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Sample records for act balance sheet

  1. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  2. Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    For some administrators and planners, designing and building education facilities may sometimes seem like a circus act--trying to project a persona of competence and confidence while juggling dozens of issues. Meanwhile, the audience--students, staff members and taxpayers--watch and wait with anticipation in hopes of getting what they paid for and…

  3. Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    For some administrators and planners, designing and building education facilities may sometimes seem like a circus act--trying to project a persona of competence and confidence while juggling dozens of issues. Meanwhile, the audience--students, staff members and taxpayers--watch and wait with anticipation in hopes of getting what they paid for and…

  4. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets... face of the balance sheets or in the notes thereto. Assets 1. Cash and due from banks. The amounts in...

  5. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets and in the notes...

  6. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except for...

  7. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets... face of the balance sheets or in the notes thereto. Assets 1. Cash and due from banks. The amounts in...

  8. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance sheets filed by registered investment companies except for...

  9. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets and in the notes...

  10. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited balance...

  11. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited balance...

  12. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited balance...

  13. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  14. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  15. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  16. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  17. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  18. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  19. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  20. The Great Balancing Act. Nutrition Comes Alive. Level 4. Nutrition Educator's Guide and Work Sheets, Information Sheets, Story, Letters to Parents. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Laurie

    This guide offers a nutrition education program for students in Kindergarten through Grade 6. Activities span all grades as well as activities for the specific level. Nutrition education objectives are stated for each grade level: (1) grade four--students will explore how to balance food intake and energy output for overall health and physical…

  1. The Great Balancing Act. Nutrition Comes Alive. Level 4. Nutrition Educator's Guide and Work Sheets, Information Sheets, Story, Letters to Parents. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Laurie

    This guide offers a nutrition education program for students in Kindergarten through Grade 6. Activities span all grades as well as activities for the specific level. Nutrition education objectives are stated for each grade level: (1) grade four--students will explore how to balance food intake and energy output for overall health and physical…

  2. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  3. Mass balance of polar ice sheets.

    PubMed

    Rignot, Eric; Thomas, Robert H

    2002-08-30

    Recent advances in the determination of the mass balance of polar ice sheets show that the Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass by near-coastal thinning, and that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with thickening in the west and thinning in the north, is probably thinning overall. The mass imbalance of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to be small, but even its sign cannot yet be determined. Large sectors of ice in southeast Greenland, the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula are changing quite rapidly as a result of processes not yet understood.

  4. 14 CFR Section 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet... AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet...) Record here all general and working funds available on demand as of the date of the balance sheet which...

  5. 14 CFR Section 6 - Objective Classification of Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Objective Classification of Balance Sheet... AIR CARRIERS Balance Sheet Classifications Section 6 Objective Classification of Balance Sheet...) Record here all general and working funds available on demand as of the date of the balance sheet which...

  6. Strategic financial planning: a balance sheet perspective.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O

    1987-02-01

    This paper presents an easily comprehended approach to the strategic financial planning process. It utilizes a balance sheet approach that focuses attention on three key business policy decisions: asset growth rates, debt policy, and equity growth policy. Because the approach taken here does not get involved with the numerous assumptions and projections involved in a typical funds flow approach to financial planning, it is easier to understand and use by both boards and top management. A financial plan is defined as a bridge between two balance sheets.

  7. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance... certificates which are subject to the special provisions of § 210.6-06 of this part. Balance sheets filed under...

  8. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance... certificates which are subject to the special provisions of § 210.6-06 of this part. Balance sheets filed under...

  9. 17 CFR 210.6-04 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.6-04... 1975 Registered Investment Companies § 210.6-04 Balance sheets. This rule is applicable to balance... certificates which are subject to the special provisions of § 210.6-06 of this part. Balance sheets filed under...

  10. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  11. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  12. The Balancing Act

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2008-05-01

    This essay is being proposed as part of a book titled: "Motherhood: The Elephant in the Laboratory." It offers professional and personal advice on how to balance working in the research field with a family life.

  13. A Case Study and Balance Sheet Approach to Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes positive and negative aspects of employment and unemployment in a balance sheet framework. Discusses the value of the balance sheet approach in understanding individual differences in reactions to unemployment. (Author/KS)

  14. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  15. Balancing Your Evaluation Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willyerd, Karie A.

    1997-01-01

    Looks at different performance-measurement tools than can ensure that a training or performance solution is strategically aligned, objectively evaluated, and quantitatively measured for results. Suggests aiming for a balance among the financial, customer, and internal perspectives and the innovation and learning that can result. (Author/JOW)

  16. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  17. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various items which, if applicable, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or in the notes...

  18. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance with...

  19. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited balance sheets as of the end of each of the two most recent fiscal years. If...

  20. 12 CFR 324.33 - Off-balance sheet exposures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-balance sheet exposures. 324.33 Section 324...-Weighted Assets for General Credit Risk § 324.33 Off-balance sheet exposures. (a) General. (1) An FDIC-supervised institution must calculate the exposure amount of an off-balance sheet exposure using the credit...

  1. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a) The purpose of this rule is to indicate the... the face of the balance sheets and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this article...

  2. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance with...

  3. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a) The purpose of this rule is to indicate the... the face of the balance sheets and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this article...

  4. 17 CFR 210.7-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.7-03... 1975 Insurance Companies § 210.7-03 Balance sheets. (a) The purpose of this rule is to indicate the... the face of the balance sheets and in the notes thereto filed for persons to whom this article...

  5. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account General...

  6. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various items which, if applicable, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or in the notes...

  7. 17 CFR 210.3-01 - Consolidated balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consolidated balance sheets... Statements § 210.3-01 Consolidated balance sheets. (a) There shall be filed, for the registrant and its subsidiaries consolidated, audited balance sheets as of the end of each of the two most recent fiscal years. If...

  8. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various line items and certain additional... face of the balance sheets or related notes filed for the persons to whom this article pertains (see...

  9. 12 CFR 217.33 - Off-balance sheet exposures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-balance sheet exposures. 217.33 Section 217... for General Credit Risk § 217.33 Off-balance sheet exposures. (a) General. (1) A Board-regulated institution must calculate the exposure amount of an off-balance sheet exposure using the credit conversion...

  10. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance with...

  11. 12 CFR 3.33 - Off-balance sheet exposures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-balance sheet exposures. 3.33 Section 3.33...-balance sheet exposures. (a) General. (1) A national bank or Federal savings association must calculate the exposure amount of an off-balance sheet exposure using the credit conversion factors (CCFs) in...

  12. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account General...

  13. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... 1975 Commercial and Industrial Companies § 210.5-02 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or related notes...

  14. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... 1975 Commercial and Industrial Companies § 210.5-02 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or related notes...

  15. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... 1975 Commercial and Industrial Companies § 210.5-02 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to... otherwise permitted by the Commission, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or related notes...

  16. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance with...

  17. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account General...

  18. 17 CFR 210.9-03 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.9-03... 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-03 Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various items which, if applicable, should appear on the face of the balance sheets or in the notes...

  19. 17 CFR 210.5-02 - Balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Balance sheets. 210.5-02... Balance sheets. The purpose of this rule is to indicate the various line items and certain additional... face of the balance sheets or related notes filed for the persons to whom this article pertains (see...

  20. 14 CFR 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account General...

  1. 49 CFR 1243.2 - Condensed balance sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condensed balance sheet. 1243.2 Section 1243.2... § 1243.2 Condensed balance sheet. Commencing with reports for the 3 months beginning January 1, 1972, and... hereby, required to compile and file quarterly reports of balance sheet items in accordance with...

  2. 14 CFR Section 3 - Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Section 3 Section 3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Balance Sheet Classifications Section 3 Chart of Balance Sheet Accounts Name of account General...

  3. Higher Education Act. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the challenges for students with disabilities in the nation's university system and recommends solutions that would result in better support systems for postsecondary students with disabilities. This document discusses several interrelated issues that impact student preparation and access to postsecondary education. The…

  4. 14 CFR Section 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... report except as specifically noted in the financial and statistical statements. Schedule B-1 Balance...

  5. 14 CFR 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... report except as specifically noted in the financial and statistical statements. Schedule B-1 Balance...

  6. 14 CFR Section 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... report except as specifically noted in the financial and statistical statements. Schedule B-1 Balance...

  7. 14 CFR Section 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... report except as specifically noted in the financial and statistical statements. Schedule B-1 Balance...

  8. 14 CFR Section 23 - Certification and Balance Sheet Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... AIR CARRIERS Financial Reporting Requirements Section 23 Certification and Balance Sheet Elements... report except as specifically noted in the financial and statistical statements. Schedule B-1 Balance...

  9. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A; Wahr, John; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance and to ice discharge, which are forced by internal or external (atmospheric/oceanic/basal) fluctuations. Regardless of the measurement method, observations over the last two decades show an increase in ice loss rate, associated with speeding up of glaciers and enhanced melting. However, both ice discharge and melt-induced mass losses exhibit rapid short-term fluctuations that, when extrapolated into the future, could yield erroneous long-term trends. In this paper we review the GrIS mass loss over more than a century by combining satellite altimetry, airborne altimetry, interferometry, aerial photographs and gravimetry data sets together with modelling studies. We revisit the mass loss of different sectors and show that they manifest quite different sensitivities to atmospheric and oceanic forcing. In addition, we discuss recent progress in constructing coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models required to project realistic future sea-level changes.

  10. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  11. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as follows...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the percentage...

  13. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as follows...

  14. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as follows...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the face...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the face...

  17. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as follows...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the percentage...

  19. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the percentage...

  20. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the percentage...

  1. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the face...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the face...

  3. 47 CFR 32.101 - Structure of the balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Structure of the balance sheet accounts. 32.101... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.101 Structure of the balance sheet accounts. The Balance Sheet accounts shall be maintained as follows...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the face...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the percentage...

  6. Mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Wingham, D J; Shepherd, A; Muir, A; Marshall, G J

    2006-07-15

    The Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise has long been uncertain. While regional variability in ice dynamics has been revealed, a picture of mass changes throughout the continental ice sheet is lacking. Here, we use satellite radar altimetry to measure the elevation change of 72% of the grounded ice sheet during the period 1992-2003. Depending on the density of the snow giving rise to the observed elevation fluctuations, the ice sheet mass trend falls in the range -5-+85Gtyr-1. We find that data from climate model reanalyses are not able to characterise the contemporary snowfall fluctuation with useful accuracy and our best estimate of the overall mass trend-growth of 27+/-29Gtyr-1-is based on an assessment of the expected snowfall variability. Mass gains from accumulating snow, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and within East Antarctica, exceed the ice dynamic mass loss from West Antarctica. The result exacerbates the difficulty of explaining twentieth century sea-level rise.

  7. A balancing act for renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage will play a key role in increasing the use of variable energy sources. Nonetheless, storage is not the only balancing option and the overall design of power systems will incorporate a range of flexible generation, storage and grid-balancing options of different types and scales.

  8. Up for Discussion: Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Susan

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that libraries include conservative 'Moral Majority' as well as liberal views of human sexuality in their acquisition of books for young adults to provide a balanced collection and blunt atttempts to limit academic freedom through censorship. Five 'New Right' choices are reviewed. (RAA)

  9. Writing by Number: Teaching Students to Read the Balance Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which students write a short memo report analyzing and comparing both what a company says in its annual report and what its balance sheet shows. Describes four simple mathematical formulas students can use to quickly diagnose a company's financial health. Appends a sample of the short report format. (RS)

  10. Education, 1961-1971: A Balance Sheet. Topical Talks, 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, F. E.

    During the first decade as a republic we have made some great strides in education, but in certain respects we have also fallen behind. As there are differences of opinion about what our most urgent educational priorities are, I have tried to make this a balance sheet, showing assets and liabilities without pronouncing judgment on which side is…

  11. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R; A, Geruo; Barletta, Valentina R; Bentley, Mike J; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H; Bromwich, David H; Forsberg, René; Galin, Natalia; Horwath, Martin; Jacobs, Stan; Joughin, Ian; King, Matt A; Lenaerts, Jan T M; Li, Jilu; Ligtenberg, Stefan R M; Luckman, Adrian; Luthcke, Scott B; McMillan, Malcolm; Meister, Rakia; Milne, Glenn; Mouginot, Jeremie; Muir, Alan; Nicolas, Julien P; Paden, John; Payne, Antony J; Pritchard, Hamish; Rignot, Eric; Rott, Helmut; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Scambos, Ted A; Scheuchl, Bernd; Schrama, Ernst J O; Smith, Ben; Sundal, Aud V; van Angelen, Jan H; van de Berg, Willem J; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Vaughan, David G; Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John; Whitehouse, Pippa L; Wingham, Duncan J; Yi, Donghui; Young, Duncan; Zwally, H Jay

    2012-11-30

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods--especially in Greenland and West Antarctica--and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 ± 49, +14 ± 43, -65 ± 26, and -20 ± 14 gigatonnes year(-1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 ± 0.20 millimeter year(-1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  12. Greenland Ice Sheet: High-Elevation Balance and Peripheral Thinning.

    PubMed

    Krabill; Abdalati; Frederick; Manizade; Martin; Sonntag; Swift; Thomas; Wright; Yungel

    2000-07-21

    Aircraft laser-altimeter surveys over northern Greenland in 1994 and 1999 have been coupled with previously reported data from southern Greenland to analyze the recent mass-balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Above 2000 meters elevation, the ice sheet is in balance on average but has some regions of local thickening or thinning. Thinning predominates at lower elevations, with rates exceeding 1 meter per year close to the coast. Interpolation of our results between flight lines indicates a net loss of about 51 cubic kilometers of ice per year from the entire ice sheet, sufficient to raise sea level by 0.13 millimeter per year-approximately 7% of the observed rise.

  13. A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R.; A, Geruo; Barletta, Valentina R.; Bentley, Mike J.; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H.; Bromwich, David H.; Forsberg, René; Galin, Natalia; Horwath, Martin; Jacobs, Stan; Joughin, Ian; King, Matt A.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Li, Jilu; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Luckman, Adrian; Luthcke, Scott B.; McMillan, Malcolm; Meister, Rakia; Milne, Glenn; Mouginot, Jeremie; Muir, Alan; Nicolas, Julien P.; Paden, John; Payne, Antony J.; Pritchard, Hamish; Rignot, Eric; Rott, Helmut; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Scambos, Ted A.; Scheuchl, Bernd; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; Smith, Ben; Sundal, Aud V.; van Angelen, Jan H.; van de Berg, Willem J.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Vaughan, David G.; Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; Wingham, Duncan J.; Yi, Donghui; Young, Duncan; Zwally, H. Jay

    2012-11-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth’s polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods—especially in Greenland and West Antarctica—and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 ± 49, +14 ± 43, -65 ± 26, and -20 ± 14 gigatonnes year-1, respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 ± 0.20 millimeter year-1 to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  14. A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R.; Geruo, A.; Barletta, Valentia R.; Bentley, Mike J.; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H.; Bromwich, David H.; Forsberg, Rene; Galin, Natalia; hide

    2012-01-01

    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods-especially in Greenland and West Antarctica-and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 plus or minus 49, +14 plus or minus 43, -65 plus or minus 26, and -20 plus or minus 14 gigatonnes year(sup -1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 plus or minus 0.20 millimeter year(sup -1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  15. Electronic Elections: A Balancing Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Pedro A. D.

    This article aims to share some major lessons learned from the pioneering experience in Brazil with the world's first full national implementation of universal electronic voting. Differing notions of security, and their "collateral entanglements", appear to play a key role and are contrasted in Brazil's pioneering electronic voting saga. After an introduction, we puzzle through what election security may mean. We elaborate on how technological innovations may affect the underlying risks, their nature, corrections and balance. Then we describe some ways in which innovations have been deployed and validated, and how the results are being perceived, before some closing remarks.

  16. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Ivins, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in the mass of ice stored in Antarctica and Greenland are of considerable societal importance. The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is a joint-initiative of ESA and NASA aimed at producing a single estimate of the global sea level contribution to polar ice sheet losses. Within IMBIE, estimates of ice sheet mass balance are developed from a variety of satellite geodetic techniques using a common spatial and temporal reference frame and a common appreciation of the contributions due to external signals. The project brings together the laboratories and space agencies that have been instrumental in developing independent estimates of ice sheet mass balance to date. In its first phase, IMBIE involved 27 science teams, and delivered a first community assessment of ice sheet mass imbalance to replace 40 individual estimates. The project established that (i) there is good agreement between the three main satellite-based techniques for estimating ice sheet mass balance, (ii) combining satellite data sets leads to significant improvement in certainty, (iii) the polar ice sheets contributed 11 ± 4 mm to global sea levels between 1992 and 2012, and (iv) that combined ice losses from Antarctica and Greenland have increased over time, rising from 10% of the global trend in the early 1990's to 30% in the late 2000's. Demand for an updated assessment has grown, and there are now new satellite missions, new geophysical corrections, new techniques, and new teams producing data. The period of overlap between independent satellite techniques has increased from 5 to 12 years, and the full period of satellite data over which an assessment can be performed has increased from 19 to 40 years. It is also clear that multiple satellite techniques are required to confidently separate mass changes associated with snowfall and ice dynamical imbalance - information that is of critical importance for climate modelling. This presentation outlines the approach

  17. Ice-sheet mass balance and climate change.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Edward; Navarro, Francisco J; Pattyn, Frank; Domingues, Catia M; Fettweis, Xavier; Ivins, Erik R; Nicholls, Robert J; Ritz, Catherine; Smith, Ben; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Whitehouse, Pippa L; Zwally, H Jay

    2013-06-06

    Since the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, new observations of ice-sheet mass balance and improved computer simulations of ice-sheet response to continuing climate change have been published. Whereas Greenland is losing ice mass at an increasing pace, current Antarctic ice loss is likely to be less than some recently published estimates. It remains unclear whether East Antarctica has been gaining or losing ice mass over the past 20 years, and uncertainties in ice-mass change for West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula remain large. We discuss the past six years of progress and examine the key problems that remain.

  18. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation and...

  19. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation and...

  20. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities and...

  1. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation and...

  2. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities and...

  3. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation and...

  4. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities and...

  5. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities and...

  6. 47 CFR 32.3000 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-Depreciation and amortization. 32.3000 Section 32.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3000 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—Depreciation and...

  7. 47 CFR 32.3999 - Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Instructions for balance sheet accounts-liabilities and stockholders' equity. 32.3999 Section 32.3999 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3999 Instructions for balance sheet accounts—liabilities and...

  8. Glacier and Ice Sheet Crevasses: Lifecycles and Mass Balance Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Glacier and ice sheet mass balance is determined by climatic surface balance, which is the difference between snowfall and runoff, and ice dynamics, which governs iceberg discharge. Crevasses can influence both the climatic surface balance and ice dynamic components of glacier and ice sheet mass balance. We review the observational evidence for the notion of mutually exclusive "low" and "high" advection crevasse lifecycles. In the low advection lifecycle, crevasses are interpreted to be in highly transient equilibrium with their local stress fields at all times. In the high advection lifecycle, crevasses are interpreted to be out of equilibrium with their local stress fields during advection between upstream opening and downstream closing areas. We suggest that the notion of a high advection lifecycle, typically inferred for transverse crevasses in apparent non-equilibrium with their local stress field, generally results from failure to account for the rotation in crevasse geometry introduced by appreciable local tearing (mode III fracture). We therefore favor the notion that crevasses are always in equilibrium with their local stress field. We also review the observational evidence and theoretical support for ten distinct crevasse-related processes that influence surface mass balance and ice dynamics (see Figure). One of these processes is a crevasse-rheology-deformation feedback, whereby an increase in crevasse extent contributes to enhanced cryo-hydrologic warming and hydraulic weakening, which in turn contributes to an increase in deformational velocity and further increase in crevasse extent. We discuss this potential feedback in the context of recent observations at Jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland, as well as in the content of the end-member scenario of thermal-viscous collapse of the Greenland ice sheet.

  9. Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet at High Elevations.

    PubMed

    Thomas; Akins; Csatho; Fahnestock; Gogineni; Kim; Sonntag

    2000-07-21

    Comparison of ice discharge from higher elevation areas of the entire Greenland Ice Sheet with total snow accumulation gives estimates of ice thickening rates over the past few decades. On average, the region has been in balance, but with thickening of 21 centimeters per year in the southwest and thinning of 30 centimeters per year in the southeast. The north of the ice sheet shows less variability, with average thickening of 2 centimeters per year in the northeast and thinning of about 5 centimeters per year in the northwest. These results agree well with those from repeated altimeter surveys, except in the extreme south, where we find substantially higher rates of both thickening and thinning.

  10. [Continuing medical education and the Social Balance Sheet].

    PubMed

    Gatti, Giorgio

    2010-06-01

    The social balance sheet is an instrument used to obtain a clear and transparent account, that helps to develop an analysis of the budget from the point of view of the stakeholders; this is not all that is required by law, but it takes into account the ability of the health institutions to obtain a collaboration with the neighboring environment and with the social issues that enter into the relationship. This could be a valuable tool also for educational purposes; it is an useful task to be performed by the health workers, and an opportunity to redefine the information needs through the analysis of the results achieved.

  11. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other than...

  12. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other than...

  13. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other than...

  14. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other than...

  15. 47 CFR 32.103 - Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated... for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.103 Balance sheet accounts for other than regulated-fixed assets to be maintained. Balance sheet accounts to be maintained by Class A and Class B telephone companies for other than...

  16. The liquid water balance of the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Christian; Reijmer, Carleen; van den Broeke, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is an increasingly important contributor to global sea level rise. During the last decade, the mass loss was dominated by meltwater runoff. Linking actual runoff from the ice sheet to melt and other forms of liquid water input at the surface (rainfall and condensation) is however complex, as liquid water may be retained within the ice sheet due to refreezing and/or (perennial) storage. In the ablation zone on bare ice, liquid water runs of laterally at the surface, accumulates in supraglacial lakes or enters the ice sheet's en- or subglacial hydraulic system via moulins and crevasses. In the higher elevated accumulation zone, liquid water percolates into the porous firn layer and part of it may be retained due to refreezing and/or perennial storage in so called firn aquifers. In this study, we investigate the liquid water balance of the GrIS focussing on the role of the firn layer. For this purpose, we ran SNOWPACK, a relatively complex one-dimensional snow model, on a horizontal resolution of ˜ 11km and for the transient period of 1960 to 2015. At the snow-atmosphere-interface, the model was forced by output of the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3. A comparison of SNOWPACK with in-situ observations (firn density profiles) and remote sensing data (firn aquifer locations inferred from radar measurements) indicated a good agreement for most climatic conditions. On a GrIS-wide scale, the modelled surface mass balance of SNOWPACK exhibits, in combination with ice-discharge data for ocean-terminating glaciers, an excellent agreement with GRACE data for the period 2003 - 2012. GrIS-integrated amounts of surface melt reveal a significant positive trend (+11.6Gta-2) in the second half of the simulation period. Within this interval, the trend in runoff is larger (+8.3Gta-2) than the one in refreezing (+3.6Gta-2), which results in an overall decrease of the refreezing fraction. This decrease is for instance less

  17. Greenland Ice sheet mass balance from satellite and airborne altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Bevis, M. G.; Wahr, J. M.; Wouters, B.; Sasgen, I.; van Dam, T. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Kjaer, K.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Bjork, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is dominated by loss in the marginal areas. Dynamic induced ice loss and its associated ice surface lowering is often largest close to the glacier calving front and may vary from rates of tens of meters per years to a few meters per year over relatively short distances. Hence, high spatial resolution data are required to accurately estimate volume changes. Here, we estimate ice volume change rate of the Greenland ice sheet using data from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter during 2003-2009 and CryoSat-2 data during 2010-2012. To improve the volume change estimate we supplement the ICESat and CryoSat data with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2003-2012 and NASA's Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) during 2007-2012. The Airborne data are mainly concentrated along the ice margin and therefore significantly improve the estimate of the total volume change. Furthermore, we divide the GrIS into six major drainage basins and provide volume loss estimates during 2003-2006, 2006-2009 and 2009-2012 for each basin and separate between melt induced and dynamic ice loss. In order to separate dynamic ice loss from melt processes, we use SMB values from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) and SMB values from a positive degree day runoff retention model (Janssens & Huybrechts 2000, Hanna et al. 2011 JGR, updated for this study). Our results show increasing SMB ice loss over the last decade, while dynamic ice loss increased during 2003-2009, but has since been decreasing. Finally, we assess the estimated mass loss using GPS observations from stations located along the edge of the GrIS and measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission. Hanna, E., et al. (2011), Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance 1870 to 2010 based on Twentieth Century Reanalysis, and links with global climate forcing, J. Geophys. Res

  18. ARARs fact sheet: Compliance with the Clean Air Act and associated air quality requirements. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet provides updated guidance on compliance with the Clean Air Act, as amended November 1990 (42 USC 7401 et. seq.) and related air quality rules under other environmental statutes. It also addresses developing applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) policies and identifying and complying with ARARs at specific sites.

  19. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount... balances. 3. Receivables. (a) State separately amounts receivable from (1) sales of investments; (2...

  20. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount... balances. 3. Receivables. (a) State separately amounts receivable from (1) sales of investments; (2...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  3. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  4. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance...

  6. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... Companies § 210.6-06 Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount certificates shall comply with the following...

  7. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... Companies § 210.6-06 Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount certificates shall comply with the following...

  8. 17 CFR 210.6-06 - Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. 210.6-06 Section 210.6-06 Commodity and... Companies § 210.6-06 Special provisions applicable to the balance sheets of issuers of face-amount certificates. Balance sheets filed by issuers of face-amount certificates shall comply with the following...

  9. A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width. PMID:20952786

  10. Balance equations for triple-joint vortex-sheet structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xi; Mohseni, Kamran

    2016-11-01

    A vortex sheet is the limiting case for a viscous shear layer as the thickness approaches zero. Recently, vortex-sheet based flow models have been demonstrated to provide significant reduction for numerical simulations of viscous and inviscid flows. In such modeling approaches, a prominent phenomenon is the formation of a new vortex sheet from existing vortex sheets, thereby creating a triple-joint vortex-sheet structure. In this study, the formation of the new vortex sheet is analytically determined by applying conservation laws of mass and momentum to flow surrounding the entire triple-joint vortex-sheet structure, together with the boundary conditions specific to any application. As a result, a general condition is obtained to determine the angle, strength, and velocity of the new vortex sheet. This model is validated by simulating airfoils in steady and unsteady background flows and comparing the flow structures and force calculations with experimental data. While the performance of this model is demonstrated in this study for the vortex shedding problem at the trailing edge, its future applications could be extended to flow separation on a smooth surface and triple contact point of multi-phase flows.

  11. Understanding Recent Mass Balance Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderVeen, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to better understand the current transfer of mass between the Greenland Ice Sheet, the world's oceans and the atmosphere, and to identify processes controlling the rate of this transfer, to be able to predict with greater confidence future contributions to global sea level rise. During the first year of this project, we focused on establishing longer-term records of change of selected outlet glaciers, reevaluation of mass input to the ice sheet and analysis of climate records derived from ice cores, and modeling meltwater production and runoff from the margins of the ice sheet.

  12. Airborne Laser Altimetry Mapping of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Application to Mass Balance Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Wright, W.; Yungel, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 and '99, the Arctic Ice Mapping (AIM) program completed resurveys of lines occupied 5 years earlier revealing elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet and identifying areas of significant thinning, thickening and balance. In planning these surveys, consideration had to be given to the spatial constraints associated with aircraft operation, the spatial nature of ice sheet behavior, and limited resources, as well as temporal issues, such as seasonal and interannual variability in the context of measurement accuracy. This paper examines the extent to which the sampling and survey strategy is valid for drawing conclusions on the current state of balance of the Greenland ice sheet. The surveys covered the entire ice sheet with an average distance of 21.4 km between each location on the ice sheet and the nearest flight line. For most of the ice sheet, the elevation changes show relatively little spatial variability, and their magnitudes are significantly smaller than the observed elevation change signal. As a result, we conclude that the density of the sampling and the accuracy of the measurements are sufficient to draw meaningful conclusions on the state of balance of the entire ice sheet over the five-year survey period. Outlet glaciers, however, show far more spatial and temporal variability, and each of the major ones is likely to require individual surveys in order to determine its balance.

  13. Sensitivity of the Ice Sheet System Model to direct surface mass balance forcing over the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N. J.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.; Larour, E. Y.; Box, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet, which extends south of the Arctic Circle, is vulnerable to temperature perturbations in the Northern Hemisphere, and its complete retreat would raise global sea level by about 7 meters. Models of the ice sheet's past behavior suggest that Greenland's severe retreat was largely responsible for sea-level rise during the last interglacial period. A clear understanding of exactly how the ice sheet responded to past climate change requires a high-degree of spatial resolution, especially within the ice sheet's large drainage basins, as they contain outlets capable of high-velocity flow. The newly developed Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) is a finite-element model capable of simulating transient ice flow on an anisotropic mesh. The adaptable mesh can be refined to higher resolutions in the areas of enhanced ice flow. These features offer a distinct advantage over previous models of the Greenland Ice Sheet, specifically in terms of modeling fast-flowing outlet glaciers. With use of established ISSM capabilities, we examined the sensitivity of Greenland's outlet glaciers to the new Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) reconstruction of yearly surface mass balance forcing of the last 150 years. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program.

  14. Focus: Curriculum Profile. Ohio's Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollifson, Jerry

    1990-01-01

    Describes how the Ohio Department of Education developed its art curriculum, the Balanced Comprehensive Art Curriculum (BCAC). Going beyond the traditional studio art approach, the program requires students to respond and express themselves in three areas: personal development, artistic heritage, and art in society. (KM)

  15. Balancing Acts in Black and White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how she introduced an art project to her students that incorporates balance. She relates that she initially allowed brainstorming before they carried on with the project. She states that many rough sketches were done before students were able to figure out the details needed for the success of their project.…

  16. Principals as Supervisors: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Patricia E.

    2004-01-01

    How can administrators balance the demands placed on them as supervisors to enact both managerial and professional values? To answer that question, this article explores the ways in which practicing school administrators uphold both managerial and professional values in their roles as instructional supervisors. The experiences of the…

  17. Surface Energy and Mass Balance Model for Greenland Ice Sheet and Future Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojian

    The Greenland Ice Sheet contains nearly 3 million cubic kilometers of glacial ice. If the entire ice sheet completely melted, sea level would raise by nearly 7 meters. There is thus considerable interest in monitoring the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Each year, the ice sheet gains ice from snowfall and loses ice through iceberg calving and surface melting. In this thesis, we develop, validate and apply a physics based numerical model to estimate current and future surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The numerical model consists of a coupled surface energy balance and englacial model that is simple enough that it can be used for long time scale model runs, but unlike previous empirical parameterizations, has a physical basis. The surface energy balance model predicts ice sheet surface temperature and melt production. The englacial model predicts the evolution of temperature and meltwater within the ice sheet. These two models can be combined with estimates of precipitation (snowfall) to estimate the mass balance over the Greenland Ice Sheet. We first compare model performance with in-situ observations to demonstrate that the model works well. We next evaluate how predictions are degraded when we statistically downscale global climate data. We find that a simple, nearest neighbor interpolation scheme with a lapse rate correction is able to adequately reproduce melt patterns on the Greenland Ice Sheet. These results are comparable to those obtained using empirical Positive Degree Day (PDD) methods. Having validated the model, we next drove the ice sheet model using the suite of atmospheric model runs available through the CMIP5 atmospheric model inter-comparison, which in turn built upon the RCP 8.5 (business as usual) scenarios. From this exercise we predict how much surface melt production will increase in the coming century. This results in 4-10 cm sea level equivalent, depending on the CMIP5 models. Finally, we try to bound melt water

  18. Pressure anisotropy and radial stress balance in the Jovian neutral sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paranicas, C. P.; Mauk, B. H.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    By examining particle and magnetic field data from the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, signatures were found indicating that the (greater than about 28 keV) particle pressure parallel to the magnetic field is greater than the pressure perpendicular to the field within the nightside neutral sheet (three nightside neutral sheet crossings, with favorable experimental conditions, were used). By incorporating the pressure anisotropy into the calculation of radial forces within the hightside neutral sheet, it is found that (1) force balance is approximately achieved and (2) the anisotropy force term provides the largest contribution of the other particle forces considered (pressure gradients and the corotation centrifugal force). With regard to the problem of understanding the balance of radial forces within the dayside neutral sheet (McNutt, 1984; Mauk and Krimigis, 1987), the nightside pressure anisotropy force is larger than the dayside pressure gradient forces at equivalent radial distances; however, a full accounting of the dayside regions remains to be achieved.

  19. Recommendations from the SCAR Ice Sheet Mass Balance and Sea Level (ISMASS) Workshop.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacka, T. H.

    2002-05-01

    The determination of growth or shrinkage of the great ice sheets is the oldest scientific problem of Earth's polar regions. Today, the issue of ice mass balance has renewed urgency because of the role of grounded ice in sea level change. In fact, the significant variations in sea level over the past million years have been controlled by ice, and it is clear that the response of the ice sheets to climate change in the immediate future could significantly alter sea level. This issue is especially relevant at this time because the prediction of global sea level change is of practical concern. Recent observations of the ice sheets have discovered unexpected change in ice stream velocities as well as ice shelf collapse. Theoretical analysis of ice sheet response to climate change has indicated a wide range of outcomes on different time scales under different climate change scenarios. New technologies have resulted in a significant increase in the ability to observe and model ice sheet properties and processes. Recognizing the likelihood and potential of ice sheet change, the SCAR Glaciology WG, with the support of SCAR-GLOCHANT has established the Ice Sheet Mass Balance and Sea Level (ISMASS) project to examine and report on the study of the ice mass balance of Antarctica. The ISMASS team has recently developed a strategy to establish a meaningful international scientific approach to understanding and predicting Antarctic ice sheet mass balance. The strategy was developed at a workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland, USA, and sponsored by SCAR, with support from WCRP, the Antarctic CRC (Australia) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This presentation will outline the main recommendations from the workshop

  20. Off-balance-sheet financing can generate capital for strategic development.

    PubMed

    Campobasso, F D

    2000-06-01

    To manage their real estate portfolios effectively and obtain funding for strategic development, IDSs should consider adopting off-balance-sheet financing strategies, such as sale-and-leaseback transactions, synthetic leases, and joint-venture arrangements. Under these approaches, real estate assets are moved off of the organization's balance sheet via a partial or complete transfer of ownership to a third-party entity. The organization typically retains a satisfactory degree of control over the assets as lessee in sale-and-leaseback and synthetic-lease arrangements, or limited or minority partner in a joint venture, while freeing up cash to use for other strategic purposes.

  1. Determination of Interannual to Decadal Changes in Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Busalacchi, Antonioa J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the +/- 25% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to +/- 2 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. Although the overall ice mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations can be derived from time-series of ice surface elevations from satellite altimetry, satellite radar altimeters have been limited in spatial coverage and elevation accuracy. Nevertheless, new data analysis shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. In addition, observed seasonal and interannual variations in elevation demonstrate the potential for relating the variability in mass balance to changes in precipitation, temperature, and melting. From 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter mission will provide significantly better elevation accuracy and spatial coverage to 86 deg latitude and to the margins of the ice sheets. During 3 to 5 years of ICESat-1 operation, an estimate of the overall ice sheet mass balance and sea level contribution will be obtained. The importance of continued ice monitoring after the first ICESat is illustrated by the variability in the area of Greenland surface melt observed over 17-years and its correlation with temperature. In addition, measurement of ice sheet changes, along with measurements of sea level change by a series of ocean altimeters, should enable direct detection of ice level and global sea level correlations.

  2. Determination of Interannual to Decadal Changes in Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Busalacchi, Antonioa J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the +/- 25% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to +/- 2 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. Although the overall ice mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations can be derived from time-series of ice surface elevations from satellite altimetry, satellite radar altimeters have been limited in spatial coverage and elevation accuracy. Nevertheless, new data analysis shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. In addition, observed seasonal and interannual variations in elevation demonstrate the potential for relating the variability in mass balance to changes in precipitation, temperature, and melting. From 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter mission will provide significantly better elevation accuracy and spatial coverage to 86 deg latitude and to the margins of the ice sheets. During 3 to 5 years of ICESat-1 operation, an estimate of the overall ice sheet mass balance and sea level contribution will be obtained. The importance of continued ice monitoring after the first ICESat is illustrated by the variability in the area of Greenland surface melt observed over 17-years and its correlation with temperature. In addition, measurement of ice sheet changes, along with measurements of sea level change by a series of ocean altimeters, should enable direct detection of ice level and global sea level correlations.

