xiaohua; Li, Rongxing

    2016-06-01

    An assessment of Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance from 2003 to 2015 has been carried out using a combination of ICESat data from 2003 to 2009 and CryoSat-2 data from 2010 to 2015. Both data sets are of L2 and are currently processed separately using different models. First, a repeat-track processing method that includes terms accounting for the trend and the first order fit of topography is applied to repeat-track measurements of all ICESat Campaigns. It uses the Least Squares fitting of the model to all observations in a box of 500 m x 500 m. The estimated trends in these boxes are then averaged inside a 30 km x 30 km cell. Similarly, the cells are used to estimate basin and ice sheet level surface elevation change trends. Mass balance calculating is performed at the cell level by multiplying the ice density by the volume change and then extended to the basin and the ice sheet level. Second, in CryoSat-2 data processing we applied a model within a cell of 5 km x 5 km considering that CryoSat-2 does not maintain repeated tracks. In this model the elevation trend, and a higher order topography are solved in an iterative way using the least squares technique. The mass change is computed at the cell level in the same way as the ICESat data. GIA correction is applied for both ICESat and CryoSat-2 estimates. Detailed information about the data processing, elevation and mass balance changes, and comparison with other studies will be introduced.

  5. Troughs on Martian Ice Sheets: Analysis of Their Closure and Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, J.

    2000-01-01

    At the Copenhagen workshop on Martian polar processes, Ralf Greve commented that the flow regime surrounding scarps and troughs of the Martian polar ice sheets cannot be modeled using traditional "plan view" ice-sheet models. Such models are inadequate because they typically use reduced equations that embody certain simplifications applicable only to terrestrial ice sheets where the upper ice sheet surface is smooth. In response to this suggestion, we have constructed a 2-dimensional, time dependent "side view" (two spatial dimensions: one horizontal, one vertical) model of scarp closure that is designed to overcome the difficulties described by Greve. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the scales of stress variation and styles of flow closure so as to estimate errors that may be encountered by "plan view" models. We show that there may be avenues whereby the complications associated with scarp closure can be overcome in "plan view" models through appropriate parameterizations of 3-dimensional effects. Following this, we apply the flow model to simulate the evolution of a typical scarp on the North Polar Cap of Mars. Our simulations investigate: (a) the role of "radiation trapping" (see our companion abstract) in creating and maintaining "spiral-like" scarps on the ice sheet, (b) the consequences of different flowlaws and ice compositions on scarp evolution and, in particular, scarp age, and (c) the role of dust and debris in scarp evolution.

  6. Troughs on Martian Ice Sheets: Analysis of Their Closure and Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, J.

    2000-08-01

    At the Copenhagen workshop on Martian polar processes, Ralf Greve commented that the flow regime surrounding scarps and troughs of the Martian polar ice sheets cannot be modeled using traditional "plan view" ice-sheet models. Such models are inadequate because they typically use reduced equations that embody certain simplifications applicable only to terrestrial ice sheets where the upper ice sheet surface is smooth. In response to this suggestion, we have constructed a 2-dimensional, time dependent "side view" (two spatial dimensions: one horizontal, one vertical) model of scarp closure that is designed to overcome the difficulties described by Greve. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the scales of stress variation and styles of flow closure so as to estimate errors that may be encountered by "plan view" models. We show that there may be avenues whereby the complications associated with scarp closure can be overcome in "plan view" models through appropriate parameterizations of 3-dimensional effects. Following this, we apply the flow model to simulate the evolution of a typical scarp on the North Polar Cap of Mars. Our simulations investigate: (a) the role of "radiation trapping" (see our companion abstract) in creating and maintaining "spiral-like" scarps on the ice sheet, (b) the consequences of different flowlaws and ice compositions on scarp evolution and, in particular, scarp age, and (c) the role of dust and debris in scarp evolution.

  7. Estimates of magnetic flux, and energy balance in the plasma sheet during substorm expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Pulkkinen, Tuija

    1996-01-01

    The energy and magnetic flux budgets of the magnetotail plasma sheet during substorm expansion are investigated. The possible mechanisms that change the energy content of the closed field line region which contains all the major dissipation mechanisms of relevance during substorms, are considered. The compression of the plasma sheet mechanism and the diffusion mechanism are considered and excluded. It is concluded that the magnetic reconnection mechanism can accomplish the required transport. Data-based empirical magnetic field models are used to investigate the magnetic flux transport required to account for the observed magnetic field dipolarizations in the inner magnetosphere. It is found that the magnetic flux permeating the current sheet is typically insufficient to supply the required magnetic flux. It is concluded that no major substorm-type magnetospheric reconfiguration is possible in the absence of magnetic reconnection.

  8. Mass balance and sliding velocity of the Puget lobe of the cordilleran ice sheet during the last glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    An estimate of the sliding velocity and basal meltwater discharge of the Puget lobe of the Cordilleran ice sheet can be calculated from its reconstructed extent, altitude, and mass balance. Lobe dimensions and surface altitudes are inferred from ice limits and flow-direction indicators. Net annual mass balance and total ablation are calculated from relations empirically derived from modern maritime glaciers. An equilibrium-line altitude between 1200 and 1250 m is calculated for the maximum glacial advance (ca. 15,000 yr B.P.) during the Vashon Stade of the Fraser Glaciation. This estimate is in accord with geologic data and is insensitive to plausible variability in the parameters used in the reconstruction. Resultant sliding velocities are as much as 650 m/a at the equilibrium line, decreasing both up- and downglacier. Such velocities for an ice sheet of this size are consistent with nonsurging behavior. Average meltwater discharge increases monotonically downglacier to 3000 m3/sec at the terminus and is of a comparable magnitude to ice discharge over much of the glacier's ablation area. Palcoclimatic inferences derived from this reconstruction are consistent with previous, independently derived studies of late Pleistocene temperature and precipitation in the Pacific Northwest. ?? 1986.

  9. Oxygen Isotope Mass-Balance Constraints on Pliocene Sea Level and East Antarctic Ice Sheet Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnick, M. J.; Caves, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP, 3.3-2.9 Ma), with reconstructed atmospheric pCO2 of 350-450 ppm, represents a potential analogue for climate change in the near future. Current highly cited estimates place MPWP maximum global mean sea level (GMSL) at 21 ± 10 m above modern, requiring total loss of the Greenland (GIS) and marine West Antarctic Ice Sheets (WAIS) and a substantial loss of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), with only a concurrent 2-3 ºC rise in global temperature. Many estimates of Pliocene GMSL are based on the partitioning of oxygen isotope records from benthic foraminifera (δ18Ob) into changes in deep-sea temperatures and terrestrial ice sheets. These isotopic budgets are underpinned by the assumption that the δ18O of Antarctic ice (δ18Oi) was the same in the Pliocene as it is today, and while the sensitivity of δ18Ob to changing meltwater δ18O has been previously considered, these analyses neglect conservation of 18O/16O in the ocean-ice system. Using well-calibrated δ18O-temperature relationships for Antarctic precipitation along with estimates of Pliocene Antarctic surface temperatures, we argue that the δ18Oi of the Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet was at minimum 1‰-4‰ higher than present. Assuming conservation of 18O/16O in the ocean-ice system, this requires lower Pliocene seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) without a corresponding change in ice sheet mass. This effect alone accounts for 5%-20% of the δ18Ob difference between the MPWP interglacials and the modern. With this amended isotope budget, we suggest that Pliocene GMSL was likely 9-13.5 m and very likely 5-17 m above modern, which suggests the EAIS is less sensitive to radiative forcing than previously inferred from the geologic record.

  10. Very high resolution modelling of the Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Present day conditions and future prospects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Boberg, Fredrik; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Langen, Peter; Rodehacke, Christian; Stendel, Martin; Yang, Shuting

    2014-05-01

    Recent experiments with the Regional Climate Model (RCM) HIRHAM5 have produced new surface mass balance (SMB) estimates at the unprecedented high horizontal resolution of 0.05 degrees (~5.5km). These simulations indicate a present day SMB of 347 ± 98 Gt/year over the whole ice sheet averaged over the period 1989 - 2012 driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. We validate accumulation rates over the ice sheet using estimates from shallow firn cores to confirm the importance of resolution to accurate estimates of accumulation. Comparison with PROMICE and GC-Net automatic weather station observations shows the model represents present day climate and climate variability well when driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Comparison with a simulation at 0.25 degrees (~27km) resolution from the same model shows a significantly different calculated SMB over the whole ice sheet, largely due to changes in precipitation distribution over Greenland. The very high resolution requires a more sophisticated treatment of sub-grid scale processes in the snow pack including meltwater retention and refreezing and an enhanced albedo scheme. Our results indicate retention processes account for a significant proportion of the total surface budget based on a new parameterization scheme in the model. SMB projections, driven by the EC-Earth Global Climate Model (GCM) at the boundaries for the RCP 4.5 scenario indicate a declining surface mass balance over the 21st century with some compensation for warmer summer temperatures and enhanced melt in the form of increased precipitation. A cold bias in the driving GCM for present day conditions suggests that this simulation likely underestimates the change in SMB. However, the downscaled precipitation fields compare well with those in the reanalysis driven simulations. A soon-to-be complete simulation uses driving fields from the GCM running the RCP8.5 scenario.

  11. A mascon approach to assess ice sheet and glacier mass balances and their uncertainties from GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.; Wouters, Bert; Rietbroek, Roelof

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the mass changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), Ice Sheets over Antarctica, and Land glaciers and Ice Caps with a global mascon method that yields monthly mass variations at 10,242 mascons. Input for this method are level 2 data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system collected between February 2003 and June 2013 to which a number of corrections are made. With glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) corrections from an ensemble of models based on different ice histories and rheologic Earth model parameters, we find for Greenland a mass loss of -278 ± 19 Gt/yr. Whereas the mass balances for the GrIS appear to be less sensitive to GIA modeling uncertainties, this is not the case with the mass balance of Antarctica. Ice history models for Antarctica were recently improved, and updated historic ice height data sets and GPS time series have been used to generate new GIA models. We investigated the effect of two new GIA models for Antarctica and found -92 ± 26 Gt/yr which is half of what is obtained with ICE-5G-based GIA models, where the largest GIA model differences occur on East Antarctica. The mass balance of land glaciers and ice caps currently stands at -162 ± 10 Gt/yr. With the help of new GIA models for Antarctica, we assess the mass contribution to the mean sea level at 1.47 ± 0.09 mm/yr or 532 ± 34Gt/yr which is roughly half of the global sea level rise signal obtained from tide gauges and satellite altimetry.

  12. Ice stream reorganization and ice sheet mass balance following the reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, Marion; Christoffersen, Poul; Price, Stephen; Carter, Sasha

    2015-04-01

    Ice streams in Antarctica account for most of the ice volume discharged to the ocean, and their flow variability greatly influences the mass balance of the ice sheet. Today, the Siple Coast region of West Antarctica is the only one to experience a positive mass balance (~36Gt/yr), as a consequence of the stagnation of Kamb Ice Stream about 170 years ago and the ongoing slowdown of Whillans Ice Stream. However, this positive trend could be temporary; past studies have shown that both ice streams experienced significant flow variability over the past millennia, with stagnation typically followed by reactivation on centennial timescales, occurring in response to internal processes. The impact this variability may have on the future mass balance of the WAIS remains unknown. Here, we explore the future flow variability of the Siple Coast ice streams by using a three-dimensional higher-order ice sheet model (CISM), coupled to a physically-based basal processes model and a model of regional hydrology. To obtain realistic initial flow conditions, we assimilate available velocity data for this region from 1997. We perform forward simulations over a 200 year period, during which the basal properties evolve according to the distribution of meltwater beneath the ice and its drainage/flow through a subglacial till layer. First, we assume that the bed evolves according to ice-till interactions with only local exchange of water between the ice and till. Next, we include a model of the regional basal water system capable of transporting water over long distances, so that meltwater is routed laterally along the bed before interacting with the till layer. We also explore the effect of geothermal heat flux uncertainties. We find that ice discharge to the grounding line is larger and more sustained in time when the regional water system is included in the simulations. Still, in all experiments, the main future perturbation to the current state of flow follows from the reactivation of

  13. Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Connections to Mechanisms of Climate Variability on Decadal to Centennial Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, H.; Peltier, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    The role of natural forcing in generating variability in the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) remains unclear. Furthermore, mass variations in the GrIS over the past several centuries are poorly constrained. Until the impact of natural climate variations is better understood, it will be difficult to isolate the role anthropogenic greenhouse gases have had on GrIS-induced sea level rise, and to make predictions of GrIS changes in the future. To begin to address these issues, we have performed a suite of global, atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulations of the past millennium. These runs are long enough to establish the connection between Arctic climate conditions and surface mass balance changes over the Greenland ice sheet over a wide range of timescales. We have created five historical simulations from years 850 to 2000 using the Community Climate System Model 3 and boundary conditions consistent with the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3. Over this preindustrial period, we have examined how average temperatures and total precipitation over regions of the GrIS varied with Arctic sea ice extent, NAO/NAM, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation, ENSO, volcanic aerosol loading, and total solar irradiance changes. Overall, we find that variations on timescales longer than 30 years correlate well with several of these sources of climate variability, and that variations on shorter timescales are less well-connected. We also find that there are clear regional differences in the temperature and precipitation responses. Thus, in this presentation we focus on the sources of climate variability that we find to be most important to Greenland regional temperatures and precipitation in our suite of millennium simulations. Finally, we extended these simulations into the future using representative concentration pathways from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. We

  14. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  15. A balancing act: managing your personal and professional life--Part II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alison P; Karavattuveetil, George

    2004-01-01

    Managing your personal and professional life is a lifelong balancing act due to situations that arise in the course of expected and unexpected normal life events. Identifying and dealing with these issues in your own life will likely make you a stronger leader in the eyes of your employees who often struggle with similar issues. Acknowledging these struggles among your employees can help create community in work teams, which ultimately translates into retention. Advocating for work life policies in your organization will transform personal compassion into organizational culture and, ultimately, into corporate policy. PMID:15000049

  16. Combining evidence and values in priority setting: testing the balance sheet method in a low-income country

    PubMed Central

    Makundi, Emmanuel; Kapiriri, Lydia; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2007-01-01

    Background Procedures for priority setting need to incorporate both scientific evidence and public values. The aim of this study was to test out a model for priority setting which incorporates both scientific evidence and public values, and to explore use of evidence by a selection of stakeholders and to study reasons for the relative ranking of health care interventions in a setting of extreme resource scarcity. Methods Systematic search for and assessment of relevant evidence for priority setting in a low-income country. Development of a balance sheet according to Eddy's explicit method. Eight group interviews (n-85), using a modified nominal group technique for eliciting individual and group rankings of a given set of health interventions. Results The study procedure made it possible to compare the groups' ranking before and after all the evidence was provided to participants. A rank deviation is significant if the rank order of the same intervention differed by two or more points on the ordinal scale. A comparison between the initial rank and the final rank (before deliberation) showed a rank deviation of 67%. The difference between the initial rank and the final rank after discussion and voting gave a rank deviation of 78%. Conclusion Evidence-based and deliberative decision-making does change priorities significantly in an experimental setting. Our use of the balance sheet method was meant as a demonstration project, but could if properly developed be feasible for health planners, experts and health workers, although more work is needed before it can be used for laypersons. PMID:17892561

  17. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  18. Matters of Cost: Part I. Jones Learns about Balance Sheets: Part II. A Look at Budgetary Control: Part III. The Supervisor's "Do-It-Yourself" Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. E.; And Others

    This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with costing, balance sheets, and budgetary control. The first section, "Matters of Cost" by J. E. and J. F. Smith, deals with the following topics: profits and productivity, principles of costing, cost control and cost reduction, fixed and…

  19. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output method (IOM). The IOM quantifies the difference between the mass input and output of the GrIS by studying the surface mass balance (SMB) and the ice discharge (D). We use the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2.3 (RACMO2.3) to model the SMB and derive the ice discharge from 12 years of high-precision ice velocity and thickness surveys. We use a simulation model to quantify and correct for GRACE approximation errors in mass change between different subregions of the GrIS, and investigate the reliability of pre-1990s ice discharge estimates, which are based on the modeled runoff. We find that the difference between the IOM and our improved GRACE mass change estimates is reduced in terms of the long-term mass change when using a reference discharge derived from runoff estimates in several subareas. In most regions our GRACE and IOM solutions are consistent with other studies, but differences remain in the northwestern GrIS. We validate the GRACE mass balance in that region by considering several different GIA models and mass change estimates derived from data obtained by the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We conclude that the approximated mass balance between GRACE and IOM is consistent in most GrIS regions. The difference in the northwest is likely due to underestimated uncertainties in the IOM solutions.

  20. The relationship between the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) and hospital profitability.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa Z

    2006-01-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) reduced the payment for fees for service providers and reduced the subsidy paid by the government for teaching hospitals. Since the passage of such cost containment measures, debates regarding their impact on hospitals, graduate medical education, and access to health care were raised. The need to examine the effect of such payment reduction on hospital profitability was widely ignored. We examined the relationship between the BBA and hospital profitability by using return on assets to measure profitability, by running an ordinary least squares regression for 1996 as pre-BBA and 1999 as post-BBA. We controlled for variables that were not included in previous literature, such as disproportionate share hospital status, critical access hospital status, and graduate medical education, measured by teaching hospitals to measure the effect of BBA cuts on teaching hospitals. Furthermore we incorporated several economic, financial, and utilization variables in the model. We used 1996 and 1999 data in our analysis to bridge potential effects of the BBA. To locate hospitals that changed ownership status we cross-matched the Medicare Cost Report data with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We found that overall hospital profitability declined as a result of the introduction of the BBA; however, small rural hospitals that converted to critical access status enjoyed improvement in financial status over the period of our study. Hospitals that converted to for-profit status did not improve in financial status, and showed a lower earning after the conversation. Our results show that the BBA had a negative effect on hospitals because of cuts in its reimbursement policy, except for critical access hospitals, which show improvement because of their exemption from the prospective payment system. Our study differs from others by using national comprehensive data for years that focus exclusively on the Balanced Budget Act period. We

  1. Contemporary (1960-2012) Evolution of the Climate and Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Angelen, J. H.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Wouters, B.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.

    2014-09-01

    We assess the contemporary (1960-2012) surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), its individual components and trends. We use output of the high-resolution (11 km) regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2), evaluated with automatic weather stations and GRACE data. A persistent negative North Atlantic oscillation index over the last 6 years resulted in the summertime advection of relatively warm continental air toward the GrIS. Added to the enhanced radiative forcing by increased CO2 levels, this has resulted in an increase in near-surface temperature of more than 2 K during 2007-2012 compared to 1960-1990. The associated decrease in albedo led to an extra absorption of shortwave radiation of ˜6 Wm-2 (11 %) in the summer months, which is the main driver of enhanced surface melting and runoff in recent years. From 1990 onward, we see a steady increase in meltwater runoff and an associated decrease in the SMB, accelerating after 2005, with the record low SMB year in 2010. Despite the fact that the GrIS was subject to the highest surface melt rates in 2012, relatively high accumulation rates prevented 2012 to set a record low SMB. In 2012, melt occurred relatively high on the ice sheet where melt water refreezes in the porous firn layer. Up to 2005, increased runoff was partly offset by increased accumulation rates. Since then, accumulation rates have decreased, resulting in low SMB values. Other causes of decreased SMB are the loss of firn pore space and decreasing refreezing rates in the higher ablation area. The GrIS has lost in total 1,800 ± 300 Gt of mass from surface processes alone since 1990 and about half of that in the last 6 years.

  2. Design study of shaft face seal with self-acting lift augmentation. 4: Force balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Zuk, J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A method for predicting the operating film thickness of self-acting seals is described. The analysis considers a 16.76-cm mean diameter seal that is typical of large gas turbines for aircraft. Four design points were selected to cover a wide range of operation for advanced engines. This operating range covered sliding speeds of 61 to 153 m/sec, sealed pressures of 45 to 217 N/sq cm abs, and gas temperatures of 311 to 977 K. The force balance analysis revealed that the seal operated without contact over the operating range with gas film thicknesses ranging between 0.00046 to 0.00119 cm, and with gas leakage rates between 0.01 to 0.39 scmm.

  3. Hospital cost shifting revisited: new evidence from the balanced budget act of 1997.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vivian Y

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes hospital cost shifting using a natural experiment generated by the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997. I find evidence that urban hospitals were able to shift part of the burden of Medicare payment reduction onto private payers. However, the overall estimated degree of cost shifting is small and varies according to a hospital's share of private patients. At hospitals where Medicare is a small payer relative to private insurers, up to 37% of BBA cuts was transferred to private payers through higher payments. In contrast, hospitals with greater reliance on Medicare were more financially distressed, as these hospitals saw large BBA cuts but were limited in their abilities to cost shift. PMID:19672707

  4. On the role of submarine melting of tidewater glaciers in driving the Greenland ice sheet out of balance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E. J.; Koppes, M. N.; Velicogna, I.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is losing mass and the rate of mass loss has been increasing with time. A recent comparison of the components contributing to the mass balance of the ice sheet suggests that half of the signal is caused by an increase in runoff and half by ice dynamics, i.e. the acceleration of outlet glaciers. The root cause of the glacier acceleration is a de-stabilization of the glacier frontal regions, i.e. an un-grounding of the frontal parts which reduces buttressing and allows faster rates of ice sliding to sea. While the role of surface melt water on the lubrication of the glacier bed has been highly publicized, detailed study of the effect of melt water on glacier flow suggest that it can only account for a moderate acceleration of glaciers. De-stabilization of glaciers from vertical thinning is key, yet the increase in runoff is not large enough to explain the observations. We propose instead that submarine melting of the glacier submerged faces has been the main trigger and control. In August 2008, we collected CTD and current measurements in the front of 4 glaciers, 100 km north of Jakobshavn Isbrae, in West Greenland. Calculation of heat and mass flow reveal submarine melt rates ranging from 1 to 3 meters per day, or 100 times larger than the rates of surface melt. Large variations exist from one glacier to the next, but the results suggest that submarine melting is a large contributor to glacier thinning, capable of explaining glacier un-grounding and de-stabilization. Submarine melting removes from 20% to 90% of the ice that reaches the ocean, the rest being discharged as icebergs. Prior studies totally ignored the role of submarine melting in Greenland and only considered iceberg calving. We conclude than more detailed studies of ice-ocean interactions in tidewater glacier environments are absolutely critical to better understand present-day and future evolutions of the Greenland ice sheet in a warming climate.

  5. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and the Financial Health of Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert L.; Fryer, George E.; Chen, Frederick M.; Morgan, Sarah E.; Green, Larry A.; Valente, Ernest; Miyoshi, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND We wanted to evaluate the most recent, complete data related to the specific effects of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 relative to the overall financial health of teaching hospitals. We also define cost report variables and calculations necessary for continued impact monitoring. METHODS We undertook a descriptive analysis of hospital cost report variables for 1996, 1998, and 1999, using simple calculations of total, Medicare, prospective payment system, graduate medical education (GME), and bad debt margins, as well as the proportion with negative total operating margins. RESULTS Nearly 35% of teaching hospitals had negative operating margins in 1999. Teaching hospital total margins fell by nearly 50% between 1996 and 1999, while Medicare margins remained relatively stable. GME margins have fallen by nearly 24%, however, even as reported education costs have risen by nearly 12%. Medicare+Choice GME payments were less than 10% of those projected. CONCLUSIONS Teaching hospitals realized deep cuts in profitability between 1996 and 1999; however, these cuts were not entirely attributable to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Medicare payments remain an important financial cushion for teaching hospitals, more than one third of which operated in the red. The role of Medicare in supporting GME has been substantially reduced and needs special attention in the overall debate. Medicare+Choice support of the medical education enterprise is 90% less than baseline projections and should be thoroughly investigated. The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, which has a critical role in evaluating the effects of Medicare policy changes, should be more transparent in its methods. PMID:15053286

  6. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act. Workship on plant growth: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    There are signals that coordinate the development of various plant parts and thus the rates of enlargement of various plant parts and these were explored during the workshop. The participants tried to systematize their knowledge and identify over-arching concepts that need more investigation. It was generally agreed that the cell wall cannot be viewed as a passive plastic material. Synthesis and deposition take place and cause changes in the molecular architecture of the wall. Questions arise from the fact that the wall is not a constant or uniform structure but undergoes highly organized changes during enlargement while bearing a considerable load. Recent advances in signaling, biochemical analysis and ultrastructure visualization are beginning to relate to the molecular load-bearing and enzymatic activities in the wall. The participants agreed that there probably is enough information to begin developing a comprehensive model that would balance wall effects with the limitation of growth by transport, especially for water, and this could help clarify events occurring at different time scales and places. Beyond that, there seems to be a need to resolve problems of solute transport and wall behavior that are poorly understood in growing regions, leaving many promising areas for future experiments. Understanding each balancing act seems to be just the beginning.

