Science.gov

Sample records for act commonly referred

  1. Genetics Home Reference: common variable immune deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... H, Lougaris V, Plebani A, Gertz EM, Schäffer AA, Hammarström L, Grimbacher B. Deleterious mutations in LRBA ... 2015 Jun 19. Review. Citation on PubMed Schäffer AA, Salzer U, Hammarström L, Grimbacher B. Deconstructing common ...

  2. To amend the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Investment Company Act of 1940, and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 to provide for certain disclosures under section 552 of title 5, United States Code, (commonly referred to as the Freedom of Information Act), and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Towns, Edolphus [D-NY-10

    2010-08-10

    08/10/2010 Referred to House Oversight and Government Reform (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3717, which became Public Law 111-257 on 10/5/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  4. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in common bean during biotic and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Borges, Aline; Tsai, Siu Mui; Caldas, Danielle Gregorio Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Selection of reference genes is an essential consideration to increase the precision and quality of relative expression analysis by the quantitative RT-PCR method. The stability of eight expressed sequence tags was evaluated to define potential reference genes to study the differential expression of common bean target genes under biotic (incompatible interaction between common bean and fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and abiotic (drought; salinity; cold temperature) stresses. The efficiency of amplification curves and quantification cycle (C (q)) were determined using LinRegPCR software. The stability of the candidate reference genes was obtained using geNorm and NormFinder software, whereas the normalization of differential expression of target genes [beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (BG1) gene for biotic stress and dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) gene for abiotic stress] was defined by REST software. High stability was obtained for insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), actin-11 (Act11), unknown 1 (Ukn1) and unknown 2 (Ukn2) genes during biotic stress, and for SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (Skip16), Act11, Tubulin beta-8 (β-Tub8) and Unk1 genes under abiotic stresses. However, IDE and Act11 were indicated as the best combination of reference genes for biotic stress analysis, whereas the Skip16 and Act11 genes were the best combination to study abiotic stress. These genes should be useful in the normalization of gene expression by RT-PCR analysis in common bean, the most important edible legume.

  5. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  6. An Investigation of Digital Reference Interviews: A Dialogue Act Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Keisuke

    2013-01-01

    The rapid increase of computer-mediated communications (CMCs) in various forms such as micro-blogging (e.g. Twitter), online chatting (e.g. digital reference) and community-based question-answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) characterizes a recent trend in web technologies, often referred to as the "social web". This trend highlights…

  7. FEMA Common Sense and Cost Effectiveness Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hoeven, John [R-ND

    2011-05-26

    05/26/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Handy Reference Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This guide provides general information about the application of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), as amended. Topics covered are basic wage standards, employees covered, tipped employees, employer-furnished facilities, subminimum wage provisions, equal pay provisions, exemptions, child labor provisions, recordkeeping, terms used in the FLSA,…

  9. Training Costs with Reference to the Industrial Training Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Douglas

    Provisions and implications of the British Industrial Training Act of 1964 (including the system of training grants and levies) are set forth. Procedures for accounting and budgeting for training costs, routines for collecting training information, documents (budgets, cost sheets, control statements) for collecting and controlling costs, means of…

  10. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Commodities § 780.116 Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act. (a) Section 3(f... defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended (12 U.S...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  11. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  12. Aligning ESP Courses with the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Androulla; Constantinou, Elis Kakoulli; Neophytou, Maro; Nicolaou, Anna; Papadima Sophocleous, Salomi; Yerou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article explains how the "Common European Framework of References for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001, "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) has been applied in language courses at the Language Centre (LC) of the Cyprus…

  13. Common Sense in Consumer Product Safety Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Tester, Jon [D-MT

    2009-03-17

    03/17/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3166) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Common Sense in Consumer Product Safety Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Tester, Jon [D-MT

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2052-2053) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Rapid-acting treatment for a common sleep problem.

    PubMed

    Bramble, D

    1997-08-01

    A behavioural modification package incorporating stimulus control, cueing, and rapid-extinction techniques was applied to a group of 15 children with severe learning disability who had chronic sleep disorders. Improvements in their night-settling and night-waking patterns occurred quickly (within a few days) and, in 12 of them, were sustained at medium- and long-term (18 months) follow-up. Additional improvements in the children's daytime behaviour and their mothers' subjective stress indices were observed, though not explicitly addressed. These results compare favourably with those of other studies which have tested behavioural interventions in other cohorts of children with sleep disorders. Wider application of behavioural interventions with these extremely common and potentially handicapping sleep disorders is recommended.

  16. Peer education in the commons: a new approach to reference services.

    PubMed

    Neal, Ruth E; Ajamie, Lauren F; Harmon, Karen D; Kellerby, Carissa D; Schweikhard, April J

    2010-10-01

    In planning for a new library construction project for the University of Oklahoma-Tulsa, graduate students enrolled in the University of Oklahoma (OU) School of Library and Information Studies collaborated in an innovative effort to develop a commons-based reference service. By first considering a philosophical approach to the need for a commons, blending in the experiences of other libraries that have created similar spaces, and focusing on the workflow issues likely to be encountered by the graduate assistants staffing the commons itself, this planning team developed an uncommon peer-to-peer approach to reference and education services, one focused on the patron as student.