  3. Gravimetric mass balance products for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Horvath, Alexander; Forsberg, Rene; Meister, Rakia; Shepherd, Andrew; Hogg, Anna; Muir, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) mass balance products for both the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) have been developed by the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project. These Gravimetric Mass Balance (GMB) products are derived from satellite gravimetry data acquired by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), which is the only sensor directly sensitive to changes in mass. Using monthly GRACE gravity field solutions covering the period from 2002 until present two different GMB products are derived: (a) time series of monthly mass changes for the entire ice sheet and for individual drainage basins, and (b) gridded mass changes covering the entire ice sheet. The gridded product depicts spatial patterns of mass changes at a formal resolution of about 50 km, although the effective resolution provided by GRACE is about 200-500km. The algorithms used for the product generation have been selected within an open round robin experiment and are optimized to account for the complex GRACE error structures, to advance the limited spatial resolution and to separate signals super-imposed to mass changes of the cryosphere. Here the first release of the ESA CCI GMB products is presented. Both the basin averaged and the gridded products are assessed regarding their signal content and error characteristics. Finally, up-to-date mass balance estimates are presented for both ice sheets. The GMB products are freely accessible through data portals hosted by the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project.

  4. Use of Cognitive Therapy and the Balance Sheet Procedure to Assist Career Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Marianne M.

    1989-01-01

    A balance sheet technique enables counselors to help clients identify and overcome anxiety associated with career decision making. Steps include describing the problem, brainstorming alternatives, listing expected positive and negative outcomes in terms of self and others, seeking information, and choosing alternatives. (SK)

  5. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  6. SEMIC: an efficient surface energy and mass balance model applied to the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp, Mario; Robinson, Alexander; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    We present SEMIC, a Surface Energy and Mass balance model of Intermediate Complexity for snow- and ice-covered surfaces such as the Greenland ice sheet. SEMIC is fast enough for glacial cycle applications, making it a suitable replacement for simpler methods such as the positive degree day (PDD) method often used in ice sheet modelling. Our model explicitly calculates the main processes involved in the surface energy and mass balance, while maintaining a simple interface and requiring minimal data input to drive it. In this novel approach, we parameterise diurnal temperature variations in order to more realistically capture the daily thaw-freeze cycles that characterise the ice sheet mass balance. We show how to derive optimal model parameters for SEMIC specifically to reproduce surface characteristics and day-to-day variations similar to the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, version 2) and its incorporated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT (Soil Ice Snow Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer). A validation test shows that SEMIC simulates future changes in surface temperature and surface mass balance in good agreement with the more sophisticated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT included in MAR. With this paper, we present a physically based surface model to the ice sheet modelling community that is general enough to be used with in situ observations, climate model, or reanalysis data, and that is at the same time computationally fast enough for long-term integrations, such as glacial cycles or future climate change scenarios.

  7. A Look at Constitutional Checks and Balances: Study Sheets for U.S. History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Nancy

    This document is intended as a resource guide for teachers to use in helping students to understand how the United States system of government operates. It examines the background, historical application, and current debate concerning the principle of checks and balances. Ten study sheets feature various figures and episodes prominently associated…

  8. Teaching about the Income Statement and Balance Sheet in a Beginning Business German Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolf, Uwe

    A review of business German textbooks reveals that few give significant attention to accounting terminology. Both German majors and business majors enrolled in business German need to be introduced to the balance sheet and income statement. It is possible to devote one or two class sessions to accounting by limiting content to a minimal but solid…

  9. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  10. Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass balance products from satellite gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Horvath, Alexander; Forsberg, René; Meister, Rakia; Barletta, Valentina R.; Shepherd, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Because of their important role in the Earth's climate system, ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has identified both the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) as Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Since respondents of a user survey indicated that the ice sheet mass balance is one of the most important ECV data products needed to better understand climate change, the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project provide Gravimetric Mass Balance (GMB) products based on satellite gravimetry data. The GMB products are derived from GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) monthly solutions of release ITSG-Grace2016 produced at TU Graz. GMB basin products (i.e. time series of monthly mass changes for the entire ice sheets and selected drainage basins) and GMB gridded products (e.g. mass balance estimates with a formal resolution of about 50km, covering the entire ice sheets) are generated for the period from 2002 until present. The first GMB product was released in mid 2016. Here we present an extended and updated version of the ESA CCI GMB products, which are freely available through data portals hosted by the projects (https://data1.geo.tu-dresden.de/ais_gmb, http://products.esa-icesheets-cci.org/products/downloadlist/GMB). Since the initial product release, the applied processing strategies have been improved in order to further reduce GRACE errors and to enhance the separation of signals super-imposed to the ice mass changes. While a regional integration approach is used by the AIS_cci project, the GMB products of the GIS_cci project are derived using a point mass inversion. The differences between both approaches are investigated through the example of the GIS, where an alternative GMB product was generated using the regional integration approach implemented by the AIS_cci. Finally, we present the latest mass balance estimates for both ice sheets as well as their corresponding contributions to global sea level rise.

  11. Overview of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance and Dynamics from ICESat Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to determine the present-day mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, identify changes that may be occurring in the surface-mass flux and ice dynamics, and estimate their contributions to global sea-level rise. Although ICESat's three lasers were planned to make continuous measurements for 3 to 5 years, the mission was re-planned to operate in 33-day campaigns 2 to 3 times each year following failure of the first laser after 36 days. Seventeen campaigns were conducted with the last one in the Fall of 2009. Mass balance maps derived from measured ice-sheet elevation changes show that the mass loss from Greenland has increased significantly to about 170 Gt/yr for 2003 to 2007 from a state of near balance in the 1990's. Increased losses (189 Gt/yr) from melting and dynamic thinning are over seven times larger'than increased gains (25 gt/yr) from precipitation. Parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet and the Antarctic Peninsula are losing mass at an increasing rate, but other parts of West Antarctica and the East Antarctic ice sheet are gaining mass at an increasing rate. Increased losses of 35 Gt/yr in Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd.Coast are more than balanced by gains in base of Peninsula and ice stream C, D, & E systems. From the 1992-2002 to 2003-2007 period, the overall mass balance for Antarctica changed from a loss of about 60 Gt/yr to near balance or slightly positive.

  12. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule.

  13. On the radial force balance in the quiet time magnetotail current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.

    2016-05-01

    Using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions spacecraft observations of the quite magnetotail current sheet within the r∈[9,35]RE region (r is the radial distance from Earth and RE is Earth's radius), we investigate the thermal plasma pressure distribution along the magnetotail. Taking advantage of flapping motions of an ensemble of current sheets at various distances, we estimate the current density magnitude jy (in GSM coordinates). Comparing the tension force jyBz (Bz is the magnetic field component) with the radial gradient of the plasma pressure demonstrates that this gradient is only a small fraction, ˜10-15%, of the Ampere force exerted on the cross-tail current, in the r > 15RE region. We also estimate the contribution of the electron temperature anisotropy to the pressure balance: in the r > 15RE region the corresponding force can balance only 10-15% of the observed tension force jyBz. Thus, we conclude that about 70% of the tension force is not balanced by the combination of isotropic radial pressure gradient or the electron anisotropy. We discuss mechanisms that could be responsible for balancing the magnetotail current sheet.

  14. A balanced water layer concept for subglacial hydrology in large scale ice sheet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeller, S.; Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Miller, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is currently no doubt about the existence of a wide-spread hydrological network under the Antarctic ice sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain inspired by the Gamburtsev Mountains, Antarctica. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux-basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out, that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.

  15. Elevation Change and Remote-Sensing Mass-Balance Methods on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlstrom, A. P.; Reeh, N.; Christensen, E. L.; Kristensen, S. S.; Forsberg, R.; Stenseng, L.

    2005-12-01

    The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is virtually impossible to obtain with traditional ground-based methods alone due to its vast size. It is thus desirable to develop mass-balance methods depending on remote sensing instead and this field has experienced a dramatic development within the last decade. Large amounts of data have been collected from satellite and airborne platforms, yielding surface elevation changes and surface velocity fields. Here we present data from the Greenland Ice-Sheet margin acquired with a new small-scale airborne system, designed for regional high-density coverage. During campaigns in 2000, 2003 and 2005, we have collected and processed ice-sheet surface elevation and ice-thickness data, acquired with a laser altimeter and a 60~MHz ice-penetrating radar. Both instruments were mounted on a small Twin-Otter aircraft which were positioned using three onboard differential GPS instruments and corrected for pitch, roll and crab using an Inertial Navigation System. Knowledge of elevation change and ice thickness alone does not provide mass balance, but when combined with the surface velocity field obtained from satellite repeat-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), it is possible to apply the principle of mass conservation and derive the mass balance from this. The method has previously been applied to a flow line, but the intention is here to attempt a regional, distributed calculation. We will present the method and its weaknesses and show a map of measured surface elevation change over a 50x50~km part of the western Greenland Ice-Sheet margin near Kangerlussuaq. In this region, the mean observed elevation change has been -0.5~m from 2000 to 2003. However, the change is unevenly distributed with the northern and central part generally in balance and the southern part clearly thinning.

  16. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  17. From Outlet Glacier Changes to Ice Sheet Mass Balance - Evolution of Greenland Ice Sheet from Laser Altimetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A.; Nagarajan, S.; Babonis, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Investigations of ice sheet mass balance and the changing dynamics of outlet glaciers have been hampered by the lack of comprehensive data. In recent years, this situation has been remedied. Satellite laser altimetry data from the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite mission (ICESat), combined with airborne laser altimetry, provide accurate measurements of surface elevation changes, and surface velocities derived from various satellite platforms yield crucial information on changing glacier dynamics. Taken together, a rich and diverse data set is emerging that allows for characterizing the spatial and temporal evolution of ice sheets and outlet glaciers. In particular, it enables quantitative studies of outlet glaciers undergoing rapid and complex changes. Although airborne and laser altimetry have been providing precise measurements of ice sheet topography since the early 1990s, determining detailed and accurate spatial and temporal distribution of surface changes remains a challenging problem. We have developed a new, comprehensive method, called Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC), which estimates surface changes by a simultaneous reconstruction of surface topography from fused multisensor data. The mathematical model is based on the assumption that for a small surface area, only the absolute elevation changes over time but not the shape of the surface patch. Therefore, laser points of all time epochs contribute to the shape parameters; points of each time period determine the absolute elevation of the surface patch at that period. This method provides high-resolution surface topography, precise changes and a rigorous error estimate of the quantities. By using SERAC we combined ICESat and ATM laser altimetry data to determine the evolution of surface change rates of the whole Greenland Ice Sheet between 2003 and 2009 on a high-resolution grid. Our reconstruction, consistent with GRACE results, shows ice sheet thinning propagating

  18. Time-scale of changes in Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    I review estimates of ice sheet mass balance during the time period 1992 to 2011 and how the data record has been extended to 1957 in Greenland and 1975 in Antarctica. The long record from the mass budget method calculates the difference between surface mass balance reconstructed from regional atmospheric climate models - I will review why such models are more accurate than prior reconstructions of surface mass balance - with the ice discharge deduced from the flux of ice across the grounding line of major outlet glaciers. Over the time period 2002-2011, we compare this record with the GRACE data and find an excellent agreement in mass, mass loss, and acceleration in mass loss for both the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, excluding surrounding glaciers and ice caps. Comparison of GRACE and the flux method suggests that 9 years of GRACE data are sufficient to extract long-term trends, except perhaps in Antarctica; 20 years of data significantly reduces the uncertainty in estimated acceleration of the mass loss; and longer time periods are essential to detect potential changes in precipitation in Antarctica. From these results, it is clear that monitoring ice sheet mass balance over several decades is critical. We have only begun this effort in the 1990s with the advent of new satellites. The 2007-2009 IPY provided a new impetus for polar research and international collaboration that must be continued well into the 21rst century and also include major observational gaps that will limit progress in providing more realistic predictions of ice sheet evolution.

  19. Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite and Airborne Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K.; Shepherd, A.; McMillan, M.; Gilbert, L.; Muir, A.; Flament, T.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial environmental changes are occurring over the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), including rapid climate warming, ice shelf collapse, and accelerated glacier thinning and flow. These changes have major implications for the regional ice sheet mass balance and for global sea level rise. Geodetic estimates of the AP Ice Sheet (APIS) mass balance indicate that it lost mass at an average rate of 20 ± 14 Gt/yr over the period 1992-2011 (Shepherd et al., 2012); this equates to approximately 25% of all Antarctic ice sheet mass losses, despite occupying only 4% of the continental area. Past estimates of mass change have either been at a low resolution (gravimetry) or have had sparse spatial sampling (the mass budget method and altimetry). As a consequence, regional patterns of mass change are not well captured which makes understanding the causes difficult. Through the combination of ERS-2, EnviSat, ICESat, ATM and CryoSat-2 altimetry datasets we have succeeded in generating a mass change time series for the APIS with sufficient resolution and spatial sampling to capture regional signals. Here we will present our methods for the optimisation, combination and interpolation of the elevation change measurements, and their conversion to mass change. Furthermore, the observed spatial and temporal trends in APIS mass balance will be examined and the possible causes explored.

  20. Knowledge synthesis of benefits and adverse effects of measles vaccination: the Lasbela balance sheet

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In preparation for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to increase the demand for measles vaccination in Lasbela district of Pakistan, a balance sheet summarized published evidence on benefits and possible adverse effects of measles vaccination. Methods The balance sheet listed: 1) major health conditions associated with measles; 2) the risk among the unvaccinated who contract measles; 3) the risk among the vaccinated; 4) the risk difference between vaccinated and unvaccinated; and 5) the likely net gain from vaccination for each condition. Results Two models revealed very different projections of net gain from measles vaccine. A Lasbela-specific combination of low period prevalence of measles among the unvaccinated, medium vaccination coverage and low vaccine efficacy rate, as revealed by the baseline survey, resulted in less-than-expected gains attributable to vaccination. Modelled on estimates where the vaccine had greater efficacy, the gains from vaccination would be more substantial. Conclusion Specific local conditions probably explain the low rates among the unvaccinated while the high vaccine failure rate is likely due to weaknesses in the vaccination delivery system. Community perception of these realities may have had some role in household decisions about whether to vaccinate, although the major discouraging factor was inadequate access. The balance sheet may be useful as a communication tool in other circumstances, applied to up-to-date local evidence. PMID:19828064

  1. A new mascon approach to assess global ice sheet and glacier mass balances from GRACE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Ernst; Rietbroek, Roelof; Wouters, Bert

    2013-04-01

    Purpose of this paper is to assess the mass balances of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), Ice Sheets over Antarctica (AIS) and Land Glaciers and Ice Caps (LGIC) with a new method that yields monthly mass variations at 10242 mascons. Input for this algorithm are level 2 data from the GRACE system between 2002.7 and 2012.2. An ensemble of recently updated GIA models based upon new ice history models show for Greenland a mass change of -271 ± 21 Gt/yr which is compatible with mass balances computed from the ICE-5G based GIA models. Whereas the mass balances for the GrIS appear to be insensitive to GIA modeling uncertainties this is not anymore the case for the mass-balance of Antarctica. Ice history models for Antarctica were recently improved and updated historic ice height datasets and GPS time series have been used to generate new GIA models for Antarctica. We investigated the performance of two new GIA models dedicated for Antarctica and found an average mass balance of -91 ± 27 Gt/yr which is approximately 88 Gt/yr less negative than a mass balance derived with the ICE-5g based GIA models. The largest GIA model differences occur on East Antarctica; within the analyzed time window two episodic events occurred in 2009 and 2011 on Dronning Maud land which are related to extreme weather events. The mass balance of land glaciers and ice caps currently stands at -174 ± 8 Gt/yr for which there is no alternative other than to use an ICE-5G based GIA models. We assess the mass-driven part of sea level rise budget at 1.48 ± 0.04 mm/yr which is 0.25 mm/yr less than obtained with traditional GIA models.

  2. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development. PMID:27066197

  3. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales.

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development.

  4. A possible change in mass balance of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the coming century

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmura, A.; Wild, M.; Bengtsson, L.

    1996-09-01

    A high-resolution GCM is found to simulate precipitation and surface energy balance of high latitudes with high accuracy. This opens new possibilities to investigate the future mass balance of polar glaciers and its effect on sea level. The surface mass balance of the Greenland and the Antarctic ice sheets is simulated using the ECHAM3 GCM with T106 horizontal resolution. With this model, two 5-year integrations for the present and doubled carbon dioxide conditions based on the boundary conditions provided by the ECHAM1/T21 transient to what extent the effect of climate change on the mass balance on the two largest glaciers of the world can differ. On Greenland one sees a slight decrease in accumulation and a substantial increase in melt, while on Antarctica a large increase in accumulation without melt is projected. Translating the mass balances into terms of sea-level equivalent, the Greenland discharge causes a sea level rise of 1.1 mm yr{sup {minus}1}, while the accumulation on Antarctica tends to lower it by 0.9 mm yr{sup {minus}1}. The change in the combined mass balance of the two continents is almost zero. The sea level change of the next century can be affected more effectively by the thermal expansion of seawater and the mass balance of smaller glaciers outside of Greenland and Antarctica. 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Comparison of surface mass balance of ice sheets simulated by positive-degree-day method and energy balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Eva; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    Glacial cycles of the late Quaternary are controlled by the asymmetrically varying mass balance of continental ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. Surface mass balance is governed by processes of ablation and accumulation. Here two ablation schemes, the positive-degree-day (PDD) method and the surface energy balance (SEB) approach, are compared in transient simulations of the last glacial cycle with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2. The standard version of the CLIMBER-2 model incorporates the SEB approach and simulates ice volume variations in reasonable agreement with paleoclimate reconstructions during the entire last glacial cycle. Using results from the standard CLIMBER-2 model version, we simulated ablation with the PDD method in offline mode by applying different combinations of three empirical parameters of the PDD scheme. We found that none of the parameter combinations allow us to simulate a surface mass balance of the American and European ice sheets that is similar to that obtained with the standard SEB method. The use of constant values for the empirical PDD parameters led either to too much ablation during the first phase of the last glacial cycle or too little ablation during the final phase. We then substituted the standard SEB scheme in CLIMBER-2 with the PDD scheme and performed a suite of fully interactive (online) simulations of the last glacial cycle with different combinations of PDD parameters. The results of these simulations confirmed the results of the offline simulations: no combination of PDD parameters realistically simulates the evolution of the ice sheets during the entire glacial cycle. The use of constant parameter values in the online simulations leads either to a buildup of too much ice volume at the end of glacial cycle or too little ice volume at the beginning. Even when the model correctly simulates global ice volume at the last glacial maximum (21 ka), it is unable to simulate complete deglaciation

  6. Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry 1992 to 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Cornejo, Helen; Giovinetto, Mario; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2003-01-01

    A major uncertainty in understanding the causes of the current rate of sea level rise is the potential contributions from mass imbalances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Estimates of the current mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet are derived from surface- elevation changes obtained from 9 years of ERS - 1 & 2 radar altimeter data. Elevation time-series are created from altimeter crossovers among 90-day data periods on a 50 km grid to 81.5 S. The time series are fit with a multivariate linear/sinusoidal function to give the average rate of elevation change (dH/dt). On the major Rome-Filchner, Ross, and Amery ice shelves, the W d t are small or near zero. In contrast, the ice shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and along the West Antarctic coast appear to be thinning significantly, with a 23 +/- 3 cm per year surface elevation decrease on the Larsen ice shelf and a 65 +/- 4 cm per year decrease on the Dotson ice shelf. On the grounded ice, significant elevation decreases are obtained over most of the drainage basins of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica and inland of Law Dome in East Antarctica. Significant elevation increases are observed within about 200 km of the coast around much of the rest of the ice sheet. Farther inland, the changes are a mixed pattern of increases and decreases with increases of a few centimeters per year at the highest elevations of the East Antarctic plateau. The derived elevation changes are combined with estimates of the bedrock uplift from several models to provide maps of ice thickness change. The ice thickness changes enable estimates of the ice mass balances for the major drainage basins, the overall mass balance, and the current contribution of the ice sheet to global sea level change.

  7. Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry 1992 to 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Cornejo, Helen; Giovinetto, Mario; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2003-01-01

    A major uncertainty in understanding the causes of the current rate of sea level rise is the potential contributions from mass imbalances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Estimates of the current mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet are derived from surface- elevation changes obtained from 9 years of ERS - 1 & 2 radar altimeter data. Elevation time-series are created from altimeter crossovers among 90-day data periods on a 50 km grid to 81.5 S. The time series are fit with a multivariate linear/sinusoidal function to give the average rate of elevation change (dH/dt). On the major Rome-Filchner, Ross, and Amery ice shelves, the W d t are small or near zero. In contrast, the ice shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and along the West Antarctic coast appear to be thinning significantly, with a 23 +/- 3 cm per year surface elevation decrease on the Larsen ice shelf and a 65 +/- 4 cm per year decrease on the Dotson ice shelf. On the grounded ice, significant elevation decreases are obtained over most of the drainage basins of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica and inland of Law Dome in East Antarctica. Significant elevation increases are observed within about 200 km of the coast around much of the rest of the ice sheet. Farther inland, the changes are a mixed pattern of increases and decreases with increases of a few centimeters per year at the highest elevations of the East Antarctic plateau. The derived elevation changes are combined with estimates of the bedrock uplift from several models to provide maps of ice thickness change. The ice thickness changes enable estimates of the ice mass balances for the major drainage basins, the overall mass balance, and the current contribution of the ice sheet to global sea level change.

  8. Improving Estimates of Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance with Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, K.

    2016-12-01

    Mass losses from the Greenland Ice Sheet have been accelerating over recent years (e.g. McMillan et al., 2016; Velicogna et al., 2014). This acceleration has predominantly been linked to increasing rates of negative surface mass balance, and in particular, increasing ice surface melt rates (e.g. McMillan et al., 2016; Velicogna et al., 2014). At the ice sheet scale, SMB is assessed using SMB model outputs, which in addition to enabling understanding of the origin of mass balance signals, are required as ancillary data in mass balance assessments from altimetry and the mass budget method. Due to the importance of SMB for mass balance over Greenland and the sensitivity of mass balance assessments to SMB model outputs, high accuracy of these models is crucial. A critical limiting factor in SMB modeling is however, a lack of in-situ data that is required for model constraint and evaluation. Such data is limited in time and space due to inherent logistical and financial constraints. Remote sensing datasets, being spatially extensive and relatively densely sampled in both space and time, do not suffer such constraints. Here, we show satellite observations of Greenland SMB. McMillan, M., Leeson, A., Shepherd, A., Briggs, K., Armitage, T. W.K., Hogg, A., Kuipers Munneke, P., van den Broeke, M., Noël, B., van de Berg, W., Ligtenberg, S., Horwath, M., Groh, A. , Muir, A. and Gilbert, L. 2016. A high resolution record of Greenland Mass Balance. Geophysical Research Letters. 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL069666 Velicogna, I., Sutterley, T. C. and van den Broeke, M. R. 2014. Regional acceleration in ice mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica using GRACE time-variable gravity data. Geophysical Research Letters. 41, 8130-8137, doi:10.1002/2014GL061052

  9. Balancing with vibration: a prelude for "drift and act" balance control.

    PubMed

    Milton, John G; Ohira, Toru; Cabrera, Juan Luis; Fraiser, Ryan M; Gyorffy, Janelle B; Ruiz, Ferrin K; Strauss, Meredith A; Balch, Elizabeth C; Marin, Pedro J; Alexander, Jeffrey L

    2009-10-20

    Stick balancing at the fingertip is a powerful paradigm for the study of the control of human balance. Here we show that the mean stick balancing time is increased by about two-fold when a subject stands on a vibrating platform that produces vertical vibrations at the fingertip (0.001 m, 15-50 Hz). High speed motion capture measurements in three dimensions demonstrate that vibration does not shorten the neural latency for stick balancing or change the distribution of the changes in speed made by the fingertip during stick balancing, but does decrease the amplitude of the fluctuations in the relative positions of the fingertip and the tip of the stick in the horizontal plane, A(x,y). The findings are interpreted in terms of a time-delayed "drift and act" control mechanism in which controlling movements are made only when controlled variables exceed a threshold, i.e. the stick survival time measures the time to cross a threshold. The amplitude of the oscillations produced by this mechanism can be decreased by parametric excitation. It is shown that a plot of the logarithm of the vibration-induced increase in stick balancing skill, a measure of the mean first passage time, versus the standard deviation of the A(x,y) fluctuations, a measure of the distance to the threshold, is linear as expected for the times to cross a threshold in a stochastic dynamical system. These observations suggest that the balanced state represents a complex time-dependent state which is situated in a basin of attraction that is of the same order of size. The fact that vibration amplitude can benefit balance control raises the possibility of minimizing risk of falling through appropriate changes in the design of footwear and roughness of the walking surfaces.

  10. Mercury's cross-tail current sheet: Structure, X-line location and stress balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Gangkai; Slavin, James A.; Jia, Xianzhe; Raines, Jim M.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Sun, Wei-Jie; Gershman, Daniel J.; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Genestreti, Kevin J.; Smith, Andy W.

    2017-01-01

    The structure, X-line location, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stress balance of Mercury's magnetotail were examined between -2.6 < XMSM < -1.4 RM using MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) measurements from 319 central plasma sheet (CPS) crossings. The mean plasma β in the CPS calculated from MESSENGER data is 6. The CPS magnetic field was southward (i.e., tailward of X-line) 2-18% of the time. Extrapolation of downtail variations in BZ indicates an average X-line location at -3 RM. Modeling of magnetic field measurements produced a cross-tail current sheet (CS) thickness, current density, and inner CS edge location of 0.39 RM, 92 nA/m2 and -1.22 RM, respectively. Application of MHD stress balance suggests that heavy planetary ions may be important in maintaining stress balance within Mercury's CPS. Qualitative similarities between Mercury's and Earth's magnetotail are remarkable given the differences in upstream conditions, internal plasma composition, finite gyro-radius scaling, and Mercury's lack of ionosphere.

  11. Balance Sheets versus Decision Dashboards to support patient treatment choices: A comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, James G.; Veazie, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Growing recognition of the importance of involving patients in preference-driven healthcare decisions has highlighted the need to develop practical strategies to implement patient-centered shared decision making. The use of tabular balance sheets to support clinical decision making is well established. More recent evidence suggests that graphic, interactive decision dashboards can help people derive a deeper understanding of information within a specific decision context. We therefore conducted a non-randomized trial comparing the effects of adding an interactive dashboard to a static tabular balance sheet on patient decision-making. Method The study population consisted of members of the ResearchMatch registry who volunteered to participate in a study of medical decision making. Two separate surveys were conducted: one for the control group and one for the intervention group. All participants were instructed to imagine they were newly diagnosed with a chronic illness and asked to choose between three hypothetical drug treatments that varied with regard to effectiveness, side effects, and out-of-pocket cost. Both groups made an initial treatment choice after reviewing a balance sheet. After a brief washout period, members of the control group made a second treatment choice after reviewing the balance sheet again while intervention group members made a second treatment choice after reviewing an interactive decision dashboard containing the same information. After both choices participants rated their degree of confidence in their choice on a 1–10 scale. Results Members of the dashboard intervention group were more likely to change their choice of preferred drug, (10.2% vs. 7.5%, p=0.054) and had a larger increase in decision confidence than the control group: 0.67 vs. 0.075, p<0.03. There were no statistically significant between group differences in decisional conflict or decision aid acceptability. Conclusion These findings suggest that clinical

  12. Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G.; Lombard, A.; Cazenave, A.; Ivins, E. R.; Llubes, M.; Remy, F.; Biancale, R.

    2006-09-01

    We propose a new estimate of the mass balance of the West/East Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE for the recent period (July 2002-March 2005) and compute the corresponding contribution to the global mean sea level. We use new GRACE geoid solutions provided by the Groupe de Recherche en Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS/CNES), at the resolution of ˜ 400 km and sampled at 10-day interval. In the three regions, significant interannual variations are observed, which we approximate as linear trends over the short time span of analysis. Over Greenland, an apparent total volume loss of 119 +/- 10 cu km/yr water is observed. For the Antarctica ice sheet, a bimodal behaviour is apparent, with volume loss amounting to 88 +/- 10 cu km/yr water in the West, and increase in the East amounting to 72 +/- 20 cu km/yr water. These GRACE results are affected by land hydrology contamination and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) of the solid Earth since last deglaciation. We correct for both land hydrology contamination (using a global hydrological model) and GIA using the ICE-4G model for Greenland and the IJ05 model for Antarctica. Corrected for both land hydrology contamination and GIA, GRACE volume rates are - 129 +/- 15 cu km/yr, - 107 +/- 23 cu km/yr and + 67 +/- 28 cu km/yr for Greenland, West Antarctica and East Antarctica respectively. In terms of sea level rise, the GRACE-based ice sheets contributions are + 0.36 +/- 0.04 mm/yr for Greenland, + 0.30 +/- 0.06 mm/yr for West Antarctica and - 0.19 +/- 0.07 for East Antarctica for the time interval of study. The total Antarctica contribution to sea level over this short time span is thus slightly positive (+ 0.11 +/- 0.09 mm/yr). The ice sheets together contribute to a sea level rise of 0.47 +/- 0.1 mm/yr. The results reported here are in qualitative agreement with recent estimates of the mass balance of the ice sheets based on GRACE and with those based upon other remote sensing observations. Due to the very short

  13. Changes in ice dynamics and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Rignot, Eric

    2006-07-15

    The concept that the Antarctic ice sheet changes with eternal slowness has been challenged by recent observations from satellites. Pronounced regional warming in the Antarctic Peninsula triggered ice shelf collapse, which led to a 10-fold increase in glacier flow and rapid ice sheet retreat. This chain of events illustrated the vulnerability of ice shelves to climate warming and their buffering role on the mass balance of Antarctica. In West Antarctica, the Pine Island Bay sector is draining far more ice into the ocean than is stored upstream from snow accumulation. This sector could raise sea level by 1m and trigger widespread retreat of ice in West Antarctica. Pine Island Glacier accelerated 38% since 1975, and most of the speed up took place over the last decade. Its neighbour Thwaites Glacier is widening up and may double its width when its weakened eastern ice shelf breaks up. Widespread acceleration in this sector may be caused by glacier ungrounding from ice shelf melting by an ocean that has recently warmed by 0.3 degrees C. In contrast, glaciers buffered from oceanic change by large ice shelves have only small contributions to sea level. In East Antarctica, many glaciers are close to a state of mass balance, but sectors grounded well below sea level, such as Cook Ice Shelf, Ninnis/Mertz, Frost and Totten glaciers, are thinning and losing mass. Hence, East Antarctica is not immune to changes.

  14. A class of analytic solutions for the thermally balanced magnetostatic prominence sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.; Wu, S. T.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented for the nonlinear interplay between magnetostatic equilibrium and energy balance in a Kippenhahn-Schlueter type solar prominence sheet. A class of theoretical models is presented, expressed in closed analytic forms, thus facilitating the direct illustration of the nonlinear physical properties. The model couples the equilibrium between magnetic field, plasma pressure, and weight on the one hand, with the balance between a rho-squared T radiative loss, a rho wave heating (where rho equals plasma density, and T equals plasma temperature), and thermal conduction channeled along magnetic field lines on the other. The steady solutions are divided into three classes, and are characterized by the total wave heating in the prominence sheet which is greater than, equal to, or less than the total radiative loss. The compaction of the plasma along the field lines, under its own weight, and the energy transport effects determine which of the three basic behaviors obtains in a particular situation. A discussion is presented of the implications of the steady solutions for the formation of prominences.

  15. Assessing the links between Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance and Arctic climate using Climate Models and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Rodehacke, Christian; Boberg, Fredrik; Langen, Peter; Sloth Madsen, Marianne; Høyer Svendsen, Synne; Yang, Shuting; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Olesen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Changes in different parts of the Arctic cryosphere may have knock-on effects on other parts of the system. The fully coupled climate model EC-Earth, which includes the ice sheet model PISM, is a useful tool to examine interactions between sea ice, ice sheet, ocean and atmosphere. Here we present results from EC-Earth experimental simulations that show including an interactive ice sheet model changes ocean circulation, sea ice extent and regional climate with, for example, a dampening of the expected increase in Arctic temperatures under the RCP scenarios when compared with uncoupled experiments. However, the relatively coarse resolution of the climate model likely influences the calculated surface mass balance forcing applied to the ice sheet model and it is important therefore to evaluate the model performance over the ice sheet. Here, we assess the quality of the climate forcing from the GCM to the ice sheet model by comparing the energy balance and surface mass balance (SMB) output from EC-Earth with that from a regional climate model (RCM) run at very high resolution (0.05 degrees) over Greenland. The RCM, HIRHAM5, has been evaluated over a wide range of climate parameters for Greenland which allows us to be confident it gives a representative climate forcing for the Greenland ice sheet. To evaluate the internal variability in the climate forcing, we compare simulations from HIRHAM5 forced with both the EC-Earth historical emissions and the ERA-Interim reanalysis on the boundaries. The EC-Earth-PISM RCP8.5 scenario is also compared with an EC-Earth run without an ice sheet to assess the impact of an interactive ice sheet on likely future changes. To account for the resolution difference between the models we downscale both EC-Earth and HIRHAM5 simulations with a simple offline energy balance model (EBM).

  16. Surface Mass Balance Distributions: Downscaling of Coarse Climates to drive Ice Sheet Models realistically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodehacke, Christian; Mottram, Ruth; Langen, Peter; Madsen, Marianne; Yang, Shuting; Boberg, Fredrik; Christensen, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The surface mass balance (SMB) is the most import boundary conditions for the state of glaciers and ice sheets. Hence its representation in numerical model simulations is of highest interest for glacier, ice cap and ice sheet modeling efforts. While descent SMB distributions of the current climate could be interfered with the help of various observation techniques and platforms, its construction for older past and future climates relies on input from spatially coarse resolved global climate models or reconstructions. These coarse SMB estimates with a footprint in the order of 100 km could hardly resolve the marginal ablations zones where the Greenland ice sheets, for instance, loses snow and ice. We present a downscaling method that is based on the physical calculation of the surface mass and energy balance. By the consequent application of universal and computationally cheap parameterizations we get an astonishing good representation of the SMB distribution including its marginal ablation zone. However the method has its limitations; for example wrong accumulation rates due to an insufficient precipitation field leaves its imprint on the SMB distribution. Also the still not satisfactory description of the bare ice albedo, in particular, in parts of Greenland is a challenge. We inspect our Greenland SMB fields' for various forcings and compare them with some widely used reference fields in the community to highlight the weakness and strength of our approach. We use the ERA-Interim reanalyzes period starting in 1979 directly as well as dynamically downscaled by our regional climate model HIRHAM (5 km resolution). Also SMB distributions obtained from the climate model EC-Earth with a resolution of T159 (approx. 125 km resolution in Greenland) are used either directly or downscaled with our regional climate model HIRHAM. Model-based End-of-the-century SMB estimates give an outlook of the future.

  17. Boundary layer stability acts to ballast the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkelhammer, M. B.; Noone, D. C.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; O'Neill, M.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Cox, C.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been reduced over recent decades as a consequence of warming, the impact of which is already detectable on global sea level. However, temperature projections suggest that at interior high-altitude sites on the ice it could be decades or more before warming forces these regions to transition from a dry to wet snow facies. Shifts in boundary layer dynamics, including atmosphere-ice sheet hydrological exchange and cloud radiative forcing could expedite or delay this transition. These processes are important with respect to future ice sheet stability, yet they remain difficult to constrain. Using continuous in situ measurements of vertical profiles of the isotopic composition of water vapor at Summit Camp, the highest observatory on the ice sheet, we document the presence of a hydrologic balance between surface sublimation and condensation fluxes. This exists because of a nearly persistent temperature inversion, which hinders the efficiency with which surface water vapor mixes into the free atmosphere. In the presence of a strong temperature inversion, fog and ice particles form near the ice-atmosphere interface from surface moisture fluxes. When this condensate precipitates on or settles to the surface, it ballasts the ice sheet's mass. A decade-long trend towards lower annual accumulation at Summit may therefore reflect continuous replacement of the near surface atmosphere due to reduced atmospheric stability. If this tendency toward destabilization continues, it could accelerate mass loss at interior sites on the ice sheet. The role of boundary layer stability in ice sheet hydrological budgets discussed here is applicable beyond the accumulation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7001 Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act and Balance...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7001 Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2), use the following clause: Buy American Act and Balance of...