  7. Satellite Observations of Blowing Snow in and Around Antarctica: Implications for Ice Sheet Mass Balance and Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, S. P.; Yang, Y.; Marshak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Blowing snow in the polar regions is known to be important for a variety of reasons including ice sheet mass balance, atmospheric water vapor transport, interpretation of paleoclimate records and atmospheric chemistry. Over Antarctica, persistent katabatic winds produce extreme blowing snow events often covering 100,000 square kilometers or more and reaching heights of 300-400 meters. New techniques of blowing snow detection using active and passive satellite data are providing a new understanding of the frequency, magnitude and spatial coverage of blowing snow over and around the Antarctic continent. Current research is utilizing these methods to obtain a nearly 10 year climatology of blowing snow events over Antarctica and estimate the amount of mass being blown off the continent and sublimated into the atmosphere on an annual basis. In addition, recent research indicates that blowing snow over sea ice may be important in the process of transporting seal salt aerosol into the atmosphere where it is implicated in the production of bromine compounds that strongly influence many aspects of tropospheric chemistry.

  8. Geodetically-Constrained Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models of Antarctica: Implications for the Mass Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. J.; Wilson, T. J.; James, T. S.; Mazzotti, S.; Bevis, M. G.; Kendrick, E. C.; Brown, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    The IJ05 Antarctic ice sheet history is employed to drive a suite of approximately one thousand two-layered, laterally-homogeneous spherical Earth models and generate predictions of Antarctic crustal uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GPS data collected between 1996 and 2010 on the flanks of the West Antarctic Rift System are used to produce bedrock uplift rates that are compared with the model predictions. The models that display the best fit to the data have softer, weaker upper-mantle viscosities than those published in many previous studies. A low viscosity upper-mantle is in agreement with seismic tomography that indicates that the upper mantle beneath much of West Antarctica has slower than average seismic shear-wave velocities. Best fit models further feature thin elastic lithospheres, a situation that is also corroborated by recent airborne gravity and seismic investigations. The best fit GIA models are used to generate crustal uplift rates and gravity changes that are larger than previously published models used to correct GRACE observations and infer Antarctic ice mass balance.The new models, which are the first GPS-constrained GIA corrections for GRACE in Antarctica, increases the ice-mass loss estimate for West Antarctica.

  9. Balancing Act: A View of Benefits and Work-Life Balance through the Eyes of Advancement Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    People who choose careers in advancement know they're not entering a 9-to-5, 40-hours-a-week profession. Staffers juggle personal lives with their commitment to stressful jobs that involve travel, long hours, weekend events, and deadlines. Work-life balance means different things to different people, but flexibility seems to be a priority for…

  10. Metabolic Actions of Angiotensin II and Insulin: A Microvascular Endothelial Balancing Act

    PubMed Central

    Muniyappa, Ranganath; Yavuz, Shazene

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic actions of insulin to promote glucose disposal are augmented by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent increases in microvascular blood flow to skeletal muscle. The balance between NO-dependent vasodilator actions and endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstrictor actions of insulin is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent (PI3K) - and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent signaling in vascular endothelium, respectively. Angiotensin II acting on AT2 receptor increases capillary blood flow to increase insulin-mediated glucose disposal. In contrast, AT1 receptor activation leads to reduced NO bioavailability, impaired insulin signaling, vasoconstriction, and insulin resistance. Insulin-resistant states are characterized by dysregulated local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Under insulin-resistant conditions, pathway-specific impairment in PI3K-dependent signaling may cause imbalance between production of NO and secretion of endothelin-1, leading to decreased blood flow, which worsens insulin resistance. Similarly, excess AT1 receptor activity in the microvasculature may selectively impair vasodilation while simultaneously potentiating the vasoconstrictor actions of insulin. Therapeutic interventions that target pathway-selective impairment in insulin signaling and the imbalance in AT1 and AT2 receptor signaling in microvascular endothelium may simultaneously ameliorate endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. In the present review, we discuss molecular mechanisms in the endothelium underlying microvascular and metabolic actions of insulin and Angiotensin II, the mechanistic basis for microvascular endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in RAAS dysregulated clinical states, and the rationale for therapeutic strategies that restore the balance in vasodilator and constrictor actions of insulin and Angiotensin II in the microvasculature. PMID:22684034

  11. Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  12. Balancing adequacy and affordability?: Essential Health Benefits under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Health Benefits provisions under the Affordable Care Act require that eligible plans provide coverage for certain broadly defined service categories, limit consumer cost-sharing, and meet certain actuarial value requirements. Although the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was tasked with the regulatory development of these EHB under the ACA, the department quickly devolved this task to the states. Not surprisingly, states fully exploited the leeway provided by HHS, and state decision processes and outcomes differed widely. However, none of the states took advantage of the opportunity to restructure fundamentally their health insurance markets, and only a very limited number of states actually included sophisticated policy expertise in their decisionmaking processes. As a result, and despite a major expansion of coverage, the status quo ex ante in state insurance markets was largely perpetuated. Decisionmaking for the 2016 revisions should be transparent, included a wide variety of stakeholders and policy experts, and focus on balancing adequacy and affordability. However, the 2016 revisions provide an opportunity to address these previous shortcomings. PMID:25316210

  13. Changes in the Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a Warming Climate During 2003-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Luthcke, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) derived from ICESat and GRACE data both show that the net mass loss from GIS during 2003-2009 is about 175 Gt/year, which contributes 0.5mm/yr global sea-level rise. The rate of mass loss has increased significantly since the 1990's when the GIS was close to mass balance. Even though the GIS was close to mass balance during the 1990's, it was already showing characteristics of responding to8 warmer climate, specifically thinning at the margins and thickening inland at higher elevations. During 2003-2009, increased ice thinning due to increases in melting and acceleration of outlet glaciers began to strongly exceed the inland thickening from increases in accumulation. Over the entire GIS, the mass loss between the two periods, from increased melting and ice dynamics, increased by about 190 Gt/year while the mass gain, from increased precipitation and accumulation, increased by only about 15Gt/year. These ice changes occurred during a time when the temperature on GIS changed at rate of about 2K/decade. The distribution of elevation and mass changes derived from ICESat have high spatial resolution showing details over outlet glaciers, by drainage systems, and by elevation. However, information on the seasonal cycle of changes from ICESat data is limited, because the ICESat lasers were only operated during two to three campaigns per year of about 35 days duration each. In contrast, the temporal resolution of GRACE data, provided by the continuous data collection, is much better showing details of the seasonal cycle and the inter-annual variability. The differing sensitivity of the ICESat altimetry and the GRACE gravity methods to motion of the underlying bedrock from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is used to evaluate the GIA corrections provided by models. The two data types are also combined to make estimates of the partitioning of the mass gains and losses among accumulation, melting, and ice discharge from outlet

  14. The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1976: An Analysis and Evaluation. Discussion Paper 346-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Michael C.

    The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of l976, S-50, the Humphrey-Hawkins bill, is an attempt to focus the nation's attention and energy on the problem of attaining full employment. As a matter of law the nation would be committed to achieving an adult unemployment rate of 3% within four years. If those charged with the development and…

  15. Home Health Care Agency Staffing Patterns before and after the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, by Rural and Urban Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Spector, William; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Context: The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 and other recent policies have led to reduced Medicare funding for home health agencies (HHAs) and visits per beneficiary. Purpose: We examine the staffing characteristics of stable Medicare-certified HHAs across rural and urban counties from 1996 to 2002, a period encompassing the changes associated…

  16. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance: Distribution of Increased Mass Loss with Climate Warming; 2003-07 Versus 1992-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Benner, Anita C.; Beckley, Matthew; Cornejo, Helen G.; DiMarzio, John; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui; Wang, Weili

    2011-01-01

    We derive mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) for 2003-07 from ICESat laser altimetry and compare them with results for 1992-2002 from ERS radar and airborne laser altimetry. The GIS continued to grow inland and thin at the margins during 2003 07, but surface melting and accelerated flow significantly increased the marginal thinning compared with the 1990s. The net balance changed from a small loss of 7 plus or minus 3 Gt a 1(sup -1) in the 1990s to 171 plus or minus 4 Gt a (sup -1) for 2003-07, contributing 0.5 mm a(sup -1) to recent global sea-level rise. We divide the derived mass changes into two components: (1) from changes in melting and ice dynamics and (2) from changes in precipitation and accumulation rate. We use our firn compaction model to calculate the elevation changes driven by changes in both temperature and accumulation rate and to calculate the appropriate density to convert the accumulation-driven changes to mass changes. Increased losses from melting and ice dynamics (17-206 Gt a(sup-1) are over seven times larger than increased gains from precipitation (10 35 Gt a(sup-1) during a warming period of approximately 2 K (10 a)(sup -1) over the GIS. Above 2000m elevation, the rate of gain decreased from 44 to 28 Gt a(sup-1), while below 2000m the rate of loss increased from 51 to 198 Gt a(sup-1). Enhanced thinning below the equilibrium line on outlet glaciers indicates that increased melting has a significant impact on outlet glaciers, as well as accelerating ice flow. Increased thinning at higher elevations appears to be induced by dynamic coupling to thinning at the margins on decadal timescales.

  17. Parameterizations of daily temperature standard deviation for modeling ice sheet mass balances using a temperature-index method under paleoclimate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erokhina, Olga; Rogozhina, Irina

    2016-04-01

    A number of recent studies have suggested time-dependent parameterizations of daily temperature standard deviation for modelling surface mass balances of ice sheets and glaciers using a temperature-index method. These have been inferred from in-situ measurements and climate reanalysis data, which are only available on yearly to decadal time scales. To date, the existing literature has not explored their applicability to climate conditions that are different from those of today. This study presents an ensemble of simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet's history since the Last Glacial Maximum to assess the performance of existing parameterizations of daily temperature standard deviation on millennial time scales. To limit the influence of the uncertainties arising from poorly constrained external and internal factors we adopt climate strategies of different complexities and a sensitivity analysis of ice sheet model parameters. Our study reveals that previously proposed parameterizations of daily temperature standard deviation have a limited performance during the deglaciation stage, failing to simulate the retreat of ice masses as suggested by geological reconstructions. In contrast multiple studies that use constant values of daily temperature standard deviation within the range of 4 to 5°C receive support from our analysis, implying that either the ice sheet model used is missing the fundamental physics necessary to capture complex processes associated with rapid deglaciation or the values of daily temperature standard deviation suggested by parameterizations based on present-day observations are too low to ensure the consistent Wisconsin-to-Holocene ice sheet retreat.

  18. Fact Sheet: Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 (PL 94-484).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 extends health manpower training authorities through FY 1980 with significant changes to meet national needs. It is designed to produce more primary care practitioners and improve health services in manpower shortage areas, providing support for the training of health professions (medicine,…

  19. Your Rights under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a national law that protects qualified individuals from discrimination based on their disability. The nondiscrimination requirements of the law apply to employers and organizations that receive financial assistance from any Federal department or agency, including the U.S. Department of Health and…

  20. A downscaled 1 km dataset of daily Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance components (1958-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, B.; Van De Berg, W. J.; Fettweis, X.; Machguth, H.; Howat, I. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The current spatial resolution in regional climate models (RCMs), typically around 5 to 20 km, remains too coarse to accurately reproduce the spatial variability in surface mass balance (SMB) components over the narrow ablation zones, marginal outlet glaciers and neighbouring ice caps of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). In these topographically rough terrains, the SMB components are highly dependent on local variations in topography. However, the relatively low-resolution elevation and ice mask prescribed in RCMs contribute to significantly underestimate melt and runoff in these regions due to unresolved valley glaciers and fjords. Therefore, near-km resolution topography is essential to better capture SMB variability in these spatially restricted regions. We present a 1 km resolution dataset of daily GrIS SMB covering the period 1958-2014, which is statistically downscaled from data of the polar regional climate model RACMO2.3 at 11 km, using an elevation dependence. The dataset includes all individual SMB components projected on the elevation and ice mask from the GIMP DEM, down-sampled to 1 km. Daily runoff and sublimation are interpolated to the 1 km topography using a local regression to elevation valid for each day specifically; daily precipitation is bi-linearly downscaled without elevation corrections. The daily SMB dataset is then reconstructed by summing downscaled precipitation, sublimation and runoff. High-resolution elevation and ice mask allow for properly resolving the narrow ablation zones and valley glaciers at the GrIS margins, leading to significant increase in runoff estimate. In these regions, and especially over narrow glaciers tongues, the downscaled products improve on the original RACMO2.3 outputs by better representing local SMB patterns through a gradual ablation increase towards the GrIS margins. We discuss the impact of downscaling on the SMB components in a case study for a spatially restricted region, where large elevation

  1. Balancing Act: Bridging the Traditional and Technological Aspects of Culture through Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Pamela Harris

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the benefits of connecting and balancing education in the visual arts and in technology through discussion of actual examples. This balanced connection accomplishes three goals: to further advance and enhance quality of life, to cultivate humane and ethical behaviors, and to initiate global dialogue on issues that matter among…

  2. Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Casey, K.A.; DiGirolamo, N.E.; Wan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet was measured for each melt season from 2000 to 2005 using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived land-surface temperature (LST) data-product maps. During the period of most-active melt, the mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the ice sheet was highest in 2002 (-8.29 ?? 5.29??C) and 2005 (-8.29 ?? 5.43??C), compared to a 6-year mean of -9.04 ?? 5.59??C, in agreement with recent work by other investigators showing unusually extensive melt in 2002 and 2005. Surface-temperature variability shows a correspondence with the dry-snow facies of the ice sheet; a reduction in area of the dry-snow facies would indicate a more-negative mass balance. Surface-temperature variability generally increased during the study period and is most pronounced in the 2005 melt season; this is consistent with surface instability caused by air-temperature fluctuations. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Assessing the Sensitivity of Satellite-Derived Estimates of Ice Sheet Mass Balance to Regional Climate Model Simulations of Snow Accumulation and Firn Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K.; Shepherd, A.; Horwath, M.; Horvath, A.; Nagler, T.; Wuite, J.; Muir, A.; Gilbert, L.; Mouginot, J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are fundamental for assessing and understanding ice sheet mass trends. Mass budget and altimetry assessments rely on RCMs both directly for estimates of the SMB contribution to the total mass trend, and indirectly for ancillary data in the form of firn compaction corrections. As such, mass balance assessments can be highly sensitive to RCM outputs and therefore their accuracy. Here we assess the extent to which geodetic measurements of mass balance are sensitive to RCM model outputs at different resolutions. We achieve this by comparing SMB dependent estimates of mass balance from the mass budget method and altimetry, with those from satellite gravimetry that are independent of SMB estimates. Using the outputs of the RACMO/ANT 2.3 model at 5.5 km and 27 km horizontal spatial resolution, we generate estimates of mass balance using the mass budget method and altimetry for the Western Palmer Land region of the Antarctic Peninsula between 2003 and 2014. We find a 19% increase in the long-term (1980 to 2014) mean annual SMB for the region when enhancing the model resolution to 5.5 km. This translates into an approximate 50% reduction in the total mass loss from 2003 to 2014 calculated with the mass budget method and a 15% increase in the altimetry estimate. The use of the enhanced resolution product leads to consistency between the estimates of mass loss from the altimetry and the mass budget method that is not observed with the coarser resolution product, in which estimates of cumulative mass fall beyond the relative errors. Critically, when using the 5.5 km product, we find excellent agreement, both in pattern and magnitude, with the independent estimate derived from gravimetry. Our results point toward the crucial need for high resolution SMB products from RCMs for mass balance assessments, particularly in regions of high mass turnover and complex terrain as found over the Antarctic Peninsula.

  4. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  5. STS-33 MS Musgrave and MS Carter perform balancing act on OV-103's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) F. Story Musgrave demonstrates a microgravity trick by balancing MS Manley L. Carter, Jr on his index finger. During the performance on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, middeck, Carter freefloats at the middeck ceiling while Musgrave supports him from underneath. On the forward middeck lockers is a PURDUE Boilermakers decal.

  6. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre

    2009-01-01

    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  7. STS-35 payload specialists perform balancing act on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Aided by the microgravity environment aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, STS-35 Payload Specialist Ronald A. Parise balances Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance on his index finger in front of the middeck starboard wall. Durrance is wearing a blood pressure cuff and is holding a beverage container and food package during the microgravity performance. The waste management compartment (WMC), side hatch, and orbiter galley are seen behind the two crewmembers. Durrance's feet are at the forward lockers.

  8. Sea level rise from the Greenland Ice Sheet during the Eemian interglacial: Review of previous work with focus on the surface mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, Andreas; Hestnes Nisancioglu, Kerim

    2016-04-01

    The contribution from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to the global sea level rise during the Eemian interglacial (about 125,000 year ago) was the focus of many studies in the past. A main reason for the interest in this period is the considerable warmer climate during the Eemian which is often seen as an equivalent for possible future climate conditions. Simulated sea level rise during the Eemian can therefore be used to better understand a possible future sea level rise. The most recent assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) gives an overview of several studies and discusses the possible implications for a future sea level rise. The report also reveals the big differences between these studies in terms of simulated GIS extent and corresponding sea level rise. The present study gives a more exhaustive review of previous work discussing sea level rise from the GIS during the Eemian interglacial. The smallest extents of the GIS simulated by various authors are shown and summarized. A focus is thereby given to the methods used to calculate the surface mass balance. A hypothesis of the present work is that the varying results of the previous studies can largely be explained due to the various methods used to calculate the surface mass balance. In addition, as a first step for future work, the surface mass balance of the GIS for a proxy-data derived forcing ("index method") and a direct forcing with a General Circulation Model (GCM) are shown and discussed.

  9. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L).

    PubMed

    Felton, Annika M; Felton, Adam; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Krizsan, Sophie J; Hedwall, Per-Ola; Stolter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose's self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality. PMID:26986618

  10. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L)

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Annika M.; Felton, Adam; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.; Krizsan, Sophie J.; Hedwall, Per-Ola; Stolter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose’s self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality. PMID:26986618

  11. Balancing – an equilibrium act between different positions: An exploratory study on general practitioners’ comprehension of their professional role

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Anders; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Mattsson, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Objective There is a call to make the duties and working conditions of the GP more transparent. The aim of this study was to explore practising GPs’ personal experiences of their professional role and what they regard to be its salient characteristics. Design An exploratory and descriptive study was undertaken by interviewing GPs and by performing a focus-group study of experienced GPs. The interviews were transcribed and analysed, and the text was categorized according to content analysis. Setting The practice of the interviewed GPs. Subjects Seven GPs in individual interviews and a focus group of experienced GPs. Results A major theme, Balancing, was identified. It was derived from a number of opposing concepts to which different features were related. “The good shepherd” versus “The medical expert”; “Curing” versus “Caring”; “Short visits” versus “Long consultations”; “The personal doctor” versus “The society's doctor”. In many consultations the GP has to contemplate how to stay in focus between these diverse roles. Conclusion General practice requires a balance to be achieved between a number of opposing conditions. In their clinical work GPs have to adjust to and integrate alternative perspectives. Problems of recruiting new GPs might be associated with dilemmas in this balancing act. PMID:17497484

  12. Growth–Defense Tradeoffs in Plants: A Balancing Act to Optimize Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L.; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Growth–defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth–defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth–defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth–defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands. PMID:24777989

  13. Spatial Colocalization of Human Ohnolog Pairs Acts to Maintain Dosage-Balance

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ting; Yang, Qing-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Tao; McLysaght, Aoife; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Ohnologs –paralogous gene pairs generated by whole genome duplication– are enriched for dosage sensitive genes, that is, genes that have a phenotype due to copy number changes. Dosage sensitive genes frequently occur in the same metabolic pathway and in physically interacting proteins. Accumulating evidence reveals that functionally related genes tend to co-localize in the three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of chromosomes. We query whether the spatial distribution of ohnologs has implications for their dosage balance. We analyzed the colocalization frequency of ohnologs based on chromatin interaction datasets of seven human cell lines and found that ohnolog pairs exhibit higher spatial proximity in 3D nuclear organization than other paralog pairs and than randomly chosen ohnologs in the genome. We also found that colocalized ohnologs are more resistant to copy number variations and more likely to be disease-associated genes, which indicates a stronger dosage balance in ohnologs with high spatial proximity. This phenomenon is further supported by the stronger similarity of gene co-expression and of gene ontology terms of colocalized ohnologs. In addition, for a large fraction of ohnologs, the spatial colocalization is conserved in mouse cells, suggestive of functional constraint on their 3D positioning in the nucleus. PMID:27297469

  14. The balance sheet of benefits and harms of breast cancer population-based screening in Europe: outcome research, practice and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Mireille; Paci, Eugenio

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer screening programs are still object of harsh debate. In 2012, the Independent UK Panel reviewed the benefits and harms of mammography screening based on randomized trials and the EUROSCREEN Working Group reviewed European observational outcome studies. The conclusion was that screening programs should continue, while acknowledging that harms, such as the occurrence of false-positive results and overdiagnosis, can have a negative impact on a woman's life. Information on the balance sheet of the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening should help women and their physicians to make an informed choice. The future challenge for breast screening programs is to assess the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and impact of risk-based screening in order to maximize benefit-to-harm ratios. PMID:26619214

  15. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to perturbations in sea surface temperature and sea ice cover: a study with the regional climate model MAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, B.; Fettweis, X.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Erpicum, M.

    2014-10-01

    During recent summers (2007-2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favoring warmer atmospheric conditions than normal over the GrIS. Simultaneously, large anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) were observed in the North Atlantic, suggesting a possible connection. To assess the direct impact of 2007-2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR forced by ERA-Interim. These simulations suggest that perturbations in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not considerably impact GrIS SMB, as a result of the katabatic wind blocking effect. These offshore-directed winds prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST anomalies, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds cease. A topic for further investigation is how anomalies in SIC and SST might have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, hence favoring more frequent warm air advection towards the GrIS.

  16. Pesticide chlorpyrifos acts as an endocrine disruptor in adult rats causing changes in mammary gland and hormonal balance.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Clara; Nieto, María Rosa Ramos; Bourguignon, Nadia; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Rodriguez, Horacio; Cao, Gabriel; Randi, Andrea; Cocca, Claudia; Núñez, Mariel

    2016-02-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds that interfere with hormone regulation and influence mammary carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) acts as an ED in vitro, since it induces human breast cancer cells proliferation through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) pathway. In this work, we studied the effects of CPF at environmental doses (0.01 and 1mg/kg/day) on mammary gland, steroid hormone receptors expression and serum steroid hormone levels. It was carried out using female Sprague-Dawley 40-days-old rats exposed to the pesticide during 100 days. We observed a proliferating ductal network with a higher number of ducts and alveolar structures. We also found an increased number of benign breast diseases, such as hyperplasia and adenosis. CPF enhanced progesterone receptor (PgR) along with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in epithelial ductal cells. On the other hand, the pesticide reduced the expression of co-repressors of estrogen receptor activity REA and SMRT and it decreased serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Finally, we found a persistent decrease in LH levels among ovariectomized rats exposed to CPF. Therefore, CPF alters the endocrine balance acting as an ED in vivo. These findings warn about the harmful effects that CPF exerts on mammary gland, suggesting that this compound may act as a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:26518068

  17. [Psychoanalytic initial interview and OPD-CA interview--no balancing act!].