  17. Environmental Guidance Program reference book: Toxic substances control act. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  18. Toxic Substances Control Act. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  19. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  20. Connecting Online Learners with Diverse Local Practices: The Design of Effective Common Reference Points for Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend Wise, Alyssa; Padmanabhan, Poornima; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study probed the effectiveness of three kinds of objects (video, theory, metaphor) as common reference points for conversations between online learners (student teachers). Individuals' degree of detail-focus was examined as a potentially interacting covariate and the outcome measure was learners' level of tacit knowledge related…

  1. Language Educational Policy and Language Learning Quality Management: The "Common European Framework of Reference"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenfanger, Olaf; Tschirner, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    The major goal of the Council of Europe to promote and facilitate communication and interaction among Europeans of different mother tongues has led to the development of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment" (CEFR). Among other things, the CEFR is intended to help language…

  2. Establishing a Common Phase Reference for Comparing Synthetic Data to RF Range Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    differences in CAD model position and ACR target position is a reasonable approach to achieve a common phase reference. Fig 12 is an ISAR image generated...cleared by 88 ABW/PA on 22-FEB-10 as Document Number 88 ABW-10-0700 Figure 12. ACR ISAR Image of Test Target Figure 11. Synthetic SAR Image of

  3. The positive side of a negative reference: the delay between linguistic processing and common ground

    PubMed Central

    Noveck, Ira; Rivera, Natalia; Jaume-Guazzini, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The common ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners like any other linguistic unit, i.e. without needing to keep track of the speaker. To test predictions from each account, we used visual-world eyetracking, which allows observations in real time, during a standard referential communication task. Participants had to select objects based on instructions from two speakers. In the critical condition, listeners sought an object with a negative reference such as not the jellyfish. We aimed to determine the extent to which listeners rely on the linguistic input, common ground or both. We found that initial interpretations were based on linguistic processing only and that common ground considerations do emerge but only after 1000 ms. Our findings support the idea that—at least temporally—linguistic processing can be isolated from common ground. PMID:28386440

  4. A bill to amend chapter 171 of title 28, United States Code, (commonly referred to as the Federal Torts Claim Act) to extend medical malpractice coverage to free clinics and the officers, governing board members, employees, and contractors of free clinics in the same manner and extent as certain Federal officers and employees.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2009-08-05

    08/05/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S8867) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. To amend the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 to provide compensation for certain persons injured in the course of employment at the Feed Materials Production Center (commonly referred to as "Fernald") or the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor in Ohio.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Driehaus, Steve [D-OH-1

    2009-11-03

    01/04/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. On Statistical Methods for Common Mean and Reference Confidence Intervals in Interlaboratory Comparisons for Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkovský, Viktor; Wimmer, Gejza; Ďuriš, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    We consider a problem of constructing the exact and/or approximate coverage intervals for the common mean of several independent distributions. In a metrological context, this problem is closely related to evaluation of the interlaboratory comparison experiments, and in particular, to determination of the reference value (estimate) of a measurand and its uncertainty, or alternatively, to determination of the coverage interval for a measurand at a given level of confidence, based on such comparison data. We present a brief overview of some specific statistical models, methods, and algorithms useful for determination of the common mean and its uncertainty, or alternatively, the proper interval estimator. We illustrate their applicability by a simple simulation study and also by example of interlaboratory comparisons for temperature. In particular, we shall consider methods based on (i) the heteroscedastic common mean fixed effect model, assuming negligible laboratory biases, (ii) the heteroscedastic common mean random effects model with common (unknown) distribution of the laboratory biases, and (iii) the heteroscedastic common mean random effects model with possibly different (known) distributions of the laboratory biases. Finally, we consider a method, recently suggested by Singh et al., for determination of the interval estimator for a common mean based on combining information from independent sources through confidence distributions.

  7. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Comprehensive Environmentally Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  8. Validation of commonly used reference genes for sleep-related gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kil S; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Guindalini, Camila; Andersen, Monica L; Castro, Rosa MRPS; Tufik, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Sleep is a restorative process and is essential for maintenance of mental and physical health. In an attempt to understand the complexity of sleep, multidisciplinary strategies, including genetic approaches, have been applied to sleep research. Although quantitative real time PCR has been used in previous sleep-related gene expression studies, proper validation of reference genes is currently lacking. Thus, we examined the effect of total or paradoxical sleep deprivation (TSD or PSD) on the expression stability of the following frequently used reference genes in brain and blood: beta-actin (b-actin), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT). Results Neither TSD nor PSD affected the expression stability of all tested genes in both tissues indicating that b-actin, B2M, GAPDH and HPRT are appropriate reference genes for the sleep-related gene expression studies. In order to further verify these results, the relative expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 (GPD1) was evaluated in brain and blood, respectively. The normalization with each of four reference genes produced similar pattern of expression in control and sleep deprived rats, but subtle differences in the magnitude of expression fold change were observed which might affect the statistical significance. Conclusion This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation does not alter the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in brain and blood. Nonetheless, the use of multiple reference genes in quantitative RT-PCR is required for the accurate results. PMID:19445681