  20. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cells of plants are surrounded by strong walls that prevent rupture from internal pressures that can be two or three times that of an automobile tire. In this way, the walls protect the cytoplasm. However, at the same time, the cells can enlarge as they grow. How this balancing act works and how it enlarges the plant were the subject of a recent conference at the University of Delaware in Lewes. The aim was to identify areas for future research that could explain the enlargement of whole plants. There is a large practical need to predict and modify plant enlargement but the additional processes that overlie the molecular ones need to be integrated with the molecular information before a picture will emerge. How best to accomplish this involved input from cross-disciplinary areas in biomechanics, physics and engineering as well as molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure.

  1. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of...

  2. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of...

  3. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of...

  4. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of...

  5. 48 CFR 752.225-9 - Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act-Trade Agreements Act-Balance of Payments Program. 752.225-9 Section 752.225-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.225-9 Buy American Act—Trade Agreements Act—Balance of...

  6. A Range Correction for Icesat and Its Potential Impact on Ice-sheet Mass Balance Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Moholdt, G.; Fricker, H. A.; Brunt, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a previously undocumented range error in NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) that degrades elevation precision and introduces a small but significant elevation trend over the ICESat mission period. This range error (the Gaussian-Centroid or 'G-C'offset) varies on a shot-to-shot basis and exhibits increasing scatter when laser transmit energies fall below 20 mJ. Although the G-C offset is uncorrelated over periods less than1 day, it evolves over the life of each of ICESat's three lasers in a series of ramps and jumps that give rise to spurious elevation trends of -0.92 to -1.90 cm yr(exp -1), depending on the time period considered. Using ICESat data over the Ross and Filchner-Ronne ice shelves we show that (1) the G-C offset introduces significant biases in ice-shelf mass balance estimates, and (2) the mass balance bias can vary between regions because of different temporal samplings of ICESat.We can reproduce the effect of the G-C offset over these two ice shelves by fitting trends to sample-weighted mean G-C offsets for each campaign, suggesting that it may not be necessary to fully repeat earlier ICESat studies to determine the impact of the G-C offset on ice-sheet mass balance estimates.

  7. β-sheet interfering molecules acting against β-amyloid aggregation and fibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    Francioso, Antonio; Punzi, Pasqualina; Boffi, Alberto; Lori, Clorinda; Martire, Sara; Giordano, Cesare; D'Erme, Maria; Mosca, Luciana

    2015-04-15

    β-Sheet aggregates and amyloid fibrils rising from conformational changes of proteins are observed in several pathological human conditions. These structures are organized in β-strands that can reciprocally interact by hydrophobic and π-π interactions. The amyloid aggregates can give rise to pathological conditions through complex biochemical mechanisms whose physico-chemical nature has been understood in recent times. This review focuses on the various classes of natural and synthetic small molecules able to act against β-amyloid fibrillogenesis and toxicity that may represent new pharmacological tools in Alzheimer's diseases. Some peptides, named 'β-sheet breaker peptides', are able to hamper amyloid aggregation and fibrillogenesis by interfering with and destabilizing the non native β-sheet structures. Other natural compounds, like polyphenols or indolic molecules such as melatonin, can interfere with β-amyloid peptide pathogenicity by inhibiting aggregation and counteracting oxidative stress that is a key hallmark in Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  9. Troughs in Ice Sheets and Other Icy Deposits on Mars: Analysis of Their Radiative Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been known that groove-like structures in glaciers and ice sheets can trap more incoming solar radiation than is the case for a 'normal' flat, smooth surface. In this presentation, we shall describe the radiative regimes of typical scarps and troughs on icy surfaces of Mars, and suggest how these features originate and evolve through time. The basis of our analysis is the radiation balance model presented by Pfeffer and Bretherton. Their model considers the visible band radiation regime of a V-shaped groove on a terrestrial ice surface, and shows that absorbed energy can be enhanced by up to 50 percent for grooves with small opening angles and with typical polar values of the solar zenith angle. Our work extends this model by considering: (a) departures from V-shaped geometry, (b) both englacial and surficial dust and debris, and (c) the infrared spectrum. We apply the extended model to various features on the Martian surface, including the spiral-like scarps on the Northern and Southern ice sheets, the large-scale chasms (e.g., Chasm Borealis), and groove-like lineations on valley floors thought to be filled with mixtures of dust and icy substances. In conjunction with study of valley-closure experiments, we suggest that spiral-like scarps and chasms are stable features of the Martian climate regime. We also suggest that further study of scarps and chasms may shed light on the composition (i.e., relative proportions of water ice, carbon-dioxide ice and dust) of the Martian ice sheets and valley fills.

  10. Small impact of surrounding oceanic conditions on 2007-2012 Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, B.; Fettweis, X.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Erpicum, M.

    2014-03-01

    During recent summers (2007-2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favouring warmer than normal conditions over the GrIS. In addition, it has been suggested that significant anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) may partially explain recent anomalous GrIS surface melt. To assess the impact of 2007-2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR. These simulations suggest that changes in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not significantly impact GrIS SMB, due to the katabatic winds blocking effect. These winds are strong enough to prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST variability, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds are weaker. However, anomalies in SIC and SST could have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, favouring more frequent warm air advection to the GrIS.

  11. THE IMPACT OF FIRN COMPACTION ON ESTIMATES OF ICE SHEET MASS BALANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Zwally, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    Deriving the mass change dM/dt from the altimetry surface elevation change dH/dt requires information of changes in both present accumulation rate and the surface temperature together with the knowledge of bedrock rebound. The conventional theory that multiplying an effective density ranging from 0.3-0.9 to the altimeter derived surface elevation change dH/dt to obtain the mass change is fundamentally limited. A method of estimating the mass change of the ice sheet using altimetry data combined with firn densification model is presented. By using the unified firn densification model, the altimetry derived surface elevation change dH/dt is due to the following components: the present accumulation rate driven dHA/dt; the surface air temperature and accumulation rate driven compaction rates dCT/dt and dCA/dt; the long-term ice dynamic imbalance dHL/dt, together with the bedrock rebound dB/dt that may be obtained from the numerical models. The firn densification model also allows the calculation of the firn density ρA that is associated with the impact of the changes in accumulation rate. We use the ICESat derived surface elevation change dH/dt (2003-2007) data and the firn densification model forced by the changes in monthly surface air temperature from AVHRR (1982-2007), and the accumulation rate due to the temperature change to estimate the mass balances of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.

  12. Radar Interferometry Studies of the Mass Balance of Polar Ice Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to determine the current state of mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Our approach combines different techniques, which include satellite synthetic-aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), radar and laser altimetry, radar ice sounding, and finite-element modeling. In Greenland, we found that 3.5 times more ice flows out of the northern part of the Greenland Ice Sheet than previously accounted for. The discrepancy between current and past estimates is explained by extensive basal melting of the glacier floating sections in the proximity of the grounding line where the glacier detaches from its bed and becomes afloat in the ocean. The inferred basal melt rates are very large, which means that the glaciers are very sensitive to changes in ocean conditions. Currently, it appears that the northern Greenland glaciers discharge more ice than is being accumulated in the deep interior, and hence are thinning. Studies of temporal changes in grounding line position using InSAR confirm the state of retreat of northern glaciers and suggest that thinning is concentrated at the lower elevations. Ongoing work along the coast of East Greenland reveals an even larger mass deficit for eastern Greenland glaciers, with thinning affecting the deep interior of the ice sheet. In Antarctica, we found that glaciers flowing into a large ice shelf system, such as the Ronne Ice Shelf in the Weddell Sea, exhibit an ice discharge in remarkable agreement with mass accumulation in the interior, and the glacier grounding line positions do not migrate with time. Glaciers flowing rapidly into the Amudsen Sea, unrestrained by a major ice shelf, are in contrast discharging more ice than required to maintain a state of mass balance and are thinning quite rapidly near the coast. The grounding line of Pine Island glacier (see diagram) retreated 5 km in 4 years, which corresponds to a glacier thinning rate of 3.5 m/yr. Mass imbalance is even more negative

  13. Radar Interferometry Studies of the Mass Balance of Polar Ice Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to determine the current state of mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Our approach combines different techniques, which include satellite synthetic-aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), radar and laser altimetry, radar ice sounding, and finite-element modeling. In Greenland, we found that 3.5 times more ice flows out of the northern part of the Greenland Ice Sheet than previously accounted for. The discrepancy between current and past estimates is explained by extensive basal melting of the glacier floating sections in the proximity of the grounding line where the glacier detaches from its bed and becomes afloat in the ocean. The inferred basal melt rates are very large, which means that the glaciers are very sensitive to changes in ocean conditions. Currently, it appears that the northern Greenland glaciers discharge more ice than is being accumulated in the deep interior, and hence are thinning. Studies of temporal changes in grounding line position using InSAR confirm the state of retreat of northern glaciers and suggest that thinning is concentrated at the lower elevations. Ongoing work along the coast of East Greenland reveals an even larger mass deficit for eastern Greenland glaciers, with thinning affecting the deep interior of the ice sheet. In Antarctica, we found that glaciers flowing into a large ice shelf system, such as the Ronne Ice Shelf in the Weddell Sea, exhibit an ice discharge in remarkable agreement with mass accumulation in the interior, and the glacier grounding line positions do not migrate with time. Glaciers flowing rapidly into the Amudsen Sea, unrestrained by a major ice shelf, are in contrast discharging more ice than required to maintain a state of mass balance and are thinning quite rapidly near the coast. The grounding line of Pine Island glacier (see diagram) retreated 5 km in 4 years, which corresponds to a glacier thinning rate of 3.5 m/yr. Mass imbalance is even more negative

  14. On the impact of clouds on the energy balance of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Marta; Braun, Matthias; Mölg, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Radiative effects of clouds play a key role in the energy balance of the atmosphere and have a critical influence on the ice sheet's radiation budget, causing a warming effect (by absorption and emission of longwave radiation) or cooling effect (by reducing the downwelling shortwave radiation) at the surface. On the Antarctic Peninsula, changes in the glacier system have been observed, such as the disintegration of ice shelves, acceleration and thinning of glaciers, variations in the limits between glacier faces and retreat of glacier fronts. However, rising surface air and ocean temperatures, as well as substantially increased snow fall in some regions, are also known. These tendencies were linked to changes in atmospheric circulation. Hence, a better understanding of the processes and mechanisms leading to such changes is required. The role of clouds has not been well studied yet in this context. Here, preliminary retrievals of satellite-derived cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties in the Antarctic Peninsula will be presented. The data will be analyzed in the special light of improving parameterizations in the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model. This has the goal to ultimately enhance our understanding of how variations in the cloud cover and properties impact the energy balance on the Antarctic Peninsula at regional scales.

  15. A note on current sheet stress balance in the geomagnetic tail for asymmetrical tail lobe plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, C. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    1987-04-01

    It is shown that the current sheet equilibrium condition can be readily generalized to include lobe plasma asymmetry under the simplifying assumption that all particles incident on the current sheet are transmitted through it. The result is expressed in a form which emphasizes the physical equivalence of stress balance by anisotropic plasma pressure and by net flow through the current sheet. The former case occurs for symmetrical lobe conditions, and balance is expressed in terms of the marginal firehose stability condition. The latter case occurs if one lobe dominates, when the field-aligned plasma flow speed in the field line rest frame must equal the tail lobe Alfven speed. Results are illustrated by a simple example in which the inflow plasmas are approximated as cold ion beams of unequal density and speed. It is shown that equilibrium solutions cease to exist for sufficiently large inflow velocity shears, but that in practice this condition is most unlikely to be encountered in the tail.

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Balance... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7000 Buy American Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. Buy American Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC 2009) (a...

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7001 Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2)(i), use the following clause: Buy American and Balance of...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy American Act-Balance... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7000 Buy American Act—Balance of... Act—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available off...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7001 - Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7001 Section 252.225-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7001 Buy American Act and Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(2)(i), use the following clause: Buy American and Balance of...

  20. Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 4909, S. 2943)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-19

    Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 4909, S . 2943) Lynn M. Williams Analyst in U.S...passed H.R. 4909 and Senate-passed S . 2943. The agreement authorizes $611.2 billion in discretionary funding for national defense activities within the...Questions, by Megan S . Lynch. Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA Congressional Research Service 2

  1. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsen, Michiel M.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Reerink, Thomas J.; Bintanja, Richard; Madsen, Marianne S.; Yang, Shuting; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-08-01

    The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  2. Mass Balance of the West Antarctic Ice-Sheet from ICESat Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Mass balance estimates for 2003-2008 are derived from ICESat laser altimetry and compared with estimates for 1992-2002 derived from ERS radar altimetry. The net mass balance of 3 drainage systems (Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd) for 2003-2008 is a loss of 100 Gt/yr, which increased from a loss of 70 Gt/yr for the earlier period. The DS including the Bindschadler and MacAyeal ice streams draining into the Ross Ice Shelf has a mass gain of 11 Gt/yr for 2003-2008, compared to an earlier loss of 70 Gt/yr. The DS including the Whillans and Kamb ice streams has a mass gain of 12 Gt/yr, including a significant thickening on the upper part of the Kamb DS, compared to a earlier gain of 6 Gt/yr (includes interpolation for a large portion of the DS). The other two DS discharging into the Ronne Ice Shelf and the northern Ellsworth Coast have a mass gain of 39 Gt/yr, compared to a gain of 4 Gt/yr for the earlier period. Overall, the increased losses of 30 Gt/yr in the Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd DSs are exceeded by increased gains of 59 Gt/yr in the other 4 DS. Overall, the mass loss from the West Antarctic ice sheet has decreased to 38 Gt/yr from the earlier loss of 67 Gt/yr, reducing the contribution to sea level rise to 0.11 mm/yr from 0.19 mm/yr

  3. Balancing act. Using the clinic scorecard to improve practice performance.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Art

    2007-02-01

    The balanced scorecard is a strategic management system that impels managers to focus on the performance metrics that drive success. It measures the business process and links a management method for process improvement to strategic goals. A medical practice can use a balanced scorecard to improve operational performance and quality or service, which generates higher levels of patient satisfaction and better financial management.

  4. European breast cancer service screening outcomes: a first balance sheet of the benefits and harms.

    PubMed

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig; Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen William

    2014-07-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer death being avoided by population-based mammography screening of appropriate quality is more than that of overdiagnosis by screening. These outcomes should be communicated to women offered service screening in Europe.

  5. Recent ice dynamic and surface mass balance of Union Glacier in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Zamora, R.; Uribe, J. A.; Jaña, R.; Oberreuter, J.

    2014-08-01

    Here we present the results of a comprehensive glaciological investigation of Union Glacier (79°46' S/83°24' W) in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), a major outlet glacier within the Ellsworth Mountains. Union Glacier flows into the Ronne Ice Shelf, where recent models have indicated the potential for significant grounding line zone (GLZ) migrations in response to changing climate and ocean conditions. To elaborate a glaciological base line that can help to evaluate the potential impact of this GLZ change scenario, we installed an array of stakes on Union Glacier in 2007. The stake network has been surveyed repeatedly for elevation, velocity, and net surface mass balance. The region of the stake measurements is in near-equilibrium, and ice speeds are 10 to 33 m a-1. Ground-penetrating radars (GPR) have been used to map the subglacial topography, internal structure, and crevasse frequency and depth along surveyed tracks in the stake site area. The bedrock in this area has a minimum elevation of -858 m a.s.l., significantly deeper than shown by BEDMAP2 data. However, between this deeper area and the local GLZ, there is a threshold where the subglacial topography shows a maximum altitude of 190 m. This subglacial condition implies that an upstream migration of the GLZ will not have strong effects on Union Glacier until it passes beyond this shallow ice pinning point.

  6. Health care's new balancing act: managing hybrids plans.

    PubMed

    Alper, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Today's health care market must balance the demands of many stakeholders. Consumers want choice over providers, benefit flexibility, and freedom from having to obtain permission for health services. At the same time, employer groups demand that plans hold the line on premiums, or pass cost-increases along to employees. Provider organizations, caught in the middle of these conflicting interests--containing costs yet providing unfettered access to care--are struggling to balance their own capital, financial risk, and service levels.

  7. Contrasting current and projected changes in surface mass balance components across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langen, Peter L.; Mottran, Ruth H.; Christensen, Jens H.; Olesen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Comparison of the last decade's low surface mass balance (SMB) on the Greenland ice sheet to the changes that are projected for a warming future allows the current mass loss to be placed in a broader perspective. We compare changes in SMB components in HIRHAM5 regional climate model experiments forced by current ERA-Interim reanalysis data and by future projections with the EC-Earth general circulation model. The EC-Earth-forced experiments run over time slices 1991-2010, 2031-2050 and 2081-2100 for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. SMB decreases considerably in the in the last decades of the ERA-Interim experiment. The changes between the early and later part of this experiment are therefore compared to changes in the future scenarios relative to the baseline 1991-2010 EC-Earth-forced experiment. A major increase in melting and runoff, particularly along the western margin, is common to both the current and projected situations. Over the reanalysis period, accumulation has decreased in many places, particularly in the south. This is linked to the dominant circulation pattern in the last decade and enhances the effect of increased melt and runoff in producing the recent low SMB. In the projections, however, accumulation increases and thereby partially offsets the mass loss. This offset is so efficient that only in the warmest scenario in the latest time slice is the SMB decline significantly stronger than the current one. In the mid-term in the RCP4.5 experiment, central East Greenland sees an increase in accumulation which is not yet countered by increased melt and runoff. Consequently, this basin even has an increased SMB. The increase in accumulation (both rain and snow) is projected to lead to significant SMB increase in the interior parts of the ice sheet. Rain fractions tend to increase, as seen already in reanalysis period. As melting intensifies in the ablation zone and the percolation zone migrates upward into areas that see increased snowfall, the refreezing rate

  8. Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992 - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2011-01-01

    Published mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) lie between approximately +50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009, which span a range equivalent to 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar-altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (+28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. Although recent reports of large and accelerating rates of mass loss from GRACE=based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion. We find that the extrapolation used in the published IOM estimates for the 15 % of the periphery for which discharge velocities are not observed gives twice the rate of discharge per unit of associated ice-sheet area than the 85% faster-moving parts. Our calculations show that the published extrapolation overestimates the ice discharge by 282 Gt/yr compared to our assumption that the slower moving areas have 70% as much discharge per area as the faster moving parts. Also, published data on the time-series of discharge velocities and accumulation/precipitation do not support mass output increases or input decreases with time, respectively. Our modified IOM estimate, using the 70% discharge assumption and substituting input from a field-data compilation for input from an atmospheric model over 6% of area, gives a loss of only 13 Gt/year (versus 136 Gt/year) for the period around 2000. Two ERS-based estimates, our modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 to 2005 lie in a narrowed range of +27 to - 40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992-2001 is - 47 Gt

  9. Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance modeling in a 131-year perspective, 1950-2080

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen; Hiemstra, Christopher; Christensen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass-balance (SMB) and freshwater influx to the surrounding oceans closely follow climate fluctuations and are of considerable importance to the global eustatic sea level rise. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate variations in the GrIS melt extent, surface water balance components, changes in SMB, and freshwater influx to the ocean. The simulations are based on the IPCC scenario AlB modeled by the HIRHAM4 RCM (using boundary conditions from ECHAM5 AOGCM) from 1950 through 2080. In-situ meteorological station (GC-Net and WMO DMI) observations from inside and outside the GrIS were used to validate and correct RCM output data before it was used as input for SnowModel. Satellite observations and independent SMB studies were used to validate the SnowModel output and confirm the model's robustness. We simulated a {approx}90% increase in end-of-summer surface melt extent (0.483 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2}) from 1950 to 2080, and a melt index (above 2,000-m elevation) increase of 138% (1.96 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} x days). The greatest difference in melt extent occured in the southern part of the GrIS, and the greatest changes in the number of melt days was seen in the eastern part of the GrIS ({approx}50-70%) and was lowest in the west ({approx}20-30%). The rate of SMB loss, largely tied to changes in ablation processes, lead to an enhanced average loss of 331 km{sup 3} from 1950 to 2080, an average 5MB level of -99 km{sup 3} for the period 2070-2080. GrIS surface freshwater runoff yielded an eustatic rise in sea level from 0.8 {+-} 0.1 (1950-1959) to 1.9 {+-} 0.1 mm (2070-2080) sea level equivalent (SLE) y{sup -1}. The accumulated GrIS freshwater runoff contribution from surface melting equaled 160 mm SLE from 1950 through 2080.

  10. Food balance sheet and household budget survey dietary data and mortality patterns in Europe.

    PubMed

    Naska, Androniki; Berg, Mari-Anna; Cuadrado, Carmen; Freisling, Heinz; Gedrich, Kurt; Gregoric, Matej; Kelleher, Cecily; Leskova, Emilia; Nelson, Michael; Pace, Lucienne; Remaut, Anne-Marie; Rodrigues, Sara; Sekula, Wlodzimierz; Sjöstrom, Michael; Trygg, Kerstin; Turrini, Aida; Volatier, Jean Luc; Zajkas, Gabor; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2009-07-01

    Worldwide dietary data for nutrition monitoring and surveillance are commonly derived from food balance sheets (FBS) and household budget surveys (HBS). We have compared food supply from FBS and food availability data from HBS among eighteen European countries and have estimated the extent to which they correlate, focusing on food groups which are comparably captured by FBS and HBS and for which there is epidemiological evidence that they can have a noticeable impact on population mortality. Spearman's correlation coefficient was +0.78 (P < 10- 3) for vegetables (including legumes),+0.76 (P < 10- 3) for fruits, +0.69 (P < 10- 3) for fish and seafood and +0.93 (P < 10- 3) for olive oil. With respect to meat and meat products, the coefficient was lower at +0.39 (P = 0.08). Moreover, we have examined whether the supply (FBS) or the availability (HBS) of food groups known or presumed to have beneficial effect on the occurrence of CHD and total cancer can predict overall, coronary and cancer mortality in ecological analyses. After controlling for purchasing power parity-adjusted gross domestic product and tobacco smoking we found that for vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, as well as for olive oil, both the FBS and the HBS estimates were inversely associated with all three indicators of mortality, although the number of countries with complete information on all study variables hindered formal statistical documentation (P>0.05 in some instances). FBS and HBS have their own strengths and weaknesses, but they may complement each other in dietary assessments at the population level.

  11. Overview and Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.

    2011-01-01

    Mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) in the 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and in more recent reports lie between approximately ?50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009. The 300 Gt/year range is approximately 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (?28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. We also modify the IOM estimate using (1) an alternate extrapolation to estimate the discharge from the non-observed 15% of the periphery, and (2) substitution of input from a field data compilation for input from an atmospheric model in 6% of area. The modified IOM estimate reduces the loss from 136 Gt/year to 13 Gt/year. Two ERS-based estimates, the modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 2005 lie in a narrowed range of ?27 to -40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992 2001 is -47 Gt/year for West Antarctica, ?16 Gt/year for East Antarctica, and -31 Gt/year overall (?0.1 mm/year SLE), not including part of the Antarctic Peninsula (1.07% of the AIS area). Although recent reports of large and increasing rates of mass loss with time from GRACE-based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion

  12. A balancing act? Work-life balance, health and well-being in European welfare states.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Thorsten; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Recent analyses have shown that adverse psychosocial working conditions, such as job strain and effort-reward imbalance, vary by country and welfare state regimes. Another work-related factor with potential impact on health is a poor work-life balance. The aims of this study are to determine the association between a poor work-life balance and poor health across a variety of European countries and to explore the variation of work-life balance between European countries. Data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey were used with 24,096 employees in 27 European countries. Work-life balance is measured with a question on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments. The WHO-5 well-being index and self-rated general health are used as health indicators. Logistic multilevel models were calculated to assess the association between work-life balance and health indicators and to explore the between-country variation of a poor work-life balance. Employees reporting a poor work-life balance reported more health problems (Poor well-being: OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.83-2.31; Poor self-rated health: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.84-2.17). The associations were very similar for men and women. A considerable part of the between-country variation of work-life balance is explained by working hours, working time regulations and welfare state regimes. The best overall work-life balance is reported by Scandinavian men and women. This study provides some evidence on the public health impact of a poor work-life balance and that working time regulations and welfare state characteristics can influence the work-life balance of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. The Management of Diversity in Schools--A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vuuren, Herman J.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; van der Walt, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that diversity and its counter-pole universality as such cannot be managed in the normal sense of the word. What can be managed though is the balance between these two poles. Over-emphasis of the one to the detriment of the other will in the long run somehow be penalized. A conceptual-theoretical framework is provided in which…

  14. Balancing Act: Educational Management Organizations and Charter School Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina

    This study examined the ways in which for-profit comprehensive management educational management organizations (EMOs) operating charter schools respond to the need to balance school autonomy and flexibility with the fact that centralized operations require consistency, coordination, and legal constraints. The study focused on the perspective of…

  15. The Management of Diversity in Schools--A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vuuren, Herman J.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; van der Walt, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that diversity and its counter-pole universality as such cannot be managed in the normal sense of the word. What can be managed though is the balance between these two poles. Over-emphasis of the one to the detriment of the other will in the long run somehow be penalized. A conceptual-theoretical framework is provided in which…

  16. Intraprotein signal transduction by HAMP domains: a balancing act.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Joachim E; Kanchan, Kajal; Ziegler, Miriam

    2015-02-01

    HAMP domains are small protein modules that predominantly operate as signal transducers in bacterial sensor proteins most of which are membrane delimited. The domain organization of such sensors has the HAMPs localized at the intersection between the membrane-anchored input sensor and the cytosolic output machinery. The data summarized here indicate that HAMP modules use a universal signaling language in balancing the communication between diverse membrane-bound input domains and cytosolic output domains that are completely foreign to each other.

  17. Time-variable gravity observations of ice sheet mass balance: Precision and limitations of the GRACE satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicogna, I.; Wahr, J.

    2013-06-01

    Time-variable gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission have been available since 2002 to estimate the mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. We analyze current progress and uncertainties in GRACE estimates of ice sheet mass balance. We discuss the impacts of errors associated with spherical harmonic truncation, spatial averaging, temporal sampling, and leakage from other time-dependent signals (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)). The largest sources of error for Antarctica are the GIA correction, the omission of l=1 terms, nontidal changes in ocean mass, and measurement errors. For Greenland, the errors come mostly from the uncertainty in the scaling factor. Using Release 5.0 (RL05) GRACE fields for January 2003 through November 2012, we find a mass change of -258 ± 41 Gt/yr for Greenland, with an acceleration of -31 ± 6 Gt/yr2, and a loss that migrated clockwise around the ice sheet margin to progressively affect the entire periphery. For Antarctica, we report changes of -83 ± 49 and -147 ± 80 Gt/yr for two GIA models, with an acceleration of -12 ± 9 Gt/yr2 and a dominance from the southeast pacific sector of West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula.

  18. Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Vizcaino, Miren; Fyke, Jeremy; van Kampenhout, Leo; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-09-01

    We present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) as simulated by the global, coupled ocean-atmosphere-land Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a horizontal resolution of {˜ }1° in the past, present and future (1850-2100). CESM correctly simulates present-day Antarctic sea ice extent, large-scale atmospheric circulation and near-surface climate, but fails to simulate the recent expansion of Antarctic sea ice. The present-day Antarctic ice sheet SMB equals 2280 ± 131 {Gt year^{-1}}, which concurs with existing independent estimates of AIS SMB. When forced by two CMIP5 climate change scenarios (high mitigation scenario RCP2.6 and high-emission scenario RCP8.5), CESM projects an increase of Antarctic ice sheet SMB of about 70 {Gt year^{-1}} per degree warming. This increase is driven by enhanced snowfall, which is partially counteracted by more surface melt and runoff along the ice sheet's edges. This intensifying hydrological cycle is predominantly driven by atmospheric warming, which increases (1) the moisture-carrying capacity of the atmosphere, (2) oceanic source region evaporation, and (3) summer AIS cloud liquid water content.

  19. Mass Balance Changes and Ice Dynamics of Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets from Laser Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babonis, G. S.; Csatho, B.; Schenk, T.

    2016-06-01

    During the past few decades the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have lost ice at accelerating rates, caused by increasing surface temperature. The melting of the two big ice sheets has a big impact on global sea level rise. If the ice sheets would melt down entirely, the sea level would rise more than 60 m. Even a much smaller rise would cause dramatic damage along coastal regions. In this paper we report about a major upgrade of surface elevation changes derived from laser altimetry data, acquired by NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite mission (ICESat) and airborne laser campaigns, such as Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS). For detecting changes in ice sheet elevations we have developed the Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC) method. It computes elevation changes of small surface patches by keeping the surface shape constant and considering the absolute values as surface elevations. We report about important upgrades of earlier results, for example the inclusion of local ice caps and the temporal extension from 1993 to 2014 for the Greenland Ice Sheet and for a comprehensive reconstruction of ice thickness and mass changes for the Antarctic Ice Sheets.

  20. The 1958-2008 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability simulated by the regional climate model MAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.

    2009-04-01

    Results made with the regional climate model MAR over 1958-2008 show a very high interannual variability of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) modelled in average to be 330 ± 130 km3/yr. To a first approximation, the SMB variability is driven by the annual precipitation anomaly minus the meltwater run-off rate variability. Sensitivity experiments carried out by the MAR model evaluate the impacts on the surface melt of (i) the summer SST around the Greenland, (ii) the snow pack temperature at the beginning of the spring, (iii) the winter snow accumulation, (iv) the solid and liquid summer precipitations and (v) the summer atmospheric circulation. This last one, by forcing the summer air temperature above the ice sheet, explains mainly the surface melt anomalies.

  1. How effective would solar geoengineering be at offsetting surface mass balance losses of the ice-sheets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Keith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Studies of the sea-level rise response to solar geoengineering suggest that it could be highly effective at reducing sea-level rise by reducing thermal expansion of ocean waters and reducing the melting of land ice. However, all studies to date have employed simplistic treatments of surface mass balance where melt is a function only of surface air temperature and many have not had explicit treatments of accumulation. Solar geoengineering would counteract the longwave forcing of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations by reducing incoming solar radiation, changing the seasonal, latitudinal and vertical distribution of energy within the climate system. Climate model simulations suggest that solar geoengineering deployed to counter future warming from rising greenhouse gas concentrations could partially offset many climate trends associated with rising greenhouse gas concentrations, however it would lead to a suppression of the hydrological cycle as well as leading to substantial residual regional climate changes. In this study the response of the surface mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to solar geoengineering will be investigated. Multi-model results from G1, the idealized solar insolation reduction experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), will be compared against results from the abrupt4×CO2 and piControl experiment. The energy and mass balance of the ice sheets, as well as the broader climate response in the polar regions will be analysed in the GeoMIP ensemble. This analysis will be complemented by offline surface mass balance simulations, including both those which directly simulate the energy balance and by those which use approximations based on surface air temperatures. This analysis will help to determine whether previous studies have over- or under-estimated the efficacy of solar geoengineering at offsetting future sea-level rise.

  2. Multistability of the Greenland ice sheet and the effects of an adaptive mass balance formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solgaard, Anne M.; Langen, Peter L.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of a warmer climate on the Greenland ice sheet as well as its ability to regrow from a reduced geometry is important knowledge when studying future climate. Here we use output from a general circulation model to construct adaptive temperature and precipitation patterns to force an ice flow model off-line taking into consideration that the patterns change in a non-uniform way (both spatially and temporally) as the geometry of the ice sheet evolves and as climate changes. In a series of experiments we investigate the retreat from the present day configuration, build-up from ice free conditions of the ice sheet during a warmer-than-present climate and how the ice sheet moves between states. The adaptive temperature and accumulation patterns as well as two different constant-pattern formulations are applied and all experiments are run to steady state. All results fall into four different groups of geometry regardless of the applied accumulation pattern and initial state. We find that the ice sheet is able to survive and build up at higher temperatures using the more realistic adaptive patterns compared to the classic constant patterns. In contrast, decay occurs at considerably higher temperatures than build-up when the other formulations are used. When studying the motion between states it is clear that the initial state is crucial for the result. The ice sheet is thus multistable at least for certain temperature forcings, and this implies that the ice sheet not does not necessarily return to its initial configuration after a temperature excursion.

  3. Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    2009-11-15

    The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

  4. Antarctic Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance Estimates from 2003 TO 2015 Using Icesat and CRYOSAT-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huan; Hai, Gang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Shijie; Liu, Jun; Tong, Xiaohua; Li, Rongxing

    2016-06-01

    An assessment of Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance from 2003 to 2015 has been carried out using a combination of ICESat data from 2003 to 2009 and CryoSat-2 data from 2010 to 2015. Both data sets are of L2 and are currently processed separately using different models. First, a repeat-track processing method that includes terms accounting for the trend and the first order fit of topography is applied to repeat-track measurements of all ICESat Campaigns. It uses the Least Squares fitting of the model to all observations in a box of 500 m x 500 m. The estimated trends in these boxes are then averaged inside a 30 km x 30 km cell. Similarly, the cells are used to estimate basin and ice sheet level surface elevation change trends. Mass balance calculating is performed at the cell level by multiplying the ice density by the volume change and then extended to the basin and the ice sheet level. Second, in CryoSat-2 data processing we applied a model within a cell of 5 km x 5 km considering that CryoSat-2 does not maintain repeated tracks. In this model the elevation trend, and a higher order topography are solved in an iterative way using the least squares technique. The mass change is computed at the cell level in the same way as the ICESat data. GIA correction is applied for both ICESat and CryoSat-2 estimates. Detailed information about the data processing, elevation and mass balance changes, and comparison with other studies will be introduced.

  5. Troughs on Martian Ice Sheets: Analysis of Their Closure and Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, J.

    2000-01-01

    At the Copenhagen workshop on Martian polar processes, Ralf Greve commented that the flow regime surrounding scarps and troughs of the Martian polar ice sheets cannot be modeled using traditional "plan view" ice-sheet models. Such models are inadequate because they typically use reduced equations that embody certain simplifications applicable only to terrestrial ice sheets where the upper ice sheet surface is smooth. In response to this suggestion, we have constructed a 2-dimensional, time dependent "side view" (two spatial dimensions: one horizontal, one vertical) model of scarp closure that is designed to overcome the difficulties described by Greve. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the scales of stress variation and styles of flow closure so as to estimate errors that may be encountered by "plan view" models. We show that there may be avenues whereby the complications associated with scarp closure can be overcome in "plan view" models through appropriate parameterizations of 3-dimensional effects. Following this, we apply the flow model to simulate the evolution of a typical scarp on the North Polar Cap of Mars. Our simulations investigate: (a) the role of "radiation trapping" (see our companion abstract) in creating and maintaining "spiral-like" scarps on the ice sheet, (b) the consequences of different flowlaws and ice compositions on scarp evolution and, in particular, scarp age, and (c) the role of dust and debris in scarp evolution.

  6. Troughs on Martian Ice Sheets: Analysis of Their Closure and Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, A.; Kargel, J.; Lewis, K.; MacAyeal, D.; Pfeffer, T.; Zwally, J.

    2000-08-01

    At the Copenhagen workshop on Martian polar processes, Ralf Greve commented that the flow regime surrounding scarps and troughs of the Martian polar ice sheets cannot be modeled using traditional "plan view" ice-sheet models. Such models are inadequate because they typically use reduced equations that embody certain simplifications applicable only to terrestrial ice sheets where the upper ice sheet surface is smooth. In response to this suggestion, we have constructed a 2-dimensional, time dependent "side view" (two spatial dimensions: one horizontal, one vertical) model of scarp closure that is designed to overcome the difficulties described by Greve. The purpose of the model is to evaluate the scales of stress variation and styles of flow closure so as to estimate errors that may be encountered by "plan view" models. We show that there may be avenues whereby the complications associated with scarp closure can be overcome in "plan view" models through appropriate parameterizations of 3-dimensional effects. Following this, we apply the flow model to simulate the evolution of a typical scarp on the North Polar Cap of Mars. Our simulations investigate: (a) the role of "radiation trapping" (see our companion abstract) in creating and maintaining "spiral-like" scarps on the ice sheet, (b) the consequences of different flowlaws and ice compositions on scarp evolution and, in particular, scarp age, and (c) the role of dust and debris in scarp evolution.