    PubMed

    Diederichs-Paeschke, Veronika; Forkel, Christine; Held, Ulrike; Jaletzke, Cordula; Stafski, Bruno; Bilke-Hentsch, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The application of the OPD-CA (Operationalised Psychodynamic Diagnostics in Childhood and Adolescence) for diagnostic purposes during the initial interview is no abdication of a psychoanalytic attitude. The study group OPD (2006, p. 289) proposed a "moderate structured action" for the investigation of the axes "interpersonal relations", "conflicts", "psychic structure", and "preconditions for treatment". But this is not a schematic checking. Space should be provided explicitly to a scenic development of the relationship-dynamics. In this article, the intersubjective character and the uniqueness of the conversation are underlined. Thus, the resulting diagnosis cannot be seen independently of the inner attitude and the concrete intervention of the interviewer. Certain phases of the interview that regularly ensue on the basis of the inherent dynamics and the "choreography" of a first meeting with a patient, are described in regard to the dynamic aspects and their significance in the OPD-Diagnostics. They are balanced with scenic points of view. Possible difficulties and suggestions for the practical handling are discussed on the basis of a case vignette. PMID:21381385

  18. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change.

    PubMed

    Bigg, G R; Wei, H L; Wilton, D J; Zhao, Y; Billings, S A; Hanna, E; Kadirkamanathan, V

    2014-06-01

    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean-iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1-3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources. PMID:24910517

  19. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bigg, G. R.; Wei, H. L.; Wilton, D. J.; Zhao, Y.; Billings, S. A.; Hanna, E.; Kadirkamanathan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean–iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1–3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources. PMID:24910517

  20. Experimental Study of the Forces Acting on the Tool in the Friction-Stir Welding of AA 2024 T3 Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astarita, A.; Squillace, A.; Carrino, L.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, AA 2024 T3-rolled sheets were joined in butt joint configuration through the friction stir welding process. Different joints were carried out varying the principal process parameters (i.e., tool welding speed and tool rotational speed). The aim of this work was the study and the experimental characterization of the influence of the process parameters on the forces acting on the tool during the FSW process. Furthermore, it was studied the correlation between the forces and the grain size, in particular with the extension of the heat-affected zone. Forces acting along the axis parallel to the tool are actually greater than those acting along welding direction. All the recorded forces are strictly dependant on the process parameters adopted. No correlation has been found between the grain dimension within the weld bead and the recorded forces, while the greater the forces, the narrower the extension of the heat-affected zone.

  1. An Act of Balance Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Immunity in Depression: a Role for T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Toben, Catherine; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-12-01

    Historically the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system, in particular the serotonergic system, was seen as being responsible for the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). With the advent of psychoneuroimmunology an important role of the immune system in the interface between the central nervous systems (CNS) and peripheral organ systems has emerged. In addition to the well-characterised neurobiological activities of cytokines, T cell function in the context of depression has been neglected so far. In this review we will investigate the biological roles of T cells in depression. Originally it was thought that the adaptive immune arm including T lymphocytes was excluded from the CNS. It is now clear that peripheral naïve T cells not only carry out continuous surveillance within the brain but also maintain neural plasticity. Furthermore animal studies demonstrate that regulatory T lymphocytes can provide protection against maladaptive behavioural responses associated with depression. Psychogenic stress as a major inducer of depression can lead to transient trafficking of T lymphocytes into the brain stimulating the secretion of certain neurotrophic factors and cytokines. The separate and combined mechanism of CD4 and CD8 T cell activation is likely to determine the response pattern of CNS specific neurokines and neurotrophins. Under chronic stress-induced neuroinflammatory conditions associated with depression, T cell responses may become maladaptive and can be involved in neurodegeneration. Additionally, intracellular adhesion and MHC molecule expression as well as glucocorticoid receptor expression within the brain may play a role in determining T lymphocyte functionality in depression. Taken together, T lymphocyte mechanisms, which confer susceptibility or resilience to MDD, are not yet fully understood. Further insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms which balance the adaptive and maladaptive roles of T lymphocytes may provide a better

  2. The balancing act - PPAR-γ's roles at the maternal-fetal interface.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Leena; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid Reza; Drewlo, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Apart from being involved in lipid metabolism, like its other subtypes PPAR α and β, it is implicated to be crucial for successful placentation. While its role in extravillous trophoblast (EVT) differentiation has been studied, the involvement in villous trophoblast (VT) differentiation, fatty-acid metabolism, inflammatory responses, and oxidative pathways during pregnancy deserves more attention. PPAR-γ's potential role in balancing structural development and functional responsibilities at the maternal-fetal interface suggest a more central role for the receptor. The central role of PPAR-γ in pathways related to placental pathologies suggests a potential role of PPAR-γ in placental function. The molecular regulation of PPAR-γ in this context has been widely disregarded. In this review, we discuss the less explored functions of PPAR-γ in the areas of immunological responses and management of oxidative stress in the placenta. We also shed light on the involvement of PPAR-γ in pathologic pregnancies and briefly discuss the current models in the field. The ability to modulate PPAR-γ's activity using already available drugs makes it a tempting therapeutic target. Elucidation of the molecular pathways and specific targets regulated by PPAR-γ will provide more information on the role of PPAR-γ in placentation and related disorders in pregnancy. Furthermore it will close the critical gap in our knowledge about the differential regulation of PPAR-γ in the two trophoblast lineages. This will help to evaluate the usefulness and timing of PPAR-γ modulation in at risk pregnancies to improve placental and endothelial function. PMID:25475254

  3. Superfund guide: Clean Air Act hazardous air pollutants added to the list of CERCLA hazardous substances. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The fact sheet identifies the 52 CAA hazardous air pollutants that have been added to the list of CERCLA hazardous substances and that are now subject to CERCLA requirements; describes the reporting requirements and exemptions under CERCLA; and examines reporting exemptions in relation to releases of ethylene glycol.

  4. Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 (PL 94-484). Amended by Health Services Extension Act of 1977 (PL 95-83, Title III). Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    The Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976, signed into law on Oct. 12, 1976, extends health mampower training authorities through fiscal year 1980 with significant changes to meet national needs. The law (PL 94-484), which amends Title VII of the Public Health Service Act and other laws, is designed primarily to produce more…

  5. Development of a multi-sensor elevation time series pole-ward of 86°S in support of altimetry validation and ice sheet mass balance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studinger, M.; Brunt, K. M.; Casey, K.; Medley, B.; Neumann, T.; Manizade, S.; Linkswiler, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to produce a cross-calibrated long-term record of ice-surface elevation change for input into ice sheet models and mass balance studies it is necessary to "link the measurements made by airborne laser altimeters, satellite measurements of ICESat, ICESat-2, and CryoSat-2" [IceBridge Level 1 Science Requirements, 2012] and determine the biases and the spatial variations between radar altimeters and laser altimeters using different wavelengths. The convergence zones of all ICESat tracks (86°S) and all ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2 tracks (88°S) are in regions of relatively low accumulation, making them ideal for satellite altimetry calibration. In preparation for ICESat-2 validation, the IceBridge and ICESat-2 science teams have designed IceBridge data acquisitions around 86°S and 88°S. Several aspects need to be considered when comparing and combining elevation measurements from different radar and laser altimeters, including: a) foot print size and spatial sampling pattern; b) accuracy and precision of each data sets; c) varying signal penetration into the snow; and d) changes in geodetic reference frames over time, such as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The presentation will focus on the analysis of several IceBridge flights around 86 and 88°S with the LVIS and ATM airborne laser altimeters and will evaluate the accuracy and precision of these data sets. To properly interpret the observed elevation change (dh/dt) as mass change, however, the various processes that control surface elevation fluctuations must be quantified and therefore future work will quantify the spatial variability in snow accumulation rates pole-ward of 86°S and in particular around 88°S. Our goal is to develop a cross-validated multi-sensor time series of surface elevation change pole-ward of 86°S that, in combination with measured accumulation rates, will support ICESat-2 calibration and validation and ice sheet mass balance studies.

  6. Estimating the Global Prevalence of Inadequate Zinc Intake from National Food Balance Sheets: Effects of Methodological Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population’s theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2) generate a model considered to provide the best estimates. Methodology and Principal Findings National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation). Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12–66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57–0.99, P<0.01). A “best-estimate” model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%. Conclusions and Significance Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health

  7. Validation of the surface energy balance over the Antarctic ice sheets in the U.K. Meteorological Office unified climate model

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.C.; Connolley, W.M.

    1997-06-01

    Surface radiation measurements and other climatological data were used to validate the representation of the surface energy balance over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in the U.K. Meteorological Office Unified Climate Model. Model calculations of incident and reflected shortwave radiation are in good agreement with observations, but the downward component of longwave radiation at the surface appears to be underestimated by up to 20 W m-1 in the model. Over much of the interior of Antarctica this error appears to be compensated for by an overestimate in turbulent transport of heat to the surface, while over the steep coastal slopes the heat flux is in good agreement with observations but the surface temperature is too low. The excessive heat flux over the interior results largely from the use of an inappropriately large bulk transfer coefficient under very stable conditions, suggesting that the surface heat flux scheme in the model is not ideally formulated for the conditions that prevail in the Antarctic boundary layer.

  8. HRTEM/AEM study of trace metal behavior, sheet silicate reactions, and fluid/solid mass balances in porphyry copper hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.

    1989-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate copper (Cu) incorporation into silicates and alteration reactions in porphyry copper deposits. High Cu in biotites results from submicroscopic inclusions of native Cu. The incorporation of Cu in low-temperature alteration lamellae suggests that Cu enrichment occurs during weathering, rather than during the hydrothermal event. Drill core from Cyprus Casa Grande, Arizona, shows systematic variation of Cu in sheet silicates as a function of depth in the weathering column. The aims of the present project are to apply the powerful techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) to understanding the geochemical processes in porphyry copper systems at the near-atomic scale. Our primary goals are to characterize the structural state of anomalously high Cu in silicates, determine the timing and conditions of Cu enrichment in silicates such as biotite, and use these data to suggest how base metals are released and subsequently immobilized under hydrothermal or weathering conditions; and to determine the submicroscopic, atomic-level reaction mechanisms responsible for silicate alteration in porphyry-copper hydrothermal systems, which will allow us to determine reaction stoichiometries and hence mass balances between minerals and hydrothermal fluid. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977; Authorization of Appropriations for CETA, and the President's Economic Stimulus Proposals; Hearings before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session on H.R. 50, the Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977; ...Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    These hearings focus on various measures submitted by President Carter and Congress to reduce unemployment, including an extension of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), the Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977, and the President's economic stimulus proposals. Some of the primary testimony presented regarding the need…

  10. A delicate balancing act.

    PubMed

    Greene, J

    1995-03-13

    This week, Modern Healthcare begins a two-part series examining the growing number of sales of not-for-profit hospitals to for-profit chains and the consequences of those sales for the communities involved. The stories in this installment explore whether a community benefits more from having an investor-owned hospital that pays taxes or a tax-exempt hospital that provides more charity care. They also review how this issue played out in Oklahoma City 10 years after a sale. Next week: a look at whether charitable foundations created with the proceeds of sales of not-for-profits deliver on their promises. Also, an analysis of Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp.'s strategy of acquiring not-for-profits through partnership arrangements. PMID:10140556

  11. Balancing Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6

    2011-06-23

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Tipping the Balancing ACT.

    PubMed

    Pilon-Thomas, Shari; Ruffell, Brian

    2016-09-12

    Adoptive cell transfer therapy has emerged as a powerful treatment for metastatic melanoma, but efficacy is limited by an inhospitable tumor microenvironment. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Marigo et al. demonstrate that therapy requires induced expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. PMID:27622327

  13. The Great Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter R.

    The issue of ownership of intellectual property is central to scholarly communication of expressed ideas. Our knowledge property arrangements are key to success in the competitive global markets of the 1990s. There is concern that recent social, technological, and economic changes in the scholarly communication system are affecting the balance…

  14. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borenson, Henry

    2013-01-01

    An operational understanding of the equal sign can hinder learning its relational meaning. After providing examples that illustrate the folly of expecting students who know the operational meaning of the equal sign to intuit the sign's relational meaning, this article provides teachers with strategies that will help them effectively introduce…

  15. A validated model of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balancing act in articular cartilage lesion formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiayi; Brouillette, Marc J; Ayati, Bruce P; Martin, James A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries of articular cartilage result in the formation of a cartilage lesion and contribute to cartilage degeneration and the risk of osteoarthritis (OA). A better understanding of the framework for the formation of a cartilage lesion formation would be helpful in therapy development. Toward this end, we present an age and space-structured model of articular cartilage lesion formation after a single blunt impact. This model modifies the reaction-diffusion-delay models in Graham et al. (2012) (single impact) and Wang et al. (2014) (cyclic loading), focusing on the "balancing act" between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Age structure is introduced to replace the delay terms for cell transitions used in these earlier models; we find age structured models to be more flexible in representing the underlying biological system and more tractable computationally. Numerical results show a successful capture of chondrocyte behavior and chemical activities associated with the cartilage lesion after the initial injury; experimental validation of our computational results is presented. We anticipate that our in silico model of cartilage damage from a single blunt impact can be used to provide information that may not be easily obtained through in in vivo or in vitro studies. PMID:25806365

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate...

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Buy American Statute-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... American Statute-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7000 Section 252.225-7000 Federal... American Statute—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(1)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Balance of Payments Program Certificate (JUN 2012) (a)...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (DEC 2010) (a) Definitions....

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Buy American Statute-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... American Statute-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7000 Section 252.225-7000 Federal... American Statute—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(1)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Balance of Payments Program Certificate (JUN 2012) (a)...

  2. Reconstruction of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance over 1900-2015 with the help of the regional climate MARv3.6 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Xavier; Agosta, Cécile; Gallée, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of studying the recent Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) Surface Mass Balance (SMB) decrease with respect to the last century, we have forced the regional climate MAR model (version 3.6) with the ERA-Interim (1979-2015), ERA-40 (1958-2001), NCEP1 (1948-2015), NCEP2 (1979-2015), JRA-55 (1958-2015), 20CRv2(c) (1880-2012) and ERA-20C (1900-2010) reanalysis. While all of these forcing products are reanalyses, MAR simulates differences in SMB over the common period. A temperature correction of +1°C (resp. -1°C) had notably to be applied to the MAR boundary conditions given that ERA-20C (resp. 20CRv2) is ~1° colder (resp. warmer) over Greenland than ERA-Interim data over 1980-2010. Comparisons with PROMICE daily temperature measurements valid these corrections. In most of regions, the SMB discrepancies between the different simulations are not significant except in the South-East where the maximum of precipitation occurs and where SMB measurements are missing. This suggests that uncertainties in the current SMB reconstruction remain and that observations are still needed. Comparisons with SMB measurements from the PROMICE data set, ice cores and satellite derived melt extent allows to select the best reanalysis forced data set. All of these simulations show that i) the period 1961-1990 usually chosen as reference for SMB and ice dynamics (stable ice sheet) over GrIS is a period when the SMB was abnormally high in respect to the last 120 years; ii) SMB has been significantly decreasing after this reference period due to increasing melt. Both ERA-20C and 20CRv2 forced simulations suggest a precipitation increase since the beginning of the last century and the ERA-20C forced simulation only suggests that SMB during the 1920-1930 warm period over Greenland was comparable with the SMB of the 2000's. Finally, the sensitivity of switching on the erosion of the snow by the wind in MARv3.6 over GrIS will be discussed.

  3. A Balancing Act: A Quantitative Analysis of the Influence of Work/Life Balance and Work Atmosphere on Personal and Professional Success of Women Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archie, T.; Laursen, S. L.; Kogan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Despite an increase in advanced degrees awarded to women in the geosciences, scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities and are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. Our empirical study analyzes factors that influence personal and professional success for women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. We used an electronic survey to collect data from 662 early-career geoscientists who are members of the Earth Science Women's Network and/or the network's Earth Science Jobs list. We asked respondents to self-report their perceptions of work/life balance, professional atmosphere and other variables indicative and/or predictive of personal and professional success. In a previous analysis (Kogan & Laursen, 2011) we found that women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. We also found work/life balance is of particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock function on similar timetables. Women reported more caregiving responsibilities than men, further complicating the balance between work and personal life. We hypothesize that the work life balance and professional atmosphere influences productivity, advancement, and career/job satisfaction. We now investigate how work/life balance, atmosphere within the work unit, and mentoring influence productivity, job and career satisfaction, and career advancement. We introduce a structural equation model that seeks to explain how these relationships vary dependent upon gender, career level

  4. "Anne of Green Gables": A One-Act Musical Based on Lucy Maud Montgomery's Novel. Cue Sheet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Rosalind

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of the one-act musical based on Lucy Maud Montgomery's novel, "Anne of Green Gables," with music by Richard DeRosa and book and lyrics by Greg Gunning. The guide is designed to help teachers foster students' appreciation of theatre, dance, and…

  5. State of balance of the cryosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Veen, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    Available observations and mass balance estimates of the cryosphere are summarized. Problems discussed include mountain glaciers, the Greenland ice sheet, the Antarctic ice sheet, conventional glacier measurement techniques, and satellite applications in glacier mass balance studies. It is concluded that the interior part of the Greenland ice sheet is thickening or in near equilibrium. Estimates of the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet suggest that it is positive, although the error limits allow for a slightly negative balance.

  6. "A Village Fable: In the Suicide Mountains": A One-Act Musical Play Based on the Novella "In the Suicide Mountains" by John Gardner, Book by James Still. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopp, Virginia Stuart

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "A Village Fable, In the Suicide Mountains," A one-act musical play based on the novella "In The Suicide Mountains" by John Gardner, and presented by The Coterie Theatre. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven activity sheets for use in…

  7. The Care Manager's Dilemma: Balancing Human Rights with Risk Management under the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prebble, Kate; Diesfeld, Kate; Frey, Rosemary; Sutton, Daniel; Honey, Michelle; Vickery, Russell; McKenna, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In New Zealand, the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003 provides diversion for persons with an intellectual disability who have been charged with, or convicted of, a criminal offence. This unique Act moves the responsibility for such "care recipients" from the criminal justice system to a disability sector that…

  8. Balancing Act: A Study of International School Heads' Efforts to Manage the Professional and Personal Aspects of Their Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Christiane PJ

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the topic of professional and personal life balance has increased exponentially over the past several decades. The topic even is listed by the current First Lady of the United States as a priority item to be addressed during her husband's first four years in office. While studies have been conducted about the professional/personal…

  9. Where have they gone? – A discussion on the balancing act of female doctors between work and family

    PubMed Central

    Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Limbrecht, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Goals: The increasing number of vacant positions for doctors increasingly puts the issue of reconciling work and family into the spotlight in companies, hospitals and universities, as increased expectations of a better work-life balance are seen as one of the reasons for these vacancies. Highly qualified professionals are trained, but not available to the labour market. The aim is to summarise what difficulties doctors who want to have a family and their potential employers must face. Methods: The following articles show the current state of research and potential starting points for an optimisation of the medical profession from a family-friendly perspective and intend to stimulate debate. Results: Some basic steps towards better work-life balance have already been taken, such as the provision of childcare places and the increasing availability of more flexible working patterns. But it seems that these measures, since they have been implemented neither sufficiently nor universally, do not suffice to secure the next generation of staff. Especially women in leadership positions are still rare to find. Conclusions: Both male and female doctors want better quality of life by achieving a better work-life balance. The expansion of family-friendly services is seen as a necessary step to allow female doctors to successfully combine work and family. PMID:22558025

  10. Global trends in use of long-acting reversible and permanent methods of contraception: Seeking a balance.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ritu; Khadilkar, Suvarna; Patel, Madhuri

    2015-10-01

    The global trend shows that the use of permanent contraception to prevent unintended pregnancy is high. Although the trend also shows a rise in the use of long-acting reversible methods, these are still underutilized despite having contraceptive as well as non-contraceptive benefits. Lack of knowledge among women, dependence on the provider for information, and provider bias for permanent contraception are cited as reasons for this reduced uptake. Training of healthcare providers and increased patient awareness about the effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods will increase their uptake and help prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26433510

  11. Aligning State Standards and the Expanded Core Curriculum: Balancing the Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmeier, Keri L.

    2009-01-01

    How do professionals address accountability mandates that are derived from the No Child Left Behind Act and the overall educational needs of students who are visually impaired during the school day? Meeting state and federal mandates while maintaining the individuality of educational programs is challenging for all educators. Teachers of students…

  12. A Validated Model of the Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Balancing Act in Articular Cartilage Lesion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiayi; Brouillette, Marc J.; Ayati, Bruce P.; Martin, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries of articular cartilage result in the formation of a cartilage lesion and contribute to cartilage degeneration and the risk of osteoarthritis (OA). A better understanding of the framework for the formation of a cartilage lesion formation would be helpful in therapy development. Toward this end, we present an age and space-structured model of articular cartilage lesion formation after a single blunt impact. This model modifies the reaction-diffusion-delay models in Graham et al. (2012) (single impact) and Wang et al. (2014) (cyclic loading), focusing on the “balancing act” between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Age structure is introduced to replace the delay terms for cell transitions used in these earlier models; we find age structured models to be more flexible in representing the underlying biological system and more tractable computationally. Numerical results show a successful capture of chondrocyte behavior and chemical activities associated with the cartilage lesion after the initial injury; experimental validation of our computational results is presented. We anticipate that our in silico model of cartilage damage from a single blunt impact can be used to provide information that may not be easily obtained through in in vivo or in vitro studies. PMID:25806365

  13. Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional climate model MAR (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Xavier; Gallée, Hubert; van den Broeke, Michiel; Tedesco, Marco; van Angelen, Jan; Lenaerts, Jan; Erpicum, Michel

    2013-04-01

    With the aim of estimating the sea level rise (SLR) coming from Surface Mass Balance (SMB) changes over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), we report future projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs). Our results indicate that in warmer climates, the mass gained due to increased winter snowfall over GrIS does not compensate the mass lost through increased meltwater run-off in summer. All the MAR projections shows similar non-linear melt increases with rising temperatures as a result of the positive surface albedo feedback, because no change is projected in the general atmospheric circulation over Greenland. Nevertheless, MAR exhibits a large range in its future projections. By coarsely estimating the GrIS SMB changes from CMIP5 GCMs outputs, we show that the uncertainty coming from the GCM-based forcing represents about half of projected SMB changes. In 2100, the CMIP5 ensemble mean projects a SLR, resulting from a GrIS SMB decrease, estimated to be 4±2 cm and 9±4 cm for the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively. However, these future projections do not consider the positive melt-elevation feedback. Sensitivity MAR experiments using perturbed ice sheet topographies consistent with the projected SMB changes highlight the importance of coupling climate models to an ice sheet model. Such a coupling will allow to consider the future response of both surface processes and ice-dynamic changes, and their mutual feedbacks to rising temperatures.

  14. Tipping Points and Balancing Acts: Grand Challenges and Synergistic Opportunities of Integrating Research and Education, Science and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    thousands of US high schools that integrate climate science and solutions in a way that inspires and informs youth, and similar programs exist internationally. Other approaches to prepare vulnerable communities, especially young people, for natural hazards and human-induced environmental change include programs such as Plan International's "Child Centered Disaster Risk Reduction- Building Resilience Through Participation," and their "Weathering the Storm" project, focusing on integrating the needs of teenage girls with climate change adaptation and risk reduction. While minimizing global environmental and climate change is crucial, these and related programs that weave research with education, science with solutions offer the potential for addressing the "Grand Challenges" by better preparing for societal and environmental tipping points through a more balanced and integrated approach to addressing change."

  15. Balancing acts: A mixed methods study of the figured world of African American 7th graders in urban science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland-Solomon, Tanya E.