  9. Reference dose levels for patients undergoing common diagnostic X-ray examinations in Irish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D A; Brennan, P C

    2000-04-01

    Wide variations in patient dose for the same type of X-ray examination have been evident from various international dose surveys. Reference dose levels provide a framework to reduce this variability and aid in the optimization of radiation protection. The aim of this study was to establish, for the first time, a baseline for national reference dose levels in Ireland for four of the most common X-ray examinations: chest, abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine. Measurements of entrance surface dose using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) for these four X-ray examinations were performed on 10 patients in each of 16 randomly selected hospitals. This represented 42% of Irish hospitals applicable to this study. Results have shown wide variation of mean hospital doses, from a factor of 3 for an anteroposterior lumbar spine to a factor of 23 for the chest X-ray. The difference between maximum and minimum individual patient dose values varied up to a factor of 75. Reasons for these dose variations were complex but, in general, low tube potential, high mAs and low filtration were associated with high-dose hospitals. This study also demonstrated lower reference dose levels of up to 40% when compared with those established by the UK and the Commission of the European Communities for four out of six projections. Only the chest X-ray exhibited a similar reference level to those established elsewhere. This emphasizes the importance of each country establishing its own reference dose levels that are appropriate to their own radiographic techniques and practices in order to optimize patient protection.

  10. Protocol and standard operating procedures for common use in a worldwide multicenter study on reference values.

    PubMed

    Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George

    2013-05-01

    The reference intervals (RIs) given in laboratory reports have an important role in aiding clinicians in interpreting test results in reference to values of healthy populations. In this report, we present a proposed protocol and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for common use in conducting multicenter RI studies on a national or international scale. The protocols and consensus on their contents were refined through discussions in recent C-RIDL meetings. The protocol describes in detail (1) the scheme and organization of the study, (2) the target population, inclusion/exclusion criteria, ethnicity, and sample size, (3) health status questionnaire, (4) target analytes, (5) blood collection, (6) sample processing and storage, (7) assays, (8) cross-check testing, (9) ethics, (10) data analyses, and (11) reporting of results. In addition, the protocol proposes the common measurement of a panel of sera when no standard materials exist for harmonization of test results. It also describes the requirements of the central laboratory, including the method of cross-check testing between the central laboratory of each country and local laboratories. This protocol and the SOPs remain largely exploratory and may require a reevaluation from the practical point of view after their implementation in the ongoing worldwide study. The paper is mainly intended to be a basis for discussion in the scientific community.

  11. End-of-life issues: common law and the Mental Capacity Act 2005.

    PubMed

    Fullbrook, Suzanne

    The preceding articles in this group of the series have thus far identified the common law principles in the sections of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 in respect of certain groups of people--those who retain their capacity to organize their own health-related affairs, those who have lost their capacity to self-determine their health choices on a temporary basis, and those who are no longer competent but who had previously identified their choices in respect of treatments and care. One common theme attaches to these groups--they all fall within the common law principles that underpin the health-related needs of those whose lives are supposed to continue after the decisions have been identified. This article, the last in this group, addresses specifically the legal principles, the ethical and moral dimensions, and the practical aspects of decisions where the consequence will be death--the so called 'end-of-life issues'.

  12. Production of Referring Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal Common Ground

    PubMed Central

    Kutlak, Roman; van Deemter, Kees; Mellish, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a computational model of the production of referring expressions under uncertainty over the hearer's knowledge. Although situations where the hearer's knowledge is uncertain have seldom been addressed in the computational literature, they are common in ordinary communication, for example when a writer addresses an unknown audience, or when a speaker addresses a stranger. We propose a computational model composed of three complimentary heuristics based on, respectively, an estimation of the recipient's knowledge, an estimation of the extent to which a property is unexpected, and the question of what is the optimum number of properties in a given situation. The model was tested in an experiment with human readers, in which it was compared against the Incremental Algorithm and human-produced descriptions. The results suggest that the new model outperforms the Incremental Algorithm in terms of the proportion of correctly identified entities and in terms of the perceived quality of the generated descriptions. PMID:27630592

  13. Production of Referring Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal Common Ground.

    PubMed

    Kutlak, Roman; van Deemter, Kees; Mellish, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a computational model of the production of referring expressions under uncertainty over the hearer's knowledge. Although situations where the hearer's knowledge is uncertain have seldom been addressed in the computational literature, they are common in ordinary communication, for example when a writer addresses an unknown audience, or when a speaker addresses a stranger. We propose a computational model composed of three complimentary heuristics based on, respectively, an estimation of the recipient's knowledge, an estimation of the extent to which a property is unexpected, and the question of what is the optimum number of properties in a given situation. The model was tested in an experiment with human readers, in which it was compared against the Incremental Algorithm and human-produced descriptions. The results suggest that the new model outperforms the Incremental Algorithm in terms of the proportion of correctly identified entities and in terms of the perceived quality of the generated descriptions.

  14. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act are major federal statutes designed to protect plant and animal resources from adverse effects due to development projects. Both Acts require consultation with wildlife authorities prior to committing resources to certain types of projects. The purposes and requirements of the two statutes are summarized in the following subsections. Also presented is a list of contacts in the regional and field offices of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Leslie B.; Wells, Randall S.; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lamb, Stephen V.; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual’s response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000–2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91–4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32–6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of

  16. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals.