  7. Vitamin A and bone health: the balancing act.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2013-01-01

    The role of vitamin A status as it relates to bone health is historical yet controversial. Population-based studies have linked high dietary intake of preformed vitamin A, which is obtained from animal-source foods, fortified foods, and some supplements, to greater risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture. In contrast, carotenoids, some of which are vitamin A precursors from plants, are associated with improved bone health. Carotenoids may be a biomarker that reflects a generally healthy lifestyle, which includes fruit and vegetable consumption. Current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will result in greater intakes of provitamin A carotenoids if consumers comply. This could lead to artificially high intakes of vitamin A in dietary analyses. However, multiple factors affect the bioconversion of provitamin A carotenoids to the active form of vitamin A. The human body will strive to maintain vitamin A balance by down-regulating provitamin A carotenoid bioconversion. If high preformed vitamin A intake is associated with poor bone health and provitamin A carotenoids are protective, future studies are needed to clarify the associations between total body stores of vitamin A, dietary intake of the pre- and pro-forms, and bone health throughout the life cycle. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Type I Interferons in Bacterial Infections: A Balancing Act

    PubMed Central

    Kovarik, Pavel; Castiglia, Virginia; Ivin, Masa; Ebner, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Defense against bacterial infections requires activation of the immune response as well as timely reestablishment of tissue and immune homeostasis. Instauration of homeostasis is critical for tissue regeneration, wound healing, and host recovery. Recent studies revealed that severe infectious diseases frequently result from failures in homeostatic processes rather than from inefficient pathogen eradication. Type I interferons (IFN) appear to play a key role in such processes. Remarkably, the involvement of type I IFNs in the regulation of immune and tissue homeostasis upon bacterial insult may have beneficial or detrimental consequences for the host. The reasons for such ambivalent function of type I IFNs are not understood. The disparate effects of type I IFNs on bacterial infections are in marked contrast to their well-established protective roles in most viral infections. In this review, we will focus on type I IFN effector mechanisms which balance processes involved in immune and tissue homeostasis during specific bacterial infections and highlight the most important missing links in our understanding of type I IFN functions. PMID:28082986

  9. Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE PAGES

    Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Vizcaino, Miren; Fyke, Jeremy Garmeson; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here, we present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) as simulated by the global, coupled ocean–atmosphere–land Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a horizontal resolution of ~1° in the past, present and future (1850–2100). CESM correctly simulates present-day Antarctic sea ice extent, large-scale atmospheric circulation and near-surface climate, but fails to simulate the recent expansion of Antarctic sea ice. The present-day Antarctic ice sheet SMB equals 2280 ± 131Gtyear–1, which concurs with existing independent estimates of AIS SMB. When forced by two CMIP5 climate change scenarios (high mitigation scenario RCP2.6 and high-emission scenario RCP8.5),more » CESM projects an increase of Antarctic ice sheet SMB of about 70 Gtyear–1 per degree warming. This increase is driven by enhanced snowfall, which is partially counteracted by more surface melt and runoff along the ice sheet’s edges. This intensifying hydrological cycle is predominantly driven by atmospheric warming, which increases (1) the moisture-carrying capacity of the atmosphere, (2) oceanic source region evaporation, and (3) summer AIS cloud liquid water content.« less

  10. Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Vizcaino, Miren; Fyke, Jeremy Garmeson; van Kampenhout, Leo; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-02-01

    Here, we present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) as simulated by the global, coupled ocean–atmosphere–land Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a horizontal resolution of ~1° in the past, present and future (1850–2100). CESM correctly simulates present-day Antarctic sea ice extent, large-scale atmospheric circulation and near-surface climate, but fails to simulate the recent expansion of Antarctic sea ice. The present-day Antarctic ice sheet SMB equals 2280 ± 131Gtyear–1, which concurs with existing independent estimates of AIS SMB. When forced by two CMIP5 climate change scenarios (high mitigation scenario RCP2.6 and high-emission scenario RCP8.5), CESM projects an increase of Antarctic ice sheet SMB of about 70 Gtyear–1 per degree warming. This increase is driven by enhanced snowfall, which is partially counteracted by more surface melt and runoff along the ice sheet’s edges. This intensifying hydrological cycle is predominantly driven by atmospheric warming, which increases (1) the moisture-carrying capacity of the atmosphere, (2) oceanic source region evaporation, and (3) summer AIS cloud liquid water content.

  11. Oxygen Isotope Mass-Balance Constraints on Pliocene Sea Level and East Antarctic Ice Sheet Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnick, M. J.; Caves, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP, 3.3-2.9 Ma), with reconstructed atmospheric pCO2 of 350-450 ppm, represents a potential analogue for climate change in the near future. Current highly cited estimates place MPWP maximum global mean sea level (GMSL) at 21 ± 10 m above modern, requiring total loss of the Greenland (GIS) and marine West Antarctic Ice Sheets (WAIS) and a substantial loss of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), with only a concurrent 2-3 ºC rise in global temperature. Many estimates of Pliocene GMSL are based on the partitioning of oxygen isotope records from benthic foraminifera (δ18Ob) into changes in deep-sea temperatures and terrestrial ice sheets. These isotopic budgets are underpinned by the assumption that the δ18O of Antarctic ice (δ18Oi) was the same in the Pliocene as it is today, and while the sensitivity of δ18Ob to changing meltwater δ18O has been previously considered, these analyses neglect conservation of 18O/16O in the ocean-ice system. Using well-calibrated δ18O-temperature relationships for Antarctic precipitation along with estimates of Pliocene Antarctic surface temperatures, we argue that the δ18Oi of the Pliocene Antarctic ice sheet was at minimum 1‰-4‰ higher than present. Assuming conservation of 18O/16O in the ocean-ice system, this requires lower Pliocene seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) without a corresponding change in ice sheet mass. This effect alone accounts for 5%-20% of the δ18Ob difference between the MPWP interglacials and the modern. With this amended isotope budget, we suggest that Pliocene GMSL was likely 9-13.5 m and very likely 5-17 m above modern, which suggests the EAIS is less sensitive to radiative forcing than previously inferred from the geologic record.

  12. Mass balance and sliding velocity of the Puget lobe of the cordilleran ice sheet during the last glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    An estimate of the sliding velocity and basal meltwater discharge of the Puget lobe of the Cordilleran ice sheet can be calculated from its reconstructed extent, altitude, and mass balance. Lobe dimensions and surface altitudes are inferred from ice limits and flow-direction indicators. Net annual mass balance and total ablation are calculated from relations empirically derived from modern maritime glaciers. An equilibrium-line altitude between 1200 and 1250 m is calculated for the maximum glacial advance (ca. 15,000 yr B.P.) during the Vashon Stade of the Fraser Glaciation. This estimate is in accord with geologic data and is insensitive to plausible variability in the parameters used in the reconstruction. Resultant sliding velocities are as much as 650 m/a at the equilibrium line, decreasing both up- and downglacier. Such velocities for an ice sheet of this size are consistent with nonsurging behavior. Average meltwater discharge increases monotonically downglacier to 3000 m3/sec at the terminus and is of a comparable magnitude to ice discharge over much of the glacier's ablation area. Palcoclimatic inferences derived from this reconstruction are consistent with previous, independently derived studies of late Pleistocene temperature and precipitation in the Pacific Northwest. ?? 1986.

  13. Very high resolution modelling of the Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Present day conditions and future prospects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Boberg, Fredrik; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Langen, Peter; Rodehacke, Christian; Stendel, Martin; Yang, Shuting

    2014-05-01

    Recent experiments with the Regional Climate Model (RCM) HIRHAM5 have produced new surface mass balance (SMB) estimates at the unprecedented high horizontal resolution of 0.05 degrees (~5.5km). These simulations indicate a present day SMB of 347 ± 98 Gt/year over the whole ice sheet averaged over the period 1989 - 2012 driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. We validate accumulation rates over the ice sheet using estimates from shallow firn cores to confirm the importance of resolution to accurate estimates of accumulation. Comparison with PROMICE and GC-Net automatic weather station observations shows the model represents present day climate and climate variability well when driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Comparison with a simulation at 0.25 degrees (~27km) resolution from the same model shows a significantly different calculated SMB over the whole ice sheet, largely due to changes in precipitation distribution over Greenland. The very high resolution requires a more sophisticated treatment of sub-grid scale processes in the snow pack including meltwater retention and refreezing and an enhanced albedo scheme. Our results indicate retention processes account for a significant proportion of the total surface budget based on a new parameterization scheme in the model. SMB projections, driven by the EC-Earth Global Climate Model (GCM) at the boundaries for the RCP 4.5 scenario indicate a declining surface mass balance over the 21st century with some compensation for warmer summer temperatures and enhanced melt in the form of increased precipitation. A cold bias in the driving GCM for present day conditions suggests that this simulation likely underestimates the change in SMB. However, the downscaled precipitation fields compare well with those in the reanalysis driven simulations. A soon-to-be complete simulation uses driving fields from the GCM running the RCP8.5 scenario.

  14. A mascon approach to assess ice sheet and glacier mass balances and their uncertainties from GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.; Wouters, Bert; Rietbroek, Roelof

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the mass changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), Ice Sheets over Antarctica, and Land glaciers and Ice Caps with a global mascon method that yields monthly mass variations at 10,242 mascons. Input for this method are level 2 data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system collected between February 2003 and June 2013 to which a number of corrections are made. With glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) corrections from an ensemble of models based on different ice histories and rheologic Earth model parameters, we find for Greenland a mass loss of -278 ± 19 Gt/yr. Whereas the mass balances for the GrIS appear to be less sensitive to GIA modeling uncertainties, this is not the case with the mass balance of Antarctica. Ice history models for Antarctica were recently improved, and updated historic ice height data sets and GPS time series have been used to generate new GIA models. We investigated the effect of two new GIA models for Antarctica and found -92 ± 26 Gt/yr which is half of what is obtained with ICE-5G-based GIA models, where the largest GIA model differences occur on East Antarctica. The mass balance of land glaciers and ice caps currently stands at -162 ± 10 Gt/yr. With the help of new GIA models for Antarctica, we assess the mass contribution to the mean sea level at 1.47 ± 0.09 mm/yr or 532 ± 34Gt/yr which is roughly half of the global sea level rise signal obtained from tide gauges and satellite altimetry.

  15. The Utility of Corporate-Style Balance Sheets for DoD Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    April 2003. The intention of the policy statement was to reaffirm FASB as the designated private sector standard sector in the post - Sarbanes - Oxley Act of... Earnings based on accrual accounting generally provide a more accurate indication of an entity’s ability to generate cash flows compared to information...of 1934 .......................................................20  3.  Sarbanes - Oxley Act of 2002

  16. Ice stream reorganization and ice sheet mass balance following the reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, Marion; Christoffersen, Poul; Price, Stephen; Carter, Sasha

    2015-04-01

    Ice streams in Antarctica account for most of the ice volume discharged to the ocean, and their flow variability greatly influences the mass balance of the ice sheet. Today, the Siple Coast region of West Antarctica is the only one to experience a positive mass balance (~36Gt/yr), as a consequence of the stagnation of Kamb Ice Stream about 170 years ago and the ongoing slowdown of Whillans Ice Stream. However, this positive trend could be temporary; past studies have shown that both ice streams experienced significant flow variability over the past millennia, with stagnation typically followed by reactivation on centennial timescales, occurring in response to internal processes. The impact this variability may have on the future mass balance of the WAIS remains unknown. Here, we explore the future flow variability of the Siple Coast ice streams by using a three-dimensional higher-order ice sheet model (CISM), coupled to a physically-based basal processes model and a model of regional hydrology. To obtain realistic initial flow conditions, we assimilate available velocity data for this region from 1997. We perform forward simulations over a 200 year period, during which the basal properties evolve according to the distribution of meltwater beneath the ice and its drainage/flow through a subglacial till layer. First, we assume that the bed evolves according to ice-till interactions with only local exchange of water between the ice and till. Next, we include a model of the regional basal water system capable of transporting water over long distances, so that meltwater is routed laterally along the bed before interacting with the till layer. We also explore the effect of geothermal heat flux uncertainties. We find that ice discharge to the grounding line is larger and more sustained in time when the regional water system is included in the simulations. Still, in all experiments, the main future perturbation to the current state of flow follows from the reactivation of

  17. Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haman, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Too often the professional development provided for teachers of mathematics is a short-term, one-shot effort. Today's shrinking budgets, increasing class sizes, and growing demands on teachers' time present further challenges. For the past six years, staff development efforts in the author's district have focused on language arts with little…

  18. Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haman, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Too often the professional development provided for teachers of mathematics is a short-term, one-shot effort. Today's shrinking budgets, increasing class sizes, and growing demands on teachers' time present further challenges. For the past six years, staff development efforts in the author's district have focused on language arts with little…

  19. Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Marc C.

    1995-01-01

    Advice for stretching the capacity of the small college public relations office includes planning well; using strategy; searching out creative ideas; choosing quality over quantity in press releases; using student and volunteer workers; developing strong media relations; accepting advice; and anticipating problems. (MSE)

  20. Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wagner, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    By offering healthy fare and providing nutrition education, school districts across the country are trying to lessen problems of childhood obesity while selling food that kids will eat. Luckily, chicken nuggets and other "fast foods" can taste just as good when made with less fat. (MLH)

  1. Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wagner, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    By offering healthy fare and providing nutrition education, school districts across the country are trying to lessen problems of childhood obesity while selling food that kids will eat. Luckily, chicken nuggets and other "fast foods" can taste just as good when made with less fat. (MLH)

  2. Recent mass balance of polar ice sheets inferred from patterns of global sea-level change.

    PubMed

    Mitrovica, J X; Tamisiea, M E; Davis, J L; Milne, G A

    2001-02-22

    Global sea level is an indicator of climate change, as it is sensitive to both thermal expansion of the oceans and a reduction of land-based glaciers. Global sea-level rise has been estimated by correcting observations from tide gauges for glacial isostatic adjustment--the continuing sea-level response due to melting of Late Pleistocene ice--and by computing the global mean of these residual trends. In such analyses, spatial patterns of sea-level rise are assumed to be signals that will average out over geographically distributed tide-gauge data. But a long history of modelling studies has demonstrated that non-uniform--that is, non-eustatic--sea-level redistributions can be produced by variations in the volume of the polar ice sheets. Here we present numerical predictions of gravitationally consistent patterns of sea-level change following variations in either the Antarctic or Greenland ice sheets or the melting of a suite of small mountain glaciers. These predictions are characterized by geometrically distinct patterns that reconcile spatial variations in previously published sea-level records. Under the--albeit coarse--assumption of a globally uniform thermal expansion of the oceans, our approach suggests melting of the Greenland ice complex over the last century equivalent to -0.6 mm yr(-1) of sea-level rise.

  3. Models for mirror symmetry breaking via β-sheet-controlled copolymerization: (i) mass balance and (ii) probabilistic treatment.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Celia; Hochberg, David

    2012-12-06

    Experimental mechanisms that yield the growth of homochiral copolymers over their heterochiral counterparts have been advocated by Lahav and co-workers. These chiral amplification mechanisms proceed through racemic β-sheet-controlled polymerization operative in both surface crystallites as well as in solution. We develop two complementary theoretical models for these template-induced desymmetrization processes leading to multicomponent homochiral copolymers. First, assuming reversible β-sheet formation, the equilibrium between the free monomer pool and the polymer strand within the template is assumed. This yields coupled nonlinear mass balance equations whose solutions are used to calculate enantiomeric excesses and average lengths of the homochiral chains formed. The second approach is a probabilistic treatment based on random polymerization. The occlusion probabilities depend on the polymerization activation energies for each monomer species and are proportional to the concentrations of the monomers in solution in the constant pool approximation. The monomer occlusion probabilities are represented geometrically in terms of unit simplexes from which conditions for maximizing or minimizing the likelihood for mirror symmetry breaking can be determined.

  4. Combining evidence and values in priority setting: testing the balance sheet method in a low-income country

    PubMed Central

    Makundi, Emmanuel; Kapiriri, Lydia; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2007-01-01

    Background Procedures for priority setting need to incorporate both scientific evidence and public values. The aim of this study was to test out a model for priority setting which incorporates both scientific evidence and public values, and to explore use of evidence by a selection of stakeholders and to study reasons for the relative ranking of health care interventions in a setting of extreme resource scarcity. Methods Systematic search for and assessment of relevant evidence for priority setting in a low-income country. Development of a balance sheet according to Eddy's explicit method. Eight group interviews (n-85), using a modified nominal group technique for eliciting individual and group rankings of a given set of health interventions. Results The study procedure made it possible to compare the groups' ranking before and after all the evidence was provided to participants. A rank deviation is significant if the rank order of the same intervention differed by two or more points on the ordinal scale. A comparison between the initial rank and the final rank (before deliberation) showed a rank deviation of 67%. The difference between the initial rank and the final rank after discussion and voting gave a rank deviation of 78%. Conclusion Evidence-based and deliberative decision-making does change priorities significantly in an experimental setting. Our use of the balance sheet method was meant as a demonstration project, but could if properly developed be feasible for health planners, experts and health workers, although more work is needed before it can be used for laypersons. PMID:17892561

  5. Balance between physical and chemical interactions of second-row diatomic molecules with graphene sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahali, Seyfeddine; Belhocine, Youghourta; Touzeau, Jeremy; Tangour, Bahoueddine; Maurel, François; Seydou, Mahamadou

    2017-02-01

    We present a computational investigation of adsorption on graphene concerning the second-row diatomic molecules (Li2, B2, C2, O2, N2 and F2). The adsorption energies and the nature of the interaction between guest molecules and graphene, in both periodic and non-periodic approaches, were evaluated using dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations (DFT/PBE-D3). A periodic graphene model, used to tune the coverage, is compared with a cluster model in which the graphene sheet is represented by coronene. The results of both energetic and electronic state analyses reveal a variety of adsorption processes. While B2 and C2 adsorb in a bridge position in order to establish two covalent bonds with the surface, O2 and N2 are clearly physisorbed in positions parallel to the surface. Li2 and F2 show intermediate behavior, with strong physisorption accompanied by charge transfer.

  6. A Chance-Constrained Approach to Bank Dynamic Balance Sheet Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    loans, Federal funds purchased, Federal Reserve borrowings, certificates of deposits, demand deposits, savings deposits, and capital and reserves, etc...the period X 6= amount of borrowing from the Federal Reserve to have at the end of the period X 7 - amount of certificates of deposit to hold at the...the cash balances specified by the Federal Reserve System’s legal minimum reserve requirements. These depend on both the size and composition of the

  7. Dietary treatment of malnutrition. Balance-sheets of the main nutrients. Part II.

    PubMed

    Antener, I; Verwilghen, A M; van Geert, C; Mauron, J

    1977-01-01

    Results of a balance study of nitrogen, fat, electrolytes and trace-elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) with 3 1/i to 9 years old malnourished children in the Kwilu region (Zaïre) are given. The main components of the diets were fish, lactose free milk, caseinate, partial hydrolasate of albumin, fermented corn and soya (Soy-Ogi), medium-chain triglycerides, rice and the local foods manioc, peanuts and caterpillars. The lactose free milk and the Soy-Ogi were well tolerated since we found only a small quantity of non absorbed sugar in the faeces. Our results show that in children who have secondary intestinal malabsorption the use of a partial hydrolysate of lactalbumin and the medium-chain triglycerides is recommended and the substitution of the manioc by rice also. Caseinate gave satisfactory results in adult-malnutrition. We found a good retention of nitrogen, fat and phosphorus. For the latter an addition was necessary. The potassium balance was also positive, a content of 5 meq/kg body weight in the food gave a sufficient retention time. The sodium chloride content of the diet must be moderate because of the oedemas (2 meq/kg body weight). The determination of the vitamin content in the diet and their urinary excretion gave some indication of the balance of these nutrients. Children who had intestinal troubles showed only a slight positive or negative balance of calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese, since we found a high faecel excretion for these elements. These rather unsatisfactory results emphasis the necessity of first curing any intestinal aliments.

  8. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  9. Processes Controlling the Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet for Improving Mass Balance Estimates: Outcomes from a Community Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Das, I.; Hanna, E.; Alexander, P. M.; Koenig, L.; MacFerrin, M. J.; Rennermalm, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the progress in physics parameterizations in regional climate models, the increasing computational power and the increasing volume of airborne and in-situ datasets collected over Greenland, there are still many challenges that limit our capability to estimate current and project future surface mass balance (SMB) with the degree of accuracy needed to accurately constrain sea level rise. A NASA-sponsored workshop focusing on understanding of the processes controlling the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet for improving mass balance estimates was held at the beginning of September 2016 at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. The workshop was first advocated during the discussion at the 2015 PARCA meeting as a crucial tool to answer questions such as: How do we separate the uncertainties deriving from the physics of the models and their forcing on SMB estimates? How do we scale estimates of runoff to a larger scale? How do we interpret elevation-change data and improve mass balance-change estimates by accounting for densification and compaction processes? What is the spatial and temporal variability of uncertainties of the quantities driving SMB? The ultimate goal of the workshop was recommending a series of programmatic and scientific actions that will ultimately lead to improved GrIS SMB estimates in a timely manner. In this talk, we, the organizing committee, report and discuss the outcomes of the workshop. We will first discuss the structure and format of the workshop, the activities carried out to gather community feedback and the list of recommendations and priorities identified during the workshop. This presentation will also be used to continue gathering feedback from the community through the shared live document that will be generated at the end of the workshop but that will still be open during AGU for those colleagues who did not participate to the workshop to provide their feedback. The outcome of the workshop

  10. Fact Sheet on the History of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the main events that have shaped the current RCRA Corrective Action Program. It also provides a brief history of the statutory authorities, regulations, and policy that form the framework for the program.

  11. Matters of Cost: Part I. Jones Learns about Balance Sheets: Part II. A Look at Budgetary Control: Part III. The Supervisor's "Do-It-Yourself" Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. E.; And Others

    This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with costing, balance sheets, and budgetary control. The first section, "Matters of Cost" by J. E. and J. F. Smith, deals with the following topics: profits and productivity, principles of costing, cost control and cost reduction, fixed and…

  12. Matters of Cost: Part I. Jones Learns about Balance Sheets: Part II. A Look at Budgetary Control: Part III. The Supervisor's "Do-It-Yourself" Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. E.; And Others

    This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with costing, balance sheets, and budgetary control. The first section, "Matters of Cost" by J. E. and J. F. Smith, deals with the following topics: profits and productivity, principles of costing, cost control and cost reduction, fixed and…

  13. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output method (IOM). The IOM quantifies the difference between the mass input and output of the GrIS by studying the surface mass balance (SMB) and the ice discharge (D). We use the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2.3 (RACMO2.3) to model the SMB and derive the ice discharge from 12 years of high-precision ice velocity and thickness surveys. We use a simulation model to quantify and correct for GRACE approximation errors in mass change between different subregions of the GrIS, and investigate the reliability of pre-1990s ice discharge estimates, which are based on the modeled runoff. We find that the difference between the IOM and our improved GRACE mass change estimates is reduced in terms of the long-term mass change when using a reference discharge derived from runoff estimates in several subareas. In most regions our GRACE and IOM solutions are consistent with other studies, but differences remain in the northwestern GrIS. We validate the GRACE mass balance in that region by considering several different GIA models and mass change estimates derived from data obtained by the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We conclude that the approximated mass balance between GRACE and IOM is consistent in most GrIS regions. The difference in the northwest is likely due to underestimated uncertainties in the IOM solutions.

  14. Contemporary (1960-2012) Evolution of the Climate and Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Angelen, J. H.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Wouters, B.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.

    2014-09-01

    We assess the contemporary (1960-2012) surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), its individual components and trends. We use output of the high-resolution (11 km) regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2), evaluated with automatic weather stations and GRACE data. A persistent negative North Atlantic oscillation index over the last 6 years resulted in the summertime advection of relatively warm continental air toward the GrIS. Added to the enhanced radiative forcing by increased CO2 levels, this has resulted in an increase in near-surface temperature of more than 2 K during 2007-2012 compared to 1960-1990. The associated decrease in albedo led to an extra absorption of shortwave radiation of ˜6 Wm-2 (11 %) in the summer months, which is the main driver of enhanced surface melting and runoff in recent years. From 1990 onward, we see a steady increase in meltwater runoff and an associated decrease in the SMB, accelerating after 2005, with the record low SMB year in 2010. Despite the fact that the GrIS was subject to the highest surface melt rates in 2012, relatively high accumulation rates prevented 2012 to set a record low SMB. In 2012, melt occurred relatively high on the ice sheet where melt water refreezes in the porous firn layer. Up to 2005, increased runoff was partly offset by increased accumulation rates. Since then, accumulation rates have decreased, resulting in low SMB values. Other causes of decreased SMB are the loss of firn pore space and decreasing refreezing rates in the higher ablation area. The GrIS has lost in total 1,800 ± 300 Gt of mass from surface processes alone since 1990 and about half of that in the last 6 years.

  15. Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance 1870 to 2010 based on Twentieth Century Reanalysis, and links with global climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Edward; Huybrechts, Philippe; Cappelen, John; Steffen, Konrad; Bales, Roger C.; Burgess, Evan; McConnell, Joseph R.; Peder Steffensen, Joergen; van den Broeke, Michiel; Wake, Leanne; Bigg, Grant; Griffiths, Mike; Savas, Deniz

    2011-12-01

    We present a reconstruction of the Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance (SMB) from 1870 to 2010, based on merged Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) meteorological reanalyses, and we compare our new SMB series with global and regional climate and atmospheric circulation indices during this period. We demonstrate good agreement between SMB annual series constructed from 20CR and ECMWF reanalyses for the common period of overlap and show statistically significant agreement of long-term modeled snowfall with ice-core-based accumulation data. We analyze variations in SMB for the last 140 years and highlight the periods with significantly increased runoff and decreased SMB since 1870, which have both been enhanced in the period since 1990, as well as interannual variations in SMB linked to Greenland climate fluctuations. We show very good agreement of our SMB series variations with existing, independently derived SMB series (RACMO2) variations for the past few decades of overlap but also a significant disparity of up to ˜200 km3 yr-1 in absolute SMB values due to poorly constrained modeled accumulation reflecting a lack of adequate validation data in southeast Greenland. There is no significant correlation between our SMB time series and a widely referenced time series of North Atlantic icebergs emanating from Greenland for the past century, which may reflect the complex nature of the relationship between SMB and ice dynamical changes. Finally, we discuss how our analysis sheds light on the sensitivity and response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to ongoing and future global climate change, and its contribution to global sea level rise.

  16. Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance 1870 to 2010 based on Twentieth Century Reanalysis, and links with global climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Cappelen, J.; Steffen, K.; Bales, R. C.; Burgess, E. W.; McConnell, J.; Steffensen, J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Wake, L. M.; Bigg, G. R.; Griffiths, M.; Savas, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a reconstruction of the Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance (SMB) from 1870-2010, based on merged Twentieth Century Reanalysis and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts meteorological reanalyses, and compare our new SMB series with global and regional climate and atmospheric circulation indices during this period. We demonstrate good agreement between SMB annual series constructed from 20CR and ECMWF reanalyses for the common period of overlap, and show statistically significant agreement of long-term modelled snowfall with ice-core-based accumulation data. We analyse variations in SMB for the last 140 years, and highlight significantly increased runoff and decreased SMB since 1870, which have both been enhanced in the period since 1990, as well as interannual variations in SMB linked to Greenland climate fluctuations. We show very good agreement of our SMB series variations with existing, independently-derived SMB series (RACMO2) variations for the past few decades of overlap, but also a significant disparity of up to ~200 km3 yr-1 in absolute SMB values due to poorly constrained modelled accumulation reflecting a lack of adequate validation data in south-east Greenland, which could be better addressed as part of the proposed International Polar Decade. There is no significant correlation between our SMB time series and a widely-referenced time series of Greenland icebergs for the past century, which may reflect the complex nature of the relationship between SMB and ice dynamical changes. Finally, we discuss how our analysis sheds light on the sensitivity and response of the Greenland ice sheet to ongoing and future global climate change, and its contribution to global sea-level rise.

  17. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  18. A daily, 1 km resolution data set of downscaled Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (1958-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Brice; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Machguth, Horst; Lhermitte, Stef; Howat, Ian; Fettweis, Xavier; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a data set of daily, 1 km resolution Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) covering the period 1958-2015. Applying corrections for elevation, bare ice albedo and accumulation bias, the high-resolution product is statistically downscaled from the native daily output of the polar regional climate model RACMO2.3 at 11 km. The data set includes all individual SMB components projected to a down-sampled version of the Greenland Ice Mapping Project (GIMP) digital elevation model and ice mask. The 1 km mask better resolves narrow ablation zones, valley glaciers, fjords and disconnected ice caps. Relative to the 11 km product, the more detailed representation of isolated glaciated areas leads to increased precipitation over the southeastern GrIS. In addition, the downscaled product shows a significant increase in runoff owing to better resolved low-lying marginal glaciated regions. The combined corrections for elevation and bare ice albedo markedly improve model agreement with a newly compiled data set of ablation measurements.

  19. A new high-resolution Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance series from 1870 to 2012 and comparison with GRACE/Envisat data of ice-sheet mass/surface elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, E.; Wilton, D.; Jowett, A.; Huybrechts, P.; Barletta, V. R.; Forsberg, R.; Khvorostovsky, K.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new high-resolution (1x1-km) monthly Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) series from 1870 to 2012. This new series is based on the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim meteorological reanalysis data (1870-1978 and 1979-2012 respectively), as well as an optimised positive degree-day (PDD) runoff/retention model (Janssens & Huybrechts, 2000). We use near-surface air temperature, precipitation, surface latent heat flux and geopotential (height above the mean sea-level) data from the reanalyses. We statistically downscale the reanalysis datasets using a 1-km digital elevation model (Bamber et al., 2013), empirically-derived ice sheet surface air temperature lapse rates and a kriged snow accumulation map, following the approach of Hanna et al. (2011). The two reanalysis datasets are spliced together to allow for small systematic biases during the common overlap period. Here the improvements in the SMB modelling with respect to previous work (Hanna et al. 2011) are fourfold: a much higher spatial resolution of 1x1-km as opposed to 5x5-km used previously, an improved parameterisation of the PDD/runoff model, use of a monthly instead of annual model timestep, and the new use of ERA Interim data instead of ECMWF operational analyses. Using these model refinements we evaluate SMB spatial trends for 1870-2012 and 2002-2012 and compare the latter with GRACE and radar altimetry satellite data of ice-sheet mass and surface elevation changes. Thus we are able to evaluate the effect of the 2012 record GrIS melt on the SMB of the ice-sheet and put this in a long-term (140-year) perspective, which helps assess the ice sheet's sensitivity to ongoing climate change. References Bamber J.L., J. A. Griggs, R. T. W. L. Hurkmans, J. A. Dowdeswell, S. P. Gogineni, I. Howat, J. Mouginot, J. Paden, S. Palmer, E. Rignot, and D. Steinhage (2013) A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland. The

  20. Impact of the Balance Budget Act on access to rural hospital health services for Medicaid patients.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa Z; Cissell, William B

    2006-01-01

    Because of the reimbursement system and the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, rural hospitals suffered financially and the volume of services to Medicaid patients was reduced. The importance of this study stems from the debate over the effect of the prospective payment system (PPS) and the type of health insurance used for health care. If the type of insurance used, adjusted to severity of illness and case mix, has no effect on performance and the volume of services provided by the hospitals, then the type of insurance and the level of income have no effect on access to health care and treatment.

  1. Changes in the Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a Warming Climate During 2003-2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Luthcke, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) derived from ICESat and GRACE data both show that the net mass loss from GIS during 2003-2009 is about 175 Gt/year, which contributes 0.5mm/yr global sea-level rise. The rate of mass loss has increased significantly since the 1990's when the GIS was close to mass balance. Even though the GIS was close to mass balance during the 1990's, it was already showing characteristics of responding to8 warmer climate, specifically thinning at the margins and thickening inland at higher elevations. During 2003-2009, increased ice thinning due to increases in melting and acceleration of outlet glaciers began to strongly exceed the inland thickening from increases in accumulation. Over the entire GIS, the mass loss between the two periods, from increased melting and ice dynamics, increased by about 190 Gt/year while the mass gain, from increased precipitation and accumulation, increased by only about 15Gt/year. These ice changes occurred during a time when the temperature on GIS changed at rate of about 2K/decade. The distribution of elevation and mass changes derived from ICESat have high spatial resolution showing details over outlet glaciers, by drainage systems, and by elevation. However, information on the seasonal cycle of changes from ICESat data is limited, because the ICESat lasers were only operated during two to three campaigns per year of about 35 days duration each. In contrast, the temporal resolution of GRACE data, provided by the continuous data collection, is much better showing details of the seasonal cycle and the inter-annual variability. The differing sensitivity of the ICESat altimetry and the GRACE gravity methods to motion of the underlying bedrock from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is used to evaluate the GIA corrections provided by models. The two data types are also combined to make estimates of the partitioning of the mass gains and losses among accumulation, melting, and ice discharge from outlet

  2. Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1978. Public Law 95-523--Oct. 27, 1978. 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1978 is reproduced in its entirety. The act, public law 95-523, is designed to translate into practical reality the right of all Americans to full opportunity for useful paid employment at fair compensation rates; to assert the federal government's responsibility to use all programs and policies…

  3. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance: Distribution of Increased Mass Loss with Climate Warming; 2003-07 Versus 1992-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Benner, Anita C.; Beckley, Matthew; Cornejo, Helen G.; DiMarzio, John; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui; Wang, Weili

    2011-01-01

    We derive mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) for 2003-07 from ICESat laser altimetry and compare them with results for 1992-2002 from ERS radar and airborne laser altimetry. The GIS continued to grow inland and thin at the margins during 2003 07, but surface melting and accelerated flow significantly increased the marginal thinning compared with the 1990s. The net balance changed from a small loss of 7 plus or minus 3 Gt a 1(sup -1) in the 1990s to 171 plus or minus 4 Gt a (sup -1) for 2003-07, contributing 0.5 mm a(sup -1) to recent global sea-level rise. We divide the derived mass changes into two components: (1) from changes in melting and ice dynamics and (2) from changes in precipitation and accumulation rate. We use our firn compaction model to calculate the elevation changes driven by changes in both temperature and accumulation rate and to calculate the appropriate density to convert the accumulation-driven changes to mass changes. Increased losses from melting and ice dynamics (17-206 Gt a(sup-1) are over seven times larger than increased gains from precipitation (10 35 Gt a(sup-1) during a warming period of approximately 2 K (10 a)(sup -1) over the GIS. Above 2000m elevation, the rate of gain decreased from 44 to 28 Gt a(sup-1), while below 2000m the rate of loss increased from 51 to 198 Gt a(sup-1). Enhanced thinning below the equilibrium line on outlet glaciers indicates that increased melting has a significant impact on outlet glaciers, as well as accelerating ice flow. Increased thinning at higher elevations appears to be induced by dynamic coupling to thinning at the margins on decadal timescales.

  4. Large surface meltwater discharge from the Kangerlussuaq sector of the Greenland ice sheet during the record-warm year 2010 explained by detailed energy balance observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van As, D.; Hubbard, A. L.; Hasholt, B.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Fausto, R. S.

    2012-02-01

    This study uses data from six on-ice weather stations, calibrated MODIS-derived albedo and proglacial river gauging measurements to drive and validate an energy balance model. We aim to quantify the record-setting positive temperature anomaly in 2010 and its effect on mass balance and runoff from the Kangerlussuaq sector of the Greenland ice sheet. In 2010, the average temperature was 4.9 °C (2.7 standard deviations) above the 1974-2010 average in Kangerlussuaq. High temperatures were also observed over the ice sheet, with the magnitude of the positive anomaly increasing with altitude, particularly in August. Simultaneously, surface albedo was anomalously low in 2010, predominantly in the upper ablation zone. The low albedo was caused by high ablation, which in turn profited from high temperatures and low winter snowfall. Surface energy balance calculations show that the largest melt excess (∼170%) occurred in the upper ablation zone (above 1000 m), where higher temperatures and lower albedo contributed equally to the melt anomaly. At lower elevations the melt excess can be attributed to high atmospheric temperatures alone. In total, we calculate that 6.6 ± 1.0 km3 of surface meltwater ran off the ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq catchment in 2010, exceeding the reference year 2009 (based on atmospheric temperature measurements) by ∼150%. During future warm episodes we can expect a melt response of at least the same magnitude, unless a larger wintertime snow accumulation delays and moderates the melt-albedo feedback. Due to the hypsometry of the ice sheet, yielding an increasing surface area with elevation, meltwater runoff will be further amplified by increases in melt forcings such as atmospheric heat.