    What beliefs and cultural models do youth who are underrepresented in science have about the domain of science and about themselves as science learners? What do they imagine is possible for them in relation to science both now and in the future? In other words, what constitutes their figured world of science? This dissertation study, using a mixed methods design, offers new perspectives on the ways that underrepresented youth's unexamined assumptions or cultural models and resources may shape their identities and motivation to learn science. Through analyses of survey and interview data, I found that urban African American youths' social context, gender, racial identity, and perceptions of the science they had in school influenced their motivation to learn science. Analyses of short-term classroom observations and interviews suggested that students had competing cultural models that they used in their constructions of identities as science learners, which they espoused and adopted in relation to how well they leveraged the science-related cultural resources available to them. Results from this study suggested that these 7th graders would benefit from access to more expansive cultural models through access to individuals with scientific capital as a way to allow them to create fruitful identities as science learners. If we want to ensure that students from groups that are underrepresented in science not only have better outcomes, but aspire to and enter the science career pipeline, we must also begin to support them in their negotiations of competing cultural models that limit their ability to adopt science-learner identities in their classrooms. This study endeavored to understand the particular cultural models and motivational beliefs that drive students to act, and what types of individuals they imagine scientists and science workers to be. This study also examined how cultural models and resources influence identity negotiation, specifically the roles youths

  16. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  17. Global Sales Training's Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…

  18. Constitutional Check and Balance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2014-02-27

    03/03/2014 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 310. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Library Kiosks: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegard, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the author spearheaded the Thunder Bay Public Library's (TBPL) service audit on kiosks. A task force comprising staff from the children's, reference, and adult services departments was formed to work on the audit. Task force members worked together and studied how patrons and staff use kiosks, conducted a literature review, surveyed other…

  20. What Works for Acting-Out (Externalizing) Behavior: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Social Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2011-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary; Hamilton, Katie; Ling, Thomson

    2011-01-01

    Preventing and reducing acting-out or externalizing behaviors is a goal often targeted by out-of-school time programs for children and youth. The term "externalizing" refers to disruptive, harmful, or problem behaviors that are directed to persons and/or things. Examples include aggressive behaviors such as getting into fights and bullying;…

  1. What is balance?

    PubMed

    Pollock, A S; Durward, B R; Rowe, P J; Paul, J P

    2000-08-01

    Balance is a term frequently used by health professionals working in a wide variety of clinical specialities. There is no universally accepted definition of human balance, or related terms. This article identifies mechanical definitions of balance and introduces clinical definitions of balance and postural control. Postural control is defined as the act of maintaining, achieving or restoring a state of balance during any posture or activity. Postural control strategies may be either predictive or reactive, and may involve either a fixed-support or a change-in-support response. Clinical tests of balance assess different components of balance ability. Health professionals should select clinical assessments based on a sound knowledge and understanding of the classification of balance and postural control strategies. PMID:10945424

  2. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  3. Remarks of the President on Nationwide Radio and Television; Message to the Congress; Fact Sheet: Message on Busing; Student Transportation Moratorium Act of 1972; Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard M.

    Two proposed legislative measures are discussed in this document. The first is "The Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1972). This would (1) require that no state or locality could deny equal educational opportunity to any person on account of race, color, or national origin; (2) establish criteria for determining what constitutes a denial of…

  4. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  5. Elastic response of a grounded ice sheet coupled to a floating ice shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worster, M. G.; Sayag, R.

    2011-12-01

    An ice sheet that spreads into an ocean is forced to bend owing to its buoyancy, and detaches from the ground to form an ice shelf. The detachment position, called the grounding-line, behaves as a free boundary. Observational evidence suggests that the surface elevation of the ice at the grounding zone can be undulated and that the bed beneath the ice can deform. We present a theoretical and experimental study of an elastic sheet resting on a deformable elastic bed, coupled to an elastic shelf, with a free grounding line. We find that the grounding-line position is determined by the geometry of the bed and a lengthscale representing a balance of bending and buoyancy forces. We show that the undulated structure of the floating shelf depends on the bending-buoyancy lengthscale only, allowing us to calculate the bending stiffness of the elastic shelf independently of the bed slope or bed stiffness. We also find relations between features on the surface of the floating shelf and the grounding-line position. Our theoretical predictions agree with laboratory experiments made using thick elastic sheets acting as the ice, and a dense salt solution acting as the ocean. Our findings provide new insights on the dynamics near grounding lines, which may have important implications for ice-sheet dynamics and stability, as well as methods to infer the bending stiffness of ice sheets and the grounding line position from satellite altimetery.

  6. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Jensen, A.; Li, Z.; Stupakov, G.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly.

  7. A Post-September 11th Balancing Act: Public Access to U.S. Government Information versus Protection of Sensitive Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest realistic guidelines that balance public access to government information and the need to protect sensitive data. Emphasis is on lessons learned from a 1979 case where the government attempted to prohibit the Progressive Magazine from publishing an article about making a hydrogen bomb and government…

  8. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  9. Balancing act: Evidence for a strong subdominant d-wave pairing channel in Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Böhm, T.; Kemper, A. F.; Moritz, B.; Kretzschmar, F.; Muschler, B.; Eiter, H. -M.; Hackl, R.; Devereaux, T. P.; Scalapino, D. J.; Wen, Hai -Hu

    2014-12-18

    We present detailed measurements of the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of optimally doped Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 and analyze the low-temperature spectra based on local-density-approximation band-structure calculations and the subsequent estimation of effective Raman vertices. Experimentally, a narrow, emergent mode appears in the B1g (dx2-y2) Raman spectra only below Tc, well into the superconducting state and at an energy below twice the energy gap on the electron Fermi-surface sheets. The Raman spectra can be reproduced quantitatively with estimates for the magnitude and momentum-space structure of an A1g (s-wave) pairing gap on different Fermi-surface sheets, as well as the identification of the emergent sharp featuremore » as a Bardasis-Schrieffer exciton. Formed as a Cooper-pair bound state in a subdominant dx2-y2 channel, the binding energy of the exciton relative to the gap edge shows that the coupling strength in the subdominant channel is as strong as 60% of that in the dominant s-wave channel. This result suggests that dx2-y2 may be the dominant pairing symmetry in Fe-based superconductors that lack central hole bands.« less

  10. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as if ... related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  11. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  12. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  13. Thinking globally and acting locally in Mindanao: Supporting the delicate balance of future sustainability in South-East Asian wilderness as well as rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, C.

    2014-02-01

    Although models of future sustainability often talk about effectively balancing economic, social and environmental imperatives or factors, in practice this typically remains an elusive ideal. This paper explores the exemplary possibilities but also dilemmas of a proposed initiative in the resource-rich but under-developed Filippino island province of Mindanao to achieve such a delicate balance in practice. This initiative by Raintrust Sustainable Ventures' proposes to link foreign investment in agricultural development to both the social advancement of local tribal peoples and the protection of large amounts of remaining wilderness areas. Such a case study provides an exemplary basis for discussing the challenge of achieving social and environmental as well as economic domains of 'future sustainability'. The crucial supporting role of information and geospatial technologies in the Raintrust plan will also be discussed.

  14. Materials Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Materials Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Materials Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) research focus is the physical and photoelectrochemical characterization of novel materials. In this laboratory unknown samples are characterized by identifying and quantifying molecular species present through the implementation of a suite of analytical instrumentation and techniques. This leads to the ability to deconvolute decomposition routes and elucidate reaction mechanisms of materials through thermal and evolved gas analysis. This aids in the synthesis of next generation materials that are tailored to optimize stability and performance. These techniques and next generation materials will have many applications. One particular focus is the stable and conductive tetherable cations for use as membrane materials in anion exchange membrane fuel cells. Another is to understand the leachant contaminants derived from balance of plant materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cell vehicles. Once identified and quantified, these organic and ionic species are dosed as contaminants into ex/in-situ fuel cell tests, to determine the effect on durability and performance. This laboratory also acts in support of fuel cell catalysis, manufacturing, and other related projects. The Materials Characterization Laboratory will cover multiple analytical operations, with the overall goal of troubleshooting synthetic materials or process streams to improve performance. Having novel evolved gas analysis and other analytical capabilities; this laboratory provides a viable location to analyze small batch samples, whereas setting up these types of capabilities and expertise would be cost and time prohibitive for most institutions. Experiments that can be performed include: (1

  15. The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977; Authorization of Appropriations for CETA, and the President's Economic Stimulus Proposals; Hearings before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session on H.R. 50 and H.R. 2992, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The proceedings from the 2 days of hearings before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities on the Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977, the authorizations and appropriations for the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), and the President's economic stimulus proposals are presented in this report. All prepared…

  16. Energy. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Larry

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of energy problems and programs in the United States and discusses the role that vocational education can play in solving those problems. The National Energy Plan is described including its objectives, strategies, and seven legislative acts: (1) The National Energy Conservation Act; (2) The Power Plant and…

  17. A Balancing Act: Integrating Evidence-Based Knowledge and Cultural Relevance in a Program of Prevention Parenting Research with Latino/a Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; López-Zerón, Gabriela; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Escobar-Chew, A Rocío; Whitehead, Michael R; Sullivan, Cris M; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    Family therapists have a unique opportunity to contribute toward the reduction of widespread mental health disparities impacting diverse populations by developing applied lines of research focused on cultural adaptation. For example, although evidence-based prevention parent training (PT) interventions have been found to be efficacious with various Euro-American populations, there is a pressing need to understand which specific components of PT interventions are perceived by ethnic minority parents as having the highest impact on their parenting practices. Equally important is to examine the perceived cultural relevance of adapted PT interventions. This qualitative investigation had the primary objective of comparing and contrasting the perceived relevance of two culturally adapted versions of the efficacious parenting intervention known as Parent Management Training, the Oregon Model (PMTO). According to feasibility indicators provided by 112 Latino/a immigrant parents, as well as findings from a qualitative thematic analysis, the core parenting components across both adapted interventions were identified by the majority of research participants as relevant to their parenting practices. Participants exposed to the culturally enhanced intervention, which included culture-specific sessions, also reported high satisfaction with components exclusively focused on cultural issues that directly impact their parenting practices (e.g., immigration challenges, biculturalism). This investigation illustrates the relevant contributions that family therapy scholars can offer toward addressing mental health disparities, particularly as it refers to developing community-based prevention interventions that achieve a balance between evidence-based knowledge and cultural relevance. PMID:26503301

  18. Improved automated electronic balance calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Frickey, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    An improved automated electronic balance calibration and record system has been developed using a spread sheet to consolidate information required to calibrate electronic balances and satisfy requirements for traceability, validation and documentation. Several improvements have been made over an Epson HX-20{trademark} notebook computer-based balance calibration system, which was developed at the Savannah River Site in 1986 and used continuously since to annually calibrate electronic balances. These improvements included: built in tables of balance models performance test limits and calibration standards` apparent masses & uncertainties; calculated ratios of balance to test weight uncertainties; bar-code data input; enhanced graphs and tables; and permanent electronic records. The software and hardware were thoroughly tested by calibrating 30 balances in another department. Hardware for importing data from balances through an RS-232 interface and bar code reader into a portable computer`s spread sheet was evaluated and found to add little value to the calibration process. Computerized data collection minimizes record handling and reduces paper work costs by >50%. Databases are established for each organization`s electronic balances that contain records for each balance that are identified by model, property identification number and location. In addition, each record contains calibration and expiration dates, performance testing information, etc. Details of equipment, statistical testing, spread sheet features and examples of the program are described.

  19. Enhanced optical gradient forces between coupled graphene sheets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinbiao; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zheqi; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Optical gradient forces between monolayer infinite-width graphene sheets as well as single-mode graphene nanoribbon pairs of graphene surface plasmons (GSPs) at mid-infrared frequencies were theoretically investigated. Although owing to the strongly enhanced optical field, the normalized optical force, fn, can reach 50 nN/μm/mW, which is the largest fn as we know, the propagation loss is also large. But we found that by changing the chemical potential of graphene, fn and the optical propagation loss can be balanced. The total optical force acted on the nanoribbon waveguides can thus enhance more than 1 order of magnitude than that in metallic surface plasmons (MSPs) waveguides with the same length and the loss can be lower. Owing to the enhanced optical force and the significant neff tuning by varying the chemical potential of graphene, we also propose an ultra-compact phase shifter. PMID:27338252

  20. Lives in the Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time parenting. (SM)

  1. Large Ice Discharge From the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to measure the ice discharge of the Greenland Ice Sheet close to the grounding line and/or calving front, and compare the results with mass accumulation and ablation in the interior to estimate the ice sheet mass balance.

  2. A study of thin liquid sheet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1993-01-01

    This study was a theoretical and experimental investigation of thin liquid sheet flows in vacuum. A sheet flow created by a narrow slit of width, W, coalesces to a point at a distance, L, as a result of surface tension forces acting at the sheet edges. As the flow coalesces, the fluid accumulates in the sheet edges. The observed triangular shape of the sheet agrees with the calculated triangular result. Experimental results for L/W as a function of Weber number, We, agree with the calculated result, L/W = the sq. root of 8We. The edge cross sectional shape is found to oscillate from elliptic to 'cigar' like to 'peanut' like and then back to elliptic in the flow direction. A theoretical one-dimensional model was developed that yielded only elliptic solutions for the edge cross section. At the points where the elliptic shapes occur, there is agreement between theory and experiment.

  3. Aging: Balancing regeneration and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beausejour, Christian M.; Campisi, Judith

    2006-08-24

    The proliferation of cells must balance the longevity assured by tissue renewal against the risk of developing cancer. The tumor-suppressor protein p16{sup INK4a} seems to act at the pivot of this delicate equilibrium.

  4. Evolution of the National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act (NASPER): a public law for balancing treatment of pain and drug abuse and diversion.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Whitfield, Ed; Pallone, Frank

    2005-10-01

    In the United States, physicians are faced with two opposing dilemmas in the treatment of pain - the potential for drug abuse and diversion, and the possible undertreatment of pain. While controlled prescription drugs such as narcotic analgesics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, stimulants, and sedative-hypnotics, play a legitimate role in managing chronic pain and other conditions, the illicit use of prescribed medicines is increasing at epidemic proportions. Diversion and abuse of prescription drugs is costly in terms of addiction, overdose, death, and related criminal activities, but chronic pain carries significant economic, social, and health impact as well. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), as the introducing organization, was joined by several physician and nurse practitioner organizations in support of the National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting (NASPER) Act of 2005, legislation that not only will give physicians an information tool to aid in prescribing controlled substances but also will help identify illicit use and abuse. NASPER is the law that provides for the establishment of a controlled substances monitoring program in each state. The concept for NASPER originated with ASIPP and was modeled after the highly successful Kentucky All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Program (KASPER). Legislation was introduced in the United States House of Representatives during three different Congresses, the 107th, 108th, and 109th, by Reps. Edward Whitfield (R-KY) and Frank Pallone (D-NJ). It was first introduced in the United States Senate in the 107th Congress by Sen. Tim Hutchinson (R-AK), and in the 108th and 109th by Sens. Jeff Sessions (R-AL) and Dick Durbin (D-IL), with multiple cosponsors in both chambers. NASPER passed the House on July 27, 2005, by voice vote and passed the Senate by unanimous consent on July 29, 2005. President George W. Bush signed NASPER on August 11, 2005, and it became Public Law

  5. Holocene deceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Colgan, William T; Fahnestock, Mark A; Morlighem, Mathieu; Catania, Ginny A; Paden, John D; Gogineni, S Prasad

    2016-02-01

    Recent peripheral thinning of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly offset by interior thickening and is overprinted on its poorly constrained Holocene evolution. On the basis of the ice sheet's radiostratigraphy, ice flow in its interior is slower now than the average speed over the past nine millennia. Generally higher Holocene accumulation rates relative to modern estimates can only partially explain this millennial-scale deceleration. The ice sheet's dynamic response to the decreasing proportion of softer ice from the last glacial period and the deglacial collapse of the ice bridge across Nares Strait also contributed to this pattern. Thus, recent interior thickening of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly an ongoing dynamic response to the last deglaciation that is large enough to affect interpretation of its mass balance from altimetry. PMID:26912699

  6. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. PMID:26887494

  7. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet Accumulation Rates from Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.

    2001-01-01

    An important component of NASA's Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a mass balance investigation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The mass balance is calculated by taking the difference between the snow accumulation and the ice discharge of the ice sheet. Uncertainties in this calculation include the snow accumulation rate, which has traditionally been determined by interpolating data from ice core samples taken throughout the ice sheet. The sparse data associated with ice cores, coupled with the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by remote sensing, have motivated scientists to investigate relationships between accumulation rate and microwave observations.

  8. The Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model (EMISM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice sheet models become more and more components of global climate system modelling instead of stand-alone features to study cryospheric processes. Full coupling of ice sheet models to atmospheric and ocean models requires a standard for ice sheet models, and more precisely for marine ice sheet models, where complex feedbacks between ice and ocean, such as marine ice sheet instability, and the atmosphere, such as the elevation-mass balance feedback, operate at different time scales. Recent model intercomparisons (e.g., SeaRISE, MISMIP) have shown that basic requirements for marine ice sheet models are still lacking and that the complexity of many ice sheet models is focused on processes that are either not well captured numerically (spatial resolution issue) or are of secondary importance compared to the essential features of marine ice sheet dynamics. Here, we propose a new and fast computing ice sheet model, devoid of most complexity, but capturing the essential feedbacks when coupled to ocean or atmospheric models. Its computational efficiency guarantees to easily tests its advantages as well as limits through ensemble modelling. EMISM (Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model) is a vertically integrated ice sheet model based on the Shallow-Ice Approximation extended a Weertman sliding law. Although vertically integrated, thermomechanical coupling is ensured through a simplified representation of ice sheet thermodynamics based on an analytical solution of the vertical temperature profile, enhanced with strain heating. The marine boundary is represented by a parameterized flux condition similar to Pollard & Deconto (2012), based on Schoof (2007). A simplified ice shelf is added to account for buttressing of ice shelves in this parameterization. The ice sheet model is solved on a finite difference grid and special care is taken to its numerical efficiency and stability. While such model has a series of (known) deficiencies with respect to short time effects, its overall

  9. Monitoring southwest Greenland's ice sheet melt with ambient seismic noise.

    PubMed

    Mordret, Aurélien; Mikesell, T Dylan; Harig, Christopher; Lipovsky, Bradley P; Prieto, Germán A

    2016-05-01

    The Greenland ice sheet presently accounts for ~70% of global ice sheet mass loss. Because this mass loss is associated with sea-level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/year, the development of improved monitoring techniques to observe ongoing changes in ice sheet mass balance is of paramount concern. Spaceborne mass balance techniques are commonly used; however, they are inadequate for many purposes because of their low spatial and/or temporal resolution. We demonstrate that small variations in seismic wave speed in Earth's crust, as measured with the correlation of seismic noise, may be used to infer seasonal ice sheet mass balance. Seasonal loading and unloading of glacial mass induces strain in the crust, and these strains then result in seismic velocity changes due to poroelastic processes. Our method provides a new and independent way of monitoring (in near real time) ice sheet mass balance, yielding new constraints on ice sheet evolution and its contribution to global sea-level changes. An increased number of seismic stations in the vicinity of ice sheets will enhance our ability to create detailed space-time records of ice mass variations. PMID:27386524

  10. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease After a comprehensive review of evidence, there ...

  11. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  12. Response of the ice sheets to fluctuating temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bøgeholm Mikkelsen, Troels; Grinsted, Aslak; Ditlevsen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting the future sea level relies on accurate modeling of the response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to changing tempera- tures. Using coupled climate and ice sheet models long time forecasting is often made computationally feasible by running the ice sheet model in off-line mode, such that the temperature and precipitation fields govern- ing the mass balance of the ice sheets are taken to be constant over time. As the temperature and precipitation fluctuates, the asymmetry in the typical time scales for accumulation and ablation would result in a bias in the resulting mass balance of the ice sheet. We show that the steady state of the ice sheet is biased toward larger size of the ice sheet, if the short time scale fluctuations in temperature are not taken into account. This could potentially imply that the critical global temperature increase for ice sheet collapse is overestimated, thus the risk of collapse in a given climate change scenario underestimated. Our results highlight the need to consider the variability and not only the mean of the forcing of the mass balance of the ice sheet. We estimate that the effect of temperature variability on surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet in recent ensemble forecasting should be adjusted downward by as much as 10 percent of the present day observed value, if assuming a 2 degree warming. We are thus closer to a potential tipping point, than previously anticipated. Many predicted scenarios of the future climate show an increased variability in temperature over much of the Earth. In light of the findings presented here, it is important to gauge the extent to which this increased variability will further influence climate change.

  13. Balancing Acts: Adolescents' and Mothers' Friendship Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation describes the joint goal-directed series of actions, or joint friendship projects, of 19 mothers and their adolescents. Data were collected through videotaped conversations, video recall interviews, and self-report logs collected over an 8-month period. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed joint projects characterized by…

  14. The Balancing Act of Moose and Wolves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gordon C.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the predator-prey relationship between the moose and the wolves, and the added effect of human exploitations on this relationship. Described is the moose behavior at the population and system levels resulting from the predation pressures on them by the wolves and human exploitation. (DS)

  15. The Balancing Act of Bilingual Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    2005-01-01

    Hadi-Tabassum believes having a separate life context for each language she learned in childhood enabled her to switch easily among five different tongues. She states that the success of dual immersion bilingual programs is largely dependent on whether they immerse students in each of the involved languages separately and help students have a…

  16. Making It All Work: The Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefbauer, Christi

    2013-01-01

    In this brief article, the author shares some strategies that make her work and home life easier and more gratifying: (1) Declutter and simplify; (2) Plan meals; (3) Use Google Calendar; (4) Automate bills; (5) Use technology; (6) Make health a priority; and (7) Lose the guilt.

  17. Work-Life Balance Award Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6

    2010-03-16

    06/15/2010 On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill, as amended Failed by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 249 - 163 (Roll no. 360). (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. The WTO’s balancing act

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    The 146 member nations of the World Trade Organization recently came to an agreement that will allow poor nations to avoid patent restrictions and import generic versions of urgently needed medicines, but this accord has been met with criticism from international aid organizations. What effects will this agreement have on reducing the burden of disease in the developing world, and also on the pharmaceutical industry? PMID:14597749

  19. Cut, Cap, and Balance Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lee, Mike [R-UT

    2011-07-07

    07/11/2011 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 97. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Cut, Cap, and Balance Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Chaffetz, Jason [R-UT-3

    2011-07-15

    07/22/2011 Motion to table the motion to proceed to the bill agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 51 - 46. Record Vote Number: 116. (consideration: CR S4825-4826) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. The Balancing Act of Ribonucleotides in DNA.

    PubMed

    Cerritelli, Susana M; Crouch, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    The abundance of ribonucleotides in DNA remained undetected until recently because they are efficiently removed by the ribonucleotide excision repair (RER) pathway, a process similar to Okazaki fragment (OF) processing after incision by Ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2). All DNA polymerases incorporate ribonucleotides during DNA synthesis. How many, when, and why they are incorporated has been the focus of intense work during recent years by many labs. In this review, we discuss recent advances in ribonucleotide incorporation by eukaryotic DNA polymerases that suggest an evolutionarily conserved role for ribonucleotides in DNA. We also review the data that indicate that removal of ribonucleotides has an important role in maintaining genome stability. PMID:26996833

  2. A Balancing Act: Making Sense of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2015-01-01

    For most students, algebra seems like a totally different subject than the number topics they studied in elementary school. In reality, the procedures followed in arithmetic are actually based on the properties and laws of algebra. Algebra should be a logical next step for students in extending the proficiencies they developed with number topics…

  3. Ice sheet topography by satellite altimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, R.L.; Campbell, W.J.; Ramseier, R.O.; Stanley, H.R.; Zwally, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The surface elevation of the southern Greenland ice sheet and surface features of the ice flow are obtained from the radar altimeter on the GEOS 3 satellite. The achieved accuracy in surface elevation is ???2 m. As changes in surface elevation are indicative of changes in ice volume, the mass balance of the present ice sheets could be determined by repetitive mapping of the surface elevation and the surface could be monitored to detect surging or significant changes in ice flow. ?? 1978 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, M.E.; Clark, P.U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; Kuhn, G.