    PubMed

    Hart, Leslie B; Wells, Randall S; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Lamb, Stephen V; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual's response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000-2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91-4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32-6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of Sarasota Bay

  17. The "Common European Framework of Reference" Down Under: A Survey of Its Use and Non-Use in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine; Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Today, the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001) is widely recognised as emblematic of globalization in education, both in the realms of policy and in educational practice (Byram et al. 2012a). In Europe the CEFR is regularly cited as a reference point for curriculum planning, and is often…

  18. Clean Water Act (Section 404) and Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10). Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  19. Accident prevention and Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 with particular reference to anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, G.D. )

    1993-07-01

    The sections of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 that refer to accident prevention are to be found in Title III. Two significant requirements of the CAAA in this respect relate to the responsibilities of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which has promulgated a new Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which at the time of writing, is developing Risk Management Program (RMP) regulations. The focus of this paper is on how the requirements of the CAAA may affect the reasons for performing a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) or may affect the results of QRA. In order to limit the discussion, this paper focuses on HF. First, the CAAA requires that the EPA assess the hazards associated with HF; the EPA's current draft report is discussed. Second, a generic assessment of the risks associated with the use of HF is given, with emphasis on alkylation units in refineries. The principal contributors to risk are listed. Finally, an assessment of OSHA's PSM standard 29 CFR 1910.119, the related requirements of state laws such as California's Risk Management and Prevention Program and the potential requirement of EPA's Risk Management Program are given, including an assessment of how these requirements may influence quantitative estimates of risk. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  20. 78 FR 52553 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-035 Common Entity Index Prototype System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-035 Common Entity... titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/ ALL--035 Common Entity Index Prototype System of Records.... Instructions: All submissions received must include the agency name and docket number for this rulemaking....

  1. Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of common reference intervals to the Croatian population

    PubMed Central

    Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of reference value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated reference intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients’ care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization processes of analytical methods the ability to create unique reference intervals is achieved. Such reference intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same reference measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization processes in Croatia in the field of population based reference intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:27019800

  2. 26 CFR 301.9100-21 - References to other temporary elections under various tax acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Act of 1981. 5c.1256-1 Election with respect to property held on June 23, 1981, under section 508(c... year beginning before January 1, 1975, under the Tax Reform Act of 1976. 7.48-3 Election to apply the... Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR), under the Revenue Act of 1971. 12.7 Election to...

  3. 26 CFR 301.9100-21 - References to other temporary elections under various tax acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Act of 1981. 5c.1256-1 Election with respect to property held on June 23, 1981, under section 508(c... year beginning before January 1, 1975, under the Tax Reform Act of 1976. 7.48-3 Election to apply the... Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR), under the Revenue Act of 1971. 12.7 Election to...

  4. 26 CFR 301.9100-21 - References to other temporary elections under various tax acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Act of 1981. 5c.1256-1 Election with respect to property held on June 23, 1981, under section 508(c... year beginning before January 1, 1975, under the Tax Reform Act of 1976. 7.48-3 Election to apply the... Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR), under the Revenue Act of 1971. 12.7 Election to...

  5. 26 CFR 301.9100-21 - References to other temporary elections under various tax acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Act of 1981. 5c.1256-1 Election with respect to property held on June 23, 1981, under section 508(c... year beginning before January 1, 1975, under the Tax Reform Act of 1976. 7.48-3 Election to apply the... Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR), under the Revenue Act of 1971. 12.7 Election to...

  6. A reference genome for common bean and genome wide analysis of dual domestications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the single most important grain legume for human consumption and, due to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms, has a valuable place in sustainable agriculture. We assembled 473 Mb of the common bean genome and geneti...

  7. Practised Intelligence Testing Based on a Modern Test Conceptualization and Its Reference to the Common Intelligence Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubinger, Klaus D.; Litzenberger, Margarete; Mrakotsky, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The question is to what extent intelligence test-batteries prove any kind of empirical reference to common intelligence theories. Of particular interest are conceptualized tests that are of a high psychometric standard--those that fit the Rasch model--and hence are not exposed to fundamental critique. As individualized testing, i.e., a…

  8. The Council of Europe's "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR): Approach, Status, Function and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyniuk, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    The Council of Europe's "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" is rapidly becoming a powerful instrument for shaping language education policies in Europe and beyond. The task of relating language policies, language curricula, teacher education and training, textbook and course design and content, examinations and…

  9. The" Common European Framework of Reference for Languages," the European Language Portfolio, and Language Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the relevance of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP) to language learning in higher education, especially as regards the definition of aims and learning outcomes and the promotion of students' capacity to manage their own learning. After…

  10. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

  11. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  12. A comparative neutron activation analysis study of common generic manipulated and reference medicines commercialized in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, A S; Menezes, M A B C; Rodrigues, R R; Andonie, O; Vermaercke, P; Sneyers, L

    2008-10-01

    In this work, a comparative study of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed by the nuclear institutes: CDTN/CNEN-Brazil, CCHEN-Chile and the SCK.CEN-Belgium aiming to investigate some generic, manipulated and reference medicines largely commercialized in Brazil. Some impurities such as: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ti and Zn were found, and the heterogeneity of the samples pointed out the lack of an efficient public system of quality control.