  5. The relationship between the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) and hospital profitability.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa Z

    2006-01-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) reduced the payment for fees for service providers and reduced the subsidy paid by the government for teaching hospitals. Since the passage of such cost containment measures, debates regarding their impact on hospitals, graduate medical education, and access to health care were raised. The need to examine the effect of such payment reduction on hospital profitability was widely ignored. We examined the relationship between the BBA and hospital profitability by using return on assets to measure profitability, by running an ordinary least squares regression for 1996 as pre-BBA and 1999 as post-BBA. We controlled for variables that were not included in previous literature, such as disproportionate share hospital status, critical access hospital status, and graduate medical education, measured by teaching hospitals to measure the effect of BBA cuts on teaching hospitals. Furthermore we incorporated several economic, financial, and utilization variables in the model. We used 1996 and 1999 data in our analysis to bridge potential effects of the BBA. To locate hospitals that changed ownership status we cross-matched the Medicare Cost Report data with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We found that overall hospital profitability declined as a result of the introduction of the BBA; however, small rural hospitals that converted to critical access status enjoyed improvement in financial status over the period of our study. Hospitals that converted to for-profit status did not improve in financial status, and showed a lower earning after the conversation. Our results show that the BBA had a negative effect on hospitals because of cuts in its reimbursement policy, except for critical access hospitals, which show improvement because of their exemption from the prospective payment system. Our study differs from others by using national comprehensive data for years that focus exclusively on the Balanced Budget Act period. We

  6. Reconstructions of the 1900-2015 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance using the regional climate MAR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Xavier; Box, Jason E.; Agosta, Cécile; Amory, Charles; Kittel, Christoph; Lang, Charlotte; van As, Dirk; Machguth, Horst; Gallée, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    With the aim of studying the recent Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) decrease relative to the last century, we have forced the regional climate MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional; version 3.5.2) model with the ERA-Interim (ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis; 1979-2015), ERA-40 (1958-2001), NCEP-NCARv1 (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis version 1; 1948-2015), NCEP-NCARv2 (1979-2015), JRA-55 (Japanese 55-year Reanalysis; 1958-2014), 20CRv2(c) (Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 2; 1900-2014) and ERA-20C (1900-2010) reanalyses. While all these forcing products are reanalyses that are assumed to represent the same climate, they produce significant differences in the MAR-simulated SMB over their common period. A temperature adjustment of +1 °C (respectively -1 °C) was, for example, needed at the MAR boundaries with ERA-20C (20CRv2) reanalysis, given that ERA-20C (20CRv2) is ˜ 1 °C colder (warmer) than ERA-Interim over Greenland during the period 1980-2010. Comparisons with daily PROMICE (Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet) near-surface observations support these adjustments. Comparisons with SMB measurements, ice cores and satellite-derived melt extent reveal the most accurate forcing datasets for the simulation of the GrIS SMB to be ERA-Interim and NCEP-NCARv1. However, some biases remain in MAR, suggesting that some improvements are still needed in its cloudiness and radiative schemes as well as in the representation of the bare ice albedo. Results from all MAR simulations indicate that (i) the period 1961-1990, commonly chosen as a stable reference period for Greenland SMB and ice dynamics, is actually a period of anomalously positive SMB (˜ +40 Gt yr-1) compared to 1900-2010; (ii) SMB has decreased significantly after this reference period due to increasing and unprecedented melt reaching the highest rates in the 120-year common period; (iii) before 1960, both ERA

  7. Fact Sheet: Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 (PL 94-484).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 extends health manpower training authorities through FY 1980 with significant changes to meet national needs. It is designed to produce more primary care practitioners and improve health services in manpower shortage areas, providing support for the training of health professions (medicine,…

  8. Your Rights under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a national law that protects qualified individuals from discrimination based on their disability. The nondiscrimination requirements of the law apply to employers and organizations that receive financial assistance from any Federal department or agency, including the U.S. Department of Health and…

  9. Design study of shaft face seal with self-acting lift augmentation. 4: Force balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Zuk, J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A method for predicting the operating film thickness of self-acting seals is described. The analysis considers a 16.76-cm mean diameter seal that is typical of large gas turbines for aircraft. Four design points were selected to cover a wide range of operation for advanced engines. This operating range covered sliding speeds of 61 to 153 m/sec, sealed pressures of 45 to 217 N/sq cm abs, and gas temperatures of 311 to 977 K. The force balance analysis revealed that the seal operated without contact over the operating range with gas film thicknesses ranging between 0.00046 to 0.00119 cm, and with gas leakage rates between 0.01 to 0.39 scmm.

  10. Daily variability of California coastal low cloudiness: A balancing act between stability and subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemesha, Rachel E. S.; Gershunov, Alexander; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2017-04-01

    We examine mechanisms driving daily variability of summer coastal low cloudiness (CLC) along the California coast. Daily CLC is derived from a satellite record from 1996 to 2014. Atmospheric rather than oceanic processes are mostly responsible for daily fluctuations in vertical stability that dictate short-period variation in CLC structure. Daily CLC anomalies are most strongly correlated to lower tropospheric stability anomalies to the north. The spatially offset nature of the cloud-stability relationship is a result of the balancing act that affects low cloudiness wherein subsidence drives increased stability, which promotes cloudiness, but too much subsidence limits cloudiness. Lay explanations claim that high inland temperatures "pull in" CLC, but such a process presumably would have the high temperatures directly inland. Rather, we find that the spatially offset associations between CLC and atmospheric circulation result in positive correlations between CLC and inland surface temperature anomalies to the north.

  11. A balancing act: the consulting engineers' pragmatic view of process modelling.

    PubMed

    Copp, J B; Johnson, B R; Shaw, A; Burbano, M S; Narayanan, B; Frank, K; Kinnear, D; Melcer, H; Brischke, K

    2009-01-01

    Modelling: what do we know, what do we want to know and why? The practical application of models to real projects is often circular because these questions weren't asked prior to making the decision to model the plant under study. Modelling wastewater treatment plants can provide insight into the inner workings of the process that might not be attainable any other way, but is that added process knowledge always needed or necessary and what criteria does one use to determine the level of effort required? These complex modelling decisions require education, communication, and improved understanding amongst both modellers and clients. This submission explores the use of models by consultants for consulting purposes and the balancing acts (time versus knowledge and cost versus benefit) that the consulting engineer must manage when embarking on any modelling project.

  12. Balancing acts of two HEAT subunits of condensin I support dynamic assembly of chromosome axes.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kazuhisa; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2015-04-06

    Condensin I is a five-subunit protein complex that plays a central role in mitotic chromosome assembly and segregation in eukaryotes. To dissect its mechanism of action, we reconstituted wild-type and mutant complexes from recombinant subunits and tested their abilities to assemble chromosomes in Xenopus egg cell-free extracts depleted of endogenous condensins. We find that ATP binding and hydrolysis by SMC subunits have distinct contributions to the action of condensin I and that continuous ATP hydrolysis is required for structural maintenance of chromosomes. Mutant complexes lacking either one of two HEAT subunits produce abnormal chromosomes with highly characteristic defects and have contrasting structural effects on chromosome axes preassembled with the wild-type complex. We propose that balancing acts of the two HEAT subunits support dynamic assembly of chromosome axes under the control of the SMC ATPase cycle, thereby governing construction of rod-shaped chromosomes in eukaryotic cells.

  13. A downscaled 1 km dataset of daily Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance components (1958-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, B.; Van De Berg, W. J.; Fettweis, X.; Machguth, H.; Howat, I. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The current spatial resolution in regional climate models (RCMs), typically around 5 to 20 km, remains too coarse to accurately reproduce the spatial variability in surface mass balance (SMB) components over the narrow ablation zones, marginal outlet glaciers and neighbouring ice caps of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). In these topographically rough terrains, the SMB components are highly dependent on local variations in topography. However, the relatively low-resolution elevation and ice mask prescribed in RCMs contribute to significantly underestimate melt and runoff in these regions due to unresolved valley glaciers and fjords. Therefore, near-km resolution topography is essential to better capture SMB variability in these spatially restricted regions. We present a 1 km resolution dataset of daily GrIS SMB covering the period 1958-2014, which is statistically downscaled from data of the polar regional climate model RACMO2.3 at 11 km, using an elevation dependence. The dataset includes all individual SMB components projected on the elevation and ice mask from the GIMP DEM, down-sampled to 1 km. Daily runoff and sublimation are interpolated to the 1 km topography using a local regression to elevation valid for each day specifically; daily precipitation is bi-linearly downscaled without elevation corrections. The daily SMB dataset is then reconstructed by summing downscaled precipitation, sublimation and runoff. High-resolution elevation and ice mask allow for properly resolving the narrow ablation zones and valley glaciers at the GrIS margins, leading to significant increase in runoff estimate. In these regions, and especially over narrow glaciers tongues, the downscaled products improve on the original RACMO2.3 outputs by better representing local SMB patterns through a gradual ablation increase towards the GrIS margins. We discuss the impact of downscaling on the SMB components in a case study for a spatially restricted region, where large elevation

  14. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act. Workship on plant growth: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    There are signals that coordinate the development of various plant parts and thus the rates of enlargement of various plant parts and these were explored during the workshop. The participants tried to systematize their knowledge and identify over-arching concepts that need more investigation. It was generally agreed that the cell wall cannot be viewed as a passive plastic material. Synthesis and deposition take place and cause changes in the molecular architecture of the wall. Questions arise from the fact that the wall is not a constant or uniform structure but undergoes highly organized changes during enlargement while bearing a considerable load. Recent advances in signaling, biochemical analysis and ultrastructure visualization are beginning to relate to the molecular load-bearing and enzymatic activities in the wall. The participants agreed that there probably is enough information to begin developing a comprehensive model that would balance wall effects with the limitation of growth by transport, especially for water, and this could help clarify events occurring at different time scales and places. Beyond that, there seems to be a need to resolve problems of solute transport and wall behavior that are poorly understood in growing regions, leaving many promising areas for future experiments. Understanding each balancing act seems to be just the beginning.

  15. "Where's Waldo?": A One-Act Musical Based on Martin Handford's Books. Book by Michael Slade, Presented by Theatreworks U.S.A. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Rosalind

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of the one-act musical based on Martin Handford's books, "Where's Waldo?" book by Michael Slade, music by David Evans, and lyrics by Faye Greenberg. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains four activity sheets for use in class,…

  16. Application of GRACE to the assessment of model-based estimates of monthly Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance (2003-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne; Wiese, David N.; Larour, Eric Y.; Watkins, Michael M.; Box, Jason E.; Fettweis, Xavier; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying the Greenland Ice Sheet's future contribution to sea level rise is a challenging task that requires accurate estimates of ice sheet sensitivity to climate change. Forward ice sheet models are promising tools for estimating future ice sheet behavior, yet confidence is low because evaluation of historical simulations is challenging due to the scarcity of continental-wide data for model evaluation. Recent advancements in processing of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data using Bayesian-constrained mass concentration ("mascon") functions have led to improvements in spatial resolution and noise reduction of monthly global gravity fields. Specifically, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's JPL RL05M GRACE mascon solution (GRACE_JPL) offers an opportunity for the assessment of model-based estimates of ice sheet mass balance (MB) at ˜ 300 km spatial scales. Here, we quantify the differences between Greenland monthly observed MB (GRACE_JPL) and that estimated by state-of-the-art, high-resolution models, with respect to GRACE_JPL and model uncertainties. To simulate the years 2003-2012, we force the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) with anomalies from three different surface mass balance (SMB) products derived from regional climate models. Resulting MB is compared against GRACE_JPL within individual mascons. Overall, we find agreement in the northeast and southwest where MB is assumed to be primarily controlled by SMB. In the interior, we find a discrepancy in trend, which we presume to be related to millennial-scale dynamic thickening not considered by our model. In the northwest, seasonal amplitudes agree, but modeled mass trends are muted relative to GRACE_JPL. Here, discrepancies are likely controlled by temporal variability in ice discharge and other related processes not represented by our model simulations, i.e., hydrological processes and ice-ocean interaction. In the southeast, GRACE_JPL exhibits larger seasonal amplitude than predicted by

  17. Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  18. Balancing Act: A View of Benefits and Work-Life Balance through the Eyes of Advancement Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    People who choose careers in advancement know they're not entering a 9-to-5, 40-hours-a-week profession. Staffers juggle personal lives with their commitment to stressful jobs that involve travel, long hours, weekend events, and deadlines. Work-life balance means different things to different people, but flexibility seems to be a priority for…

  19. Balancing Act: A View of Benefits and Work-Life Balance through the Eyes of Advancement Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    People who choose careers in advancement know they're not entering a 9-to-5, 40-hours-a-week profession. Staffers juggle personal lives with their commitment to stressful jobs that involve travel, long hours, weekend events, and deadlines. Work-life balance means different things to different people, but flexibility seems to be a priority for…

  20. On the Utilization of Ice Flow Models and Uncertainty Quantification to Interpret the Impact of Surface Radiation Budget Errors on Estimates of Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance and Regional Estimates of Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Larour, E. Y.; Gardner, A. S.; Lang, C.; Miller, C. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    How Greenland ice flow may respond to future increases in surface runoff and to increases in the frequency of extreme melt events is unclear, as it requires detailed comprehension of Greenland surface climate and the ice sheet's sensitivity to associated uncertainties. With established uncertainty quantification tools run within the framework of Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), we conduct decadal-scale forward modeling experiments to 1) quantify the spatial resolution needed to effectively force distinct components of the surface radiation budget, and subsequently surface mass balance (SMB), in various regions of the ice sheet and 2) determine the dynamic response of Greenland ice flow to variations in components of the net radiation budget. The Glacier Energy and Mass Balance (GEMB) software is a column surface model (1-D) that has recently been embedded as a module within ISSM. Using the ISSM-GEMB framework, we perform sensitivity analyses to determine how perturbations in various components of the surface radiation budget affect model output; these model experiments allow us predict where and on what spatial scale the ice sheet is likely to dynamically respond to changes in these parameters. Preliminary results suggest that SMB should be forced at at least a resolution of 23 km to properly capture dynamic ice response. In addition, Monte-Carlo style sampling analyses reveals that the areas with the largest uncertainty in mass flux are located near the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), upstream of major outlet glaciers in the North and West of the ice sheet. Sensitivity analysis indicates that these areas are also the most vulnerable on the ice sheet to persistent, far-field shifts in SMB, suggesting that continued warming, and upstream shift in the ELA, are likely to result in increased velocities, and consequentially SMB-induced thinning upstream of major outlet glaciers. Here, we extend our investigation to consider various components of the surface radiation

  1. Home Health Care Agency Staffing Patterns before and after the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, by Rural and Urban Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Spector, William; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Context: The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 and other recent policies have led to reduced Medicare funding for home health agencies (HHAs) and visits per beneficiary. Purpose: We examine the staffing characteristics of stable Medicare-certified HHAs across rural and urban counties from 1996 to 2002, a period encompassing the changes associated…

  2. The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1976: An Analysis and Evaluation. Discussion Paper 346-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Michael C.

    The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of l976, S-50, the Humphrey-Hawkins bill, is an attempt to focus the nation's attention and energy on the problem of attaining full employment. As a matter of law the nation would be committed to achieving an adult unemployment rate of 3% within four years. If those charged with the development and…

  3. Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S.; Casey, K.A.; DiGirolamo, N.E.; Wan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet was measured for each melt season from 2000 to 2005 using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived land-surface temperature (LST) data-product maps. During the period of most-active melt, the mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the ice sheet was highest in 2002 (-8.29 ?? 5.29??C) and 2005 (-8.29 ?? 5.43??C), compared to a 6-year mean of -9.04 ?? 5.59??C, in agreement with recent work by other investigators showing unusually extensive melt in 2002 and 2005. Surface-temperature variability shows a correspondence with the dry-snow facies of the ice sheet; a reduction in area of the dry-snow facies would indicate a more-negative mass balance. Surface-temperature variability generally increased during the study period and is most pronounced in the 2005 melt season; this is consistent with surface instability caused by air-temperature fluctuations. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Balancing adequacy and affordability?: Essential Health Benefits under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Haeder, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Health Benefits provisions under the Affordable Care Act require that eligible plans provide coverage for certain broadly defined service categories, limit consumer cost-sharing, and meet certain actuarial value requirements. Although the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was tasked with the regulatory development of these EHB under the ACA, the department quickly devolved this task to the states. Not surprisingly, states fully exploited the leeway provided by HHS, and state decision processes and outcomes differed widely. However, none of the states took advantage of the opportunity to restructure fundamentally their health insurance markets, and only a very limited number of states actually included sophisticated policy expertise in their decisionmaking processes. As a result, and despite a major expansion of coverage, the status quo ex ante in state insurance markets was largely perpetuated. Decisionmaking for the 2016 revisions should be transparent, included a wide variety of stakeholders and policy experts, and focus on balancing adequacy and affordability. However, the 2016 revisions provide an opportunity to address these previous shortcomings.

  5. Taking the Firn into Account: Elevation Change of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to Surface Mass Balance and Firn Processes, 1960-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.; Ligtenberg, S.; Noel, B.; Howat, I. M.; Box, J. E.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; McConnell, J. R.; Steffen, K.; Harper, J. T.; Das, S. B.; van den Broeke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Observed changes in the surface elevation of the Greenland ice sheet are caused by ice dynamics, basal elevation change, surface mass balance (SMB) variability, and by compaction of the overlying firn. The latter two contributions are quantified here using a firn model that includes compaction, meltwater percolation, and refreezing. The model is forced with surface mass fluxes and temperature from a regional climate model for the period 1960-2014. The model results agree with observations of surface density, density profiles from 62 firn cores, and altimetric observations from regions where ice-dynamical surface height changes are likely small. We find that the firn layer in the high interior is generally thickening slowly (1-5 cm y-1). In the percolation and ablation areas, firn and SMB processes account for a surface elevation lowering of up to 20-50 cm y-1. Most of this firn-induced marginal thinning is caused by an increase in melt since the mid-1990s, and partly compensated by an increase in the accumulation of fresh snow around most of the ice sheet. The total firn and ice volume change between 1980 and 2013 is estimated at -3900 ± 1030 km3 due to firn and SMB, corresponding to an ice-sheet average thinning of 2.32 ± 0.61 m. Most of this volume decrease occurred after 1995. The computed changes in surface elevation can be used to partition altimetrically observed volume change into surface mass balance and ice-dynamically related mass changes.

  6. [Studies of time-course changes in human body balance after ingestion of long-acting hypnotics].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masahiro; Ishii, Masanori; Niwa, Yoji; Yamazaki, Momoko; Ito, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Falling accidents are a serious nocosomial problem, with balance disorders after the ingestion of hypnotics said to be a cause. Based on the results of animal studies, it was postulated that this problem involves the muscle relaxation that is a pharmacological effect of benzodiazepines (BZP). No reports have, to our knowledge, been made of time-course changes in human body balance after ingestion of hypnotics. Accordingly, we used quazepam (Doral), a long-acting hypnotic considered to show comparatively weak muscle relaxation, to study static balance after drug ingestion in human volunteers. Briefly, informed consent was obtained from 8 healthy adults, then a gait analytic system (Gangas) was used to test static balance after drug ingestion (Mann and Romberg tests). We also measured circulating drug concentration over time. Our results showed that balance disorders occurred after quazepam ingestion with an unstable posture particularly striking. Given the function of quazepam receptors, it is difficult to surmise that balance disorders after drug ingestion were due to the drug's muscle relaxation. We surmised that inhibition from the central nervous system in connection with nerves awakening was involved. We found a strong correlation between the manifestation of balance disorders after drug ingestion and circulating drug concentration.

  7. Impact of the global SST gradients changes on the Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance through the Plio/Pliocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colleoni, Florence; Florindo, Fabio; McKay, Robert; Golledge, Nicholas; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Montoli, Enea; Masina, Simona; Cherchi, Annalisa; De Santis, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) reconstructions have shown that the Pliocene global zonal and meridional temperature gradients were different from today, implying changes of atmospheric and oceanic circulations, and thus of the main teleconnections. The impact of the main atmospheric teleconnections on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) in the past has been seldom investigated. The ANDRILL marine record have shown that at the end of the Pliocene, the ice sheet expanded in the Ross Sea concomitantly with the expansion of the sea ice cover. This would have enhanced the formation of bottom waters that in turn, would have fostered upwelling along the West African coast and along the coast of Peru. The impact of Antarctica on the tropical climate dynamics has been shown by previous studies. To close the loop, this work investigates the impact of the tropical and high-latitude SST cooling on the main atmospheric teleconnections and then on the Antarctic SMB through the Plio/Pleistocene transition. Idealized Atmospheric General Circulation Model simulations are performed, in which high-latitude and tropical SST cooling are prescribed starting from the Pliocene SST. The atmospheric conditions obtained are then used to force an ice sheet model and a stand-alone energy balance model to investigate the impact on the SMB of the two main atmospheric teleconnections active in the Southern Hemisphere, namely the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the Pacific-South-American oscillation (PSA. In agreement with ANDRILL marine records, results show that the Easterlies strengthen along the Antarctic coasts during the Plio/Pleistocene transition. This, however, occurs only after cooling the tropical SSTs in the AGCM simulations. More importantly, the cooling of the tropical SST, through the strengthening of the PSA, has the largest influence on the spatial distribution of the climatic anomalies over Antarctica. This explains most of the SMB patterns simulated

  8. Balancing Act: Bridging the Traditional and Technological Aspects of Culture through Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Pamela Harris

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the benefits of connecting and balancing education in the visual arts and in technology through discussion of actual examples. This balanced connection accomplishes three goals: to further advance and enhance quality of life, to cultivate humane and ethical behaviors, and to initiate global dialogue on issues that matter among…

  9. On ISSM and leveraging the Cloud towards faster quantification of the uncertainty in ice-sheet mass balance projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, E.; Schlegel, N.

    2016-11-01

    With the Amazon EC2 Cloud becoming available as a viable platform for parallel computing, Earth System Models are increasingly interested in leveraging its capabilities towards improving climate projections. In particular, faced with long wait periods on high-end clusters, the elasticity of the Cloud presents a unique opportunity of potentially "infinite" availability of small-sized clusters running on high-performance instances. Among specific applications of this new paradigm, we show here how uncertainty quantification in climate projections of polar ice sheets (Antarctica and Greenland) can be significantly accelerated using the Cloud. Indeed, small-sized clusters are very efficient at delivering sensitivity and sampling analysis, core tools of uncertainty quantification. We demonstrate how this approach was used to carry out an extensive analysis of ice-flow projections on one of the largest basins in Greenland, the North-East Greenland Glacier, using the Ice Sheet System Model, the public-domain NASA-funded ice-flow modeling software. We show how errors in the projections were accurately quantified using Monte-Carlo sampling analysis on the EC2 Cloud, and how a judicious mix of high-end parallel computing and Cloud use can best leverage existing infrastructures, and significantly accelerate delivery of potentially ground-breaking climate projections, and in particular, enable uncertainty quantification that were previously impossible to achieve.

  10. The balance sheet of benefits and harms of breast cancer population-based screening in Europe: outcome research, practice and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Mireille; Paci, Eugenio

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer screening programs are still object of harsh debate. In 2012, the Independent UK Panel reviewed the benefits and harms of mammography screening based on randomized trials and the EUROSCREEN Working Group reviewed European observational outcome studies. The conclusion was that screening programs should continue, while acknowledging that harms, such as the occurrence of false-positive results and overdiagnosis, can have a negative impact on a woman's life. Information on the balance sheet of the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening should help women and their physicians to make an informed choice. The future challenge for breast screening programs is to assess the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and impact of risk-based screening in order to maximize benefit-to-harm ratios.

  11. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to perturbations in sea surface temperature and sea ice cover: a study with the regional climate model MAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, B.; Fettweis, X.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Erpicum, M.

    2014-10-01

    During recent summers (2007-2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favoring warmer atmospheric conditions than normal over the GrIS. Simultaneously, large anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) were observed in the North Atlantic, suggesting a possible connection. To assess the direct impact of 2007-2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR forced by ERA-Interim. These simulations suggest that perturbations in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not considerably impact GrIS SMB, as a result of the katabatic wind blocking effect. These offshore-directed winds prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST anomalies, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds cease. A topic for further investigation is how anomalies in SIC and SST might have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, hence favoring more frequent warm air advection towards the GrIS.

  12. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change.

    PubMed

    Bigg, G R; Wei, H L; Wilton, D J; Zhao, Y; Billings, S A; Hanna, E; Kadirkamanathan, V

    2014-06-08

    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean-iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1-3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources.

  13. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bigg, G. R.; Wei, H. L.; Wilton, D. J.; Zhao, Y.; Billings, S. A.; Hanna, E.; Kadirkamanathan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean–iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1–3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources. PMID:24910517

  14. A Balancing Act: Stability versus Reactivity of Mn(O) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Neu, Heather M; Baglia, Regina A; Goldberg, David P

    2015-10-20

    A large class of heme and non-heme metalloenzymes utilize O2 or its derivatives (e.g., H2O2) to generate high-valent metal-oxo intermediates for performing challenging and selective oxidations. Due to their reactive nature, these intermediates are often short-lived and very difficult to characterize. Synthetic chemists have sought to prepare analogous metal-oxo complexes with ligands that impart enough stability to allow for their characterization and an examination of their inherent reactivity. The challenge in designing these molecules is to achieve a balance between their stability, which should allow for their in situ characterization or isolation, and their reactivity, in which they can still participate in interesting chemical transformations. This Account focuses on our recent efforts to generate and stabilize high-valent manganese-oxo porphyrinoid complexes and tune their reactivity in the oxidation of organic substrates. Dioxygen can be used to generate a high-valent Mn(V)(O) corrolazine (Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz)) by irradiation of Mn(III)(TBP8Cz) with visible light in the presence of a C-H substrate. Quantitative formation of the Mn(V)(O) complex occurs with concomitant selective hydroxylation of the benzylic substrate hexamethylbenzene. Addition of a strong H(+) donor converted this light/O2/substrate reaction from a stoichiometric to a catalytic process with modest turnovers. The addition of H(+) likely activates a transient Mn(V)(O) complex to achieve turnover, whereas in the absence of H(+), the Mn(V)(O) complex is an unreactive "dead-end" complex. Addition of anionic donors to the Mn(V)(O) complex also leads to enhanced reactivity, with a large increase in the rate of two-electron oxygen atom transfer (OAT) to thioether substrates. Spectroscopic characterization (Mn K-edge X-ray absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies) revealed that the anionic donors (X(-)) bind to the Mn(V) ion to form six-coordinate [Mn(V)(O)(X)](-) complexes. An unusual "V

  15. Experimental Study of the Forces Acting on the Tool in the Friction-Stir Welding of AA 2024 T3 Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astarita, A.; Squillace, A.; Carrino, L.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, AA 2024 T3-rolled sheets were joined in butt joint configuration through the friction stir welding process. Different joints were carried out varying the principal process parameters (i.e., tool welding speed and tool rotational speed). The aim of this work was the study and the experimental characterization of the influence of the process parameters on the forces acting on the tool during the FSW process. Furthermore, it was studied the correlation between the forces and the grain size, in particular with the extension of the heat-affected zone. Forces acting along the axis parallel to the tool are actually greater than those acting along welding direction. All the recorded forces are strictly dependant on the process parameters adopted. No correlation has been found between the grain dimension within the weld bead and the recorded forces, while the greater the forces, the narrower the extension of the heat-affected zone.

  16. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  17. Development of a multi-sensor elevation time series pole-ward of 86°S in support of altimetry validation and ice sheet mass balance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studinger, M.; Brunt, K. M.; Casey, K.; Medley, B.; Neumann, T.; Manizade, S.; Linkswiler, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to produce a cross-calibrated long-term record of ice-surface elevation change for input into ice sheet models and mass balance studies it is necessary to "link the measurements made by airborne laser altimeters, satellite measurements of ICESat, ICESat-2, and CryoSat-2" [IceBridge Level 1 Science Requirements, 2012] and determine the biases and the spatial variations between radar altimeters and laser altimeters using different wavelengths. The convergence zones of all ICESat tracks (86°S) and all ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2 tracks (88°S) are in regions of relatively low accumulation, making them ideal for satellite altimetry calibration. In preparation for ICESat-2 validation, the IceBridge and ICESat-2 science teams have designed IceBridge data acquisitions around 86°S and 88°S. Several aspects need to be considered when comparing and combining elevation measurements from different radar and laser altimeters, including: a) foot print size and spatial sampling pattern; b) accuracy and precision of each data sets; c) varying signal penetration into the snow; and d) changes in geodetic reference frames over time, such as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The presentation will focus on the analysis of several IceBridge flights around 86 and 88°S with the LVIS and ATM airborne laser altimeters and will evaluate the accuracy and precision of these data sets. To properly interpret the observed elevation change (dh/dt) as mass change, however, the various processes that control surface elevation fluctuations must be quantified and therefore future work will quantify the spatial variability in snow accumulation rates pole-ward of 86°S and in particular around 88°S. Our goal is to develop a cross-validated multi-sensor time series of surface elevation change pole-ward of 86°S that, in combination with measured accumulation rates, will support ICESat-2 calibration and validation and ice sheet mass balance studies.

  18. Yeast's balancing act between ethanol and glycerol production in low-alcohol wines.

    PubMed

    Goold, Hugh D; Kroukamp, Heinrich; Williams, Thomas C; Paulsen, Ian T; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol is fundamental to the character of wine, yet too much can put a wine off-balance. A wine is regarded to be well balanced if its alcoholic strength, acidity, sweetness, fruitiness and tannin structure complement each other so that no single component dominates on the palate. Balancing a wine's positive fruit flavours with the optimal absolute and relative concentration of alcohol can be surprisingly difficult. Over the past three decades, consumers have increasingly demanded wine with richer and riper fruit flavour profiles. In response, grape and wine producers have extended harvest times to increase grape maturity and enhance the degree of fruit flavours and colour intensity. However, a higher degree of grape maturity results in increased grape sugar concentration, which in turn results in wines with elevated alcohol concentration. On average, the alcohol strength of red wines from many warm wine-producing regions globally rose by about 2% (v/v) during this period. Notwithstanding that many of these 'full-bodied, fruit-forward' wines are well balanced and sought after, there is also a significant consumer market segment that seeks lighter styles with less ethanol-derived 'hotness' on the palate. Consumer-focussed wine producers are developing and implementing several strategies in the vineyard and winery to reduce the alcohol concentration in wines produced from well-ripened grapes. In this context, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts have proven to be a pivotal strategy to reduce ethanol formation during the fermentation of grape musts with high sugar content (> 240 g l(-1) ). One of the approaches has been to develop 'low-alcohol' yeast strains which work by redirecting their carbon metabolism away from ethanol production to other metabolites, such as glycerol. This article reviews the current challenges of producing glycerol at the expense of ethanol. It also casts new light on yeast strain development programmes which, bolstered by synthetic

  19. Estimating the Global Prevalence of Inadequate Zinc Intake from National Food Balance Sheets: Effects of Methodological Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population’s theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2) generate a model considered to provide the best estimates. Methodology and Principal Findings National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation). Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12–66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57–0.99, P<0.01). A “best-estimate” model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%. Conclusions and Significance Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health

  20. SCA31 Flies Perform in a Balancing Act between RAN Translation and RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jackson, George R

    2017-04-05

    In this issue of Neuron, Ishiguro et al. (2017) explore the toxicity of RAN translation in spinocerebellar ataxia 31. Using a Drosophila model, the authors demonstrate that TDP-43 and other RNA-binding proteins act as chaperones to regulate the formation of toxic RNA aggregates.

  1. Amylin Acts in the Lateral Dorsal Tegmental Nucleus to Regulate Energy Balance Through Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Reiner, David J; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; Olivos, Diana R; McGrath, Lauren E; Zimmer, Derek J; Koch-Laskowski, Kieran; Krawczyk, Joanna; Turner, Christopher A; Noble, Emily E; Hahn, Joel D; Schmidt, Heath D; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R

    2017-01-10

    The pancreatic- and brain-derived hormone amylin promotes negative energy balance and is receiving increasing attention as a promising obesity therapeutic. However, the neurobiological substrates mediating amylin's effects are not fully characterized. We postulated that amylin acts in the lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg), an understudied neural processing hub for reward and homeostatic feeding signals. We used immunohistochemical and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses to examine expression of the amylin receptor complex in rat LDTg tissue. Behavioral experiments were performed to examine the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effects of amylin receptor activation in the LDTg. Immunohistochemical and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses show expression of the amylin receptor complex in the LDTg. Activation of LDTg amylin receptors by the agonist salmon calcitonin dose-dependently reduces body weight, food intake, and motivated feeding behaviors. Acute pharmacological studies and longer-term adeno-associated viral knockdown experiments indicate that LDTg amylin receptor signaling is physiologically and potentially preclinically relevant for energy balance control. Finally, immunohistochemical data indicate that LDTg amylin receptors are expressed on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons, and behavioral results suggest that local gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor signaling mediates the hypophagia after LDTg amylin receptor activation. These findings identify the LDTg as a novel nucleus with therapeutic potential in mediating amylin's effects on energy balance through gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor signaling. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HRTEM/AEM study of trace metal behavior, sheet silicate reactions, and fluid/solid mass balances in porphyry copper hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.

    1989-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate copper (Cu) incorporation into silicates and alteration reactions in porphyry copper deposits. High Cu in biotites results from submicroscopic inclusions of native Cu. The incorporation of Cu in low-temperature alteration lamellae suggests that Cu enrichment occurs during weathering, rather than during the hydrothermal event. Drill core from Cyprus Casa Grande, Arizona, shows systematic variation of Cu in sheet silicates as a function of depth in the weathering column. The aims of the present project are to apply the powerful techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) to understanding the geochemical processes in porphyry copper systems at the near-atomic scale. Our primary goals are to characterize the structural state of anomalously high Cu in silicates, determine the timing and conditions of Cu enrichment in silicates such as biotite, and use these data to suggest how base metals are released and subsequently immobilized under hydrothermal or weathering conditions; and to determine the submicroscopic, atomic-level reaction mechanisms responsible for silicate alteration in porphyry-copper hydrothermal systems, which will allow us to determine reaction stoichiometries and hence mass balances between minerals and hydrothermal fluid. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. High resolution (1 km) positive degree-day modelling of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance, 1870–2012 using reanalysis data

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, David J.; Jowett, Amy; Hanna, Edward; Bigg, Grant R.; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.; Fettweis, Xavier; Huybrechts, Philippe

    2016-12-15

    Here, we show results from a positive degree-day (PDD) model of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB), 1870–2012, forced with reanalysis data. The model includes an improved daily temperature parameterization as compared with a previous version and is run at 1 km rather than 5 km resolution. The improvements lead overall to higher SMB with the same forcing data. We also compare our model with results from two regional climate models (RCMs). While there is good qualitative agreement between our PDD model and the RCMs, it usually results in lower precipitation and lower runoff but approximately equivalent SMB: mean 1979–2012 SMB (± standard deviation), in Gt a–1, is 382 ± 78 in the PDD model, compared with 379 ± 101 and 425 ± 90 for the RCMs. Comparison with in situ SMB observations suggests that the RCMs may be more accurate than PDD at local level, in some areas, although the latter generally compares well. Dividing the GrIS into seven drainage basins we show that SMB has decreased sharply in all regions since 2000. Finally we show correlation between runoff close to two calving glaciers and either calving front retreat or calving flux, this being most noticeable from the mid-1990s.

  4. High resolution (1 km) positive degree-day modelling of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance, 1870–2012 using reanalysis data

    DOE PAGES

    Wilton, David J.; Jowett, Amy; Hanna, Edward; ...

    2016-12-15

    Here, we show results from a positive degree-day (PDD) model of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB), 1870–2012, forced with reanalysis data. The model includes an improved daily temperature parameterization as compared with a previous version and is run at 1 km rather than 5 km resolution. The improvements lead overall to higher SMB with the same forcing data. We also compare our model with results from two regional climate models (RCMs). While there is good qualitative agreement between our PDD model and the RCMs, it usually results in lower precipitation and lower runoff but approximately equivalent SMB:more » mean 1979–2012 SMB (± standard deviation), in Gt a–1, is 382 ± 78 in the PDD model, compared with 379 ± 101 and 425 ± 90 for the RCMs. Comparison with in situ SMB observations suggests that the RCMs may be more accurate than PDD at local level, in some areas, although the latter generally compares well. Dividing the GrIS into seven drainage basins we show that SMB has decreased sharply in all regions since 2000. Finally we show correlation between runoff close to two calving glaciers and either calving front retreat or calving flux, this being most noticeable from the mid-1990s.« less

  5. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L)

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Annika M.; Felton, Adam; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.; Krizsan, Sophie J.; Hedwall, Per-Ola; Stolter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose’s self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality. PMID:26986618

  6. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L).

    PubMed

    Felton, Annika M; Felton, Adam; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Krizsan, Sophie J; Hedwall, Per-Ola; Stolter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose's self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality.