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  5. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 505 - Litigation Status Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Litigation Status Sheet E Appendix E to Part 505... PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. E Appendix E to Part 505—Litigation Status Sheet..., and Case File Number; (d) Defendants: DOD component and individual; (e) Remarks: Brief explanation...

  6. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  7. RADIATING CURRENT SHEETS IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.; Judge, Philip G. E-mail: judge@ucar.edu

    2012-05-20

    An MHD model of a hydrogen plasma with flow, an energy equation, NLTE ionization and radiative cooling, and an Ohm's law with anisotropic electrical conduction and thermoelectric effects is used to self-consistently generate atmospheric layers over a 50 km height range. A subset of these solutions contains current sheets and has properties similar to those of the lower and middle chromosphere. The magnetic field profiles are found to be close to Harris sheet profiles, with maximum field strengths {approx}25-150 G. The radiative flux F{sub R} emitted by individual sheets is {approx}4.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}-4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, to be compared with the observed chromospheric emission rate of {approx}10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Essentially all emission is from regions with thicknesses {approx}0.5-13 km containing the neutral sheet. About half of F{sub R} comes from sub-regions with thicknesses 10 times smaller. A resolution {approx}< 5-130 m is needed to resolve the properties of the sheets. The sheets have total H densities {approx}10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The ionization fraction in the sheets is {approx}2-20 times larger, and the temperature is {approx}2000-3000 K higher than in the surrounding plasma. The Joule heating flux F{sub J} exceeds F{sub R} by {approx}4%-34%, the difference being balanced in the energy equation mainly by a negative compressive heating flux. Proton Pedersen current dissipation generates {approx}62%-77% of the positive contribution to F{sub J} . The remainder of this contribution is due to electron current dissipation near the neutral sheet where the plasma is weakly magnetized.

  8. Thin current sheet embedded within a thicker plasma sheet: Self-consistent kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Malova, H. V.; Sharma, A. S.

    2000-06-01

    A self-consistent theory of thin current sheets, where the magnetic field line tension is balanced by the ion inertia rather than by the pressure gradient, is presented. Assuming that ions are the main current carriers and their dynamics is quasi-adiabatic, the Maxwell-Vlasov equations are reduced to the nonlocal analogue of the Grad-Shafranov equation using a new set of integrals of motion, namely, the particle energy and the sheet invariant of the quasi-adiabatic motion. It is shown that for a drifting Maxwellian distribution of ions outside the sheet the equilibrium equation can be reduced in the limits of strong and weak anisotropy to universal equations that determine families of equilibria with similar profiles of the magnetic field. In the region Bn/B0sheet and close to its central plane, the ion drift velocity outside the sheet, and the ion thermal velocity, respectively) the thickness of such similar profiles is of the order of (vT/vD)1/3ρ0, where ρ0 is the thermal ion gyroradius outside the sheet. In the limit of weak anisotropy (vT/vD>>1) the self-consistent current sheet equilibrium may also exist with no indications of the catastrophe reported earlier by Burkhart et al. [1992a]. On the contrary, it is found that in this limit the magnetic field profiles again become similar to each other with the characteristic thickness ~ρ0. The profiles of plasma and current densities as well as the components of the pressure tensor are calculated for arbitrary ion anisotropy outside the sheet. It is shown that the thin current sheet for the equilibrium considered here is usually embedded into a much thicker plasma sheet. Moreover, in the case of weak anisotropy the perturbation of the plasma density inside the sheet is shown to be proportional to the parameter vD/vT, and as a result the electrostatic effects should be small, consistent with observations. This model of the thin current sheet

  9. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  10. Graphane sheets and crystals under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Hand, Louis; Labet, Vanessa; Yang, Tao; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.; Oganov, Artem R.; Lyakhov, Andriy O.

    2011-01-01

    Eight isomeric two-dimensional graphane sheets are found in a theoretical study. Four of these nets—two built on chair cyclohexanes, two on boat—are more stable thermodynamically than the isomeric benzene, or polyacetylene. Three-dimensional crystals are built up from the two-dimensional sheets, and their hypothetical behavior under pressure (up to 300 GPa) is explored. While the three-dimensional graphanes remain, as expected, insulating or semiconducting in this pressure range, there is a remarkable inversion in stability of the five crystals studied. Two stacking polytypes that are not the most stable at ambient pressure (one based on an unusual chair cyclohexane net, the other on a boat) are significantly stabilized with increasing pressure relative to stackings of simple chair sheets. The explanation may lie in the balance on intra and intersheet contacts in the extended arrays.

  11. Graphanes: Sheets and stacking under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Hand, Louis; Labet, Vanessa; Yang, Tao; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.; Oganov, Artem R.; Lyakhov, Andriy O.

    2011-04-26

    Eight isomeric two-dimensional graphane sheets are found in a theoretical study. Four of these nets—two built on chair cyclohexanes, two on boat—are more stable thermodynamically than the isomeric benzene, or polyacetylene. Three-dimensional crystals are built up from the two-dimensional sheets, and their hypothetical behavior under pressure (up to 300 GPa) is explored. While the three-dimensional graphanes remain, as expected, insulating or semiconducting in this pressure range, there is a remarkable inversion in stability of the five crystals studied. Two stacking polytypes that are not the most stable at ambient pressure (one based on an unusual chair cyclohexane net, the other on a boat) are significantly stabilized with increasing pressure relative to stackings of simple chair sheets. The explanation may lie in the balance on intra and intersheet contacts in the extended arrays.

  12. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Noel, Brice; Turner, David D.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2015-04-01

    Clouds have a profound influence on both the Arctic and global climate, while they still represent one of the key uncertainties in climate models, limiting the fidelity of future climate projections. The potentially important role of thin liquid-containing clouds over Greenland in enhancing ice sheet melt has recently gained interest, yet current research is spatially and temporally limited, focusing on particular events, and their large scale impact on the surface mass balance remains unknown. We used a combination of satellite remote sensing (CloudSat - CALIPSO), ground-based observations and climate model (RACMO) data to show that liquid-containing clouds warm the Greenland ice sheet 94% of the time. High surface reflectivity (albedo) for shortwave radiation reduces the cloud shortwave cooling effect on the absorbed fluxes, while not influencing the absorption of longwave radiation. Cloud warming over the ice sheet therefore dominates year-round. Only when albedo values drop below ~0.6 in the coastal areas during summer, the cooling effect starts to overcome the warming effect. The year-round excess of energy due to the presence of liquid-containing clouds has an extensive influence on the mass balance of the ice sheet. Simulations using the SNOWPACK snow model showed not only a strong influence of these liquid-containing clouds on melt increase, but also on the increased sublimation mass loss. Simulations with the Community Earth System Climate Model for the end of the 21st century (2080-2099) show that Greenland clouds contain more liquid water path and less ice water path. This implies that cloud radiative forcing will be further enhanced in the future. Our results therefore urge the need for improving cloud microphysics in climate models, to improve future projections of ice sheet mass balance and global sea level rise.

  13. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  14. Perforating Thin Metal Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Sheets only few mils thick bonded together, punched, then debonded. Three-step process yields perforated sheets of metal. (1): Individual sheets bonded together to form laminate. (2): laminate perforated in desired geometric pattern. (3): After baking, laminate separates into individual sheets. Developed for fabricating conductive layer on blankets that collect and remove ions; however, perforated foils have other applications - as conductive surfaces on insulating materials; stiffeners and conductors in plastic laminates; reflectors in antenna dishes; supports for thermal blankets; lightweight grille cover materials; and material for mockup of components.

  15. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  16. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  17. Balanced Can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-12-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the contact is relatively wide and the geometry is symmetrical, it is easy to balance an empty can by simply adding an appropriate amount of water so that the overall center of mass is located directly above the contact. In fact, any amount of water between about 40 and 210 mL will work. A computational animation of this trick by Sijia Liang and Bruce Atwood that shows center of mass as a function of amount of added water is available at http://demonstrations.wolfram.com. Once there, search "balancing can."

  18. Airplane Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguet, L

    1921-01-01

    The authors argue that the center of gravity has a preponderating influence on the longitudinal stability of an airplane in flight, but that manufacturers, although aware of this influence, are still content to apply empirical rules to the balancing of their airplanes instead of conducting wind tunnel tests. The author examines the following points: 1) longitudinal stability, in flight, of a glider with coinciding centers; 2) the influence exercised on the stability of flight by the position of the axis of thrust with respect to the center of gravity and the whole of the glider; 3) the stability on the ground before taking off, and the influence of the position of the landing gear. 4) the influence of the elements of the glider on the balance, the possibility of sometimes correcting defective balance, and the valuable information given on this point by wind tunnel tests; 5) and a brief examination of the equilibrium of power in horizontal flight, where the conditions of stability peculiar to this kind of flight are added to previously existing conditions of the stability of the glider, and interfere in fixing the safety limits of certain evolutions.

  19. Multipoint studies of 2D magnetotail current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrukovich, Anatoli; Zelenyi, Lev; Nakamura, Rumi; Artemyev, Anton

    2016-07-01

    CLUSTER and Themis projects provide unique tools for magnetotail current sheet studies at a wide range of downtail distances: multipoint curlometer allows to measure electric current density, whereas regular electron data contains information on largescale tail structure. Observations show that moderately thin ion-scale embedded sheet is formed during substorm growth phase. Comparison of curlometer with particle data helps to estimate contributions of transient and magnetized ions as well as electrons to current density. Thin intense sheet with sub-ion scale is appearing after onset near reconnection zones, but vertical pressure balance requirement substantially limits the possible range of sheet thickness. Horizontal (along the tail) gradients become more important only in the near tail, within 10-12 Earth radii. Essential quantitative characteristics of ions-scale embedded sheet are boundary field b0 and maximal possible intensity of ion current.

  20. Paleoclimate perspectives on Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Near- and long-term future projections of global mean sea level rise (SLR) are hampered by a lack of understanding of the potential dynamic contribution of the polar ice sheets, and in particular the Antarctic ice sheets. With the completion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Assessment Report a major challenge continues to be placing an upper bound in sea-level projections for 2100 and beyond. The so-called "deterministic" approach which sums observed- and model-projected trends in the known contributions (e.g. ice sheet and glacier surface mass balance, ocean thermal expansion and ground water storage changes) implies a "likely" upper bound of +100cm by 2080-2100. The "semi-empirical" approach which scales past observed sea-level change to mean surface temperature, and uses this relationship to scale future temperature scenarios, predicts a significantly higher upper bound of up to ~2m by 2100. The discrepancy between the two approaches may in part reflect the poorly understood contribution of ice dynamics - that is the rate of flow of ice sheets into the ocean. An ensemble of Antarctic ice sheet models produces highly divergent results for future sea-level projections, primarily because of uncertainties around the mass changes in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet with some models showing increased precipitation driving a positive mass balance overall, even with loss of the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Current best estimates suggest a 10-20cm dynamic ice sheet contribution by 2100 to global SLR. Of concern is that marine based ice sheets are highly sensitive to increases in ocean temperature at their margins and rapid disintegration may ensue if the ice sheets grounding lines retreat into deep sub-glacial basins. Recent studies show the highest rates of ice sheet thinning and retreat are occurring at locations around the WAIS where the surface ocean has warmed, and that some WAIS loss may now be irreversible. Geological records allow

  1. Interhemispheric Ice-Sheet Synchronicity During the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Kuhn, G.; Ricken, W.; Sprenk, D.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Deep-sea sediment sites from the central Scotia Sea "iceberg alley" show four phases of enhanced deposition of ice-rated detritus (IRD) occurred at 19.5, 16.5,14.5, and 12 ka. The first two relate to the two ice-sheet retreat signals documented for the Weddell Sea; the third phase indicates an Antarctic component to meltwater pulse 1a; the fourth phase falls roughly into period of the Younger Dryas. Our modeling studies show that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice sheets would have likely increased ice mass balance during deglaciation, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. We propose that sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines provided the teleconnections to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  2. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    balance group are in the initial phases of the design and construction of a watt balance and their paper provides valuable information on the design that they are building. The design of the main magnet of a watt balance is critical to its successful operation, and an important assumption of watt balance operation is that the field of the magnet in moving mode is equivalent to that in weighing mode. Sutton and Clarkson from MSL describe a novel magnet which is designed to address this issue. The international prototype of the kilogram is kept in air but, after redefinition, the best realizations of the mass unit will be in vacuum. In their paper Berry and Davidson from NPL describe progress in techniques which relate mass measured in vacuum to that measured in air. Such techniques will be essential for making the results of watt and joule balance measurements available to science and industry. Both the NIST and NPL Mark II (NRC) watt balances use knife edges to act as the pivots for the beam. Knife edges suffer from hysteresis which can produce systematic offsets during weighing. In their paper Choi (KRISS) and Robinson (NPL) describe the analysis of this problem using both finite element (FEM) techniques and a stand-alone balance designed for testing knife edges. The last two papers deal with the possible future of the watt balance technique. The BIPM simultaneous measurement scheme for the watt balance was originally conceived for operation at cryogenic temperatures with a superconducting coil. In their paper de Mirandes and her co-authors describe initial work on the principles of this superconducting variant of the BIPM watt balance and concentrate on the characteristics of the superconducting coil in comparison with those of a normal coil. The final paper is a good example of serendipity in which Kibble (Independent Consultant) was designing novel watt balances based on seismometer suspensions and Robinson (NPL) had derived a set of general expressions, which are

  3. Epilepsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 6 = La Epilepsia: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on epilepsy is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and that students with epilepsy are eligible for special…

  4. Autism: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 1 = Autismo: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on autism is offered in both English and Spanish, and is the same in both languages although numbered differently. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that autism is listed as a separate category under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.…

  5. Silicon sheet technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1982-09-01

    A classification of silicon sheet growth methods by meniscus geometry permits them to be discussed in three groups: short meniscus techniques, high meniscus techniques, and extended meniscus or large solid/liquid interface area techniques. A second parameter, meniscus shaper interaction with the liquid silicon, is also instrumental in determining the characteristics of the various sheet processes. The current status of each process is discussed in the context of meniscus geometry and shaper/melt interaction. One aspect of sheet growth, surface area generation rate, is quantitatively compared with combined ingot growth and wafering surface area generation rates.

  6. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  7. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  8. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  9. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... I get more information? What is a cerebral aneurysm? A cerebral aneurysm (also known as an intracranial ...

  10. Sheet electron beam tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  11. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  12. Polarised light sheet tomography.

    PubMed

    Reidt, Sascha L; O'Brien, Daniel J; Wood, Kenneth; MacDonald, Michael P

    2016-05-16

    The various benefits of light sheet microscopy have made it a widely used modality for capturing three-dimensional images. It is mostly used for fluorescence imaging, but recently another technique called light sheet tomography solely relying on scattering was presented. The method was successfully applied to imaging of plant roots in transparent soil, but is limited when it comes to more turbid samples. This study presents a polarised light sheet tomography system and its advantages when imaging in highly scattering turbid media. The experimental configuration is guided by Monte Carlo radiation transfer methods, which model the propagation of a polarised light sheet in the sample. Images of both reflecting and absorbing phantoms in a complex collagenous matrix were acquired, and the results for different polarisation configurations are compared. Focus scanning methods were then used to reduce noise and produce three-dimensional reconstructions of absorbing targets. PMID:27409945

  13. Highlights from U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Recovery Act Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office

    2012-05-01

    This fact sheets highlights U.S. Department of Energy fuel cell projects funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). More than 1,000 fuel cell systems have been deployed through Recovery Act funding.

  14. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-01-01

    Background Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11–12 years old. Aims To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Results Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15–16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Conclusions Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. PMID:26382948

  15. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  16. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  17. Current sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The model of a rectenna based on the current sheet equivalency of a large planar array is described. The model is mathematically characterized by expression for the fraction of the incident plane wave that is reflected from the sheet. The model is conceptually justified for normal incidence by comparing it to the waveguide model in which evanescent modes, present as beyond and cutoff, correspond to the near field components which become negligible at any significant distance from the antenna array.

  18. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  19. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hostetler, S. W.; Kuhn, G.

    2012-04-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to their maximum extent at 29 -28 ka, and retreat from their maximum extent at 19 ka was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (Weber, M.E., Clark, P. U., Ricken, W., Mitrovica, J. X., Hostetler, S. W., and Kuhn, G. (2011): Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum. - Science, 334, 1265-1269, doi: 10.1126:science.1209299). As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Using the results of an atmospheric general circulation we conclude that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice mass balance would likely cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Furthermore, our new data support teleconnections involving a sea-level fingerprint forced from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets as indicated by gravitational modeling. Also, changes in North Atlantic Deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines may have contributed to synchronizing the hemispheric ice sheets.

  20. MESSENGER Observations of Asymmetries at Mercury's Magnetotail Current Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Gangkai; Slavin, James; Jia, Xianzhe; Raines, Jim; Sun, Wei-Jie; Genestreti, Kevin; Smith, Andy; Gershman, Daniel; Anderson, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Dawn-dusk asymmetries in the Earth's magnetotail current sheet have been observed and remain an active area of research. With an internal magnetic dipole field structure similar to Earth's, similar dawn-dusk asymmetries might be expected in Mercury's magnetotail current sheet. However, no observation of dawn-dusk asymmetries has been reported in the structure of Mercury's magnetotail. Using 4 years of MESSENGER's magnetic field and plasma data, we analyzed 319 current sheet crossings. From the polarity of Bz in the cross-tail current sheet, we determined that MESSENGER is on closed field lines about 90% of the time. During the other 10% MESSENGER observed negative Bz indicating that it was tailward of the Near Mercury Neutral Line (NMNL). The Bz magnetic field is also observed to be higher at the dawnside than the duskside of the magnetotail current sheet by approximately a factor of three. Further the asymmetry decreases with increasing downstream distance. A reduction (enhancement) in Bz should correspond to a more (less) stretched and thinned (thickened) current sheet. Analysis of current sheet thickness based upon MESSENGER's observations confirms this behavior with mean current sheet thickness and Bz intensity having dawn-dusk asymmetries with the same sense. Plasma β in the current sheet also exhibits a dawn-dusk asymmetry opposite to that of Bz. This is consistent with expectations based on MHD stress balance. Earlier studies had shown a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the heavy ion in Mercury's magnetotail. We suggest that this enhancement of heavy ions in the duskside current sheet, due to centrifugal acceleration of ions from the cusp and gradient-curvature drift from the NMNL, may provide a partial explanation of the dawn-dusk current sheet asymmetries found in this study.

  1. Closing the balance (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broeke, Michiel

    2015-04-01

    The 4000 Gt of ice that has been lost since 2003 by the ice sheets of Greenland and West Antarctica accounts for about 1/3 of recent global mean sea level rise. Especially the Greenland ice sheet is far out of balance: each year, 30% more mass leaves the ice sheet than is gained by snowfall at its surface; in Antarctica, this imbalance is currently less than 10%. To make matters worse, the mass loss is accelerating: each year it increases by about 10%, making it likely that the ice sheets will soon become the main source of global mean sea level rise. Given their huge volumes, they could remain so for centuries to come. Thirty years ago, the concept of rapid melting of the large ice sheets was purely theoretical. But since that time, the evolution of remote sensing techniques (altimetry, gravimetry and interferometry), in situ observations (automatic weather stations, mass balance and ice velocity measurements) and climate models has revealed a surprising diversity of mass loss mechanisms. This ranges from the relatively steady acceleration of large West-Antarctic ice streams to the highly variable (in space and time) flow speed of outlet glaciers in Greenland. Moreover, both ice sheets experience large interannual fluctuations in snowfall and melt, temporarily masking or accentuating the mass loss. In spite of all the technological developments, there is still room for exciting discoveries. In April 2011, a reservoir of liquid water twice the size of the Netherlands was discovered in the firn in southeast Greenland. In July 2012, an extreme melt event affected the entire Greenland ice sheet, with meltwater runoff destroying infrastructure in west Greenland that had been in place since the 1950's. And in 2014, two separate studies concluded that the mass loss in West Antarctica appears to be irreversible. When will it be possible to model and robustly predict the fully coupled system of atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and ice sheets? To start answering that question, we

  2. Multilevel Nonvolatile Memristive and Memcapacitive Switching in Stacked Graphene Sheets.

    PubMed

    Park, Minji; Park, Sungjin; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-06-01

    We fabricated devices consisting of single and double graphene sheets embedded in organic polymer layers. These devices had binary and ternary nonvolatile resistive switching behaviors, respectively. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) images were obtained to investigate the switching mechanism. The C-V curves exhibited a large hysteresis, implying that the graphene sheets acted as charging and discharging layers and that resistive switching was caused by charges trapped in the graphene layers. In addition, binary capacitive switching behaviors were observed for the device with a single graphene sheet, and ternary capacitive switching behaviors were observed for the device with the double graphene sheets. These results demonstrated that devices consisting of graphene sheets embedded in the polymer layers can be applied to multilevel nonvolatile memcapacitive devices as well as memristive devices. PMID:27203557

  3. Simulating Thin Sheets: Buckling, Wrinkling, Folding and Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Roman; Stoop, Norbert; Wittel, Falk K.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2014-03-01

    Numerical simulations of thin sheets undergoing large deformations are computationally challenging. Depending on the scenario, they may spontaneously buckle, wrinkle, fold, or crumple. Nature's thin tissues often experience significant anisotropic growth, which can act as the driving force for such instabilities. We use a recently developed finite element model to simulate the rich variety of nonlinear responses of Kirchhoff-Love sheets. The model uses subdivision surface shape functions in order to guarantee convergence of the method, and to allow a finite element description of anisotropically growing sheets in the classical Rayleigh-Ritz formalism. We illustrate the great potential in this approach by simulating the inflation of airbags, the buckling of a stretched cylinder, as well as the formation and scaling of wrinkles at free boundaries of growing sheets. Finally, we compare the folding of spatially confined sheets subject to growth and shrinking confinement to find that the two processes are equivalent.

  4. Anthropogenic climate change and the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajewicz, U.; Vizcaíno, M.; Rodehacke, C.; Ziemen, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the standard CMIP5 simulations the ice sheets are kept fixed. Only few groups have been able to perform CMIP5 simulations with interactively coupled ice sheet models. Beside its importance for the future evolution of global mean sea level, the Greenland ice sheet also has the potential to strongly affect deep water formation, especially in the Labrador Sea, but also in the Nordic Seas. Here we present a set of simulations with two interactively coupled ice sheet models, which allows to assess the uncertainty arising from both the ice sheet model as well as the coupling technique. The climate model ECHAM5/MPIOM is coupled interactively to two different ice sheet models using two different coupling strategies. The ice sheet models are a Greenland set-up of SICOPOLIS with 10 km horizontal resolution and a northern hemisphere set-up of PISM with a horizontal resolution of 20 km. The coupling is done either with a simple positive degree days approach or a mass-balance scheme calculating the surface melting with an energy-balance scheme. The atmospheric forcing is applied directly to the ice sheet model without flux correction or anomaly coupling, which avoids inconsistencies between the models. The resulting net mass loss rates for the Greenland ice sheet in a 1-percent-scenario capped at 4x preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations show a considerable dependence on both ice sheet model and coupling technique. The resulting differences in atmospheric climate, however, are small within the first centuries and restricted to the immediate vicinity of Greenland. The feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and the Greenland ice sheet are studied in a series of sensitivity experiments, where individual feedbacks were suppressed. It turns out that the future development of the Atlantic overturning and its associated heat transport are quite important for the future evolution of the Greenland ice sheet: The stronger the Atlantic overturning remains, the stronger the mass loss

  5. TOWARD A BALANCE SHEET OF PUERTO RICAN MIGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SENIOR, CLARENCE; WATKINS, DONALD O.