  13. Tasmania's Reproductive Health (Access to Terminations) Act 2013: An analysis of conscientious objection to abortion and the "obligation to refer".

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli

    2015-06-01

    This article focuses on Tasmania's Reproductive Health (Access to Terminations) Act 2013, which decriminalises abortion in that State. The article first provides an overview of the Tasmanian legislation, comparing it with Victoria's Abortion Law Reform Act 2008. It then provides a more in-depth analysis of a doctor's right to "conscientious objection" and the requirement in both Acts of an "obligation to refer". The article concludes that ultimately, as a democratic society, it is important that both a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy and a doctor's right to freedom of conscience is respected. Where these rights conflict, as is the case when a doctor with a conscientious objection to abortion is confronted with a patient who seeks information about abortion, they must be balanced. The Victorian and Tasmanian Acts represent a considered and reasonable approach to balancing the rights at issue.

  14. Young Children Follow Pointing over Words in Interpreting Acts of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Adults refer young children's attention to things in two basic ways: through the use of pointing (and other deictic gestures) and words (and other linguistic conventions). In the current studies, we referred young children (2- and 4-year-olds) to things in conflicting ways, that is, by pointing to one object while indicating linguistically (in…

  15. A reference genome for common bean and genome-wide analysis of dual domestications.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Jeremy; McClean, Phillip E; Mamidi, Sujan; Wu, G Albert; Cannon, Steven B; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Shu, Shengqiang; Song, Qijian; Chavarro, Carolina; Torres-Torres, Mirayda; Geffroy, Valerie; Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Gao, Dongying; Abernathy, Brian; Barry, Kerrie; Blair, Matthew; Brick, Mark A; Chovatia, Mansi; Gepts, Paul; Goodstein, David M; Gonzales, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Hyten, David L; Jia, Gaofeng; Kelly, James D; Kudrna, Dave; Lee, Rian; Richard, Manon M S; Miklas, Phillip N; Osorno, Juan M; Rodrigues, Josiane; Thareau, Vincent; Urrea, Carlos A; Wang, Mei; Yu, Yeisoo; Zhang, Ming; Wing, Rod A; Cregan, Perry B; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Jackson, Scott A

    2014-07-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume for human consumption and has a role in sustainable agriculture owing to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. We assembled 473 Mb of the 587-Mb genome and genetically anchored 98% of this sequence in 11 chromosome-scale pseudomolecules. We compared the genome for the common bean against the soybean genome to find changes in soybean resulting from polyploidy. Using resequencing of 60 wild individuals and 100 landraces from the genetically differentiated Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools, we confirmed 2 independent domestications from genetic pools that diverged before human colonization. Less than 10% of the 74 Mb of sequence putatively involved in domestication was shared by the two domestication events. We identified a set of genes linked with increased leaf and seed size and combined these results with quantitative trait locus data from Mesoamerican cultivars. Genes affected by domestication may be useful for genomics-enabled crop improvement.

  16. Commonality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E., Jr.

    Commonality analysis is an attempt to understand the relative predictive power of the regressor variables, both individually and in combination. The squared multiple correlation is broken up into elements assigned to each individual regressor and to each possible combination of regressors. The elements have the property that the appropriate sums…

  17. Coastal Zone Management Act and related legislation: Revision 3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    In recognition of the increasing pressures upon the nation`s coastal resources, Congress enacted the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. Its purpose is to encourage states to preserve, protect, develop, and, where possible, restore or enhance such valuable natural resources as wetlands, floodplains, estuaries, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, and coral reefs, as well as the fish and wildlife utilizing those habitats. A unique feature of the Act is that participation by states is voluntary. One key provision for encouraging states to participate is the availability of federal financial assistance to any coastal state or territory, including those on the Great Lakes, which is willing to develop and implement a comprehensive coastal management program. Additionally, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) was passed in 1983. This report contains the legislative history and statues associated with each Act. Regulations for implementation and other guidance are included.

  18. Reference News Release: United States Announces Settlement of Clean Water Act Violations at Aqueduct Racetrack

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The complaint alleges that NYRA, which operates the Aqueduct Racetrack where horse racing, training, and boarding of horses occur, and where up to 450 horses are housed on site during the horse racing season, violated the Clean Water Act

  19. Comparison of the toxicity of reference mycotoxins and spore extracts of common indoor moulds.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Torsten; Senkpiel, Klaus; Ohgke, Helge

    2004-07-01

    There is an unclear endangering potential by toxic influences of inhaled conidiospores and therefore the conidia of indoor mould species were cultured and toxicologically examined after their mechanical disintegration. For this purpose high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and three colorimetric bioassays, the PTGT (pollen tube growth test), the MB (methylene blue) and the MTT (methylthiazoltetrazolium) assay were applied. The sensitivity of the biological methods was evaluated by using 12 reference mycotoxins and 3 structural cell wall components. Only in one extract of disintegrated spores (Aspergillus fumigatus) a mycotoxin (0.22 microg gliotoxin/6.2 x 10(8) spores) was determined. All nine spore extracts, however, turned out to be cytotoxic and in this case the MTT assay was remarkably more sensitive than the two other test methods. The IC50 values of six different spore extracts determined by the MTT assay were lower than 10(6) spores/well (well = 0.2 ml) whereas the IC50 values determined by the MB assay and PTGT were higher than 10(6) spores per 0.2 ml for each spore extract. An examination of four spore extracts, which were fractionated depending on their polarity by HPLC, showed that single substances as well as synergistic effects contribute to the toxic properties of the spores. The results of this work indicate a health hazard due to toxic effects after the inhalation of extremely high spore concentrations of indoor moulds. This risk will also exist if the spores do not contain any mycotoxins.