  7. Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 (PL 94-484). Amended by Health Services Extension Act of 1977 (PL 95-83, Title III). Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    The Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976, signed into law on Oct. 12, 1976, extends health mampower training authorities through fiscal year 1980 with significant changes to meet national needs. The law (PL 94-484), which amends Title VII of the Public Health Service Act and other laws, is designed primarily to produce more…

  8. Growth–Defense Tradeoffs in Plants: A Balancing Act to Optimize Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L.; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Growth–defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth–defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth–defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth–defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands. PMID:24777989

  9. Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness.

    PubMed

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-08-01

    Growth-defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth-defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth-defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth-defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands.

  10. Balancing act: approaches to healthy eating and physical activity among Boston public housing residents.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Torres, Shioban; Wayman, Julie; Greenwood, Nechama; Thomas, Gerry; Kozlowski, Lauren; Bowen, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Boston public housing residents are more likely to report fair or poor health status, been diagnosed with obesity, and to be physically inactive compared with other Boston residents (Digenis-Bury, Brooks, Chen, Ostrem, & Horsburgh, 2008 ). Little is known about perceptions of and opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity in this population. We conducted eight focus groups at public housing developments to explore residents' views regarding opportunities and barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. Sixty-seven English- and Spanish-speaking residents participated. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. All residents described the challenge of balancing considerations of food quality, access, and affordability. Other findings included underutilized nutritional resources; abundant availability of unhealthy food; and economic and structural barriers to exercise. Transportation-related challenges were a dominant theme. Building opportunities for physical activity and providing access to affordable and quality food choices may be important interventions for promoting health among public housing residents.

  11. A balancing act--the role of the general practice trainer.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Simon

    2005-12-01

    The general practice trainer is recognised by The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (the RACGP) as the most important element of Australian general practice training. The college has recently introduced new standards for trainers to ensure high quality general practice training. This paper describes the various roles and responsibilities of the general practice trainer, and highlights the potential conflicts contained within them. The role of the general practice trainer is complex, challenging and diverse. It comprises separate--though interconnected--core roles of mentor, role model, clinical educator, assessor and pastoral carer. The balance of the various roles depends on the individual circumstances of the trainer-registrar relationship, and at times is potentially conflicting. Greater definition and consideration of the various facets of the role may lead to greater sustainability, satisfaction and reward for the trainer, and enhanced learning for the registrar.

  12. Characterizing Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance via assimilation of spaceborne surface temperature, albedo, and passive microwave data into a physically-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navari, M.; Bateni, S.; Margulis, S. A.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its significant impact on sea level rise and Arctic climate. Accurate estimates of space-time maps of surface mass balance (SMB) components including precipitation, runoff, and evaporation over the GrIS would contribute to understanding the cause of its recent unprecedented changes (e.g., increase in melt amount and duration, thickening of ice sheet interior, and thinning at the margins) and forecasting its changes in the future. In situ measurement of the SMB components across the GrIS is difficult and costly, and thus there are only a limited number of sparse measurements. Remote sensing retrievals are capable of providing some estimates of SMB terms and/or SMB indicators (i.e. melt onset), but generally provide an incomplete picture of the SMB. Additional efforts have focused on the use of regional climate models coupled to surface models in an effort to obtain spatially and temporally continuous estimates of the SMB. However, these estimates are prone to model errors and are generally unconstrained by the remote sensing record. To overcome these uncertainties and consequently improve estimates of the GrIS SMB, an ensemble data assimilation approach is developed for characterizing the SMB and its uncertainty. The EnBS consists of two steps: forecast and update. In the forecast step, an unconditional estimate of SMB using the MAR regional climate model and an ensemble implementation of the CROCUS snow is obtained that includes appropriate uncertainty in key SMB forcings. In the update step, the estimate is conditioned on remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST), albedo, and passive microwave (1.4, 6.9, 18.7, 36.5, and 89 GHz) measurements to provide a posterior estimate of the GrIS SMB components. The end result is an estimate that benefits from the regional atmospheric and snow models, but is also constrained by remote sensing data streams. The assimilation approach is tested for

  13. The molecular balancing act of p16(INK4a) in cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    LaPak, Kyle M; Burd, Christin E

    2014-02-01

    p16(INK4a), located on chromosome 9p21.3, is lost among a cluster of neighboring tumor suppressor genes. Although it is classically known for its capacity to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity, p16(INK4a) is not just a one-trick pony. Long-term p16(INK4a) expression pushes cells to enter senescence, an irreversible cell-cycle arrest that precludes the growth of would-be cancer cells but also contributes to cellular aging. Importantly, loss of p16(INK4a) is one of the most frequent events in human tumors and allows precancerous lesions to bypass senescence. Therefore, precise regulation of p16(INK4a) is essential to tissue homeostasis, maintaining a coordinated balance between tumor suppression and aging. This review outlines the molecular pathways critical for proper p16(INK4a) regulation and emphasizes the indispensable functions of p16(INK4a) in cancer, aging, and human physiology that make this gene special.

  14. HLA Mismatching Strategies for Solid Organ Transplantation – A Balancing Act

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Andrea A.; Leffell, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    HLA matching provides numerous benefits in organ transplantation including better graft function, fewer rejection episodes, longer graft survival, and the possibility of reduced immunosuppression. Mismatches are attended by more frequent rejection episodes that require increased immunosuppression that, in turn, can increase the risk of infection and malignancy. HLA mismatches also incur the risk of sensitization, which can reduce the opportunity and increase waiting time for a subsequent transplant. However, other factors such as donor age, donor type, and immunosuppression protocol, can affect the benefit derived from matching. Furthermore, finding a well-matched donor may not be possible for all patients and usually prolongs waiting time. Strategies to optimize transplantation for patients without a well-matched donor should take into account the immunologic barrier represented by different mismatches: what are the least immunogenic mismatches considering the patient’s HLA phenotype; should repeated mismatches be avoided; is the patient sensitized to HLA and, if so, what are the strengths of the patient’s antibodies? This information can then be used to define the HLA type of an immunologically optimal donor and the probability of such a donor occurring. A probability that is considered to be too low may require expanding the donor population through paired donation or modifying what is acceptable, which may require employing treatment to overcome immunologic barriers such as increased immunosuppression or desensitization. Thus, transplantation must strike a balance between the risk associated with waiting for the optimal donor and the risk associated with a less than optimal donor. PMID:28003816

  15. [Psychoanalytic initial interview and OPD-CA interview--no balancing act!].

    PubMed

    Diederichs-Paeschke, Veronika; Forkel, Christine; Held, Ulrike; Jaletzke, Cordula; Stafski, Bruno; Bilke-Hentsch, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The application of the OPD-CA (Operationalised Psychodynamic Diagnostics in Childhood and Adolescence) for diagnostic purposes during the initial interview is no abdication of a psychoanalytic attitude. The study group OPD (2006, p. 289) proposed a "moderate structured action" for the investigation of the axes "interpersonal relations", "conflicts", "psychic structure", and "preconditions for treatment". But this is not a schematic checking. Space should be provided explicitly to a scenic development of the relationship-dynamics. In this article, the intersubjective character and the uniqueness of the conversation are underlined. Thus, the resulting diagnosis cannot be seen independently of the inner attitude and the concrete intervention of the interviewer. Certain phases of the interview that regularly ensue on the basis of the inherent dynamics and the "choreography" of a first meeting with a patient, are described in regard to the dynamic aspects and their significance in the OPD-Diagnostics. They are balanced with scenic points of view. Possible difficulties and suggestions for the practical handling are discussed on the basis of a case vignette.

  16. Using reference nutrient density goals with food balance sheet data to identify likely micronutrient deficits for fortification planning in countries in the Western Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Collection of nationwide food consumption data at the individual level is the preferred option for planning fortification programs. However, such data are seldom collected in low-income countries. In contrast, Food Balance Sheets (FBS), published annually for approximately 180 countries, may provide a source of national data for program planning. To explore the use of micronutrient densities from FBS data to identify likely deficits for eight micronutrients in national diets. Micronutrient densities in the daily available food supply per capita were calculated from the micronutrient contents of 95 food commodities in 17 Western Pacific Region countries. Densities were compared with reference nutrient density goals developed to ensure that at least 95% of individuals, irrespective of life-stage group, are likely to have adequate intakes. Of the eight micronutrients, Cambodia and Korea D.P.R. had likely deficits for six; China, Fiji, Kiribati, Korea Republic, Lao P.D.R., Philippines, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam had likely deficits for five; Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea had likely deficits for four; and New Caledonia had likely deficits for three. The most frequent deficits were for iron, zinc, and calcium (all countries), followed by vitamin B2 and vitamin A (n = 13), vitamin B1 (n = 2), and vitamin B12 (n = 1). The nutrient density approach could be applied to FBS data for ranking countries according to likely micronutrient deficits, but it provides no information on distribution of nutrient supply for fortification program planning. The approach described here could be applied to data from Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) to characterize households at greatest risk.

  17. National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act (NASPER): balancing substance abuse and medical necessity.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Brown, Keith R; Singh, Vijay

    2002-07-01

    The National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act, or NASPER, is a bill proposed by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians to provide and improve patient access with quality care, and protect patients and physicians from deleterious effects of controlled substance misuse, abuse and trafficking. Controlled prescription drugs, including narcotic analgesics, anxiolytics, anti-depressants, stimulants, and sedative-hypnotics play a significant and legitimate role in interventional pain management practices in managing chronic pain and related disorders. Based on the 1997 household survey on drug abuse it is estimated that 76.9 million Americans had used an illicit drug at least once in their life. In 1997, 4.2 million people used analgesics, 2.1 million used tranquillizers, and an additional 2.3 million people used various other drugs, including sedatives, tranquillizers, etc. The non-medical use of prescription drugs exceeds that of all illicit substances except for marijuana and hashish. The report on epidemiology trends in drug abuse, based on community epidemiology work group analysis showed continued increase of abuse of prescription drugs in urban, suburban, and rural areas. The most commonly abused drugs include oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, codeine, clonazepam, alprazolam, lorazepam, diazepam and carisoprodol. The diversion of prescription controlled substances to illicit channels is a public health and safety issue. This review describes the role of controlled substances in chronic pain management, prevalence and economic impact of controlled substance abuse, prescription accountability, effectiveness of prescription monitoring programs, and rationale for national controlled substance electronic reporting system.

  18. Linking surface energy balance calculations and Temperature Index models of surface melt: Revision of the Positive Degree-Day (PDD) methodology for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, L. M.; Marshall, S. J.; Lecavalier, B.; Milne, G. A.; Huybrechts, P.; Simpson, M. J. R.; Bayou, N.

    2012-04-01

    day-1 and > 9 mm w.e. oC-1 day-1 respectively, alongside the use of a spatially and temporally variable σm, which can be parameterized as a function of monthly mean temperature. We demonstrate the impact of our new methodology and previous assumptions of fixed σm on millennial-scale changes in Greenland Ice Sheet volume and resulting global and local RSL predictions using a 3D thermomechanical ice model where a spatially and temporally variable σm acts to reduce the magnitude and variability associated with surface melt. These results demonstrate a need for additional empirical derivations of Degree-Day Factors in Greenland and their relationship with surface albedo in order to compliment the purely theoretical approach taken in this study.

  19. The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977; Authorization of Appropriations for CETA, and the President's Economic Stimulus Proposals; Hearings before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session on H.R. 50, the Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977; ...Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    These hearings focus on various measures submitted by President Carter and Congress to reduce unemployment, including an extension of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), the Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977, and the President's economic stimulus proposals. Some of the primary testimony presented regarding the need…

  20. Toward the breast screening balance sheet: cumulative risk of false positives for annual versus biennial mammograms commencing at age 40 or 50.

    PubMed

    Winch, Caleb J; Sherman, Kerry A; Boyages, John

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to: (1) Estimate cumulative risk of recall from breast screening where no cancer is detected (a harm) in Australia; (2) Compare women screened annually versus biennially, commencing age 40 versus 50; and (3) Compare with international findings. At the no-cost metropolitan program studied, women attended biennial screening, but were offered annual screening if regarded at elevated risk for breast cancer. The cumulative risk of at least one recall was estimated using discrete-time survival analysis. Cancer detection statistics were computed. In total, 801,636 mammograms were undertaken in 231,824 women. Over 10 years, cumulative risk of recall was 13.3 % (95 % CI 12.7-13.8) for those screened biennially, and 19.9 % (CI 16.6-23.2) for those screened annually from age 50-51. Cumulative risk of complex false positive involving a biopsy was 3.1 % (CI 2.9-3.4) and 5.0 % (CI 3.4-6.6), respectively. From age 40-41, the risk of recall was 15.1 % (CI 14.3-16.0) and 22.5 % (CI 17.9-27.1) for biennial and annual screening, respectively. Corresponding rates of complex false positive were 3.3 % (CI 2.9-3.8) and 6.3 % (CI 3.4-9.1). Over 10 mammograms, invasive cancer was detected in 3.4 % (CI 3.3-3.5) and ductal carcinoma in situ in 0.7 % (CI 0.6-0.7) of women, with a non-significant trend toward a larger proportion of Tis and T1N0 cancers in women screened annually (74.5 %) versus biennially (70.1 %), χ (2) = 2.77, p = 0.10. Cancer detection was comparable to international findings. Recall risk was equal to European estimates for women screening from 50 and lower for screening from 40. Recall risk was half of United States' rates across start age and rescreening interval categories. Future benefit/harm balance sheets may be useful for communicating these findings to women.

  1. Balancing Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6

    2011-06-23

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Balancing Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6

    2011-06-23

    House - 09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borenson, Henry

    2013-01-01

    An operational understanding of the equal sign can hinder learning its relational meaning. After providing examples that illustrate the folly of expecting students who know the operational meaning of the equal sign to intuit the sign's relational meaning, this article provides teachers with strategies that will help them effectively introduce…

  4. Digital Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Maine is the first state to deliver "anytime, anywhere learning" to schools by providing laptop computers to every 7th and 8th grader in public schools statewide. It's an unprecedented attempt by a state to be a catalyst for school technology. The brainchild of then-Governor Angus King, the Independent who herded it through the…

  5. Balancing Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6

    2011-06-23

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. A Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilal, Dania; Barry, Jeff; Penniman, W. David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews automated-systems activities in libraries during the past year and profiles major vendors. Topics include new partnership arrangements driven by competition; library-systems revenues; Y2K issues; Windows-based interfaces; consulting; outsourcing; development trends; global system sales; and sales by type of library. (LRW)

  7. Regulatory Balance Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Fincher, Stephen Lee [R-TN-8

    2011-06-14

    House - 06/27/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, and Credit. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7036 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program. 252.225-7036 Section 252.225-7036 Federal Acquisition... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program. As prescribed in 225.1101(11)(i)(A), use the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program (DEC 2010) (a) Definitions. As...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Buy American Statute-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... American Statute-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7000 Section 252.225-7000 Federal... American Statute—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(1)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Balance of Payments Program Certificate (JUN 2012) (a) Definitions...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7000 - Buy American Act-Buy American Statute-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... American Statute-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7000 Section 252.225-7000 Federal... American Statute—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(1)(i), use the following provision: Buy American —Balance of Payments Program Certificate (JUN 2012) (a) Definitions...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7035 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Trade Agreements-Balance of Payments Program Certificate. 252.225-7035 Section 252.225-7035 Federal... Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. As prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i), use the following provision: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments Program Certificate (DEC...

  14. A balancing act in an unknown territory: a metasynthesis of first-time mothers' experiences in early labour.

    PubMed

    Eri, Tine S; Bondas, Terese; Gross, Mechthild M; Janssen, Patricia; Green, Josephine M

    2015-03-01

    to integrate findings of individual studies in order to broaden the understanding of first-time mothers' experiences of early labour. the methodology was metasynthesis which is based on the interpretive meta-ethnography described by Noblit and Hare (1988). Metasynthesis is research on research which synthesises the findings of previous qualitative studies, and the focus is on interpretation and the creation of new knowledge. all included studies originated from high resource countries (USA 2, UK 4, and Scandinavia 5) and all were carried out in a context of hospital based maternity care. a total of 231 women participated in the studies. 11 articles were included. The main results are presented with the metaphor a balancing act in an unknown territory. The 'unknown territory' has a double meaning: as the personal experience of going into labour for the first time and as encountering the maternity care system. On both levels women have to make significant decisions: whether labour really has started and subsequently when to go to the hospital. A key challenge is to balance the arrival on the labour ward at the 'right' time, not too early and not too late. Arriving at the 'right' time leads to a positive path, while arriving 'too soon' might lead to a cascade of negative experiences. The results are further presented with five central themes: 'Finding out if labour has started is absorbing'; 'Dealing with labour at home'; 'Trying to arrive at the labour ward at the right time'; 'There is always a risk of being sent home'; 'Encountering health professionals arouses strong emotions'. the metasynthesis broadens the understanding of first-time mothers' experiences of early labour, and suggests that women's needs when planning a hospital birth are not being adequately met at this stage in the labour process. Three areas of future research are suggested: how to support and strengthen women during pregnancy in order to cope with early labour; women's experiences of early

  15. The Impact of Balanced Counseling on Contraceptive Method Choice and Determinants of Long Acting and Reversible Contraceptive Continuation in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Sabitri; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Lohani, Shilpa

    2016-03-08

    Introduction Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) reduce rates of unintended pregnancies and repeat abortion. Uptake and continuation rates of LARCs are very low in Nepal, despite free provision from most health facilities. We sought to establish the effectiveness of a new approach to LARC promotion in Nepal. Methods We examined change in contraceptive method mix in Nepal using service data resulting from introduction of a balanced counseling (BC) approach to family planning (FP). All staff located at nine randomly selected FP sites were trained and began applying BC in April and May 2014. Women who accepted LARCs from a participating facility were re-contacted at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. We estimated the LARC continuation rate and assessed determinants of continuation using descriptive analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results A total of 5744 women received BC between April and July 2014. 1580 women (27.5 %) took up LARCs, raising its contribution to contraceptive method mix at [organization] to 40 %, significantly higher than the 15 % recorded in 2013. 913 women were followed-up, and the LARC continuation rate at 12 months was 82 %. Women's reported satisfaction with LARC [AHR 0.23; 95 % CI 0.14-0.39, p = 0.000] was the single strongest determinant of LARC continuation after adjusting for all background characteristics. Discussion The findings suggest BC is an effective approach for increasing LARC uptake in Nepal. The rate of LARC continuation and its determinants are important inputs to strategies for improved delivery of FP services.

  16. A Balancing Act: A Quantitative Analysis of the Influence of Work/Life Balance and Work Atmosphere on Personal and Professional Success of Women Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archie, T.; Laursen, S. L.; Kogan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Despite an increase in advanced degrees awarded to women in the geosciences, scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities and are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. Our empirical study analyzes factors that influence personal and professional success for women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. We used an electronic survey to collect data from 662 early-career geoscientists who are members of the Earth Science Women's Network and/or the network's Earth Science Jobs list. We asked respondents to self-report their perceptions of work/life balance, professional atmosphere and other variables indicative and/or predictive of personal and professional success. In a previous analysis (Kogan & Laursen, 2011) we found that women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. We also found work/life balance is of particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock function on similar timetables. Women reported more caregiving responsibilities than men, further complicating the balance between work and personal life. We hypothesize that the work life balance and professional atmosphere influences productivity, advancement, and career/job satisfaction. We now investigate how work/life balance, atmosphere within the work unit, and mentoring influence productivity, job and career satisfaction, and career advancement. We introduce a structural equation model that seeks to explain how these relationships vary dependent upon gender, career level

  17. 2015-16 High School Assessment Accommodations Policies: An Analysis of ACT, SAT, PARCC, and Smarter Balanced. NCEO Report 403

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015-16 school year, 25 states used assessments aligned to college- and career-ready standards developed by consortia of states (i.e., Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers--PARCC, Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium--Smarter Balanced) as their accountability assessments. The participation of students with…

  18. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  19. The Care Manager's Dilemma: Balancing Human Rights with Risk Management under the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prebble, Kate; Diesfeld, Kate; Frey, Rosemary; Sutton, Daniel; Honey, Michelle; Vickery, Russell; McKenna, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In New Zealand, the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003 provides diversion for persons with an intellectual disability who have been charged with, or convicted of, a criminal offence. This unique Act moves the responsibility for such "care recipients" from the criminal justice system to a disability…

  20. The Care Manager's Dilemma: Balancing Human Rights with Risk Management under the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prebble, Kate; Diesfeld, Kate; Frey, Rosemary; Sutton, Daniel; Honey, Michelle; Vickery, Russell; McKenna, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In New Zealand, the Intellectual Disability (Compulsory Care and Rehabilitation) Act 2003 provides diversion for persons with an intellectual disability who have been charged with, or convicted of, a criminal offence. This unique Act moves the responsibility for such "care recipients" from the criminal justice system to a disability…

  1. Implementation of the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method for solving the for solving the first-order ice sheet momentum balance

    SciTech Connect

    Salinger, Andy; Evans, Katherine J; Lemieux, Jean-Francois; Holland, David; Payne, Tony; Price, Stephen; Knoll, Dana

    2011-01-01

    We have implemented the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method for solving the rst-order ice sheet momentum equation in order to improve the numerical performance of the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM), the land ice component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Our JFNK implementation is based on signicant re-use of existing code. For example, our physics-based preconditioner uses the original Picard linear solver in CISM. For several test cases spanning a range of geometries and boundary conditions, our JFNK implementation is 1.84-3.62 times more efficient than the standard Picard solver in CISM. Importantly, this computational gain of JFNK over the Picard solver increases when rening the grid. Global convergence of the JFNK solver has been signicantly improved by rescaling the equation for the basal boundary condition and through the use of an inexact Newton method. While a diverse set of test cases show that our JFNK implementation is usually robust, for some problems it may fail to converge with increasing resolution (as does the Picard solver). Globalization through parameter continuation did not remedy this problem and future work to improve robustness will explore a combination of Picard and JFNK and the use of homotopy methods.

  2. Balancing act: the influence of adaptability and cohesion on satisfaction and communication in families facing TBI in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lehan, Tara J; Stevens, Lillian Flores; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Díaz Sosa, Dulce María; Espinosa Jove, Irma Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Much of what is known about family functioning in the face of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is based on research conducted in the United States. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the levels of family adaptability, cohesion, communication, and satisfaction as reported by Mexican TBI survivors and their family caregivers, (2) test the hypothesis of the Circumplex Model that balanced families would exhibit better communication and greater satisfaction, and (3) explore how TBI survivors' and their family caregivers' perceptions of family adaptability and cohesion influenced their own and the other's perceptions of family communication and satisfaction. In the majority of dyads, both the TBI survivor and the family caregiver endorsed balanced family adaptability and cohesion. Both TBI survivors and their family caregivers reported a relatively high level of family communication and satisfaction. TBI survivors and family caregivers who reported greater levels of family adaptability and cohesion also endorsed better family communication and greater family satisfaction. In addition, individuals with TBI whose family caregiver endorsed balanced family adaptability and cohesion reported better family communication. Further, family caregivers of TBI survivors who reported balanced family adaptability and cohesion reported better family communication. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  3. Balancing Act: A Study of International School Heads' Efforts to Manage the Professional and Personal Aspects of Their Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Christiane PJ

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the topic of professional and personal life balance has increased exponentially over the past several decades. The topic even is listed by the current First Lady of the United States as a priority item to be addressed during her husband's first four years in office. While studies have been conducted about the professional/personal…

  4. Where have they gone? - a discussion on the balancing act of female doctors between work and family.

    PubMed

    Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Limbrecht, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of vacant positions for doctors increasingly puts the issue of reconciling work and family into the spotlight in companies, hospitals and universities, as increased expectations of a better work-life balance are seen as one of the reasons for these vacancies. Highly qualified professionals are trained, but not available to the labour market. The aim is to summarise what difficulties doctors who want to have a family and their potential employers must face. The following articles show the current state of research and potential starting points for an optimisation of the medical profession from a family-friendly perspective and intend to stimulate debate. Some basic steps towards better work-life balance have already been taken, such as the provision of childcare places and the increasing availability of more flexible working patterns. But it seems that these measures, since they have been implemented neither sufficiently nor universally, do not suffice to secure the next generation of staff. Especially women in leadership positions are still rare to find. Both male and female doctors want better quality of life by achieving a better work-life balance. The expansion of family-friendly services is seen as a necessary step to allow female doctors to successfully combine work and family.

  5. Global trends in use of long-acting reversible and permanent methods of contraception: Seeking a balance.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ritu; Khadilkar, Suvarna; Patel, Madhuri

    2015-10-01

    The global trend shows that the use of permanent contraception to prevent unintended pregnancy is high. Although the trend also shows a rise in the use of long-acting reversible methods, these are still underutilized despite having contraceptive as well as non-contraceptive benefits. Lack of knowledge among women, dependence on the provider for information, and provider bias for permanent contraception are cited as reasons for this reduced uptake. Training of healthcare providers and increased patient awareness about the effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods will increase their uptake and help prevent unintended pregnancies.

  6. Aligning State Standards and the Expanded Core Curriculum: Balancing the Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmeier, Keri L.

    2009-01-01

    How do professionals address accountability mandates that are derived from the No Child Left Behind Act and the overall educational needs of students who are visually impaired during the school day? Meeting state and federal mandates while maintaining the individuality of educational programs is challenging for all educators. Teachers of students…

  7. Design of novel sheet-shaped chitosan hydrogel for wound healing: a hybrid biomaterial consisting of both PEG-grafted chitosan and crosslinkable polymeric micelles acting as drug containers.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomoki; Yoshida, Chikara; Murakami, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we successfully prepared a novel "sheet-shaped" chitosan hydrogel for wound healing consisting of both PEG-g-chitosan and a crosslinkable polymeric micelle. The study's findings clarify that the PEG modification percentage (PMP) of PEG-g-chitosan increased proportionally as the weight ratio of PEG/chitosan increased. Furthermore, the positive second virial coefficient of PEG-g-chitosans from a Debye plot strongly suggests that the PEG modification greatly improved the solubility of the water-insoluble chitosan. Finally, the "sheet-shaped" "flexible" hydrogel formed by mixing solutions containing either PEG-g-chitosan with moderate PMP or polymeric micelles exhibited the highest storage modulus. The sheet itself exhibited an attractive feature insofar as polymeric micelles, which can act as drug containers facilitating the incorporation and the gradual release of drugs, are covalently immobilized in the polymeric network of the hydrogel. The results obtained in the present study show that the hybrid PEG-g-chitosan hydrogel containing crosslinkable polymeric micelles has the potential to address the need for novel functional biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Balancing Demand and Supply for Veterans' Health Care: A Summary of Three RAND Assessments Conducted Under the Veterans Choice Act.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Carrie M; Hosek, Susan D; Adamson, David M

    2016-06-20

    In response to concerns that the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has faced about veterans' access to care and the quality of care delivered, Congress enacted the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 ("Veterans Choice Act") in August 2014. The law was passed to help address access issues by expanding the criteria through which veterans can seek care from civilian providers. In addition, the law called for a series of independent assessments of the VA health care system across a broad array of topics related to the delivery of health care services to veterans in VA-owned and -operated facilities, as well as those under contract to VA. RAND conducted three of these assessments: Veteran demographics and health care needs (A), VA health care capabilities (B), and VA authorities and mechanisms for purchasing care (C). This article summarizes the findings of our assessments and includes recommendations from the reports for improving the match between veterans' needs and VA's capabilities, including VA's ability to purchase necessary care from the private sector.

  9. The prototoxin lynx1 acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to balance neuronal activity and survival in vivo.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Julie M; Stevens, Tanya R; King, Sarah L; Caldarone, Barbara J; Ibanez-Tallon, Ines; Xiao, Cheng; Fitzsimonds, Reiko Maki; Pavlides, Constantine; Lester, Henry A; Picciotto, Marina R; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2006-09-07

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect a wide array of biological processes, including learning and memory, attention, and addiction. lynx1, the founding member of a family of mammalian prototoxins, modulates nAChR function in vitro by altering agonist sensitivity and desensitization kinetics. Here we demonstrate, through the generation of lynx1 null mutant mice, that lynx1 modulates nAChR signaling in vivo. Its loss decreases the EC(50) for nicotine by approximately 10-fold, decreases receptor desensitization, elevates intracellular calcium levels in response to nicotine, and enhances synaptic efficacy. lynx1 null mutant mice exhibit enhanced performance in specific tests of learning and memory. Consistent with reports that mutations resulting in hyperactivation of nAChRs can lead to neurodegeneration, aging lynx1 null mutant mice exhibit a vacuolating degeneration that is exacerbated by nicotine and ameliorated by null mutations in nAChRs. We conclude that lynx1 functions as an allosteric modulator of nAChR function in vivo, balancing neuronal activity and survival in the CNS.

  10. Balancing truth-telling: relatives acting as translators for older adult cancer patients of Turkish or northwest African origin in Belgium.

    PubMed

    van Eechoud, I; Grypdonck, M; Leman, J; Van Den Noortgate, N; Deveugele, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2016-05-01

    The first generation of Turkish and Northwest African immigrants in Belgium are ageing and at risk for developing cancer. Relatives play an important role and provide both emotional and practical care, including mental support and acting as a contact person and/or a translator for improving access to healthcare, as most patients and their spouses have only a limited command of the language. Although access to professional interpreters has shown to be the best guarantee for qualitative healthcare, oncology health providers working with relatives as interpreters is much more common than professional interpreters. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the process wherein relatives balance truth-telling in translating for an older family member diagnosed with cancer. This was a qualitative research study, with elements of constructivist grounded theory. Twenty-eight loosely structured interviews were conducted. Most relatives consider it their responsibility to contribute to a positive attitude of the patient. Relatives decided to what extent they inform the patient, based on several motives and embedded in their assessment of the patient's emotional strength, understanding and need to be informed. What they decide influences the way they act as a translator and/or a contact person between the patient and health professional(s). Some considered it best to omit medical information while others considered it best to inform the patient fully. The results emphasise the importance for healthcare providers to take into account the complexity and unpredictable character of the process of balancing truth-telling when family members translate for their ill older relative.

  11. Home health and home care in Massachusetts after the Balanced Budget Act of 1997: implications of cost containment pressures for service authorizations.

    PubMed

    Caro, Francis G; Porell, Frank W; Sullivan, Donna M; Safran-Norton, Clare E; Miltiades, Helen

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the response of the Massachusetts state-funded home care program for the elderly when its clients encountered barriers to the receipt of home health services because of HMO enrollment and the implementation of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Clients of three regional case management agencies serving the Massachusetts state home care program whose home care services were interrupted because of hospitalization between January 1 and April 30, 1999 and whose services were resumed after they returned home were studied. Detailed data are reported that show how the long-term personal assistance services provided through the state program were often complemented by temporary home health services after elders returned home. The multivariate analysis revealed that the authorization of state-funded personal care services was keyed to the status of home health aide services. After hospitalization, the presence of a home health aide reduced the likelihood of authorization of personal care. At final assessment, the situation was reversed, that is, the withdrawal of a home health aide increased the likelihood of authorization of personal care. The findings suggest that more restrictive Medicare reimbursement policies for home health services led to greater state expenditures for personal care services. In other words, less generous Medicare financing shifted a greater portion of the burden of financing home care to the state of Massachusetts. These findings raise important policy questions about the balance of responsibility between the federal government and states to provide financing of home care services for the elderly.

  12. Tipping Points and Balancing Acts: Grand Challenges and Synergistic Opportunities of Integrating Research and Education, Science and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    thousands of US high schools that integrate climate science and solutions in a way that inspires and informs youth, and similar programs exist internationally. Other approaches to prepare vulnerable communities, especially young people, for natural hazards and human-induced environmental change include programs such as Plan International's "Child Centered Disaster Risk Reduction- Building Resilience Through Participation," and their "Weathering the Storm" project, focusing on integrating the needs of teenage girls with climate change adaptation and risk reduction. While minimizing global environmental and climate change is crucial, these and related programs that weave research with education, science with solutions offer the potential for addressing the "Grand Challenges" by better preparing for societal and environmental tipping points through a more balanced and integrated approach to addressing change."

  13. Balancing acts: A mixed methods study of the figured world of African American 7th graders in urban science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland-Solomon, Tanya E.

    What beliefs and cultural models do youth who are underrepresented in science have about the domain of science and about themselves as science learners? What do they imagine is possible for them in relation to science both now and in the future? In other words, what constitutes their figured world of science? This dissertation study, using a mixed methods design, offers new perspectives on the ways that underrepresented youth's unexamined assumptions or cultural models and resources may shape their identities and motivation to learn science. Through analyses of survey and interview data, I found that urban African American youths' social context, gender, racial identity, and perceptions of the science they had in school influenced their motivation to learn science. Analyses of short-term classroom observations and interviews suggested that students had competing cultural models that they used in their constructions of identities as science learners, which they espoused and adopted in relation to how well they leveraged the science-related cultural resources available to them. Results from this study suggested that these 7th graders would benefit from access to more expansive cultural models through access to individuals with scientific capital as a way to allow them to create fruitful identities as science learners. If we want to ensure that students from groups that are underrepresented in science not only have better outcomes, but aspire to and enter the science career pipeline, we must also begin to support them in their negotiations of competing cultural models that limit their ability to adopt science-learner identities in their classrooms. This study endeavored to understand the particular cultural models and motivational beliefs that drive students to act, and what types of individuals they imagine scientists and science workers to be. This study also examined how cultural models and resources influence identity negotiation, specifically the roles youths

  14. Pursuing cost containment in a pluralistic payer environment: from the aftermath of Clinton's failure at health care reform to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Rick; Hurley, Robert E

    2006-07-01

    Following a decade in which Medicare operated as the leading 'change agent' within the US health care system, the private sector rose to the fore in the mid 1990s. The failure of President Clinton's attempt at comprehensive, public sector-led reform left managed care as the solution for cost control. And for a period it worked, largely because managed care organizations were able to both squeeze payments to selective networks of medical providers and significantly reduce inpatient hospital stays. There was a lot of 'fat' in the nation's convoluted health care system that could be (and was) eliminated through competitive negotiations between medical providers and insurers, employers, or managed care organizations. One of our primary arguments in this article is that managed care operated partly as a systematic suppression of price discrimination or differential pricing (often referred to as 'cost shifting'), as managed care organizations qua purchasing agents prevented hospitals and physicians from summarily raising prices to private payers to meet their financial requirements. Over time, however, managed care fell victim to inflated expectations, its own initial success, and larger fiscal forces. During this same period, Republicans and Democrats struggled to reach a consensus over the future direction of Medicare. Their disagreements contributed to the impasse over budget policy in 1995 and the infamous partial federal government shutdown. After President Clinton's reelection in 1996, partisan disagreements over Medicare dissipated. And, in 1997, Congress and the president passed the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which emerged as a massive piece of patchwork legislation that sought to balance the federal budget, rein in Medicare spending, and increase the number of the programme's beneficiaries in private health plans.

  15. Tyrosine phosphatases such as SHP-2 act in a balance with Src-family kinases in stabilization of postsynaptic clusters of acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Alain A; Willmann, Raffaella; Sadasivam, Gayathri; Lin, Shuo; Rüegg, Markus A; Gesemann, Matthias; Fuhrer, Christian

    2007-01-01

    that the fine balance between PTPs and SFKs is a key aspect in stabilization of postsynaptic AChR clusters. One phosphatase that acts in this equilibrium is SHP-2. Thus, PTPs such as SHP-2 stabilize AChR clusters under normal circumstances, but when these PTPs are not balanced by SFKs, they render clusters unstable. PMID:17605785

  16. What Works for Acting-Out (Externalizing) Behavior: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Social Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2011-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary; Hamilton, Katie; Ling, Thomson

    2011-01-01

    Preventing and reducing acting-out or externalizing behaviors is a goal often targeted by out-of-school time programs for children and youth. The term "externalizing" refers to disruptive, harmful, or problem behaviors that are directed to persons and/or things. Examples include aggressive behaviors such as getting into fights and bullying;…

  17. Subwavelength Imaging Using Conducting Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monzon, Cesar

    2009-05-01

    Here we demonstrate that, paradoxically, subwavelength imaging can be produced by purely resistive means. Space acts like a low pass filter for highly evanescent field components, and if a sheet or thin layer of imperfectly conducting material is placed adjacent to a source, such that the layer overcomes the larger impedance of the spatial low pass filter, no relative attenuation of evanescent components is experienced at the location of the sheet. This results in near-field subwavelength imaging, which also holds for reactive sheets. The conducting layer enables us to trade definition for amplitude. Impedance sheets are commonplace in radio frequencies or microwaves, hence the phenomenon identified here is widespread, and can be extended into the IR or optical region, as well as to other areas of physics where wave motion exists.