    PATTERNS OF MIGRATION WITHIN PUERTO RICO AND TO AND FROM THE UNITED STATES ARE EXAMINED IN DEPTH IN THIS DISCUSSION. SUCH PROBLEMS AS THE HIGH MOBILITY OF PUERTO RICAN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES (NEW YORK CITY ESPECIALLY) AND PUERTO RICAN EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS ARE ELABORATED ON IN THE DISCUSSION, AND DATA ON THE "SELECTIVITY PROCESS" IN…

  6. Holocene deceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Joseph A.; Colgan, William T.; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Catania, Ginny A.; Paden, John D.; Gogineni, S. Prasad

    2016-02-01

    Recent peripheral thinning of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly offset by interior thickening and is overprinted on its poorly constrained Holocene evolution. On the basis of the ice sheet’s radiostratigraphy, ice flow in its interior is slower now than the average speed over the past nine millennia. Generally higher Holocene accumulation rates relative to modern estimates can only partially explain this millennial-scale deceleration. The ice sheet’s dynamic response to the decreasing proportion of softer ice from the last glacial period and the deglacial collapse of the ice bridge across Nares Strait also contributed to this pattern. Thus, recent interior thickening of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly an ongoing dynamic response to the last deglaciation that is large enough to affect interpretation of its mass balance from altimetry.

  7. Growth of Greenland ice sheet - Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay

    1989-01-01

    An observed 0.23 m/year thickening of the Greenland ice sheet indicates a 25 percent to 45 percent excess ice accumulation over the amount required to balance the outward ice flow. The implied global sea-level depletion is 0.2 to 0.4 mm/year, depending on whether the thickening is only recent (5 to 10 years) or longer term (less than 100 years). If there is a similar imbalance in the northern 60 percent of the ice-sheet area, the depletion is 0.35 to 0.7 mm/year. Increasing ice thickness suggests that the precipitation is higher than the long-term average; higher precipitation may be a characteristic of warmer climates in polar regions.

  8. [Disorders in sodium-water balance].

    PubMed

    Petitclerc, Thierry

    2013-02-01

    Water balance control is aimed at normalizing cellular hydration, and sodium balance control at normalizing extracellular volume. Water balance control is based on the regulation of body fluid tonicity, while the control of sodium balance is based on the regulation of effective arterial volume. Disorders of water balance act on cellular hydration: primary disorders induce a proportional change in tonicity; secondary disorders are induced by a change in tonicity or effective arterial volume. Disorders of sodium balance act on extracellular volume: primary disorders of sodium balance induce a change in effective arterial volume; secondary disorders are induced by a change in effective arterial volume. Physical examination of the patient allows assessing the extracellular volume and the severity of the sodium balance disorder. Natremia - that generally reflects tonicity - allows to assess cellular hydration and to determine the type of water balance disorder. In the case of natremia disturbance, the assessment of both the tonicity and the extracellular volume allows the determination of the type of water and/or sodium balance disorder that is necessary for prescribing the adequate therapy. PMID:23177272

  9. How might the North American ice sheet influence the Northwestern Eurasian climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Kageyama, M.; Dumas, C.; Ritz, C.

    2015-01-01

    During the last glacial period (∼21 000 years ago), two continental-scale ice sheets covered the Canada and northern Europe. It is now widely acknowledged that these past ice sheets exerted a strong influence on climate by causing changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulations. In turn, these changes may have impacted the development of the ice sheets themselves through a combination of different feedback mechanisms. The present study is designed to investigate the potential impact of the North American ice sheet on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Eurasian ice sheet through simulated changes in the past glacial atmospheric circulation. Using the LMDz5 atmospheric circulation model, we carried out twelve experiments run under constant Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions for insolation, greenhouse gases and ocean. In the all experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet is removed. The twelve experiments differ in the North American ice-sheet topography, ranging from a white and flat (present-day topography) ice sheet to a full-size LGM ice sheet. This experimental design allows to disentangle the albedo and the topographic impacts of the North American ice sheet onto the climate. The results are compared to our baseline experiment where both the North American and the Eurasian ice sheets have been removed. In summer, we show that the only albedo effect of the American ice sheet modifies the pattern of planetary waves with respect to the no-ice sheet case, causing a cooling of the Eurasian region. By contrast, the atmospheric circulation changes induced by the topography of the North American ice sheet imply summer warming in Northwestern Eurasia. In winter, the Scandinavian and the Barents-Kara regions respond differently to the albedo effect: in response to atmospheric circulation changes, Scandinavia is warmed up and precipitation is more abundant whereas Barents-Kara area is cooled down, decreasing convection process and thus leading to less precipitation. The

  10. Evolution of a Coupled Marine Ice Sheet - Sea Level Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, N.; Pollard, D.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P.; Clark, P. U.

    2012-04-01

    An instability mechanism is widely predicted for marine ice sheets resting upon reversed bed slopes whereby ice-sheet thinning or rising sea level is thought to lead to irreversible retreat of the grounding line. Previous analyses of marine ice-sheet stability have considered the influence of a sea-level perturbation on ice-sheet stability by assuming a geographically uniform, or eustatic, change in sea level. However, gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in the volume of grounded ice lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. In particular, a gravitationally self-consistent sea-level theory predicts a sea-level fall in the vicinity of a shrinking ice sheet that is an order of magnitude greater amplitude than the sea-level rise that would be predicted assuming eustasy. We highlight the stabilizing influence of local sea-level changes on marine ice sheets by incorporating gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into a steady state model of ice sheet stability (Gomez et. al., Nature Geoscience, 2010). In addition, we develop a dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model to consider the impact of this stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice sheet retreat. The coupled system combines a sea-level model valid for a self-gravitating, viscoelastically deforming Earth to a 1D, dynamic marine ice sheet-shelf model. The evolution of the coupled model is explored for a suite of simulations in which we vary the bed slope and the forcing that initiates retreat. We find that the sea-level fall at the grounding line associated with a retreating ice sheet acts to slow the retreat; in simulations with shallow reversed bed slopes and/or small initial forcing, the drop in sea level can be sufficient to halt the retreat. The rate of sea-level change at the grounding line has an elastic component due to ongoing changes in ice-sheet geometry, and a viscous component due to past ice and ocean load changes. When

  11. ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larour, Eric; Schiermeier, John E.; Seroussi, Helene; Morlinghem, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have the capability to use satellite data from its own missions to inform future sea-level rise projections, JPL needed a full-fledged ice-sheet/iceshelf flow model, capable of modeling the mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland into the near future. ISSM was developed with such a goal in mind, as a massively parallelized, multi-purpose finite-element framework dedicated to ice-sheet modeling. ISSM features unstructured meshes (Tria in 2D, and Penta in 3D) along with corresponding finite elements for both types of meshes. Each finite element can carry out diagnostic, prognostic, transient, thermal 3D, surface, and bed slope simulations. Anisotropic meshing enables adaptation of meshes to a certain metric, and the 2D Shelfy-Stream, 3D Blatter/Pattyn, and 3D Full-Stokes formulations capture the bulk of the ice-flow physics. These elements can be coupled together, based on the Arlequin method, so that on a large scale model such as Antarctica, each type of finite element is used in the most efficient manner. For each finite element referenced above, ISSM implements an adjoint. This adjoint can be used to carry out model inversions of unknown model parameters, typically ice rheology and basal drag at the ice/bedrock interface, using a metric such as the observed InSAR surface velocity. This data assimilation capability is crucial to allow spinning up of ice flow models using available satellite data. ISSM relies on the PETSc library for its vectors, matrices, and solvers. This allows ISSM to run efficiently on any parallel platform, whether shared or distrib- ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California uted. It can run on the largest clusters, and is fully scalable. This allows ISSM to tackle models the size of continents. ISSM is embedded into MATLAB and Python, both open scientific platforms. This improves its outreach within the science community. It is entirely written in C/C++, which gives it flexibility in its

  12. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  13. Fully coupled ice sheet-earth system model: How does the Greenlandic ice sheet interact in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodehacke, C.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Vizcaino, M.

    2012-04-01

    As ice sheets belong to the slowest climate components, they are usually not interactively coupled in current climate models. Therefore, long-term climate projections are incomplete and only the consideration of ice sheet interactions allows tackling fundamental questions, such as how do ice sheets modify the reaction of the climate systems under a strong CO2 forcing? The earth system model MPI-ESM, with the atmosphere model ECHAM6 and ocean model MPIOM, is coupled to the modified ice sheet model PISM. This ice sheet model, which is developed at the University of Fairbanks, represents the ice sheet of Greenland at a horizontal resolution of 10 km. The coupling is performed by calculating the surface mass balance based on 6-hourly atmospheric data to determine the boundary condition for the ice sheet model. The response of the ice sheet to this forcing, which includes orographic changes and fresh water fluxes, are passed back to the ESM. In contrast to commonly used strategies, we use a mass conserving scheme and do therefore neither apply flux corrections nor utilize anomaly coupling. Under a strong CO2 forcing a disintegrating Greenlandic ice sheet contributes to a rising sea level and has the potential to alter the formation of deep water masses in the adjacent formation sites Labrador Sea and Nordic Seas. We will present results for an idealized forcing with a growing atmospheric CO2 concentration that rises by 1% per year until four-times the pre-industrial level has been reached. We will discuss the reaction of the ice sheet and immediate responses of the ocean to ice loss.

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET #21, Showing the house as restored since Survey. (Dormer windows omitted as not authentic) - Samuel des Marest House, River Road, New Milford, Bergen County, NJ

  15. 71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Monitoring southwest Greenland’s ice sheet melt with ambient seismic noise

    PubMed Central

    Mordret, Aurélien; Mikesell, T. Dylan; Harig, Christopher; Lipovsky, Bradley P.; Prieto, Germán A.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet presently accounts for ~70% of global ice sheet mass loss. Because this mass loss is associated with sea-level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/year, the development of improved monitoring techniques to observe ongoing changes in ice sheet mass balance is of paramount concern. Spaceborne mass balance techniques are commonly used; however, they are inadequate for many purposes because of their low spatial and/or temporal resolution. We demonstrate that small variations in seismic wave speed in Earth’s crust, as measured with the correlation of seismic noise, may be used to infer seasonal ice sheet mass balance. Seasonal loading and unloading of glacial mass induces strain in the crust, and these strains then result in seismic velocity changes due to poroelastic processes. Our method provides a new and independent way of monitoring (in near real time) ice sheet mass balance, yielding new constraints on ice sheet evolution and its contribution to global sea-level changes. An increased number of seismic stations in the vicinity of ice sheets will enhance our ability to create detailed space-time records of ice mass variations. PMID:27386524

  17. Quick Information Sheets. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Trace Center.

    The Trace Center gathers and organizes information on communication, control, and computer access for handicapped individuals. The information is disseminated in the form of brief sheets describing print, nonprint, and organizational resources and listing addresses and telephone numbers for ordering or for additional information. This compilation…

  18. Quick Information Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Trace Center.

    This compilation of "Trace Quick Sheets" provides descriptions, prices, and ordering information for products and services that assist with communication, control, and computer access for disabled individuals. Product descriptions or product sources are included for: adaptive toys and toy modifications; head pointers, light pointers, and…

  19. Insulation Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Heating and cooling account for 50-70% of the energy consumed in the average American home. Heating water accounts for another 20%. A poorly insulated home loses much of this energy, causing drafty rooms and high energy bills. This fact sheet discusses how to determine if your home needs more insulation, the additional thermal resistance (called…

  20. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  1. GED Testing Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GED Testing Service, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This GED Testing fact sheet provides information on: (1) GED[R] Tests; (2) Versions and Editions of the GED Tests; (3) Earning a Credential; (4) GED Testing Service[R]; (5) History of the GED Tests; (6) Who Accepts the GED Credential; (7) Public/Private Partnership of GEDTS; (8) Renowned GED Credential Recipients; (9) GED Testing Numbers for 2008;…

  2. Youth Demographics. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet compares the numbers of 18-25 year-old residents and citizens by gender, race, ethnicity, geographic distribution, marital status, military status, unemployment, educational attainment, and assesses population trends from 1968-2006. It explores such demographic characteristics of young people using data from the March Annual…

  3. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  5. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for the Rubella fact sheet page. The current fact sheet can ... http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/rubella.html Print page Share Compartir File Formats Help: ...

  6. Fast Light-Sheet Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, William W., Jr.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.

    1995-01-01

    Optomechanical apparatus maintains sheet of pulsed laser light perpendicular to reference axis while causing sheet of light to translate in oscillatory fashion along reference axis. Produces illumination for laser velocimeter in which submicrometer particles entrained in flow illuminated and imaged in parallel planes displaced from each other in rapid succession. Selected frequency of oscillation range upward from tens of hertz. Rotating window continuously shifts sheet of light laterally while maintaining sheet parallel to same plane.

  7. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  8. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  9. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  10. 75 FR 70206 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... includes certain coated paper and paperboard\\3\\ in sheets suitable for high quality print graphics using...: Background In accordance with section 705(d) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act), on September 27... Using Sheet-Fed Presses from Indonesia: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR...

  11. Ice sheet collapse affects ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-06-01

    As Earth's climate warms and ice melts, freshwater input to oceans could weaken the large-scale Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which acts as an important conveyor of heat and has significant effects on climate. Green et al. used an intermediate complexity climate model to study how freshwater input to oceans can affect the meridional overturning circulation. They applied their model to the collapse of the Barents ice sheet about 140,000 years ago—the first study of this kind for the time period—which resulted in a huge influx of freshwater to the North Atlantic Ocean as large icebergs calved off of the ice sheet. (Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/ 2010PA002088, 2011)

  12. SHEET PLASMA DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, O.A.

    1962-07-17

    An ion-electron plasma heating apparatus of the pinch tube class was developed wherein a plasma is formed by an intense arc discharge through a gas and is radially constricted by the magnetic field of the discharge. To avoid kink and interchange instabilities which can disrupt a conventional arc shortiy after it is formed, the apparatus is a pinch tube with a flat configuration for forming a sheet of plasma between two conductive plates disposed parallel and adjacent to the plasma sheet. Kink instabilities are suppressed by image currents induced in the conductive plates while the interchange instabilities are neutrally stable because of the flat plasma configuration wherein such instabilities may occur but do not dynamically increase in amplitude. (AEC)

  13. Increases in plasma sheet temperature with solar wind driving during substorm growth phases

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, C; Watt, C E J; Rae, I J; Fazakerley, A N; Kalmoni, N M E; Freeman, M P; Boakes, P D; Nakamura, R; Dandouras, I; Kistler, L M; Jackman, C M; Coxon, J C; Carr, C M

    2014-01-01

    During substorm growth phases, magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause extracts ∼1015 J from the solar wind which is then stored in the magnetotail lobes. Plasma sheet pressure increases to balance magnetic flux density increases in the lobes. Here we examine plasma sheet pressure, density, and temperature during substorm growth phases using 9 years of Cluster data (>316,000 data points). We show that plasma sheet pressure and temperature are higher during growth phases with higher solar wind driving, whereas the density is approximately constant. We also show a weak correlation between plasma sheet temperature before onset and the minimum SuperMAG AL (SML) auroral index in the subsequent substorm. We discuss how energization of the plasma sheet before onset may result from thermodynamically adiabatic processes; how hotter plasma sheets may result in magnetotail instabilities, and how this relates to the onset and size of the subsequent substorm expansion phase. PMID:26074645

  14. ICESHEET 1.0: a program to produce paleo-ice sheet reconstructions with minimal assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, Evan J.; Tregoning, Paul; Purcell, Anthony; Lea, James; Fransner, Oscar J.; Noormets, Riko; Dowdeswell, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a program that produces paleo-ice sheet reconstructions using an assumption of steady-state, perfectly plastic ice flow behaviour. It incorporates three input parameters: ice margin, basal shear stress and basal topography. Though it is unlikely that paleo-ice sheets were ever in complete steady-state conditions, this method can produce an ice sheet without relying on complicated and unconstrained parameters such as climate and ice dynamics. This makes it advantageous to use in glacial-isostatic adjustment ice sheet modelling, which are often used as input parameters in global climate modelling simulations. We test this program by applying it to the modern Greenland Ice Sheet and Last Glacial Maximum Barents Sea Ice Sheet and demonstrate the optimal parameters that balance computational time and accuracy.

  15. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  16. Topographical atlas sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1876-01-01

    The following topographical atlas sheets, accompanying Appendix J.J. of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army-being Annual Report upon U. S. Geographical Surveys-have been published during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, and are a portion of the series projected to embrace the territory of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian.

  17. Silicon sheet surface studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1985-06-01

    Results of the program are presented on developing an understanding of the basic mechanisms of abrasion and wear of silicon and on the nondestructive measurement of residual stresses in sheet silicon. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures and in the presence of various fluids. In abrasive wear, it was shown that dislocations, microtwins, and cracks are generated beneath the contact surface. Residual stresses in ribbon by the edge defined film growth process were measured by use of a shadow moire interferometry technique.

  18. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  19. 78 FR 47276 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India, 67 FR 44179 (July 1, 2002). On April 2, 2012, the... 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 78 FR 19647 (April 2... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India:...

  20. Current Sheet Formation and Reconnection at a Magnetic X Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, S. K.

    2011-05-01

    Phenomena ranging from the quiescent heating of the ambient plasma to the highly explosive release of energy and acceleration of particles in flares are conjectured to result from magnetic reconnection at electric current sheets in the Sun's corona. We are investigating numerically the formation and eventual reconnection of a current sheet in an initially potential 2D magnetic field containing a null. Subjecting this simple configuration to unequal stresses in the four quadrants bounded by the X-line separatrix distorts the potential null into a double-Y-line current sheet. Although the gas pressure is finite in our simulations, so that the plasma beta is infinite at the null, we find that even small distortions of the magnetic field induce the formation of a tangential discontinuity there. This result is well known to occur in the zero-beta, force-free limit; surprisingly, it persists into the high-beta regime where, in principle, a small plasma pressure inhomogeneity could balance all of the magnetic stress. In addition to working to understand the dynamical details of this ideal process, we are examining the effect of resistive dissipation on the development of the current sheet and are seeking to determine the critical condition for fast-reconnection onset in the sheet. Our progress on understanding these issues, and the implications for the dynamic activity associated with current sheets in the solar corona, will be reported at the conference. We gratefully acknowledge NASA sponsorship of our research.

  1. Atmospheric Response to a Hypothetical Tibetan Ice Sheet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenschlager, M.; Santer, B. D.

    1991-04-01

    The atmospheric response to a hypothetical Tibetan ice sheet was tested with the T21 Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The model response is discussed in terms of an `autocycle' hypothesis of the ice ages proposed by Kuhle. According to this hypothesis, ice-albedo feedbacks associated with the growth and retreat of the Tibetan ice sheet are the mechanism that amplifies the variation of solar insolation on astronomical time scales, producing conditions that favor glaciation or deglaciation in North America and Eurasia.The imposed Tibetan ice sheet forcing did not increase the annual snow balance at the locations of the Laurentide and Eurasian ice sheets. Analysis of the seasonal cycle results indicated that there were small areas of locally significant temperature decreases in July (at the ice sheet locations), but no corresponding precipitation increases in January. The upper-tropospheric response to the elevated Tibetan plateau is not confined to the vicinity of the forcing, but changes in the global energetics of the atmosphere are small (less than 5%) relative to the control.The results of this experiment do not permit a conclusive decision regarding the validity of Kuhle's autocycle hypothesis. Future modeling studies need to consider ocean-atmosphere-ice sheet feedbacks and to investigate the transient response of the climate system over a complete ice age cycle.

  2. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  3. Improve Your Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Balance Improve Your Balance Each year, more than 2 million older Americans ... types of exercise — endurance , strength , balance, and flexibility . Balance Stand on One Foot Heel-to-Toe Walk ...

  4. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  5. Dynamic balance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of residual unbalance in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure turbopump rotors was addressed. Elastic rotor response to unbalance and balancing requirements, multiplane and in housing balancing, and balance related rotor design considerations were assessed. Recommendations are made for near term improvement of the SSME balancing and for future study and development efforts.

  6. A simple holistic hypothesis for the self-destruction of ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, T.

    2011-07-01

    Ice sheets are the only components of Earth's climate system that can self-destruct. This paper presents the quantitative force balance for bottom-up modeling of ice sheets, as first presented qualitatively in this journal as a way to quantify ice-bed uncoupling leading to self-destruction of ice sheets ( Hughes, 2009a). Rapid changes in sea level and climate can result if a large ice-sheet self-destructs quickly, as did the former Laurentide Ice Sheet of North America between 8100 and 7900 BP, thereby terminating the last cycle of Quaternary glaciation. Ice streams discharge up to 90 percent of ice from past and present ice sheets. A hypothesis is presented in which self-destruction of an ice sheet begins when ubiquitous ice-bed decoupling, quantified as a floating fraction of ice, proceeds along ice streams. This causes ice streams to surge and reduce thickness by some 90 percent, and height above sea level by up to 99 percent for floating ice, so the ice sheet undergoes gravitational collapse. Ice collapsing over marine embayments becomes floating ice shelves that may then disintegrate rapidly. This floods the world ocean with icebergs that reduce the ocean-to-atmosphere heat exchange, thereby triggering climate change. Calving bays migrate up low stagnating ice streams and carve out the accumulation zone of the collapsed ice sheet, which prevents its recovery, decreases Earth's albedo, and terminates the glaciation cycle. This sequence of events may coincide with a proposed life cycle of ice streams that drain the ice sheet. A first-order treatment of these life cycles is presented that depends on the longitudinal force balance along the flowbands of ice streams and gives a first approximation to ice-bed uncoupling at snapshots during gravitational collapse into ice shelves that disintegrate, thereby removing the ice sheet. The stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is assessed using this bottom-up approach.

  7. Balancing the Forest and the Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1997-11-01

    How often do we stop and take stock of what we are doing? And how often do we really think seriously and creatively about it? My guess is, not that often. If you are like me, you are running awfully hard just to stay in place, and reflective thinking is a real luxury. Preparing this issue made me stop and think a bit about a very fundamental aspect of chemistry: stoichiometry and equation balancing. This month's JCE Classroom Activity sheet (page 1328A) involves the stoichiometry of the reaction of vinegar and baking soda. It illustrates simply and graphically the idea that one of the reactants can limit the amount of reaction that can occur. And we are devoting 15 pages to balancing equations - enough to prompt the editor's note on page 1359. Because essentially everything that can be said has been said, I am declaring a moratorium on manuscripts about how to balance equations.

  8. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 505 - Litigation Status Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Litigation Status Sheet E Appendix E to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. E Appendix E to Part 505—Litigation Status...

  9. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  10. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  11. Voc Ed & CETA. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Larry

    Ways in which the efforts of vocational education and the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) can be coordinated are discussed in this fact sheet. Following an overview of CETA, seven titles from the CETA amendments of 1978 which provide opportunities for vocational education-CETA coordination are described: (1) Title I:…

  12. Evolution of a Coupled Marine Ice Sheet - Sea Level Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, N.; Pollard, D.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Huybers, P.; Clark, P. U.

    2011-12-01

    An instability mechanism is widely predicted for marine ice sheets resting upon reversed bed slopes. In this case, ice-sheet thinning or rising sea level is thought to lead to irreversible retreat of the grounding line. Previous analyses of marine ice-sheet stability have considered the influence of a sea-level perturbation on ice-sheet stability by assuming a geographically uniform, or eustatic, change in sea level. However, gravitational and deformational effects associated with changes in the volume of grounded ice lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. In particular, a gravitationally self-consistent sea-level theory predicts a near-field sea-level change of opposite sign, and an order of magnitude greater amplitude, than would be predicted assuming eustasy. In recent work (Gomez et. al., Nature Geoscience, 2010), we highlighted the potential importance of this stabilizing sea-level mechanism by incorporating gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into a steady state ice sheet model. We extend this earlier analysis to investigate the influence of this stabilization mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat by coupling a sea-level model valid for a self-gravitating, viscoelastically deforming Earth to a 1D, dynamic marine ice sheet-shelf model. The evolution of the coupled model is explored for a suite of simulations in which we vary the bed slope and the forcing that initiates retreat. We find that the sea-level fall at the grounding line associated with a retreating ice sheet acts to slow the retreat; in simulations with shallow reversed bed slopes and/or small initial forcing, the drop in sea level can be sufficient to halt the retreat. The rate of sea-level change at the grounding line has an elastic component due to ongoing changes in ice-sheet geometry, and a viscous component due to past ice and ocean load changes. When the ice-sheet model is forced from steady state, on short timescales (< ~500 years), viscous

  13. How might the North American ice sheet influence the northwestern Eurasian climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, P.; Charbit, S.; Dumas, C.; Kageyama, M.; Ritz, C.