  20. Statistical inference from multiple iTRAQ experiments without using common reference standards.

    PubMed

    Herbrich, Shelley M; Cole, Robert N; West, Keith P; Schulze, Kerry; Yager, James D; Groopman, John D; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee; O'Meally, Robert N; May, Damon H; McIntosh, Martin W; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2013-02-01

    Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) is a prominent mass spectrometry technology for protein identification and quantification that is capable of analyzing multiple samples in a single experiment. Frequently, iTRAQ experiments are carried out using an aliquot from a pool of all samples, or "masterpool", in one of the channels as a reference sample standard to estimate protein relative abundances in the biological samples and to combine abundance estimates from multiple experiments. In this manuscript, we show that using a masterpool is counterproductive. We obtain more precise estimates of protein relative abundance by using the available biological data instead of the masterpool and do not need to occupy a channel that could otherwise be used for another biological sample. In addition, we introduce a simple statistical method to associate proteomic data from multiple iTRAQ experiments with a numeric response and show that this approach is more powerful than the conventionally employed masterpool-based approach. We illustrate our methods using data from four replicate iTRAQ experiments on aliquots of the same pool of plasma samples and from a 406-sample project designed to identify plasma proteins that covary with nutrient concentrations in chronically undernourished children from South Asia.

  1. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producers of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum resin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act,...

  2. 26 CFR 301.9100-21 - References to other temporary elections under various tax acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)-2 Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f)(8) lease, under the Economic Recovery Tax...) of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. 5c.1256-2 Election with respect to taxable years beginning before June 23, 1981, and ending after June 22, 1981, under section 509 of the Economic Recovery Tax...

  3. 76 FR 12896 - References to Credit Ratings in Certain Investment Company Act Rules and Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... by Money Market Funds and Certain Other Open-End Investment Companies, Investment Company Act Release... current net asset value) and 22c-1 (generally requiring open-end funds to sell and redeem their shares at... Instruments and Computation of Current Price Per Share by Certain Open-End Investment Companies (Money...

  4. The Acquisition of Temporal Reference Cross-Linguistically Using Two Acting-Out Comprehension Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winskel, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The acquisition of temporal event referencing, encoded by the temporal connectives: then, before, after, when, while, together, until, and since in English, Thai and Lisu was investigated using two acting-out comprehension tasks, a Marble task and a Toy task. Forty children aged 3.6-7.6 years from each language participated. The Marble and Toy…

  5. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs onwards.

  6. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Malcom, Jacob W; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-12-29

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act's prohibitions on "jeopardizing" listed species or "destroying or adversely modifying" these species' critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations.

  7. Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (commonly referred to as DOP) in HEPA filter test

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), commonly referred to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with reference to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.

  8. 17 CFR 230.132 - Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(a)(2) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(a)(2) of the Act. The term common trust fund as used in section 3(a)(2) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 77c(a)(2)) shall include a common trust fund which is... group in the capacity of trustee, executor, administrator, or guardian, Provided That: (a) The...

  9. Improved agreement between borehole and other proxy reconstructions of paleoclimate via a new common temperature reference scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerdon, J. E.; Pollack, H. N.

    2005-12-01

    Comparisons between temperature reconstructions derived from proxy data require common temperature reference. Given any number of proxy time series scaled to temperature, one must decide how to reference each reconstruction on a common temperature scale such that their relative variability has comparable meaning. Two choices are common: 1) an absolute temperature scaling in which time series are referenced to the Kelvin, Celsius or Fahrenheit scales; or 2) an anomaly scaling in which each time series is referenced to its own mean during a specified time interval. This latter choice is typically applied because the relative variability of each proxy time series is often the topic of interest. For example, a widely applied convention references all temperature reconstructions to their mean temperature during the 1961-90 time interval. While this scheme is appropriate for reconstructions with equal temporal resolution, it can lead to inappropriate comparisons between reconstructions with different resolutions. We demonstrate that comparisons between borehole reconstructions, comprising piecewise centennial trends, with other annually-resolved proxy reconstructions have inadvertently exaggerated the amount of disagreement between the two estimates of past climate change. This exaggeration arises because the borehole reconstructions have been referenced to other anomaly series using the mean temperature of the 20th-century borehole trend between 1961 and 1990. A more appropriate referencing scheme for the borehole reconstructions pins the zero crossing of the 20th-century trend in the borehole time series to the equivalent point in the linear trend of the 20th-century instrumental record. Such a referencing approach reduces the disagreement between borehole reconstructions and other estimates of past climate change. For example, the difference in minimum 16th-century temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere between borehole and other proxy-based estimates is reduced by