  18. Optimal wrapping of liquid droplets with ultrathin sheets.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Joseph D; Démery, Vincent; Santangelo, Christian D; Russell, Thomas P; Davidovitch, Benny; Menon, Narayanan

    2015-12-01

    Elastic sheets offer a path to encapsulating a droplet of one fluid in another that is different from that of traditional molecular or particulate surfactants. In wrappings of fluids by sheets of moderate thickness with petals designed to curl into closed shapes, capillarity balances bending forces. Here, we show that, by using much thinner sheets, the constraints of this balance can be lifted to access a regime of high sheet bendability that brings three major advantages: ultrathin sheets automatically achieve optimally efficient shapes that maximize the enclosed volume of liquid for a fixed area of sheet; interfacial energies and mechanical properties of the sheet are irrelevant within this regime, thus allowing for further functionality; and complete coverage of the fluid can be achieved without special sheet designs. We propose and validate a general geometric model that captures the entire range of this new class of wrapped and partially wrapped shapes.

  19. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  20. Sharing living and dying: A balancing act between vulnerability and a sense of security. Enrolled nurses' experiences of working in the sitting service for dying patients at home.

    PubMed

    Wallerstedt, Birgitta; Benzein, Eva; Andershed, Birgitta

    2011-09-01

    To describe enrolled nurses' (ENs') experiences of working in a sitting service for dying patients at home (SSH). The ENs who participated in this study had permanent jobs in community care/ primary care, but were also employed part time in a special home-sitting service organization in a municipality in the south of Sweden. Data were collected by four focus group interviews with 17 enrolled nurses. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Care-giving in SSH was a balancing act between a sense of security and a feeling of vulnerability. Feeling secure and valued and that one is developing both professionally and personally, stemmed from working in partnership, whereas a feeling of vulnerability was associated with managing closeness and distance, being a mediator, having responsibility and feeling guilty, feeling hindered from doing good, facing loneliness, and affecting private lives. SSH makes it possible for people who are terminally ill to remain at home until they die. If the SSH organization were not an option for dying patients and their families, the pressure on the healthcare would be dramatically increased.

  1. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  2. Medicare program; provisions of the Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999; hospital inpatient payments and rates and costs of graduate medical education. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), HHS. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    This interim final rule with comment period implements, or conforms the regulations to, certain statutory provisions relating to Medicare payments to hospitals for inpatient services that are contained in the Medicare, Medicaid, and State Children's Health Insurance Program Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 (Public Law 106-113). These provisions relate to reclassification of hospitals from urban to rural status, reclassification of certain hospitals for purposes of payment during Federal fiscal year 2000, critical access hospitals, payments to hospitals excluded from the hospital inpatient prospective payment system, and payments for indirect and direct graduate medical education costs. Many of the provisions of Public Law 106-113 modify changes to the Social Security Act made by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-33). These provisions are already in effect in accordance with Public Law 106-113.

  3. Mars's magnetotail: Nature's current sheet laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Halekas, J. S.; Runov, A.; Zelenyi, L. M.; McFadden, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    The configuration and stability of an important kinetic plasma structure, the current sheet, determine the efficiency of magnetic energy storage, release, and transport in surrounding plasmas. These properties depend on β (the ratio of plasma pressures to magnetic field pressures) and Mach number M (the ratio of bulk velocities to magnetosonic velocities). For the most investigated current sheet, the near-Earth magnetotail current sheet, these parameters fall within a relatively narrow range of values (high β, low M). To investigate current sheet behavior for a wider range of parameters, we explore current sheets in the magnetotail of Mars using Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission observations. We find that low-β, high-M current sheets are abundant in Mars's magnetotail, but high-β, low-M current sheets can also be found there. Low-β current sheets are nearly force-free, whereas high-M current sheets are balanced by a plasma flow gradient along the tail. We compare current sheet distributions in a (β,M) space for the Martian magnetotail, the near-Earth magnetotail (using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission), and the distant magnetotail (using Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission). We also find that the pressure balance in the Martian magnetotail current sheet can occur by contributions from a wide range of ion species, or, in low beta cases, from field-aligned currents generation of a force-free magnetic field configuration. The Martian magnetotail is a natural laboratory where current sheet of various types can be found and investigated.

  4. Library Kiosks: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegard, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the author spearheaded the Thunder Bay Public Library's (TBPL) service audit on kiosks. A task force comprising staff from the children's, reference, and adult services departments was formed to work on the audit. Task force members worked together and studied how patrons and staff use kiosks, conducted a literature review, surveyed other…

  5. Bicycle Safety: A Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinque, Chris

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to reduce deaths and serious injuries among bicyclists, physicians and bicycling organizations are promoting safety skill classes. Children are at especially high risk of accidents and need proper training and education. Helmets and other protective gear are considered crucial equipment, and common sense and alertness are important.…

  6. Bicycle Safety: A Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinque, Chris

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to reduce deaths and serious injuries among bicyclists, physicians and bicycling organizations are promoting safety skill classes. Children are at especially high risk of accidents and need proper training and education. Helmets and other protective gear are considered crucial equipment, and common sense and alertness are important.…

  7. Global Sales Training's Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…

  8. Global Sales Training's Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…

  9. Library Kiosks: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegard, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the author spearheaded the Thunder Bay Public Library's (TBPL) service audit on kiosks. A task force comprising staff from the children's, reference, and adult services departments was formed to work on the audit. Task force members worked together and studied how patrons and staff use kiosks, conducted a literature review, surveyed other…

  10. Constitutional Check and Balance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2014-02-27

    03/03/2014 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 310. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Constitutional Check and Balance Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2014-02-27

    Senate - 03/03/2014 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 310. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Hysteresis and feedback of ice sheet response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; Takahashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Investigating the response of ice sheets to climatic forcings in the past by climate-ice sheet modelling is important for understanding the ice sheets' change. The 100-kyr cycle of the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and fast termination of the glacial cycle are the prominent pattern known from paleoclimate records. We simulate the past glacial cycles with an ice sheet model, IcIES in combination with a general circulation model, MIROC, using the time series of insolation and atmospheric CO2. Feedback processes between ice sheet and atmosphere such as the ice albedo feedback, the elevation-mass balance feedback, desertification effect and stationary wave feedback are analyzed. We show that the threshold of termination of the glacial cycles can be explained by the pattern of the hysteresis of ice sheet change, i.e. multiple steady states of the ice sheets under climatic forcings. We find that slope of the upper branch of the multiple equilibria curve for Laurentide ice volumes is fundamental for the observed glacial patterns. Finally, we discuss the similarity and difference between the hysteresis structure of ice sheets variation for Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, Antarctica and Greenland.

  13. Impact of Medicare's prospective payment system on hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and home health agencies: how the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 may have altered service patterns for Medicare providers.

    PubMed

    Kulesher, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    The prospective payment system is one of many changes in reimbursement that has affected the delivery of health care. Originally developed for the payment of inpatient hospital services, it has become a major factor in how all health insurance is reimbursed. The policy implications extend beyond the Medicare program and affect the entire health care delivery system. Initially implemented in 1982 for payments to hospitals, prospective payment system was extended to payments for skilled nursing facility and home health agency services by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. The intent of the Balanced Budget Act was to bring into balance the federal budget through reductions in spending. The decisions that providers have made to mitigate the impact are a function of ownership type, organizational mission, and current level of Medicare participation. This article summarizes the findings of several initial studies on the Balanced Budget Act's impact and discusses how changes in Medicare reimbursement policy have influenced the delivery of health care for the general public and for Medicare beneficiaries.

  14. Modelling large-scale ice-sheet-climate interactions following glacial inception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, J. M.; Browne, O. J. H.; Payne, A. J.; Ridley, J. K.; Rutt, I. C.

    2012-10-01

    We have coupled the FAMOUS global AOGCM (atmosphere-ocean general circulation model) to the Glimmer thermomechanical ice-sheet model in order to study the development of ice-sheets in north-east America (Laurentia) and north-west Europe (Fennoscandia) following glacial inception. This first use of a coupled AOGCM-ice-sheet model for a study of change on long palæoclimate timescales is made possible by the low computational cost of FAMOUS, despite its inclusion of physical parameterisations similar in complexity to higher-resolution AOGCMs. With the orbital forcing of 115 ka BP, FAMOUS-Glimmer produces ice caps on the Canadian Arctic islands, on the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and in southern Scandinavia, which grow to occupy the Keewatin region of the Canadian mainland and all of Fennoscandia over 50 ka. Their growth is eventually halted by increasing coastal ice discharge. The expansion of the ice-sheets influences the regional climate, which becomes cooler, reducing the ablation, and ice accumulates in places that initially do not have positive surface mass balance. The results suggest the possibility that the glaciation of north-east America could have begun on the Canadian Arctic islands, producing a regional climate change that caused or enhanced the growth of ice on the mainland. The increase in albedo (due to snow and ice cover) is the dominant feedback on the area of the ice-sheets and acts rapidly, whereas the feedback of topography on SMB does not become significant for several centuries, but eventually has a large effect on the thickening of the ice-sheets. These two positive feedbacks are mutually reinforcing. In addition, the change in topography perturbs the tropospheric circulation, producing some reduction of cloud, and mitigating the local cooling along the margin of the Laurentide ice-sheet. Our experiments demonstrate the importance and complexity of the interactions between ice-sheets and local climate.

  15. 17 CFR 229.1001 - (Item 1001) Summary term sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1001) Summary term sheet... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Mergers and Acquisitions (Regulation M-A) § 229.1001 (Item 1001) Summary term sheet. Summary term sheet. Provide security holders with a summary...

  16. Balance and flexibility.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  17. A smartphone inertial balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-04-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  18. A Smartphone Inertial Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2017-01-01

    In order to measure the mass of an object in the absence of gravity, one useful tool for many decades has been the inertial balance. One of the simplest forms of inertial balance is made by two mass holders or pans joined together with two stiff metal plates, which act as springs.

  19. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  20. Energy. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Larry

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of energy problems and programs in the United States and discusses the role that vocational education can play in solving those problems. The National Energy Plan is described including its objectives, strategies, and seven legislative acts: (1) The National Energy Conservation Act; (2) The Power Plant and…

  1. Saturn's Magnetodisc Current Sheet: Observations, Theory and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, C. S.; Russell, C. T.; Khurana, K. K.; Dougherty, M. K.

    Pioneer 11 Observations at Saturn identified a thin current sheet on the dawn flank which was interpreted as the cross-tail current sheet [Smith et al. 1981]. Observations by the Cassini spacecraft have rediscovered this thin current sheet but has been interpreted as a magnetodisc in Saturn's magnetosphere, not unlike the magnetodisc in the jovian magnetosphere [Arridge et al., Eos Trans. AGU 87(36)]. Studies of the MHD stress balance in this current sheet provide evidence that the centrifugal force causes the disc-like configuration [Arridge et al., submitted manuscript], in agreement with Voyager studies of the stress balance in the quasi-dipolar region of the magnetosphere [McNutt 1984]. In this talk we use magnetometer data to discuss the observational properties of this current sheet, discuss the ballooning of the field into the magnetodisc from a theoretical perspective, and efforts to develop global 3D empirical models of the current sheet.

  2. A study of thin liquid sheet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1993-01-01

    This study was a theoretical and experimental investigation of thin liquid sheet flows in vacuum. A sheet flow created by a narrow slit of width, W, coalesces to a point at a distance, L, as a result of surface tension forces acting at the sheet edges. As the flow coalesces, the fluid accumulates in the sheet edges. The observed triangular shape of the sheet agrees with the calculated triangular result. Experimental results for L/W as a function of Weber number, We, agree with the calculated result, L/W = the sq. root of 8We. The edge cross sectional shape is found to oscillate from elliptic to 'cigar' like to 'peanut' like and then back to elliptic in the flow direction. A theoretical one-dimensional model was developed that yielded only elliptic solutions for the edge cross section. At the points where the elliptic shapes occur, there is agreement between theory and experiment.

  3. Enhanced optical gradient forces between coupled graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xinbiao; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zheqi; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-06-01

    Optical gradient forces between monolayer infinite-width graphene sheets as well as single-mode graphene nanoribbon pairs of graphene surface plasmons (GSPs) at mid-infrared frequencies were theoretically investigated. Although owing to the strongly enhanced optical field, the normalized optical force, fn, can reach 50 nN/μm/mW, which is the largest fn as we know, the propagation loss is also large. But we found that by changing the chemical potential of graphene, fn and the optical propagation loss can be balanced. The total optical force acted on the nanoribbon waveguides can thus enhance more than 1 order of magnitude than that in metallic surface plasmons (MSPs) waveguides with the same length and the loss can be lower. Owing to the enhanced optical force and the significant neff tuning by varying the chemical potential of graphene, we also propose an ultra-compact phase shifter.

  4. Enhanced optical gradient forces between coupled graphene sheets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinbiao; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zheqi; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Optical gradient forces between monolayer infinite-width graphene sheets as well as single-mode graphene nanoribbon pairs of graphene surface plasmons (GSPs) at mid-infrared frequencies were theoretically investigated. Although owing to the strongly enhanced optical field, the normalized optical force, fn, can reach 50 nN/μm/mW, which is the largest fn as we know, the propagation loss is also large. But we found that by changing the chemical potential of graphene, fn and the optical propagation loss can be balanced. The total optical force acted on the nanoribbon waveguides can thus enhance more than 1 order of magnitude than that in metallic surface plasmons (MSPs) waveguides with the same length and the loss can be lower. Owing to the enhanced optical force and the significant neff tuning by varying the chemical potential of graphene, we also propose an ultra-compact phase shifter. PMID:27338252

  5. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  6. Large Ice Discharge From the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to measure the ice discharge of the Greenland Ice Sheet close to the grounding line and/or calving front, and compare the results with mass accumulation and ablation in the interior to estimate the ice sheet mass balance.

  7. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  8. Holocene deceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Colgan, William T; Fahnestock, Mark A; Morlighem, Mathieu; Catania, Ginny A; Paden, John D; Gogineni, S Prasad

    2016-02-05

    Recent peripheral thinning of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly offset by interior thickening and is overprinted on its poorly constrained Holocene evolution. On the basis of the ice sheet's radiostratigraphy, ice flow in its interior is slower now than the average speed over the past nine millennia. Generally higher Holocene accumulation rates relative to modern estimates can only partially explain this millennial-scale deceleration. The ice sheet's dynamic response to the decreasing proportion of softer ice from the last glacial period and the deglacial collapse of the ice bridge across Nares Strait also contributed to this pattern. Thus, recent interior thickening of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly an ongoing dynamic response to the last deglaciation that is large enough to affect interpretation of its mass balance from altimetry. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  10. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, C. R.; Margold, M.; Clark, C. D.; Tarasov, L.

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but—at the ice-sheet scale—their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  11. A Post-September 11th Balancing Act: Public Access to U.S. Government Information versus Protection of Sensitive Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest realistic guidelines that balance public access to government information and the need to protect sensitive data. Emphasis is on lessons learned from a 1979 case where the government attempted to prohibit the Progressive Magazine from publishing an article about making a hydrogen bomb and government…

  12. A Post-September 11th Balancing Act: Public Access to U.S. Government Information versus Protection of Sensitive Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest realistic guidelines that balance public access to government information and the need to protect sensitive data. Emphasis is on lessons learned from a 1979 case where the government attempted to prohibit the Progressive Magazine from publishing an article about making a hydrogen bomb and government…

  13. Balancing act: Evidence for a strong subdominant d-wave pairing channel in Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2

    DOE PAGES

    Böhm, T.; Kemper, A. F.; Moritz, B.; ...

    2014-12-18

    We present detailed measurements of the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of optimally doped Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 and analyze the low-temperature spectra based on local-density-approximation band-structure calculations and the subsequent estimation of effective Raman vertices. Experimentally, a narrow, emergent mode appears in the B1g (dx2-y2) Raman spectra only below Tc, well into the superconducting state and at an energy below twice the energy gap on the electron Fermi-surface sheets. The Raman spectra can be reproduced quantitatively with estimates for the magnitude and momentum-space structure of an A1g (s-wave) pairing gap on different Fermi-surface sheets, as well as the identification of the emergent sharp featuremore » as a Bardasis-Schrieffer exciton. Formed as a Cooper-pair bound state in a subdominant dx2-y2 channel, the binding energy of the exciton relative to the gap edge shows that the coupling strength in the subdominant channel is as strong as 60% of that in the dominant s-wave channel. This result suggests that dx2-y2 may be the dominant pairing symmetry in Fe-based superconductors that lack central hole bands.« less

  14. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  15. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ... Information Page NINDS Epilepsy Information Page NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page NINDS Farber's Disease Information Page ...

  16. Uterine Fibroids Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Uterine fibroids fact sheet (PDF, 950 KB) FDA warning on power morcellators in treatment for uterine ... Topics Uterine fibroids fact sheet (PDF, 950 KB) FDA warning on power morcellators in treatment for uterine ...

  17. The Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model (EMISM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice sheet models become more and more components of global climate system modelling instead of stand-alone features to study cryospheric processes. Full coupling of ice sheet models to atmospheric and ocean models requires a standard for ice sheet models, and more precisely for marine ice sheet models, where complex feedbacks between ice and ocean, such as marine ice sheet instability, and the atmosphere, such as the elevation-mass balance feedback, operate at different time scales. Recent model intercomparisons (e.g., SeaRISE, MISMIP) have shown that basic requirements for marine ice sheet models are still lacking and that the complexity of many ice sheet models is focused on processes that are either not well captured numerically (spatial resolution issue) or are of secondary importance compared to the essential features of marine ice sheet dynamics. Here, we propose a new and fast computing ice sheet model, devoid of most complexity, but capturing the essential feedbacks when coupled to ocean or atmospheric models. Its computational efficiency guarantees to easily tests its advantages as well as limits through ensemble modelling. EMISM (Elementary Marine Ice Sheet Model) is a vertically integrated ice sheet model based on the Shallow-Ice Approximation extended a Weertman sliding law. Although vertically integrated, thermomechanical coupling is ensured through a simplified representation of ice sheet thermodynamics based on an analytical solution of the vertical temperature profile, enhanced with strain heating. The marine boundary is represented by a parameterized flux condition similar to Pollard & Deconto (2012), based on Schoof (2007). A simplified ice shelf is added to account for buttressing of ice shelves in this parameterization. The ice sheet model is solved on a finite difference grid and special care is taken to its numerical efficiency and stability. While such model has a series of (known) deficiencies with respect to short time effects, its overall

  18. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet Accumulation Rates from Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezek, Kenneth C.

    2001-01-01

    An important component of NASA's Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a mass balance investigation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The mass balance is calculated by taking the difference between the snow accumulation and the ice discharge of the ice sheet. Uncertainties in this calculation include the snow accumulation rate, which has traditionally been determined by interpolating data from ice core samples taken throughout the ice sheet. The sparse data associated with ice cores, coupled with the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by remote sensing, have motivated scientists to investigate relationships between accumulation rate and microwave observations.

  19. Clinching for sheet materials

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaocong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Latest developments in the clinching of sheet materials are reviewed in this article. Important issues are discussed, such as tool design, process parameters and joinability of some new lightweight sheet materials. Hybrid and modified clinching processes are introduced to a general reader. Several unaddressed issues in the clinching of sheet materials are identified. PMID:28656065

  20. Clinching for sheet materials.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaocong

    2017-01-01

    Latest developments in the clinching of sheet materials are reviewed in this article. Important issues are discussed, such as tool design, process parameters and joinability of some new lightweight sheet materials. Hybrid and modified clinching processes are introduced to a general reader. Several unaddressed issues in the clinching of sheet materials are identified.

  1. Thinking globally and acting locally in Mindanao: Supporting the delicate balance of future sustainability in South-East Asian wilderness as well as rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, C.

    2014-02-01

    Although models of future sustainability often talk about effectively balancing economic, social and environmental imperatives or factors, in practice this typically remains an elusive ideal. This paper explores the exemplary possibilities but also dilemmas of a proposed initiative in the resource-rich but under-developed Filippino island province of Mindanao to achieve such a delicate balance in practice. This initiative by Raintrust Sustainable Ventures' proposes to link foreign investment in agricultural development to both the social advancement of local tribal peoples and the protection of large amounts of remaining wilderness areas. Such a case study provides an exemplary basis for discussing the challenge of achieving social and environmental as well as economic domains of 'future sustainability'. The crucial supporting role of information and geospatial technologies in the Raintrust plan will also be discussed.

  2. LGM ice sheets simulated with a complex fully coupled ice sheet - climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemen, F.; Rodehacke, C.; Mikolajewicz, U.

    2012-04-01

    One major challenge in predicting future climate change is the validation of the numerical models. A particular good time period for testing ice sheet - climate interactions is the last glacial maximum (LGM). It combines large ice sheets with good proxy data cover. We use a coarse resolution complex climate model coupled with an ice sheet model to study the ice sheets and the climate of the last glacial maximum and validate our setup by comparing glacial as well as pre-industrial equilibrium experiments with reconstructions and the present state. Since the last glacial maximum climate is largely different from the pre-industrial climate, we can test our model under large perturbations that go beyond the linear range by running both setups. Our model comprises of the atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model ECHAM5/MPIOM/LPJ interactively coupled with the ice sheet model mPISM. mPISM is a modified version of the Parallel Ice Sheet Model from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. We run ECHAM5 in T31 resolution (~ 3.75°), and mPISM on a 20 km grid covering most of the northern hemisphere. We do not use flux correction or anomaly maps in our models. For the surface mass balance, we use a positive degree day scheme with lapse rate correction and height desertification effect. We show results from steady state experiments under last glacial maximum as well as pre-industrial boundary conditions. In both cases, we are able to maintain reasonable ice sheet distributions. In the pre-industrial setup, the Greenland ice sheet looks realistic, and the only major deviation is an ice sheet forming in the Rocky Mountains due to a cold bias in ECHAM5 in this region. The last glacial maximum ice sheets largely agree with the reconstructions except for an ice sheet that forms in eastern Siberia and extends to the Alaskan end of the Laurentide ice sheet. The ice sheets never reach a perfectly steady state because parts show repeated surges resembling Heinrich events. Most

  3. Monitoring southwest Greenland's ice sheet melt with ambient seismic noise.

    PubMed

    Mordret, Aurélien; Mikesell, T Dylan; Harig, Christopher; Lipovsky, Bradley P; Prieto, Germán A

    2016-05-01

    The Greenland ice sheet presently accounts for ~70% of global ice sheet mass loss. Because this mass loss is associated with sea-level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/year, the development of improved monitoring techniques to observe ongoing changes in ice sheet mass balance is of paramount concern. Spaceborne mass balance techniques are commonly used; however, they are inadequate for many purposes because of their low spatial and/or temporal resolution. We demonstrate that small variations in seismic wave speed in Earth's crust, as measured with the correlation of seismic noise, may be used to infer seasonal ice sheet mass balance. Seasonal loading and unloading of glacial mass induces strain in the crust, and these strains then result in seismic velocity changes due to poroelastic processes. Our method provides a new and independent way of monitoring (in near real time) ice sheet mass balance, yielding new constraints on ice sheet evolution and its contribution to global sea-level changes. An increased number of seismic stations in the vicinity of ice sheets will enhance our ability to create detailed space-time records of ice mass variations.

  4. Finite-distance singularities in the tearing of thin sheets.

    PubMed

    Bayart, E; Boudaoud, A; Adda-Bedia, M

    2011-05-13

    We investigate the interaction between two cracks propagating quasistatically in a thin sheet. Two different experimental geometries allow us to tear sheets by imposing an out-of-plane shear loading. A single tear propagates in a straight line independently of its position in the sheet. In contrast, we find that two tears converge along self-similar paths and annihilate each other. These finite-distance singularities display geometry-dependent similarity exponents, which we retrieve using scaling arguments based on a balance between the stretching and the bending of the sheet close to the tips of the cracks.

  5. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Vasko, I. Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  6. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Artemyev, A. V. Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2016-09-15

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  7. The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977; Authorization of Appropriations for CETA, and the President's Economic Stimulus Proposals; Hearings before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session on H.R. 50 and H.R. 2992, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The proceedings from the 2 days of hearings before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities on the Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1977, the authorizations and appropriations for the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), and the President's economic stimulus proposals are presented in this report. All prepared…

  8. Improved automated electronic balance calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Frickey, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    An improved automated electronic balance calibration and record system has been developed using a spread sheet to consolidate information required to calibrate electronic balances and satisfy requirements for traceability, validation and documentation. Several improvements have been made over an Epson HX-20{trademark} notebook computer-based balance calibration system, which was developed at the Savannah River Site in 1986 and used continuously since to annually calibrate electronic balances. These improvements included: built in tables of balance models performance test limits and calibration standards` apparent masses & uncertainties; calculated ratios of balance to test weight uncertainties; bar-code data input; enhanced graphs and tables; and permanent electronic records. The software and hardware were thoroughly tested by calibrating 30 balances in another department. Hardware for importing data from balances through an RS-232 interface and bar code reader into a portable computer`s spread sheet was evaluated and found to add little value to the calibration process. Computerized data collection minimizes record handling and reduces paper work costs by >50%. Databases are established for each organization`s electronic balances that contain records for each balance that are identified by model, property identification number and location. In addition, each record contains calibration and expiration dates, performance testing information, etc. Details of equipment, statistical testing, spread sheet features and examples of the program are described.

  9. Synthesis of graphene sheets from single walled carbon nanohorns: novel conversion from cone to sheet morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Sahu, Sumit; Rao Rikka, Vallabha; Jagannatham, M.; Haridoss, Prathap; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Gopalan, Raghavan; Prakash, Raju

    2017-03-01

    Graphene sheets have been synthesized from single walled carbon nanohorns by one-step reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The obtained graphene sheets are in pure form and shows good electrical properties. As-synthesized graphene acts as dual function of support as well as reducing agent to prepare graphene-silver nanoparticle composite having uniform particle size of 6 nm. This method can easily be scalable to prepare graphene or graphene supported metal nanoparticle composites for versatile applications.

  10. Ice sheet topography by satellite altimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, R.L.; Campbell, W.J.; Ramseier, R.O.; Stanley, H.R.; Zwally, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The surface elevation of the southern Greenland ice sheet and surface features of the ice flow are obtained from the radar altimeter on the GEOS 3 satellite. The achieved accuracy in surface elevation is ???2 m. As changes in surface elevation are indicative of changes in ice volume, the mass balance of the present ice sheets could be determined by repetitive mapping of the surface elevation and the surface could be monitored to detect surging or significant changes in ice flow. ?? 1978 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Entropy and plasma sheet transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, R. A.; Wan, Yifei; Xing, X.; Zhang, J.-C.; Sazykin, S.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a focused review of the role of entropy in plasma sheet transport and also describes new calculations of the implications of plasma sheet entropy conservation for the case where the plasma pressure is not isotropic. For the isotropic case, the entropy varies in proportion to log[PV5/3], where P is plasma pressure and V is the volume of a tube containing one unit of magnetic flux. Theory indicates that entropy should be conserved in the ideal MHD approximation, and a generalized form of entropy conservation also holds when transport by gradient/curvature drift is included. These considerations lead to the conclusion that under the assumption of strong, elastic pitch angle scattering, PV5/3 should be approximately conserved over large regions of the plasma sheet, though gradient/curvature drift causes major violations in the innermost region. Statistical magnetic field and plasma models lead to the conclusion that PV5/3 increases significantly with distance downtail (pressure balance inconsistency). We investigate the possibility that the inconsistency could be removed or reduced by eliminating the assumption of strong, elastic pitch angle scattering but find that the inconsistency becomes worse if the first two adiabatic invariants are conserved as the particles drift. We consider two previously suggested mechanisms, bubbles and gradient/curvature drift, and conclude that the combination of the two is likely adequate for resolving the pressure balance inconsistency. Quantitatively accurate estimation of the efficiency of these mechanisms depends on finding a method of estimating PV5/3 (or equivalent) from spacecraft measurements. Two present approaches to that problem are discussed.

  12. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 505 - Litigation Status Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Litigation Status Sheet E Appendix E to Part 505... PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. E Appendix E to Part 505—Litigation Status Sheet..., and Case File Number; (d) Defendants: DOD component and individual; (e) Remarks: Brief explanation of...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 505 - Litigation Status Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Litigation Status Sheet E Appendix E to Part 505... PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. E Appendix E to Part 505—Litigation Status Sheet..., and Case File Number; (d) Defendants: DOD component and individual; (e) Remarks: Brief explanation of...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 505 - Litigation Status Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Litigation Status Sheet E Appendix E to Part 505... PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. E Appendix E to Part 505—Litigation Status Sheet..., and Case File Number; (d) Defendants: DOD component and individual; (e) Remarks: Brief explanation of...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 505 - Litigation Status Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Litigation Status Sheet E Appendix E to Part 505... PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. E Appendix E to Part 505—Litigation Status Sheet..., and Case File Number; (d) Defendants: DOD component and individual; (e) Remarks: Brief explanation of...

  16. Patient acceptability, safety and access: A balancing act for selecting age-appropriate oral dosage forms for paediatric and geriatric populations.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer; Ranmal, Sejal R; Ernest, Terry B; Liu, Fang

    2017-07-11

    The selection and design of age-appropriate formulations intended for use in paediatric and geriatric patients are dependent on multiple factors affecting patient acceptability, safety and access. The development of an economic and effective product relies on a balanced consideration of the risks and benefits of these factors. This review provides a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of oral dosage forms considering key aspects of formulation design including dosage considerations, ease of use, tolerability and safety, manufacturing complexity, stability, supply and cost. Patient acceptability has been examined utilising an evidence-based approach to evaluate regulatory guidance and literature. Safety considerations including excipients and potential risk of administration errors of the different dosage forms are also discussed, together with possible manufacturing and supply challenges. Age appropriate drug product design should consider and compare i) acceptability ii) safety and iii) access, although it is important to recognise that these factors must be balanced against each other, and in some situations a compromise may need to be reached when selecting an age-appropriate formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, M.E.; Clark, P.U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; Kuhn, G.

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  18. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael E; Clark, Peter U; Ricken, Werner; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2011-12-02

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood. We develop a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates that the advance to and retreat from their maximum extent was within dating uncertainties synchronous with most sectors of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Surface climate forcing of Antarctic mass balance would probably cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Our new data support teleconnections involving sea-level forcing from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and changes in North Atlantic deep-water formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines to synchronize the hemispheric ice sheets.

  19. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  20. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Articles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides guidance on classifying articles under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and determining the applicability of EPA’s articles exclusion policy for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. The primary goal of this document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the CDR rule.

  1. 17 CFR 229.1001 - (Item 1001) Summary term sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Mergers and Acquisitions (Regulation M-A) § 229... holders. The summary term sheet is intended to serve as an overview of all material matters that are...

  2. Lives in the Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time…

  3. Lives in the Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time…

  4. RADIATING CURRENT SHEETS IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.; Judge, Philip G. E-mail: judge@ucar.edu

    2012-05-20

    An MHD model of a hydrogen plasma with flow, an energy equation, NLTE ionization and radiative cooling, and an Ohm's law with anisotropic electrical conduction and thermoelectric effects is used to self-consistently generate atmospheric layers over a 50 km height range. A subset of these solutions contains current sheets and has properties similar to those of the lower and middle chromosphere. The magnetic field profiles are found to be close to Harris sheet profiles, with maximum field strengths {approx}25-150 G. The radiative flux F{sub R} emitted by individual sheets is {approx}4.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}-4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, to be compared with the observed chromospheric emission rate of {approx}10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Essentially all emission is from regions with thicknesses {approx}0.5-13 km containing the neutral sheet. About half of F{sub R} comes from sub-regions with thicknesses 10 times smaller. A resolution {approx}< 5-130 m is needed to resolve the properties of the sheets. The sheets have total H densities {approx}10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The ionization fraction in the sheets is {approx}2-20 times larger, and the temperature is {approx}2000-3000 K higher than in the surrounding plasma. The Joule heating flux F{sub J} exceeds F{sub R} by {approx}4%-34%, the difference being balanced in the energy equation mainly by a negative compressive heating flux. Proton Pedersen current dissipation generates {approx}62%-77% of the positive contribution to F{sub J} . The remainder of this contribution is due to electron current dissipation near the neutral sheet where the plasma is weakly magnetized.

  5. Aging: Balancing regeneration and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beausejour, Christian M.; Campisi, Judith

    2006-08-24

    The proliferation of cells must balance the longevity assured by tissue renewal against the risk of developing cancer. The tumor-suppressor protein p16{sup INK4a} seems to act at the pivot of this delicate equilibrium.

  6. Perforating Thin Metal Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Sheets only few mils thick bonded together, punched, then debonded. Three-step process yields perforated sheets of metal. (1): Individual sheets bonded together to form laminate. (2): laminate perforated in desired geometric pattern. (3): After baking, laminate separates into individual sheets. Developed for fabricating conductive layer on blankets that collect and remove ions; however, perforated foils have other applications - as conductive surfaces on insulating materials; stiffeners and conductors in plastic laminates; reflectors in antenna dishes; supports for thermal blankets; lightweight grille cover materials; and material for mockup of components.

  7. Perforating Thin Metal Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Sheets only few mils thick bonded together, punched, then debonded. Three-step process yields perforated sheets of metal. (1): Individual sheets bonded together to form laminate. (2): laminate perforated in desired geometric pattern. (3): After baking, laminate separates into individual sheets. Developed for fabricating conductive layer on blankets that collect and remove ions; however, perforated foils have other applications - as conductive surfaces on insulating materials; stiffeners and conductors in plastic laminates; reflectors in antenna dishes; supports for thermal blankets; lightweight grille cover materials; and material for mockup of components.

  8. Ice-sheet contributions to future sea-level change.

    PubMed

    Gregory, J M; Huybrechts, P

    2006-07-15

    Accurate simulation of ice-sheet surface mass balance requires higher spatial resolution than is afforded by typical atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), owing, in particular, to the need to resolve the narrow and steep margins where the majority of precipitation and ablation occurs. We have developed a method for calculating mass-balance changes by combining ice-sheet average time-series from AOGCM projections for future centuries, both with information from high-resolution climate models run for short periods and with a 20km ice-sheet mass-balance model. Antarctica contributes negatively to sea level on account of increased accumulation, while Greenland contributes positively because ablation increases more rapidly. The uncertainty in the results is about 20% for Antarctica and 35% for Greenland. Changes in ice-sheet topography and dynamics are not included, but we discuss their possible effects. For an annual- and area-average warming exceeding 4.5+/-0.9K in Greenland and 3.1+/-0.8K in the global average, the net surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet becomes negative, in which case it is likely that the ice sheet would eventually be eliminated, raising global-average sea level by 7m.

  9. Graphane sheets and crystals under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Hand, Louis; Labet, Vanessa; Yang, Tao; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.; Oganov, Artem R.; Lyakhov, Andriy O.

    2011-01-01

    Eight isomeric two-dimensional graphane sheets are found in a theoretical study. Four of these nets—two built on chair cyclohexanes, two on boat—are more stable thermodynamically than the isomeric benzene, or polyacetylene. Three-dimensional crystals are built up from the two-dimensional sheets, and their hypothetical behavior under pressure (up to 300 GPa) is explored. While the three-dimensional graphanes remain, as expected, insulating or semiconducting in this pressure range, there is a remarkable inversion in stability of the five crystals studied. Two stacking polytypes that are not the most stable at ambient pressure (one based on an unusual chair cyclohexane net, the other on a boat) are significantly stabilized with increasing pressure relative to stackings of simple chair sheets. The explanation may lie in the balance on intra and intersheet contacts in the extended arrays.

  10. Graphanes: Sheets and stacking under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Hand, Louis; Labet, Vanessa; Yang, Tao; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.; Oganov, Artem R.; Lyakhov, Andriy O.

    2011-04-26

    Eight isomeric two-dimensional graphane sheets are found in a theoretical study. Four of these nets—two built on chair cyclohexanes, two on boat—are more stable thermodynamically than the isomeric benzene, or polyacetylene. Three-dimensional crystals are built up from the two-dimensional sheets, and their hypothetical behavior under pressure (up to 300 GPa) is explored. While the three-dimensional graphanes remain, as expected, insulating or semiconducting in this pressure range, there is a remarkable inversion in stability of the five crystals studied. Two stacking polytypes that are not the most stable at ambient pressure (one based on an unusual chair cyclohexane net, the other on a boat) are significantly stabilized with increasing pressure relative to stackings of simple chair sheets. The explanation may lie in the balance on intra and intersheet contacts in the extended arrays.