    2015-10-01

    It is now widely acknowledged that past Northern Hemisphere ice sheets covering Canada and northern Europe at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exerted a strong influence on climate by causing changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulations. In turn, these changes may have impacted the development of the ice sheets themselves through a combination of different feedback mechanisms. The present study is designed to investigate the potential impact of the North American ice sheet on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Eurasian ice sheet driven by simulated changes in the past glacial atmospheric circulation. Using the LMDZ5 atmospheric circulation model, we carried out 12 experiments under constant LGM conditions for insolation, greenhouse gases and ocean. In these experiments, the Eurasian ice sheet is removed. The 12 experiments differ in the North American ice-sheet topography, ranging from a white and flat (present-day topography) ice sheet to a full-size LGM ice sheet. This experimental design allows the albedo and the topographic impacts of the North American ice sheet onto the climate to be disentangled. The results are compared to our baseline experiment where both the North American and the Eurasian ice sheets have been removed. In summer, the sole albedo effect of the American ice sheet modifies the pattern of planetary waves with respect to the no-ice-sheet case, resulting in a cooling of the northwestern Eurasian region. By contrast, the atmospheric circulation changes induced by the topography of the North American ice sheet lead to a strong decrease of this cooling. In winter, the Scandinavian and the Barents-Kara regions respond differently to the American ice-sheet albedo effect: in response to atmospheric circulation changes, Scandinavia becomes warmer and total precipitation is more abundant, whereas the Barents-Kara area becomes cooler with a decrease of convective processes, causing a decrease of total precipitation. The gradual increase of the

  14. Dynamic Response of Magnetic Reconnection Due to Current Sheet Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D. E.; Jahn, J. M.; Burch, J. L.; Hesse, M.; Pollock, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a process which regulates the interaction between regions of magnetized plasma. While many factors have an impact on the evolution of this process, there still remains a lack of understanding of the key behaviors involved in the triggering of fast reconnection. Despite an abundance of in-situ measurements, indicating the high degree of variability in the thickness, density and composition along the current sheet, no simulation studies exist which account for such current sheet variations. 2D and 3D simulations have a periodic boundary in the dimension along the current sheet and so tend to neglect these variations in the current sheet originating external to the modeled reconnection region. Here we focus on the effects on reconnection due to the variability in the thickness and density of the current sheet. Using 2.5D kinetic simulations of 2-species plasma, we isolate and explore the dynamic effects on reconnection associated with variations in the current sheet originating externally to the reconnection region. While periodic boundary conditions are still used, in the direction along the current sheet, a step-change perturbation in thickness or density of the current sheet is introduced once a stable reconnection rate is reached. The dynamic response of the overall system, after introducing the perturbation, is then evaluated, with a focus on the reconnection rate. When the reconnection rate is slowed significantly over time, loading of the inflow region occurs (a build-up of plasma and magnetic energy/pressure. This state is indicated by an asymptotic behavior in the reconnection rate over time. If a sudden variation in the current sheet is introduced under these conditions, a resultant triggering of fast reconnection may occur, which could lead to an episode of fast reconnection, saw-tooth-crash condition or even act as a trigger for sub-storms.

  15. Glaciological constraints on current ice mass changes from modelling the ice sheets over the glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybrechts, P.

    2003-04-01

    The evolution of continental ice sheets introduces a long time scale in the climate system. Large ice sheets have a memory of millenia, hence the present-day ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are still adjusting to climatic variations extending back to the last glacial period. This trend is separate from the direct response to mass-balance changes on decadal time scales and needs to be correctly accounted for when assessing current and future contributions to sea level. One way to obtain estimates of current ice mass changes is to model the past history of the ice sheets and their underlying beds over the glacial cycles. Such calculations assist to distinguish between the longer-term ice-dynamic evolution and short-term mass-balance changes when interpreting altimetry data, and are helpful to isolate the effects of postglacial rebound from gravity and altimetry trends. The presentation will discuss results obtained from 3-D thermomechanical ice-sheet/lithosphere/bedrock models applied to the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. The simulations are forced by time-dependent boundary conditions derived from sediment and ice core records and are constrained by geomorphological and glacial-geological data of past ice sheet and sea-level stands. Current simulations suggest that the Greenland ice sheet is close to balance, while the Antarctic ice sheet is still losing mass, mainly due to incomplete grounding-line retreat of the West Antarctic ice sheet since the LGM. The results indicate that altimetry trends are likely dominated by ice thickness changes but that the gravitational signal mainly reflects postglacial rebound.

  16. Current sheets and pressure anisotropy in the reconnection exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Le, A.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Egedal, J.; Ng, J.; Scudder, J.; Daughton, W.; Liu, Y.-H.

    2014-01-15

    A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the exhaust during anti-parallel reconnection in the collisionless regime contains a current sheet extending 100 inertial lengths from the X line. The current sheet is supported by electron pressure anisotropy near the X line and ion anisotropy farther downstream. Field-aligned electron currents flowing outside the magnetic separatrices feed the exhaust current sheet and generate the out-of-plane, or Hall, magnetic field. Existing models based on different mechanisms for each particle species provide good estimates for the levels of pressure anisotropy. The ion anisotropy, which is strong enough to reach the firehose instability threshold, is also important for overall force balance. It reduces the outflow speed of the plasma.

  17. The bending of cell sheets--from folding to rolling.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ray; Shook, David

    2011-01-01

    The bending of cell sheets plays a major role in multicellular embryonic morphogenesis. Recent advances are leading to a deeper understanding of how the biophysical properties and the force-producing behaviors of cells are regulated, and how these forces are integrated across cell sheets during bending. We review work that shows that the dynamic balance of apical versus basolateral cortical tension controls specific aspects of invagination of epithelial sheets, and recent evidence that tissue expansion by growth contributes to neural retinal invagination in a stem cell-derived, self-organizing system. Of special interest is the detailed analysis of the type B inversion in Volvox reported in BMC Biology by Höhn and Hallmann, as this is a system that promises to be particularly instructive in understanding morphogenesis of any monolayered spheroid system. PMID:22206439

  18. Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, D.D.; Bell, R.E.; Hodge, S.M.; Brozena, J.M.; Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    IT is widely understood that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) would cause a global sea level rise of 6 m, yet there continues to be considerable debate about the detailed response of this ice sheet to climate change1-3. Because its bed is grounded well below sea level, the stability of the WAIS may depend on geologically controlled conditions at the base which are independent of climate. In particular, heat supplied to the base of the ice sheet could increase basal melting and thereby trigger ice streaming, by providing the water for a lubricating basal layer of till on which ice streams are thought to slide4,5. Ice streams act to protect the reservoir of slowly moving inland ice from exposure to oceanic degradation, thus enhancing ice-sheet stability. Here we present aerogeophysical evidence for active volcanism and associated elevated heat flow beneath the WAIS near the critical region where ice streaming begins. If this heat flow is indeed controlling ice-stream formation, then penetration of ocean waters inland of the thin hot crust of the active portion of the West Antarctic rift system could lead to the disappearance of ice streams, and possibly trigger a collapse of the inland ice reservoir.

  19. Rapid thinning of parts of the southern greenland ice sheet

    PubMed

    Krabill; Frederick; Manizade; Martin; Sonntag; Swift; Thomas; Wright; Yungel

    1999-03-01

    Aircraft laser-altimeter surveys over southern Greenland in 1993 and 1998 show three areas of thickening by more than 10 centimeters per year in the southern part of the region and large areas of thinning, particularly in the east. Above 2000 meters elevation the ice sheet is in balance but thinning predominates at lower elevations, with rates exceeding 1 meter per year on east coast outlet glaciers. These high thinning rates occur at different latitudes and at elevations up to 1500 meters, which suggests that they are caused by increased rates of creep thinning rather than by excessive melting. Taken as a whole, the surveyed region is in negative balance. PMID:10066172

  20. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  1. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  2. Marketing Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies.

  3. Mass balance assessment using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbe, Christina L.

    1993-01-01

    Mass balance is an integral part of any comprehensive glaciological investigation. Unfortunately, it is hard to determine at remote locations where there is no fixed reference. The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers a solution. Simultaneous GPS observations at a known location and the remote field site, processed differentially, will accurately position the camp site. From there, a monument planted in the firn atop the ice can also be accurately positioned. Change in the monument's vertical position is a direct indicator of ice thickness change. Because the monument is not connected to the ice, its motion is due to both mass balance change and to the settling of firn as it densifies into ice. Observations of relative position change between the monument and anchors at various depths within the firn are used to remove the settling effect. An experiment to test this method has begun at Byrd Station on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the first epoch of observations was made. Analysis indicates that positioning errors will be very small. It appears likely that the largest errors involved with this technique will arise from ancillary data needed to determine firn settling.

  4. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet Accumulation Rates from Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.

    2002-01-01

    An important component of NASA's Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a mass balance investigation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The mass balance is calculated by taking the difference between the areally Integrated snow accumulation and the net ice discharge of the ice sheet. Uncertainties in this calculation Include the snow accumulation rate, which has traditionally been determined by interpolating data from ice core samples taken from isolated spots across the ice sheet. The sparse data associated with ice cores juxtaposed against the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by remote sensing , has motivated scientists to investigate relationships between accumulation rate and microwave observations as an option for obtaining spatially contiguous estimates. The objective of this PARCA continuation proposal was to complete an estimate of surface accumulation rate on the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from C-band radar backscatter data compiled in the ERS-1 SAR mosaic of data acquired during, September-November, 1992. An empirical equation, based on elevation and latitude, is used to determine the mean annual temperature. We examine the influence of accumulation rate, and mean annual temperature on C-band radar backscatter using a forward model, which incorporates snow metamorphosis and radar backscatter components. Our model is run over a range of accumulation and temperature conditions. Based on the model results, we generate a look-up table, which uniquely maps the measured radar backscatter, and mean annual temperature to accumulation rate. Our results compare favorably with in situ accumulation rate measurements falling within our study area.

  5. Ice sheets and nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Eric W.

    2013-01-01

    Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2–3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125

  6. Twisting of sheet metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, C. H.; Thuillier, S.; Manach, P. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Twisting of metallic sheets is one particular mode of springback that occurs after drawing of elongated parts, i.e. with one dimension much larger than the two others. In this study, a dedicated device for drawing of elongated part with a U-shaped section has been designed on purpose, in order to obtain reproducible data. Very thin metallic sheet, of thickness 0.15 mm, has been used, so that the maximum length of the part is 100 mm. Two different orientations of the part with respect to the tools have been chosen: either aligned with the tools, or purposefully misaligned by 2°. Several samples were drawn for each configuration, leading to the conclusion that almost no twisting occurs in the first case whereas a significant one can be measured for the second one. In a second step, 2D and 3D numerical simulations within the implicit framework for drawing and springback were carried out. A mixed hardening law associated to von Mises yield criterion represents accurately the mechanical behavior of the material. This paper highlights a comparison of numerical predictions with experiments, e.g. the final shape of the part and the twisting parameter.

  7. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  8. ACT Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: ACT; Activated Coagulation Time Formal name: Activated Clotting Time Related tests: ... in the blood called platelets and proteins called coagulation factors are activated in a sequence of steps ...

  9. 17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. 9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the State Highway Department of Indiana repair plans of 1957 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  11. 13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the Indiana State Highway Commission repair plans of 1969 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  12. 10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. KIDNER BRIDGE STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAIL SHEET (original plan sheet is in possession of Ball State University, Drawings and Documents Archive, COllege of Architecture and Planing, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, 47306 - Kidner Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River at County Road 700 South, Upland, Grant County, IN

  13. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  14. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  15. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  16. Modelling the Climate - Greenland Ice Sheet Interaction in the Coupled Ice-sheet/Climate Model EC-EARTH - PISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Madsen, M. S.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Svendsen, S. H.; Adalgeirsdottir, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations show that the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass with an increasing speed during the past decades. Predicting the GrIS changes and their climate consequences relies on the understanding of the interaction of the GrIS with the climate system on both global and local scales, and requires climate model systems with an explicit and physically consistent ice sheet module. A fully coupled global climate model with a dynamical ice sheet model for the GrIS has recently been developed. The model system, EC-EARTH - PISM, consists of the EC-EARTH, an atmosphere, ocean and sea ice model system, and the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). The coupling of PISM includes a modified surface physical parameterization in EC-EARTH adapted to the land ice surface over glaciated regions in Greenland. The PISM ice sheet model is forced with the surface mass balance (SMB) directly computed inside the EC-EARTH atmospheric module and accounting for the precipitation, the surface evaporation, and the melting of snow and ice over land ice. PISM returns the simulated basal melt, ice discharge and ice cover (extent and thickness) as boundary conditions to EC-EARTH. This coupled system is mass and energy conserving without being constrained by any anomaly correction or flux adjustment, and hence is suitable for investigation of ice sheet - climate feedbacks. Three multi-century experiments for warm climate scenarios under (1) the RCP85 climate forcing, (2) an abrupt 4xCO2 and (3) an idealized 1% per year CO2 increase are performed using the coupled model system. The experiments are compared with their counterparts of the standard CMIP5 simulations (without the interactive ice sheet) to evaluate the performance of the coupled system and to quantify the GrIS feedbacks. In particular, the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet under the warm climate and its impacts on the climate system are investigated. Freshwater fluxes from the Greenland ice sheet melt to the Arctic

  17. Protein unfolding versus β-sheet separation in spider silk nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Parvez

    2014-03-01

    In this communication a mechanism for spider silk strain hardening is proposed. Shear failure of β-sheet nanocrystals is the first failure mode that gives rise to the creation of smaller nanocrystals, which are of higher strength and stiffness. β-sheet unfolding requires more energy than nanocrystal separation in a shear mode of failure. As a result, unfolding occurs after the nanocrystals separate in shear. β-sheet unfolding yields a secondary strain hardening effect once the β-sheet conformation is geometrically stable and acts like a unidirectional fibre in a fibre reinforced composite. The mechanism suggested herein is based on molecular dynamics calculations of residual inter-β-sheet separation strengths against residual intra-β-sheet unfolding strengths.

  18. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  19. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  20. Wind Tunnel Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.

  1. Coaching for Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses coaching for balance the integration of the whole self: physical (body), intellectual (mind), spiritual (soul), and emotional (heart). Offers four ways to identify problems and tell whether someone is out of balance and four coaching techniques for creating balance. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  2. Fast imaging of live organisms with sculpted light sheets.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Aleksander K; Kyrsting, Anders; Mahou, Pierre; Wayland, Matthew T; Muresan, Leila; Evers, Jan Felix; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2015-01-01

    Light-sheet microscopy is an increasingly popular technique in the life sciences due to its fast 3D imaging capability of fluorescent samples with low photo toxicity compared to confocal methods. In this work we present a new, fast, flexible and simple to implement method to optimize the illumination light-sheet to the requirement at hand. A telescope composed of two electrically tuneable lenses enables us to define thickness and position of the light-sheet independently but accurately within milliseconds, and therefore optimize image quality of the features of interest interactively. We demonstrated the practical benefit of this technique by 1) assembling large field of views from tiled single exposure each with individually optimized illumination settings; 2) sculpting the light-sheet to trace complex sample shapes within single exposures. This technique proved compatible with confocal line scanning detection, further improving image contrast and resolution. Finally, we determined the effect of light-sheet optimization in the context of scattering tissue, devising procedures for balancing image quality, field of view and acquisition speed. PMID:25893952

  3. Fast imaging of live organisms with sculpted light sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Aleksander K.; Kyrsting, Anders; Mahou, Pierre; Wayland, Matthew T.; Muresan, Leila; Evers, Jan Felix; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-04-01

    Light-sheet microscopy is an increasingly popular technique in the life sciences due to its fast 3D imaging capability of fluorescent samples with low photo toxicity compared to confocal methods. In this work we present a new, fast, flexible and simple to implement method to optimize the illumination light-sheet to the requirement at hand. A telescope composed of two electrically tuneable lenses enables us to define thickness and position of the light-sheet independently but accurately within milliseconds, and therefore optimize image quality of the features of interest interactively. We demonstrated the practical benefit of this technique by 1) assembling large field of views from tiled single exposure each with individually optimized illumination settings; 2) sculpting the light-sheet to trace complex sample shapes within single exposures. This technique proved compatible with confocal line scanning detection, further improving image contrast and resolution. Finally, we determined the effect of light-sheet optimization in the context of scattering tissue, devising procedures for balancing image quality, field of view and acquisition speed.

  4. Fast imaging of live organisms with sculpted light sheets

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewski, Aleksander K.; Kyrsting, Anders; Mahou, Pierre; Wayland, Matthew T.; Muresan, Leila; Evers, Jan Felix; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-01-01

    Light-sheet microscopy is an increasingly popular technique in the life sciences due to its fast 3D imaging capability of fluorescent samples with low photo toxicity compared to confocal methods. In this work we present a new, fast, flexible and simple to implement method to optimize the illumination light-sheet to the requirement at hand. A telescope composed of two electrically tuneable lenses enables us to define thickness and position of the light-sheet independently but accurately within milliseconds, and therefore optimize image quality of the features of interest interactively. We demonstrated the practical benefit of this technique by 1) assembling large field of views from tiled single exposure each with individually optimized illumination settings; 2) sculpting the light-sheet to trace complex sample shapes within single exposures. This technique proved compatible with confocal line scanning detection, further improving image contrast and resolution. Finally, we determined the effect of light-sheet optimization in the context of scattering tissue, devising procedures for balancing image quality, field of view and acquisition speed. PMID:25893952

  5. Modeling the fracture of ice sheets on parallel computers.

    SciTech Connect

    Waisman, Haim; Bell, Robin; Keyes, David; Boman, Erik Gunnar; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. Dramatic illustrations of fracture-induced phenomena most notably include the recent collapse of ice shelves in Antarctica (e.g. partial collapse of the Wilkins shelf in March of 2008 and the diminishing extent of the Larsen B shelf from 1998 to 2002). Other fracture examples include ice calving (fracture of icebergs) which is presently approximated in simplistic ways within ice sheet models, and the draining of supraglacial lakes through a complex network of cracks, a so called ice sheet plumbing system, that is believed to cause accelerated ice sheet flows due essentially to lubrication of the contact surface with the ground. These dramatic changes are emblematic of the ongoing change in the Earth's polar regions and highlight the important role of fracturing ice. To model ice fracture, a simulation capability will be designed centered around extended finite elements and solved by specialized multigrid methods on parallel computers. In addition, appropriate dynamic load balancing techniques will be employed to ensure an approximate equal amount of work for each processor.

  6. Interpretation of high-speed flows in the plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. X.; Wolf, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Pursuing an idea suggested by Pontius and Wolf (1990), we propose that the `bursty bulk flows' observed by Baumjohann et al. (1990) and Angelopoulos et al. (1992) are `bubbles' in the Earth's plasma sheet. Specifically, they are flux tubes that have lower values of pV(exp 5/3) than their neighbors, where p is the thermal pressure of the particles and V is the volume of a tube containing one unit of magnetic flux. Whether they are created by reconnection or some other mechanism, the bubbles are propelled earthward by a magnetic buoyancy force, which is related to the interchange instability. Most of the major observed characteristics of the bursty bulk flows can be interpreted naturally in terms of the bubble picture. We propose a new `stratified fluid' picture of the plasma sheet, based on the idea that bubbles constitute the crucial transport mechanism. Results from simple mathematical models of plasma sheet transport support the idea that bubbles can resolve the pressure balance inconsistency, particularly in cases where plasma sheet ions are lost by gradient/curvature drift out the sides of the tail or bubbles are generated by reconnection in the middle of plasma sheet.

  7. Insolation-driven 100,000-year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume.

    PubMed

    Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Saito, Fuyuki; Kawamura, Kenji; Raymo, Maureen E; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Takahashi, Kunio; Blatter, Heinz

    2013-08-01

    The growth and reduction of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets over the past million years is dominated by an approximately 100,000-year periodicity and a sawtooth pattern (gradual growth and fast termination). Milankovitch theory proposes that summer insolation at high northern latitudes drives the glacial cycles, and statistical tests have demonstrated that the glacial cycles are indeed linked to eccentricity, obliquity and precession cycles. Yet insolation alone cannot explain the strong 100,000-year cycle, suggesting that internal climatic feedbacks may also be at work. Earlier conceptual models, for example, showed that glacial terminations are associated with the build-up of Northern Hemisphere 'excess ice', but the physical mechanisms underpinning the 100,000-year cycle remain unclear. Here we show, using comprehensive climate and ice-sheet models, that insolation and internal feedbacks between the climate, the ice sheets and the lithosphere-asthenosphere system explain the 100,000-year periodicity. The responses of equilibrium states of ice sheets to summer insolation show hysteresis, with the shape and position of the hysteresis loop playing a key part in determining the periodicities of glacial cycles. The hysteresis loop of the North American ice sheet is such that after inception of the ice sheet, its mass balance remains mostly positive through several precession cycles, whose amplitudes decrease towards an eccentricity minimum. The larger the ice sheet grows and extends towards lower latitudes, the smaller is the insolation required to make the mass balance negative. Therefore, once a large ice sheet is established, a moderate increase in insolation is sufficient to trigger a negative mass balance, leading to an almost complete retreat of the ice sheet within several thousand years. This fast retreat is governed mainly by rapid ablation due to the lowered surface elevation resulting from delayed isostatic rebound, which is the lithosphere

  8. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Bas; Dolan, Aisling; Bernales, Jorge; Gasson, Edward; Goelzer, Heiko; Golledge, Nick; Sutter, Johannes; Huybrechts, Phillipe; Lohmann, Gerrit; Rogozhina, Irina; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Saito, Fuyuki; van de Wal, Roderik

    2015-04-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently

  9. Silicone Coating on Polyimide Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Silicone coatings applied to polyimide sheeting for variety of space-related applications. Coatings intended to protect flexible substrates of solar-cell blankets from degradation by oxygen atoms, electrons, plasmas, and ultraviolet light in low Earth orbit and outer space. Since coatings are flexible, generally useful in forming flexible laminates or protective layers on polyimide-sheet products.

  10. Cutting Guide for Fibrous Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A., D.

    1985-01-01

    Tool facilitates repetitive cutting of fibrous sheets. Flexible aluminum tape allows metal strips folded back on themselves, exposing fresh material for cutting. More than one strip folded back, and cutting width therefore increased in multiples of strip width. Developed for cutting strips of alumina-fiber matting, tool also used on such materials as felts, textiles, and sheet metals.

  11. Learning from the past: Antarctic Eemian ice sheet dynamics as an analogy for future warming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Johannes; Thoma, Malte; Grosfeld, Klaus; Gierz, Paul; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Facing considerable warming during this century the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is under increasing scrutiny. Recent observations suggest that the marine ice sheet instability of the WAIS has already started . We investigate the dynamic evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the last interglacial, forcing a state of the art 3D ice sheet model with Eemian boundary conditions. We elucidate the role of ocean warming and surface mass balance on the coupled ice sheet/shelf and grounding line dynamics. Special focus lies on an ice sheet modeling assessment of Antarctica's potential contribution to global sea level rise during the Eemian. The transient model runs are forced by time slice experiments of a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global circulation model, as well as different sets of sea level and bedrock reconstructions. The model result show strong evidences for a severe ice-sheet retreat in West Antartica, leading to substantical contribution to global sea level from the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally we compare future warming scenarios of West Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics to our paleo ice sheet modeling studies.