  10. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act

    PubMed Central

    Malcom, Jacob W.; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act’s prohibitions on “jeopardizing” listed species or “destroying or adversely modifying” these species’ critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations. PMID:26668392

  11. Common genetic variants, acting additively, are a major source of risk for autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are early onset neurodevelopmental syndromes typified by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, accompanied by restricted and repetitive behaviors. While rare and especially de novo genetic variation are known to affect liability, whether common genetic polymorphism plays a substantial role is an open question and the relative contribution of genes and environment is contentious. It is probable that the relative contributions of rare and common variation, as well as environment, differs between ASD families having only a single affected individual (simplex) versus multiplex families who have two or more affected individuals. Methods By using quantitative genetics techniques and the contrast of ASD subjects to controls, we estimate what portion of liability can be explained by additive genetic effects, known as narrow-sense heritability. We evaluate relatives of ASD subjects using the same methods to evaluate the assumptions of the additive model and partition families by simplex/multiplex status to determine how heritability changes with status. Results By analyzing common variation throughout the genome, we show that common genetic polymorphism exerts substantial additive genetic effects on ASD liability and that simplex/multiplex family status has an impact on the identified composition of that risk. As a fraction of the total variation in liability, the estimated narrow-sense heritability exceeds 60% for ASD individuals from multiplex families and is approximately 40% for simplex families. By analyzing parents, unaffected siblings and alleles not transmitted from parents to their affected children, we conclude that the data for simplex ASD families follow the expectation for additive models closely. The data from multiplex families deviate somewhat from an additive model, possibly due to parental assortative mating. Conclusions Our results, when viewed in the context of results from genome

  12. 17 CFR 240.3a12-6 - Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(a)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 240.3a12-6 Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(a)(12) of the Act. The term common trust fund as used in section 3(a)(12) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(12)) shall include a common trust..., That: (a) The common trust fund is operated in compliance with the same state and federal...

  13. 17 CFR 270.3c-4 - Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1940 § 270.3c-4 Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act. The term common trust fund as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(c)(3)) shall include a common...; Provided, That: (a) The common trust fund is operated in compliance with the same State and...

  14. Serving the Common Interest in U.S. Forest Policy: A Case Study of the Healthy Forests Restoration Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Toddi A.; Dumond, Melissa Elefante

    2009-03-01

    In the United States, the common interest often is conceived as a by-product of the pluralist, interest-group-driven democratic process. Special interests dominate in many political arenas. Consequently, we have lost the language, vocabulary, and ability to talk about the common interest. The way to reverse this trend is to develop and practice with new tools that allow us to articulate what we mean by the common interest in specific contexts. In this article, we leveraged the literature on procedural, substantive, and pragmatic decision making to illustrate how they work together to demonstrate whether and how the common interest was served in three case studies of Healthy Forests Restoration Act implementation on the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in Arizona. In two of the cases we found that the common interest was mostly served, while in the third case it was not. Our results raise questions about the ability of procedural criteria or substantive criteria alone to determine effectiveness in decision making. When evaluated together they provide a more complete understanding of how the common interest is or is not served.

  15. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in

  16. Pentapeptide-repeat proteins that act as topoisomerase poison resistance factors have a common dimer interface

    PubMed Central

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Zhang, Yong; Blanchard, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The protein AlbG is a self-resistance factor against albicidin, a nonribosomally encoded hybrid polyketide-peptide with antibiotic and phytotoxic properties produced by Xanthomonas albilineans. Primary-sequence analysis indicates that AlbG is a member of the pentapeptide-repeat family of proteins (PRP). The structure of AlbG from X. albilineans was determined at 2.0 Å resolution by SAD phasing using data collected from a single trimethyllead acetate derivative on a home source. AlbG folds into a right-handed quadrilateral β-helix composed of approximately eight semi-regular coils. The regularity of the β-­helix is blemished by a large loop/deviation in the β-helix between coils 4 and 5. The C-terminus of the β-helix is capped by a dimerization module, yielding a dimer with a 110 Å semi-collinear β-helical axis. This method of dimer formation appears to be common to all PRP proteins that confer resistance to topoisomerase poisons and contrasts with most PRP proteins, which are typically monomeric. PMID:21393830

  17. Racial/Ethnic-Specific Reference Intervals for Common Laboratory Tests: A Comparison among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and White.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eunjung; Miyamura, Jill; Chen, John J

    2015-09-01

    Reference intervals (RIs) for common clinical laboratory tests are usually not developed separately for different subpopulations. The aim of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in RIs of common biochemical and hematological laboratory tests using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 data. This current study included 3,077 participants aged 18-65 years who reported their health status as "Excellent," "Very good," or "Good," with known race/ethnicity as white, black, Hispanic, or Asian. Quantile regression analyses adjusted for sex were conducted to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in the normal ranges of 38 laboratory tests. Significant racial/ethnic differences were found in almost all laboratory tests. Compared to whites, the normal range for Asians significantly shifted to higher values in globulin and total protein and to lower values in creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and mean platelet volume. These results indicate that racial/ethnic subpopulations have unique distributions in the labortoary tests and race/ethnicity may need to be incorporated in the development of their RIs. Establishment of racial/ethnic-specific RIs may have significant clinical and public health implication for more accurate disease diagnosis and appropriate treatment to improve quality of patient care, especially for a state with diverse racial/ethnic subpopuations such as Hawai'i.