  11. A Balancing Act: Integrating Evidence-Based Knowledge and Cultural Relevance in a Program of Prevention Parenting Research with Latino/a Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; López-Zerón, Gabriela; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Escobar-Chew, A Rocío; Whitehead, Michael R; Sullivan, Cris M; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    Family therapists have a unique opportunity to contribute toward the reduction of widespread mental health disparities impacting diverse populations by developing applied lines of research focused on cultural adaptation. For example, although evidence-based prevention parent training (PT) interventions have been found to be efficacious with various Euro-American populations, there is a pressing need to understand which specific components of PT interventions are perceived by ethnic minority parents as having the highest impact on their parenting practices. Equally important is to examine the perceived cultural relevance of adapted PT interventions. This qualitative investigation had the primary objective of comparing and contrasting the perceived relevance of two culturally adapted versions of the efficacious parenting intervention known as Parent Management Training, the Oregon Model (PMTO). According to feasibility indicators provided by 112 Latino/a immigrant parents, as well as findings from a qualitative thematic analysis, the core parenting components across both adapted interventions were identified by the majority of research participants as relevant to their parenting practices. Participants exposed to the culturally enhanced intervention, which included culture-specific sessions, also reported high satisfaction with components exclusively focused on cultural issues that directly impact their parenting practices (e.g., immigration challenges, biculturalism). This investigation illustrates the relevant contributions that family therapy scholars can offer toward addressing mental health disparities, particularly as it refers to developing community-based prevention interventions that achieve a balance between evidence-based knowledge and cultural relevance. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  12. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  13. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; McMaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  14. Understanding Greenland Ice Sheet Runoff Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Tedesco, M.; Smith, L. C.; Pitcher, L. H.; Mote, T. L.; Yager, P. L.; Moustafa, S.; Cooper, M. G.; van As, D.; Hasholt, B.; Mikkelsen, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    One of the main ways the ice sheet loses mass is by meltwater runoff. Because of Greenland's great size, regional surface mass balance models are key to understanding large-scale runoff patterns and trends. At the same time, remote sensing and field observations reveal a complex hydrological system on the ice sheet's surface that are not well captured by these models. Yet, understanding the fate and impact of the meltwater on the ocean depends on knowing these temporal and spatial details. Unusually thick, near surface, ice lenses found in firn cores, most likely formed during very large recent melt events signify meltwater refreezing, but may also prevent further infiltration while facilitating runoff. Maps derived from remote sensing show how this runoff flows through an extensive network of supraglacial streams and lakes before it drains into the ice via moulins. Observations of discharge on the ice sheet surface and its margin provide evidence of runoff delays and retention before it is exported to the surrounding oceans. Here, trends and spatial patterns in ice sheet runoff will be examined by using model outputs from the regional surface mass balance model Modèle Atmosphérique Régional and compared with recent remotely sensed and field observations.

  15. Mechanics of Sheeting Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Physical breakdown of rock across a broad scale spectrum involves fracturing. In many areas large fractures develop near the topographic surface, with sheeting joints being among the most impressive. Sheeting joints share many geometric, textural, and kinematic features with other joints (opening-mode fractures) but differ in that they are (a) discernibly curved, (b) open near the topographic surface, and (c) form subparallel to the topographic surface. Where sheeting joints are geologically young, the surface-parallel compressive stresses are typically several MPa or greater. Sheeting joints are best developed beneath domes, ridges, and saddles; they also are reported, albeit rarely, beneath valleys or bowls. A mechanism that accounts for all these associations has been sought for more than a century: neither erosion of overburden nor high lateral compressive stresses alone suffices. Sheeting joints are not accounted for by Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criteria. Principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, together with the mechanical effect of a curved topographic surface, do provide a basis for understanding sheeting joint growth and the pattern sheeting joints form. Compressive stresses parallel to a singly or doubly convex topographic surface induce a tensile stress perpendicular to the surface at shallow depths; in some cases this alone could overcome the weight of overburden to open sheeting joints. If regional horizontal compressive stresses, augmented by thermal stresses, are an order of magnitude or so greater than a characteristic vertical stress that scales with topographic amplitude, then topographic stress perturbations can cause sheeting joints to open near the top of a ridge. This topographic effect can be augmented by pressure within sheeting joints arising from water, ice, or salt. Water pressure could be particularly important in helping drive sheeting joints downslope beneath valleys. Once sheeting joints have formed, the rock sheets between

  16. Development of Cu-bearing bake-hardenable steel sheets for automotive exposed panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Moon-Hi; Cho, Noi-Ha; Kim, Sung-Il; Kwon, Ohjoon; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Moon, Won-Jin

    2010-12-01

    Recently, newly developed bake-hardenable (BH) steel sheets strengthened by copper sulfide (CuS) have been successfully employed in commercial production lines that supply automotive outer panels. The metallurgical concepts governing fabrication of these new BH steel sheets require keeping carbon content as low as 0.0015 wt.% without any additional amount of titanium and/or niobium for solute carbon scavenging. The role of CuS precipitates has turned out to raise the yield strength acting as a barrier against dislocation movement. In this paper, we studied the effects of chemical compositions and manufacturing process variables on the microstructure and mechanical properties of newly developed BH steel sheets. We found that the control of carbon and nitrogen showed a good balance between bake-hardenability (BH) and yield point elongation (YP-El). We identified the crystallographic relationship between the nano-size CuS precipitates and the ferrite matrix of (001)sulfide//(001)α-Fe and [001]sulfide//[001]α-Fe. We also found that the BH and YP-El were affected by the formation of aluminium nitride (AlN) and the annealing temperature.

  17. Multipoint studies of 2D magnetotail current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrukovich, Anatoli; Zelenyi, Lev; Nakamura, Rumi; Artemyev, Anton

    2016-07-01

    CLUSTER and Themis projects provide unique tools for magnetotail current sheet studies at a wide range of downtail distances: multipoint curlometer allows to measure electric current density, whereas regular electron data contains information on largescale tail structure. Observations show that moderately thin ion-scale embedded sheet is formed during substorm growth phase. Comparison of curlometer with particle data helps to estimate contributions of transient and magnetized ions as well as electrons to current density. Thin intense sheet with sub-ion scale is appearing after onset near reconnection zones, but vertical pressure balance requirement substantially limits the possible range of sheet thickness. Horizontal (along the tail) gradients become more important only in the near tail, within 10-12 Earth radii. Essential quantitative characteristics of ions-scale embedded sheet are boundary field b0 and maximal possible intensity of ion current.

  18. A Transient Initialization Routine of the Community Ice Sheet Model for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, Larissa; van den Broeke, Michiel; Noël, Brice; van de Wal, Roderik

    2017-04-01

    The Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) is to be applied in future simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet under a range of climate change scenarios, determining the sensitivity of the ice sheet to individual climatic forcings. In order to achieve reliable results regarding ice sheet stability and assess the probability of future occurrence of tipping points, a realistic initial ice sheet geometry is essential. The current work describes and evaluates the development of a transient initialization routine, using NGRIP 18O isotope data to create a temperature anomaly field. Based on the latter, surface mass balance components runoff and precipitation are perturbed for the past 125k years. The precipitation and runoff fields originate from a downscaled 1 km resolution version of the regional climate model RACMO2.3 for the period 1961-1990. The result of the initialization routine is a present-day ice sheet with a transient memory of the last glacial-interglacial cycle, which will serve as the future runs' initial condition.

  19. Silicon sheet technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1982-09-01

    A classification of silicon sheet growth methods by meniscus geometry permits them to be discussed in three groups: short meniscus techniques, high meniscus techniques, and extended meniscus or large solid/liquid interface area techniques. A second parameter, meniscus shaper interaction with the liquid silicon, is also instrumental in determining the characteristics of the various sheet processes. The current status of each process is discussed in the context of meniscus geometry and shaper/melt interaction. One aspect of sheet growth, surface area generation rate, is quantitatively compared with combined ingot growth and wafering surface area generation rates.

  20. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  1. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  2. Liquid sheet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; White, K. Alan, III

    1987-01-01

    A new external flow radiator concept, the liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is introduced. The LSR sheet flow is described and an expression for the length/width (l/w), ratio is presented. A linear dependence of l/w on velocity is predicted that agrees with experimental results. Specific power for the LSR is calculated and is found to be nearly the same as the specific power of a liquid droplet radiator, (LDR). Several sheet thicknesses and widths were experimentally investigated. In no case was the flow found to be unstable.

  3. Paleoclimate perspectives on Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Near- and long-term future projections of global mean sea level rise (SLR) are hampered by a lack of understanding of the potential dynamic contribution of the polar ice sheets, and in particular the Antarctic ice sheets. With the completion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Assessment Report a major challenge continues to be placing an upper bound in sea-level projections for 2100 and beyond. The so-called "deterministic" approach which sums observed- and model-projected trends in the known contributions (e.g. ice sheet and glacier surface mass balance, ocean thermal expansion and ground water storage changes) implies a "likely" upper bound of +100cm by 2080-2100. The "semi-empirical" approach which scales past observed sea-level change to mean surface temperature, and uses this relationship to scale future temperature scenarios, predicts a significantly higher upper bound of up to ~2m by 2100. The discrepancy between the two approaches may in part reflect the poorly understood contribution of ice dynamics - that is the rate of flow of ice sheets into the ocean. An ensemble of Antarctic ice sheet models produces highly divergent results for future sea-level projections, primarily because of uncertainties around the mass changes in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet with some models showing increased precipitation driving a positive mass balance overall, even with loss of the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Current best estimates suggest a 10-20cm dynamic ice sheet contribution by 2100 to global SLR. Of concern is that marine based ice sheets are highly sensitive to increases in ocean temperature at their margins and rapid disintegration may ensue if the ice sheets grounding lines retreat into deep sub-glacial basins. Recent studies show the highest rates of ice sheet thinning and retreat are occurring at locations around the WAIS where the surface ocean has warmed, and that some WAIS loss may now be irreversible. Geological records allow

  4. Laser Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  5. Laser Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical Technology, Incorporated developed a fully automatic laser machining process that allows more precise balancing removes metal faster, eliminates excess metal removal and other operator induced inaccuracies, and provides significant reduction in balancing time. Manufacturing costs are reduced as a result.

  6. Laurentide ice-sheet instability during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, David J.; Carlson, Anders E.; Anslow, Faron S.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Licciardi, Joseph M.

    2015-07-01

    Changes in the amount of summer incoming solar radiation (insolation) reaching the Northern Hemisphere are the underlying pacemaker of glacial cycles. However, not all rises in boreal summer insolation over the past 800,000 years resulted in deglaciation to present-day ice volumes, suggesting that there may be a climatic threshold for the disappearance of land-based ice. Here we assess the surface mass balance stability of the Laurentide ice sheet--the largest glacial ice mass in the Northern Hemisphere--during the last deglaciation (24,000 to 9,000 years ago). We run a surface energy balance model with climate data from simulations with a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model for key time slices during the last deglaciation. We find that the surface mass balance of the Laurentide ice sheet was positive throughout much of the deglaciation, and suggest that dynamic discharge was mainly responsible for mass loss during this time. Total surface mass balance became negative only in the early Holocene, indicating the transition to a new state where ice loss occurred primarily by surface ablation. We conclude that the Laurentide ice sheet remained a viable ice sheet before the Holocene and began to fully deglaciate only once summer temperatures and radiative forcing over the ice sheet increased by 6-7 °C and 16-20 W m-2, respectively, relative to full glacial conditions.

  7. Epilepsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 6 = La Epilepsia: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on epilepsy is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and that students with epilepsy are eligible for special…

  8. Autism: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 1 = Autismo: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on autism is offered in both English and Spanish, and is the same in both languages although numbered differently. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that autism is listed as a separate category under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.…

  9. Autism: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 1 = Autismo: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on autism is offered in both English and Spanish, and is the same in both languages although numbered differently. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that autism is listed as a separate category under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.…

  10. Epilepsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 6 = La Epilepsia: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on epilepsy is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and that students with epilepsy are eligible for special…

  11. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  12. CMAQ Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For more than a decade, EPA and states have used EPA’s Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System, a powerful computational tool for air quality management. Learn more about CMAQv5.2 by browsing our fact sheet.

  13. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  14. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  15. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  16. Greenland Ice Sheet retreat during the Eemian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Berg, W. J.; Helsen, M. M.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Oerlemans, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present a new estimate of the evolution of the Greenland Ice Sheet through the Eemian (130 till 115 ky BP). This estimate is determined using the 3D 'shallow' ice sheet model ANICE and the regional climate model RACMO2/GR. The two models are time-slice coupled with an interval of 1500 years. 3D interpolated surface mass balance fields from RACMO2/GR force ANICE. Eemian and post-Eemian climate from the GCM ECHO-G drives RACMO2/GR on its lateral boundaries. These boundaries are gradually adjusted from maximum Eemian conditions to post-Eemian inception conditions, following the orbital parameters and Greenhouse gas concentrations derived from ice cores. The simulation shows a steady mass loss till the insolation conditions decline and the summer climate cools, with a typical rate of mass loss equivalent to 5 cm sea level rise per century for most of the time. Once summer start to cool the Greenland ice sheet recovers fast. The maximum ice loss is about 2 m eustatic sea level compared to present day volume and originates predominantly from southwest Greenland. Our results align with paleo-observations of Eemian ice sheet existence in South Greenland. Strong summer radiation also induces ice retreat in northern Greenland. Moreover, it agrees with preceding studies that the Greenland ice sheet had only a limited contribution to the Eemian sea level high stand. A finding of this novel approach is the impact of topographic pinpoints on the ice sheet evolution. Subglacial topography, like at 52° W 72° N (near Uummannaq), cause promontories in the ice sheet that enhances snowfall. Locations with high snowfall react less on warming than dry locations, because more melt is needed before all snow is removed, and the more efficient ice melt starts. The reduced ice depth also buttresses inland ice, limiting the ice sheet response to enhanced ablation. As a result, this topographical feature becomes the northern limit of significant ice sheet retreat, and shields the north

  17. Understanding ice sheet evolution to avoid massive sea level rise instead of experiencing it (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, Eric

    2017-04-01

    With unabated climate warming, massive sea level rise from the melting of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica looms at the horizon. This is unfortunately an experiment that we can afford to run only once. Satellite and airborne sensors have significantly helped reveal the magnitude of the mass balance of the ice sheets, where the changes take place, when they started, how they change with time and the nature of the physical processes controlling them. These observations have constrained the maturation of numerical modeling techniques for projecting changes in these ice sheets, including the coupling of ocean and ice sheet models, yet significant uncertainties remain to make these projections directly policy relevant and many challenges remain. I will review the state of balance of the ice sheets as we know it today and the fundamental processes that will drive fast ice sheet retreat and sea level change: ice-ocean interaction and iceberg calving. Ice-ocean interaction are dominated by the wind-forced intrusion of warm, salty, subsurface waters toward the ice sheet periphery to melt ice from below at rates orders of magnitude greater than at the surface. In Greenland, these rates are difficult to observe, but model simulations indicate rates of ice melt along vertical calving faces of meters per day, along with undercutting of the ice faces. Constraining the temperature of the ocean waters from high resolution models and observations, however, remains a significant challenge. I will describe the progress we have made in addressing one major issue which is the mapping of fjord bathymetry around Greenland to define the pathways for warm waters. In Antarctica, the rates of melt are measured from remote sensing data but averaged over long periods, so that we are dependent on in-situ observations to understand the interaction of ocean waters with ice within the sub-ice-shelf cavities. I will describe progress made in mapping the bathymetry of the ice shelves and how

  18. Medicare program; changes to the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems and rates and costs of graduate medical education: fiscal year 2002 rates; provisions of the Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999; and provisions of the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2001-08-01

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for operating and capital costs to: implement applicable statutory requirements, including a number of provisions of the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP [State Children's Health Insurance Program] Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-554); and implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In addition, in the Addendum to this final rule, we describe changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. These changes apply to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2001. We also set forth the rate-of-increase limits as well as policy changes for hospitals and hospital units excluded from the prospective payment systems. We are making changes to the policies governing payments to hospitals for the direct costs of graduate medical education and critical access hospitals. Lastly, we are responding to public comments received on the following two related interim final rules that we published in the Federal Register and finalizing those interim rules: An August 1, 2000 interim final rule with comment period (65 FR 47026, HCFA-1131-IFC) that implemented, or conformed the regulations to, certain statutory provisions relating to Medicare payments to hospitals for inpatient services that were contained in the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 (Public Law 106-113), and that were effective during FY 2000. These provisions related to reclassification of hospitals from urban to rural status, reclassification of certain hospitals for purposes of payment during fiscal year 2000, critical access hospitals, payments to hospitals excluded from the prospective payment system, and payments for indirect and direct graduate medical education costs. A June 13, 2001 interim final rule with comment period (66 FR 32172, HCFA-1178

  19. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-02-01

    Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11-12 years old. To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method: We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15-16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-01-01

    Background Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11–12 years old. Aims To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Results Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15–16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Conclusions Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. PMID:26382948

  1. Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. E.; Clark, P. U.; Ricken, W.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hostetler, S. W.; Kuhn, G.

    2012-04-01

    The timing of the last maximum extent of the Antarctic ice sheets relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere remains poorly understood because only a few findings with robust chronologies exist for Antarctic ice sheets. We developed a chronology for the Weddell Sea sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet that, combined with ages from other Antarctic ice-sheet sectors, indicates the advance to their maximum extent at 29 -28 ka, and retreat from their maximum extent at 19 ka was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (Weber, M.E., Clark, P. U., Ricken, W., Mitrovica, J. X., Hostetler, S. W., and Kuhn, G. (2011): Interhemispheric ice-sheet synchronicity during the Last Glacial Maximum. - Science, 334, 1265-1269, doi: 10.1126:science.1209299). As for the deglaciation, modeling studies suggest a late ice-sheet retreat starting around 14 ka BP and ending around 7 ka BP with a large impact of an unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and a small impact of a stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). However, the Weddell Sea sites studied here, as well as sites from the Scotia Sea, provide evidence that specifically the EAIS responded much earlier, possibly provided a significant contribution to the last sea-level rise, and was much more dynamic than previously thought. Using the results of an atmospheric general circulation we conclude that surface climate forcing of Antarctic ice mass balance would likely cause an opposite response, whereby a warming climate would increase accumulation but not surface melting. Furthermore, our new data support teleconnections involving a sea-level fingerprint forced from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets as indicated by gravitational modeling. Also, changes in North Atlantic Deepwater formation and attendant heat flux to Antarctic grounding lines may have contributed to synchronizing the hemispheric ice sheets.

  2. MESSENGER Observations of Asymmetries at Mercury's Magnetotail Current Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Gangkai; Slavin, James; Jia, Xianzhe; Raines, Jim; Sun, Wei-Jie; Genestreti, Kevin; Smith, Andy; Gershman, Daniel; Anderson, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Dawn-dusk asymmetries in the Earth's magnetotail current sheet have been observed and remain an active area of research. With an internal magnetic dipole field structure similar to Earth's, similar dawn-dusk asymmetries might be expected in Mercury's magnetotail current sheet. However, no observation of dawn-dusk asymmetries has been reported in the structure of Mercury's magnetotail. Using 4 years of MESSENGER's magnetic field and plasma data, we analyzed 319 current sheet crossings. From the polarity of Bz in the cross-tail current sheet, we determined that MESSENGER is on closed field lines about 90% of the time. During the other 10% MESSENGER observed negative Bz indicating that it was tailward of the Near Mercury Neutral Line (NMNL). The Bz magnetic field is also observed to be higher at the dawnside than the duskside of the magnetotail current sheet by approximately a factor of three. Further the asymmetry decreases with increasing downstream distance. A reduction (enhancement) in Bz should correspond to a more (less) stretched and thinned (thickened) current sheet. Analysis of current sheet thickness based upon MESSENGER's observations confirms this behavior with mean current sheet thickness and Bz intensity having dawn-dusk asymmetries with the same sense. Plasma β in the current sheet also exhibits a dawn-dusk asymmetry opposite to that of Bz. This is consistent with expectations based on MHD stress balance. Earlier studies had shown a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the heavy ion in Mercury's magnetotail. We suggest that this enhancement of heavy ions in the duskside current sheet, due to centrifugal acceleration of ions from the cusp and gradient-curvature drift from the NMNL, may provide a partial explanation of the dawn-dusk current sheet asymmetries found in this study.

  3. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  4. Modelling the long-term impact of surface warming on Greenland ice sheet mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuting; Anker Pedersen, Rasmus; Madsen, Marianne S.; Svendsen, Synne H.; Langen, Peter L.

    2017-04-01

    Projections of future sea level changes require understanding of the response of the Greenland ice sheet to future climate change. Numerous feedbacks between the ice sheet and the climate system mean that comprehensive model setups are required to simulate the concurrent ice sheet and climate changes. Here, the ice sheet response to a warming climate has been studied using a model setup consisting of an earth system model (EC-Earth) interactively coupled to an ice sheet model (PISM). The coupled system has been employed for a 1400-year simulation forced by historical radiative forcing from 1850 onward continued along an extended RCP8.5 scenario to beyond year 3200. The simulation reveals that the rate of mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet increases substantially after 2100. The mass loss hereafter continues at a steady rate, even as the warming rate gradually levels off. As the coupled setup does not include the direct impact of oceanic forcing, the mass loss is due to the combination of a negative surface mass balance and a dynamic response to the surface warming. Increased melt exceeds regional precipitation increases in the surface mass balance, while the surface warming increases the enthalpy (per unit volume) of the ice sheet potentially impacting the rheology and thereby the ice flow. The relative roles of the surface mass balance changes and the dynamic response of the ice flow are further investigated using additional ice sheet model sensitivity experiments, where the ice sheet is forced by the time-varying surface mass balance from the coupled model. We aim to quantify the impact of the simulated surface warming on the ice flow by means of a hybrid simulation where the ice sheet is forced by the surface mass balance from the coupled setup while keeping the ice surface temperature constant. This allows for assessment of the impact of the surface mass balance change, isolated from the dynamical response to the warming surface.

  5. Anthropogenic climate change and the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajewicz, U.; Vizcaíno, M.; Rodehacke, C.; Ziemen, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the standard CMIP5 simulations the ice sheets are kept fixed. Only few groups have been able to perform CMIP5 simulations with interactively coupled ice sheet models. Beside its importance for the future evolution of global mean sea level, the Greenland ice sheet also has the potential to strongly affect deep water formation, especially in the Labrador Sea, but also in the Nordic Seas. Here we present a set of simulations with two interactively coupled ice sheet models, which allows to assess the uncertainty arising from both the ice sheet model as well as the coupling technique. The climate model ECHAM5/MPIOM is coupled interactively to two different ice sheet models using two different coupling strategies. The ice sheet models are a Greenland set-up of SICOPOLIS with 10 km horizontal resolution and a northern hemisphere set-up of PISM with a horizontal resolution of 20 km. The coupling is done either with a simple positive degree days approach or a mass-balance scheme calculating the surface melting with an energy-balance scheme. The atmospheric forcing is applied directly to the ice sheet model without flux correction or anomaly coupling, which avoids inconsistencies between the models. The resulting net mass loss rates for the Greenland ice sheet in a 1-percent-scenario capped at 4x preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations show a considerable dependence on both ice sheet model and coupling technique. The resulting differences in atmospheric climate, however, are small within the first centuries and restricted to the immediate vicinity of Greenland. The feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and the Greenland ice sheet are studied in a series of sensitivity experiments, where individual feedbacks were suppressed. It turns out that the future development of the Atlantic overturning and its associated heat transport are quite important for the future evolution of the Greenland ice sheet: The stronger the Atlantic overturning remains, the stronger the mass loss

  6. Balancing Acts: Women Principals at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulyan, Lisa

    This book uses life history and ethnography to examine the lives and work of three female elementary school principals and highlights their daily use of personal and professional skills. The principals' personal backgrounds and their effect on their work are examined within the community they serve, their school, and the historical and social…

  7. A Balancing Act: Making Sense of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2015-01-01

    For most students, algebra seems like a totally different subject than the number topics they studied in elementary school. In reality, the procedures followed in arithmetic are actually based on the properties and laws of algebra. Algebra should be a logical next step for students in extending the proficiencies they developed with number topics…

  8. Making It All Work: The Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefbauer, Christi

    2013-01-01

    In this brief article, the author shares some strategies that make her work and home life easier and more gratifying: (1) Declutter and simplify; (2) Plan meals; (3) Use Google Calendar; (4) Automate bills; (5) Use technology; (6) Make health a priority; and (7) Lose the guilt.

  9. Equity in Education: A Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lynnette, Ed.; Hines, Mack T., III, Ed.

    The issues surrounding equity in education are complex and varied. Recently the focus has shifted to students at risk. This paper discusses four specific issues that have affected school learning for at-risk students over the last 50 years. Issue 1, equity and youth at risk, discusses the home and family life of at-risk students and its…

  10. Network Leadership's Balancing Act: Contrivance or Emergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Chris; Bertram, Joan

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that one learns much of what one knows through one's network of relationships and through shared discussion and activity. A logical extension of this idea is the growing prominence in the UK where formal school-to-school networking such as Education Action Zones and Excellence in Cities has been established. This article…

  11. Cut, Cap, and Balance Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Chaffetz, Jason [R-UT-3

    2011-07-15

    07/22/2011 Motion to table the motion to proceed to the bill agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 51 - 46. Record Vote Number: 116. (consideration: CR S4825-4826) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. The Balancing Act of Team Curriculum Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchwald, Claire

    Historically, teachers have primarily worked alone in their classrooms, have served as deliverers of standardized and textual materials, and have been managed. Now, however, they are expected to work in teams, create active-learning curricula, and manage themselves. This paper examines a self-initiated team of K-6 grade teachers working in a…

  13. Balancing acts: drag queens, gender and faith.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Blum, Constance R

    2004-01-01

    While engaged in research on the same-sex marriage debate in mainline denominations, I interviewed 23 LGBT Christians, four of whom were drag queens. While it is not possible to generalize from such a small sample, the drag queens in this study insist on maintaining their identity as Christians despite the hegemonic discourse that renders faith and LGBT identities mutually exclusive. They developed innovative approaches to reconciling their gender and sexual identities with their spirituality. Their innovations are potentially liberating not just for them personally, but for LGBT people generally because they challenge Christianity's rigid dichotomies of gender and sexuality.

  14. Cut, Cap, and Balance Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lee, Mike [R-UT

    2011-07-07

    07/11/2011 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 97. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. A Corticostriatal Balancing Act Supports Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Victoria L; Ahmari, Susanne E; Gittis, Aryn H

    2017-10-11

    In this issue of Neuron, Kupferschmidt et al. (2017) reveal the shifting dynamics of functionally defined corticostriatal pathways during skill learning in mice using fiber photometry. They show different time courses in plasticity of associative and sensorimotor circuits across learning that involve changes at both the synaptic and cortical level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Work-Life Balance Award Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6

    2010-03-16

    06/15/2010 On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill, as amended Failed by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 249 - 163 (Roll no. 360). (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. The Balancing Act of Moose and Wolves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gordon C.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the predator-prey relationship between the moose and the wolves, and the added effect of human exploitations on this relationship. Described is the moose behavior at the population and system levels resulting from the predation pressures on them by the wolves and human exploitation. (DS)

  18. Making It All Work: The Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefbauer, Christi

    2013-01-01

    In this brief article, the author shares some strategies that make her work and home life easier and more gratifying: (1) Declutter and simplify; (2) Plan meals; (3) Use Google Calendar; (4) Automate bills; (5) Use technology; (6) Make health a priority; and (7) Lose the guilt.

  19. Balancing Act: Synergy of Combat Airpower Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Revolutionized War, from Kitty Hawk to Gulf War Ii. New York, N.Y.: Viking, 2004 . Builder, Carl H. The Icarus Syndrome : The Role of Air Power Theory in the...missions and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. After graduating from the USAF Weapons School in 2004 , he served as the wing weapons officer...concept in The Icarus Syndrome: “The post-WWII rationale for an independent air force rested largely on two claims--one intellectual, the other

  20. The WTO’s balancing act

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    The 146 member nations of the World Trade Organization recently came to an agreement that will allow poor nations to avoid patent restrictions and import generic versions of urgently needed medicines, but this accord has been met with criticism from international aid organizations. What effects will this agreement have on reducing the burden of disease in the developing world, and also on the pharmaceutical industry? PMID:14597749

  1. Iran’s Balancing Act in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    of Pishin, near the Pakistan border (“Iran: Dual Attacks in Sistan- Balochistan ,” 2009). The Iranian government accuses the United States, the United...Contract=cms_Contents_I_News&r=362180 “Iran: Dual Attacks in Sistan- Balochistan ,” Stratfor, October 18, 2009. As of January 5, 2011: http

  2. The Balancing Act of Moose and Wolves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gordon C.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the predator-prey relationship between the moose and the wolves, and the added effect of human exploitations on this relationship. Described is the moose behavior at the population and system levels resulting from the predation pressures on them by the wolves and human exploitation. (DS)

  3. The Balancing Act of Bilingual Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    2005-01-01

    Hadi-Tabassum believes having a separate life context for each language she learned in childhood enabled her to switch easily among five different tongues. She states that the success of dual immersion bilingual programs is largely dependent on whether they immerse students in each of the involved languages separately and help students have a…

  4. A Balancing Act: Making Sense of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2015-01-01

    For most students, algebra seems like a totally different subject than the number topics they studied in elementary school. In reality, the procedures followed in arithmetic are actually based on the properties and laws of algebra. Algebra should be a logical next step for students in extending the proficiencies they developed with number topics…

  5. The delicate balancing act of metallic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Williams, David

    2009-01-01

    Ever since metals have been used within the human body, there has been controversy over whether they do harm as well as good. There is now another dimension to this issue provided by experiences with recent metal-on-metal hip replacements.

  6. Decentralization and Development: The Indian Balancing Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    the importance of local governments, especially in the form of panchayats, promoted by Mahatma Gandhi . However, under Nehru, in the event of an...unstable during this period. After Nehru died in 1964, his successor, Shastri, lasted a little less than two years before Indira Gandhi , Nehru’s...initiate pro-agriculture policies which ultimately blossomed into the Green Revolution.78 Indira Gandhi was obliged to continue the reforms in as much as

  7. Checks and Balances Restoration and Revitalization Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Miller, Brad [D-NC-13

    2009-07-28

    House - 09/14/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Work-Life Balance Award Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Woolsey, Lynn C. [D-CA-6

    2010-03-16

    House - 06/15/2010 On motion to suspend the rules and pass the bill, as amended Failed by the Yeas and Nays: (2/3 required): 249 - 163 (Roll no. 360). (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Failed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Cut, Cap, and Balance Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Chaffetz, Jason [R-UT-3

    2011-07-15

    Senate - 07/22/2011 Motion to table the motion to proceed to the bill agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 51 - 46. Record Vote Number: 116. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Cut, Cap, and Balance Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lee, Mike [R-UT

    2011-07-07

    Senate - 07/11/2011 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 97. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Growth of Greenland ice sheet - Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay

    1989-01-01

    An observed 0.23 m/year thickening of the Greenland ice sheet indicates a 25 percent to 45 percent excess ice accumulation over the amount required to balance the outward ice flow. The implied global sea-level depletion is 0.2 to 0.4 mm/year, depending on whether the thickening is only recent (5 to 10 years) or longer term (less than 100 years). If there is a similar imbalance in the northern 60 percent of the ice-sheet area, the depletion is 0.35 to 0.7 mm/year. Increasing ice thickness suggests that the precipitation is higher than the long-term average; higher precipitation may be a characteristic of warmer climates in polar regions.

  12. Holocene deceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Joseph A.; Colgan, William T.; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Catania, Ginny A.; Paden, John D.; Gogineni, S. Prasad

    2016-02-01

    Recent peripheral thinning of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly offset by interior thickening and is overprinted on its poorly constrained Holocene evolution. On the basis of the ice sheet’s radiostratigraphy, ice flow in its interior is slower now than the average speed over the past nine millennia. Generally higher Holocene accumulation rates relative to modern estimates can only partially explain this millennial-scale deceleration. The ice sheet’s dynamic response to the decreasing proportion of softer ice from the last glacial period and the deglacial collapse of the ice bridge across Nares Strait also contributed to this pattern. Thus, recent interior thickening of the Greenland Ice Sheet is partly an ongoing dynamic response to the last deglaciation that is large enough to affect interpretation of its mass balance from altimetry.

  13. Jakobshavns Glacier drainage basin - A balance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Maximum and minimum estimates are made of the drainage basin feeding the Jakobshavns Glacier by using surface elevation maps derived from Seasat altimetry. Benson's (1962) net balance measurements are used to calculate the balance flow within the basin. Comparisons of the balance flux at the terminus with estimates of actual flux suggest the basin is in overall equilibrium or slightly thickening. This agrees with measurements along the nearby EGIG traverse. Balance velocities accelerate rapidly within 100 km of the coast. Farther upstream, balance velocities are consistent with both measured velocities along the EGIG traverse and calculated deformation velocities. It is estimated that Jakobshavns Glacier discharges between 4.8 and 7.6 percent of the annual net balance over Greenland and drains between 3.7 and 5.8 percent of the ice sheet area.

  14. Jakobshavns Glacier drainage basin - A balance assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Maximum and minimum estimates are made of the drainage basin feeding the Jakobshavns Glacier by using surface elevation maps derived from Seasat altimetry. Benson's (1962) net balance measurements are used to calculate the balance flow within the basin. Comparisons of the balance flux at the terminus with estimates of actual flux suggest the basin is in overall equilibrium or slightly thickening. This agrees with measurements along the nearby EGIG traverse. Balance velocities accelerate rapidly within 100 km of the coast. Farther upstream, balance velocities are consistent with both measured velocities along the EGIG traverse and calculated deformation velocities. It is estimated that Jakobshavns Glacier discharges between 4.8 and 7.6 percent of the annual net balance over Greenland and drains between 3.7 and 5.8 percent of the ice sheet area.

  15. "A Village Fable: In the Suicide Mountains": A One-Act Musical Play Based on the Novella "In the Suicide Mountains" by John Gardner, Book by James Still. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopp, Virginia Stuart

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "A Village Fable, In the Suicide Mountains," A one-act musical play based on the novella "In The Suicide Mountains" by John Gardner, and presented by The Coterie Theatre. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains…

  16. Energy information sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  17. Light sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael; Mickoleit, Michaela; Huisken, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the concept of light sheet microscopy along with practical advice on how to design and build such an instrument. Selective plane illumination microscopy is presented as an alternative to confocal microscopy due to several superior features such as high-speed full-frame acquisition, minimal phototoxicity, and multiview sample rotation. Based on our experience over the last 10 years, we summarize the key concepts in light sheet microscopy, typical implementations, and successful applications. In particular, sample mounting for long time-lapse imaging and the resulting challenges in data processing are discussed in detail.

  18. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  19. ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larour, Eric; Schiermeier, John E.; Seroussi, Helene; Morlinghem, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    In order to have the capability to use satellite data from its own missions to inform future sea-level rise projections, JPL needed a full-fledged ice-sheet/iceshelf flow model, capable of modeling the mass balance of Antarctica and Greenland into the near future. ISSM was developed with such a goal in mind, as a massively parallelized, multi-purpose finite-element framework dedicated to ice-sheet modeling. ISSM features unstructured meshes (Tria in 2D, and Penta in 3D) along with corresponding finite elements for both types of meshes. Each finite element can carry out diagnostic, prognostic, transient, thermal 3D, surface, and bed slope simulations. Anisotropic meshing enables adaptation of meshes to a certain metric, and the 2D Shelfy-Stream, 3D Blatter/Pattyn, and 3D Full-Stokes formulations capture the bulk of the ice-flow physics. These elements can be coupled together, based on the Arlequin method, so that on a large scale model such as Antarctica, each type of finite element is used in the most efficient manner. For each finite element referenced above, ISSM implements an adjoint. This adjoint can be used to carry out model inversions of unknown model parameters, typically ice rheology and basal drag at the ice/bedrock interface, using a metric such as the observed InSAR surface velocity. This data assimilation capability is crucial to allow spinning up of ice flow models using available satellite data. ISSM relies on the PETSc library for its vectors, matrices, and solvers. This allows ISSM to run efficiently on any parallel platform, whether shared or distrib- ISSM: Ice Sheet System Model NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California uted. It can run on the largest clusters, and is fully scalable. This allows ISSM to tackle models the size of continents. ISSM is embedded into MATLAB and Python, both open scientific platforms. This improves its outreach within the science community. It is entirely written in C/C++, which gives it flexibility in its

  20. 76 FR 36901 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary... brass sheet and strip from Germany. See Memorandum to Edward C. Yang, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary... of the Antidumping Duty Order on Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany'' (June 7, 2011). Extension...