  12. Ice Stream Dynamics during Deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, C.; Margold, M.; Clark, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ice streams can rapidly drain large sectors of ice sheet interiors. At present, they account for approximately 50% and 90% of the mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, but there are concerns over recent increases in ice discharge. This has been linked to atmospheric and oceanic warming, but the longer-term implications for ice sheet deglaciation are less clear. A key question is whether the activity of ice streams is predictably linked to climate-driven ice sheet mass balance, or whether their activity might accelerate deglaciation. To explore this, we analyse ice streaming during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) from ~18 to ~7 ka. Following a recent mapping inventory, we bracket the timing of >100 ice streams using published ice margin chronologies. At the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), ice streams formed a drainage network similar to modern ice sheets. Numerous ice streams were located in topographic troughs and likely operated for thousands of years from the LGM. These drained the marine-based sectors of the northern and eastern margins of the ice sheet until ~11 ka and show a degree of spatial self-organisation. Other ice streams operated on much shorter time-scales and turned on and off, perhaps in as little as a few hundred years. These include large ice streams that switched positions over sedimentary bedrock at the western and southern terrestrial margins until ~13 ka. As the LIS retreated onto its low-relief and predominantly crystalline bedrock interior (after ~11 ka), a smaller number of large ice streams operated that were very wide (50-100 km), and have no modern analogue. Overall, the number of ice streams decreased during deglaciation and they drained a smaller proportion of the ice sheet margin: 30% at the LGM (similar to present-day Antarctica), 15% at 12 ka, and 12% at 10 ka. We use simple scaling relationships to estimate the mass loss delivered by ice streams and examine their role during deglaciation.

  13. A hybrid boundary-integral/thin-sheet equation for subduction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingrui; Ribe, Neil M.

    2016-06-01

    Subducting oceanic lithosphere is an example of a thin sheet-like object whose characteristic lateral dimension greatly exceeds its thickness. Here we exploit this property to derive a new hybrid boundary-integral/thin sheet (BITS) representation of subduction that combines in a single equation all the forces acting on the sheet: gravity, internal resistance to bending and stretching, and the tractions exerted by the ambient mantle. For simplicity, we limit ourselves to two dimensions. We solve the BITS equations using a discrete Lagrangian approach in which the sheet is represented by a set of vertices connected by edges. Instantaneous solutions for the sinking speed of a slab attached to a trailing flat sheet obey a scaling law of the form V/VStokes = fct(St), where VStokes is a characteristic Stokes sinking speed and St is the sheet's flexural stiffness. Time-dependent solutions for the evolution of the sheet's shape and thickness show that these are controlled by the viscosity ratio between the sheet and its surroundings. An important advantage of the BITS approach is the possibility of generalizing the sheet's rheology, either to a viscosity that varies along the sheet or to a non-Newtonian shear-thinning rheology.

  14. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  15. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  16. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  17. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model. PMID:24952097

  18. Assessing the Extent of Influence Subglacial Hydrology Has on Dynamic Ice Sheet Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babonis, G. S.; Csatho, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous recent studies have done an excellent job capturing and quantifying the complex pattern of dynamic changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) over the past several decades. The timing of changes in ice velocities and mass balance indicate that the mechanisms controlling these behaviors, both external and internal, act over variable spatial and temporal regimes, can change in rapid and complex fashion, and have significant effect on ice sheet behavior as well as sea level rise. With roughly half of the estimated ice loss from the GrIS attributed to dynamic processes, these changes account for about 250 Gt/yr (2003-2008), equivalence to 0.6 mm/yr sea level rise. One of the primary influences of dynamic ice behavior is ice sheet hydrology, including the storage and transport of water from the supraglacial to subglacial environment, and the subsequent development of water transport pathways, thus demonstrating the need for further characterization of the subglacial environment. Enhanced dynamic flow of ice due to the influence of meltwater distribution on the subglacial environment has been reported, including In-SAR observations of large velocity increases over short periods of time, suggesting regions where dynamic changes are likely being caused by changes in hydrology. Additionally, building upon the 1993-2011 laser altimetry record, analyzed by our Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC) procedure, we have detected complex patterns of rapid thickening and thinning patterns over several outlet glaciers. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of hydrologic control on dynamic glacier behavior for several key sites in Greenland. We combine a high resolution surface digital elevation model (DEM) derived by fusing space- and airborne laser altimetry observations and SPIRIT SPOT DEMs, with a high resolution, hydrologically-corrected bedrock DEM derived from a combination of CResIS and Operation Icebridge ice penetrating radar data

  19. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Current sheets with inhomogeneous plasma temperature: Effects of polarization electric field and 2D solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Catapano, F. Zimbardo, G.; Artemyev, A. V. Vasko, I. Y.

    2015-09-15

    We develop current sheet models which allow to regulate the level of plasma temperature and density inhomogeneities across the sheet. These models generalize the classical Harris model via including two current-carrying plasma populations with different temperature and the background plasma not contributing to the current density. The parameters of these plasma populations allow regulating contributions of plasma density and temperature to the pressure balance. A brief comparison with spacecraft observations demonstrates the model applicability for describing the Earth magnetotail current sheet. We also develop a two dimensional (2D) generalization of the proposed model. The interesting effect found for 2D models is the nonmonotonous profile (along the current sheet) of the magnetic field component perpendicular to the current sheet. Possible applications of the model are discussed.

  1. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  2. Modeling North American Ice Sheet Response to Changes in Precession and Obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, C.; Poulsen, C. J.; Pollard, D.

    2012-12-01

    Milankovitch theory proposes that changes in insolation due to orbital perturbations dictate the waxing and waning of the ice sheets (Hays et al., 1976). However, variations in solar forcing alone are insufficient to produce the glacial oscillations observed in the climate record. Non-linear feedbacks in the Earth system likely work in concert with the orbital cycles to produce a modified signal (e.g. Berger and Loutre, 1996), but the nature of these feedbacks remain poorly understood. To gain a better understand of the ice dynamics and climate feedbacks associated with changes in orbital configuration, we use a complex Earth system model consisting of the GENESIS GCM and land surface model (Pollard and Thompson, 1997), the Pennsylvania State University ice sheet model (Pollard and DeConto, 2009), and the BIOME vegetation model (Kaplan et al., 2001). We began this study by investigating ice sheet sensitivity to a range of commonly used ice sheet model parameters, including mass balance and albedo, to optimize simulations for Pleistocene orbital cycles. Our tests indicate that choice of mass balance and albedo parameterizations can lead to significant differences in ice sheet behavior and volume. For instance, use of an insolation-temperature mass balance scheme (van den Berg, 2008) allows for a larger ice sheet response to orbital changes than the commonly employed positive degree-day method. Inclusion of a large temperature dependent ice albedo, representing phenomena such as melt ponds and dirty ice, also enhances ice sheet sensitivity. Careful tuning of mass balance and albedo parameterizations can help alleviate the problem of insufficient ice sheet retreat during periods of high summer insolation (Horton and Poulsen, 2007) while still accurately replicating the modern climate. Using our optimized configuration, we conducted a series of experiments with idealized transient orbits in an asynchronous coupling scheme to investigate the influence of obliquity and

  3. Reduction of Springback of Sheet Metals by Bottoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Takayuki; Hirahara, Atsushi; Yoshida, Fusahito

    2010-06-01

    The effect of bottoming on the reduction of springback is investigated by performing V-air-bending experiment on a high strength steel sheet of TS590MPa and the corresponding FE simulation. From the experiment, it was found that the springback is drastically decreased with increasing bottoming force. This is mainly due to the reduction of bending moment by compressive load acting normally to the sheet. At an early stage of bottoming, springback is also influenced by the change of geometrical rigidity of the bent sheet due to the straightening of ridge line warp. Since bottoming is a process of reverse deformation of tension-compression, the Bauschinger effect of materials should be taken into account for its accurate numerical simulation. 3D FE simulation using Yoshida-Uemori kinematic hardening model predicts well the bottoming effect.

  4. Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the Late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, B.; Dolan, A. M.; Bernales, J.; Gasson, E.; Goelzer, H.; Golledge, N. R.; Sutter, J.; Huybrechts, P.; Lohmann, G.; Rogozhina, I.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; van de Wal, R. S. W.

    2014-11-01

    In the context of future climate change, understanding the nature and behaviour of ice sheets during warm intervals in Earth history is of fundamental importance. The Late-Pliocene warm period (also known as the PRISM interval: 3.264 to 3.025 million years before present) can serve as a potential analogue for projected future climates. Although Pliocene ice locations and extents are still poorly constrained, a significant contribution to sea-level rise should be expected from both the Greenland ice sheet and the West and East Antarctic ice sheets based on palaeo sea-level reconstructions. Here, we present results from simulations of the Antarctic ice sheet by means of an international Pliocene Ice Sheet Modeling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP-ANT). For the experiments, ice-sheet models including the shallow ice and shelf approximations have been used to simulate the complete Antarctic domain (including grounded and floating ice). We compare the performance of six existing numerical ice-sheet models in simulating modern control and Pliocene ice sheets by a suite of four sensitivity experiments. Ice-sheet model forcing fields are taken from the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean climate model runs for the pre-industrial and the Pliocene. We include an overview of the different ice-sheet models used and how specific model configurations influence the resulting Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet. The six ice-sheet models simulate a comparable present-day ice sheet, although the models are setup with their own parameter settings. For the Pliocene simulations using the Bedmap1 bedrock topography, some models show a small retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which is thought to have happened during the Pliocene for the Wilkes and Aurora basins. This can be ascribed to either the surface mass balance, as the HadCM3 Pliocene climate shows a significant increase over the Wilkes and Aurora basin, or the initial bedrock topography. For the latter, our simulations with the recently

  5. Catalog of CERCLA applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) - fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Section 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), requires attainment of federal and state applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). Subpart E, Section 300.400(g) {open_quotes}Identification of applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements{close_quotes} of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)(55 FR 8666, March 8, 1990) describes the process for attaining ARARs. The purpose of this catalog is to provide DOE Program Offices and Field Organizations with all of the {open_quotes}Quick Reference Fact Sheets{close_quotes} on attaining ARARS. These fact sheets provide overviews of ARARs for CERCLA cleanup actions pertinent to DOE environmental restoration activities. All of the fact sheets in this catalog were prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Fact sheets 1-7 discuss land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and their applicability. LDRs may pertain to a number of CERCLA response actions at DOE facilities. Fact Sheets 8-13 are based on the CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual: Parts I and II and provide an overview of many other CERCLA ARARs. Overview of ARARs-Focus on ARAR Waivers (fact sheet 11), provides a good introduction to ARARS. The last two fact sheets, 14 and 15, are periodic reports that describe additional fact sheets and clarify issues.

  6. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  7. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  8. Balanced Literacy: Making It Work in a Real School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, Sharon

    This slide presentation takes the educator through the step-by-step implementation of a reading program, RISE (Reading Initiative for Student Excellence), in a real school. The RISE program aims for balanced literacy for students, in response to the Reading Excellence Act (REA) of 1998. The presentation outlines the steps to balanced literacy,…

  9. Superfund fact sheet: The removal program. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes the Superfund Emergency Response Program, a program specifically designed to respond to multi-media hazardous materials accidents (e.g. illegal disposal or improper handling of materials, transportation accidents, chemical fires) that endanger people and/or the environment. Explanations of how the removal program works and how the affected communities are involved are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no scientific training.

  10. Implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    The information sheet, consisting of four pages, looks at the implementation of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 by presenting goals of welfare agencies working with Indian families, provisions of the Act, reasons for reluctancy of states to accept tribal jurisdiction of child welfare cases, and criteria for evaluating petitions for…

  11. Climatic impact of glacial cycle polar motion: Coupled oscillations of ice sheet mass and rotation pole position

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Bruce G.; James, Thomas S.; Mengel, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Precessional motion of Earth's rotation axis relative to its orbit is a well-known source of long-period climatic variation. It is less well appreciated that growth and decay of polar ice sheets perturb the symmetry of the global mass distribution enough that the geographic location of the rotation axis will change by at least 15 km and possibly as much as 100 km during a single glacial cycle. This motion of the pole will change the seasonal and latitudinal pattern of temperatures. We present calculations, based on a diurnal average energy balance, which compare the summer and winter temperature anomalies due to a 1° decrease in obliquity with those due to a 1° motion of the rotation pole toward Hudson Bay. Both effects result in peak temperature perturbations of about 1° Celsius. The obliquity change primarily influences the amplitude of the seasonal cycle, while the polar motion primarily changes the annual mean temperatures. The polar motion induced temperature anomaly is such that it will act as a powerful negative feedback on ice sheet growth. We also explore the evolution of the coupled system composed of ice sheet mass and pole position. Oscillatory solutions result from the conflicting constraints of rotational and thermal stability. A positive mass anomaly on an otherwise featureless Earth is in rotational equilibrium only at the poles or the equator. The two polar equilibria are rotationally unstable, and the equatorial equilibrium, though rotationally stable, is thermally unstable. We find that with a plausible choice for the strength of coupling between the thermal and rotational systems, relatively modest external forcing can produce significant response at periods of 104–106 years, but it strongly attenuates polar motion at longer periods. We suggest that these coupled oscillations may contribute to the observed dominance of 100 kyr glacial cycles since the mid-Pleistocene and will tend to stabilize geographic patterns that are suitable to

  12. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  13. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H.; Hughes, T.J.; Karlen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Denton and Hughes postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during later Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75/sup 0/N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. But factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet may have strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate, but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations. It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm-high frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 /sup 14/C yr B.P. This permitted renewed formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which could well have controlled atmospheric carbon dioxide. Combined melting and consequent sea-level rise from the three warming factors initiated irreversible collapse of the interlocked global ice-sheet system, which was at its largest but most vulnerable configuration.

  14. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  15. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing the overall capabilities of the NREL CSP Program: collector/receiver characterization, advanced reflector and absorber materials, thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids, and CSP modeling and analysis.

  16. SEER Cancer Stat Fact Sheets

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  17. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  18. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finance Human Resources and Administrative Services Information Technology Marketing and Sales Membership Practice Public Affairs Quality Publishing ... Feedback Recent a a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2016 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/ ...

  19. Deep Space 1 (fact sheet)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    Exerting less force than does a single sheet of paper resting in your hand, Deep Space 1's ion propulsion system will slowly, yet continuously accelerate the spacecraft well beyond speeds attainable by conventional chemical propulsion.

  20. ISMIP6 - initMIP: Greenland ice sheet model initialisation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelzer, Heiko; Nowicki, Sophie; Payne, Tony; Larour, Eric; Abe Ouchi, Ayako; Gregory, Jonathan; Lipscomb, William; Seroussi, Helene; Shepherd, Andrew; Edwards, Tamsin

    2016-04-01

    Earlier large-scale Greenland ice sheet sea-level projections e.g. those run during ice2sea and SeaRISE initiatives have shown that ice sheet initialisation can have a large effect on the projections and gives rise to important uncertainties. This intercomparison exercise (initMIP) aims at comparing, evaluating and improving the initialization techniques used in the ice sheet modeling community and to estimate the associated uncertainties. It is the first in a series of ice sheet model intercomparison activities within ISMIP6 (Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6). The experiments are conceived for the large-scale Greenland ice sheet and are designed to allow intercomparison between participating models of 1) the initial present-day state of the ice sheet and 2) the response in two schematic forward experiments. The latter experiments serve to evaluate the initialisation in terms of model drift (forward run without any forcing) and response to a large perturbation (prescribed surface mass balance anomaly). We present and discuss first results of the intercomparison and highlight important uncertainties with respect to projections of the Greenland ice sheet sea-level contribution.

  1. CO2 evasion from the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J.; Jacobson, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Greenland figures prominently in climate change predictions owing to the impact ice sheet melting will have on temperature, sea level, and possibly, ocean circulation. Here, we demonstrate that melting of the Greenland ice sheet also yields a sizable flux of atmospheric CO2 that will likely increase in a warmer world. We analyzed the major ion and dissolved carbonate geochemistry of the Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River draining the Russell Glacier near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Water emerges from beneath the ice sheet with CO2 partial pressures 3 - 10X supersaturated with respect to atmospheric equilibrium. This CO2 may originate from microbial respiration beneath the ice sheet. During downstream transport, CO2 evades to the atmosphere, but the chemical weathering of highly reactive glacial till sequesters 2 - 7X more as HCO3, a temporary carbon sink. However, only a 2X increase in the initial CO2 partial pressure is required to reverse the balance between evasion and weathering, and we suggest that significantly greater increases could occur as retreat of the ice sheet margin and expansion of moulins exposes melt water to interior basal ice, which has CO2 partial pressures over 450X higher than the current atmospheric value (Souchez et al., 1995). Extrapolated across all of Greenland, worst-case model predictions suggest net evasion fluxes of 0.14 - 0.27 Pg C/yr by 2100 depending whether melting increases linearly or exponentially with time. These estimates are close to the lower range recently identified for permafrost thaw (Schuur et al., 2009). This study highlights a new and potentially important positive feedback between anthropogenic greenhouse forcing, ice sheet decay, and climate change.

  2. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  3. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  4. Crib sheets or security blankets?

    PubMed

    Drake, V K; Freed, P; Hunter, J M

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the sanctioned use of crib sheets as a nursing intervention to decrease test anxiety when the classroom is the practice setting for psychiatric/mental health nursing faculty. The products that the students created offered additional unsuspected benefits. The faculty were convinced that the use of crib sheets can be a sound intervention to reduce students' test-taking anxiety. PMID:9661379

  5. Self-acting shaft seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Self-acting seals are described in detail. The mathematical models for obtaining a seal force balance and the equilibrium operating film thickness are outlined. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis reveals three different vibration models with secondary seal friction being an important parameter. Leakage flow inlet pressure drop and affects of axisymmetric sealing face deformations are discussed. Experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given. Also a spiral groove seal design operated to 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) is described.

  6. Flow-induced voltage generation by moving a nano-sized ionic liquids droplet over a graphene sheet: Molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qunfeng; Jia, Jingjing; Guan, Yongji; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the phenomenon of the voltage generation is explored by using the molecular dynamics simulations, which is performed by driving a nano-sized droplet of room temperature ionic liquids moving along the monolayer graphene sheet for the first time. The studies show that the cations and anions of the droplet will move with velocity nonlinearly increasing to saturation arising by the force balance. The traditional equation for calculating the induced voltage is developed by taking the charge density into consideration, and larger induced voltages in μV-scale are obtained from the nano-size simulation systems based on the ionic liquids (ILs) for its enhanced ionic drifting velocities. It is also derived that the viscosity acts as a reduction for the induced voltage by comparing systems composed of two types of ILs with different viscosity and temperature.

  7. Entrainment, transport and concentration of meteorites in polar ice sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drewry, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets act as slow-moving conveyancing systems for material added to both their upper and lower surfaces. Because the transit time for most materials is extremely long the ice acts as a major global storage facility. The effects of horizontal and vertical motions on the flow patterns of Antarctic ice sheets are summarized. The determination of the source areas of meteorites and their transport paths is a problem of central importance since it relates not only directly to concentration mechanisms but also to the wider issues in glaciology and meteorites. The ice and snow into which a meteorite falls, and which moves with it to the concentration area, encodes information about the infall area. The principle environmental conditions being former elevation, temperature (also related to elevation), and age of the ice. This encoded information could be used to identify the infall area.

  8. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  9. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  10. Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

  11. The climate - Greenland ice sheet Feedback as simulated by the coupled ice sheet/climate model EC-EARTH - PISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuting; Madsen, Marianne S.; Rodehacke, Christian; Svendsen, Synne H.

    2014-05-01

    Recent observations show that mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet has increased during the past decades, in line with the warming trend in the Arctic. Studies have suggested that the ice sheet mass discharge through fast moving outlet glaciers and ice streams may be triggered by intrusions of warm seawater into fjords, implying the possibility for fjord-terminating glaciers to respond to ocean and atmospheric changes on annual to decadal time scales. Meanwhile, the rapid changes in ice sheet topography and surface runoff could alter the atmospheric and ocean circulation. To understand the interactions of ice sheet and atmosphere and ocean, process based, climate - ice sheet coupled models are needed. Recently a fully coupled global climate model with a dynamical ice sheet model for the Greenland ice sheet, EC-EARTH - PISM, has been developed. The model system consists of the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice model system, EC-EARTH, and the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, PISM. The coupling of the PISM includes a modified surface physical parameterization in EC-EARTH adapted to the land ice surface over glaciated regions in Greenland. The PISM ice sheet model is forced with the surface mass balance (SMB) directly computed inside the EC-EARTH atmospheric module and accounting for the precipitation, the surface evaporation, and the melting of snow and ice over land ice. PISM returns the simulated basal melt, ice discharge and ice cover (extent and thickness) as boundary conditions to EC-EARTH. This coupled system is mass and energy conserving without being constrained by any anomaly correction or flux adjustment, and hence is suitable for investigation of ice sheet - climate feedbacks. PISM is initialized with the standard paleo-climatological spin-up followed by forcing with the EC-EARTH preindustrial climate to reach an equilibrium state with the model preindustrial climate. The EC-EARTH - PISM system is then integrated under preindustrial conditions until it has reached a

  12. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond; Kunz, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. It is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. These sheets are characterized by a discontinuity in the tangential magnetic field on either side of the sheet but no discontinuity in tangential electric field. This continuity, or single valued behavior of the electric field, allows the sheet current to be expressed in terms of an impedance multiplying this electric field.

  13. Judicial Checks and Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porta, Rafael; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Shleifer, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    In the Anglo-American constitutional tradition, judicial checks and balances are often seen as crucial guarantees of freedom. Hayek distinguishes two ways in which the judiciary provides such checks and balances: judicial independence and constitutional review. We create a new database of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these…

  14. Inevitability of Balance Restoration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restoration of balance is foolproof. The kidney is a central player for balance restoration of fluid and electrolytes, but the smartness of the kidney is not the reason for perfect balance. The kidney merely accelerates the process. The most crucial element of the control system is that discrepancy between intake and output inevitably leads to a change in total content of the element in the system, and uncorrected balance has a cumulative effect on the overall content of the element. In a living organism, the speed of restoration of balance depends on the permissible duration of imbalance without death or severe disability. The three main factors that influence the speed of balance restoration are: magnitude of flux, basal store, and capacity for additional storage. For most electrolytes, total capacity is such that a substantial discrepancy is not possible for more than a week or two. Most control mechanisms correct abnormality partially. The infinite gain control mechanism is unique in that abnormality is completely corrected upon completion of compensation. PMID:21468193

  15. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  16. The Technology Balance Beam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Eddie K.

    2006-01-01

    "The Technology Balance Beam" is designed to question the role of technology within school districts. This case study chronicles a typical school district in relation to the school district's implementation of technology beginning in the 1995-1996 school year. The fundamental question that this scenario raises is, What is the balance between…

  17. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  18. Balanced Literacy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Roehrig, Alysia; Bogner, Kristen; Raphael, Lisa M.; Dolezal, Sara

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for balanced literacy instruction in the elementary years. The case is made that the balanced instructional model is particularly appropriate and beneficial for students who have initial difficulties in learning to read and write. Key features of successful reading instruction programs are described. (Contains…

  19. Experimental Studies on Flexible Forming of Sheet Metals Assisted by Magnetic Force Transfer Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Zhou, Fu Jian; Wang, Mo Nan; Xu, Peng; Jin, Cheng Chuang

    2016-06-01

    To improve the thickness uniformity and increase the forming limit of sheets to enhance their overall quality, a magnetorheological fluid (MRF) was injected into the punch cavity to act as the force transfer medium and fulfill the function of flexible pressing during the sheet bulging process. The rheological properties of the MRF were changed under the influence of a magnetic field produced by loading different currents, which allowed variation of stress states and deformation modes in the 0.75-mm-thick 304 stainless steel sheets. With increasing current (up to 3.5 A), the sheet-forming limit increased by 16.13% at most, and the fracture morphology experienced a certain change. Additionally, both the bulge height and the wall thickness distribution had obvious changes with a punch stroke of 10 mm. According to the experimental analysis, the MRF can be used successfully as a pressure-carrying medium in the sheet forming process.

  20. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.