  18. A reference interval study for common biochemical analytes in Eastern Turkey: a comparison of a reference population with laboratory data mining

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Ozarda, Yesim; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Umudum, Fatma Zuhal; Bakan, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals (RIs) in a Turkish population living in Northeast Turkey (Erzurum) for 34 analytes using direct and indirect methods. In the present study, the regional RIs obtained were compared with other RI studies, primarily the nationwide study performed in Turkey. Materials and methods For the direct method, 435 blood samples were collected from a healthy group of females (N = 218) and males (N = 217) aged between 18 and 65 years. The sera were analysed in Ataturk University hospital laboratory using Roche reagents and analysers for 34 analytes. The data from 1,366,948 records were used to calculate the indirect RIs using a modified Bhattacharya method. Results Significant gender-related differences were observed for 17 analytes. There were also some apparent differences between RIs derived from indirect and direct methods particularly in some analytes (e.g. gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase, LDL-cholesterol and iron). The RIs derived with the direct method for some, but not all, of the analytes were generally comparable with the RIs reported in the nationwide study and other previous studies in Turkey.There were large differences between RIs derived by the direct method and the expected values shown in the kit insert (e.g. aspartate aminotransferase, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and vitamin B12). Conclusions These data provide region-specific RIs for 34 analytes determined by the direct and indirect methods. The observed differences in RIs between previous studies could be related to nutritional status and environmental factors. PMID:27346966

  19. Teaching Writing within the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR): A Supplement Asynchronous Blended Learning Approach in an EFL Undergraduate Course in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef; Lotfy, Nohayer Esmat

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and following a blended learning approach (a supplement model), this article reports on a quasi-experiment where writing was taught evenly with other language skills in everyday language contexts and where asynchronous online activities were required from students to extend learning beyond…

  20. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  1. The "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages," the European Language Portfolio, and Language Teaching/Learning at University: An Argument and Some Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    2016-01-01

    I begin this article by briefly explaining why I think CercleS should encourage university language centres to align their courses and assessment with the proficiency levels of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR) and why they should use a version of the European Language Portfolio (ELP) to support the…

  2. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean.

  3. Natural and Drug Rewards Act on Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms with ΔFosB as a Key Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Pitchers, Kyle K.; Vialou, Vincent; Nestler, Eric J.; Laviolette, Steven R.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse induce neuroplasticity in the natural reward pathway, specifically the nucleus accumbens (NAc), thereby causing development and expression of addictive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that natural rewards may cause similar changes in the NAc, suggesting that drugs may activate mechanisms of plasticity shared with natural rewards, and allowing for unique interplay between natural and drug rewards. In this study, we demonstrate that sexual experience in male rats when followed by short or prolonged periods of loss of sex reward causes enhanced amphetamine reward, indicated by sensitized conditioned place preference for low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) amphetamine. Moreover, the onset, but not the longer-term expression, of enhanced amphetamine reward was correlated with a transient increase in dendritic spines in the NAc. Next, a critical role for the transcription factor ΔFosB in sex experience-induced enhanced amphetamine reward and associated increases in dendritic spines on NAc neurons was established using viral vector gene transfer of the dominant-negative binding partner ΔJunD. Moreover, it was demonstrated that sexual experience-induced enhanced drug reward, ΔFosB, and spinogenesis are dependent on mating-induced dopamine D1 receptor activation in the NAc. Pharmacological blockade of D1 receptor, but not D2 receptor, in the NAc during sexual behavior attenuated ΔFosB induction and prevented increased spinogenesis and sensitized amphetamine reward. Together, these findings demonstrate that drugs of abuse and natural reward behaviors act on common molecular and cellular mechanisms of plasticity that control vulnerability to drug addiction, and that this increased vulnerability is mediated by ΔFosB and its downstream transcriptional targets. PMID:23426671

  4. Common cis-acting region responsible for transcriptional regulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase by nickel, oxygen, and hydrogen.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H; Yu, C; Maier, R J

    1991-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum expresses hydrogenase in microaerophilic free-living conditions in the presence of nickel. Plasmid-borne hup-lacZ transcriptional fusion constructs were used to study the regulation of the hydrogenase gene. The hydrogenase gene was transcriptionally induced under microaerobic conditions (0.1 to 3.0% partial pressure O2). The hydrogenase gene was not transcribed or was poorly transcribed in strictly anaerobic conditions or conditions above 3.0% O2. Hydrogen gas at levels as low as 0.1% partial pressure induced hydrogenase transcription, and a high level of transcription was maintained up to at least 10% H2 concentration. No transcription was observed in the absence of H2. Hydrogenase was regulated by H2, O2, and Ni when the 5'-upstream sequence was pared down to include base number -168. However, when the upstream sequence was pared down to base number -118, the regulatory response to O2, H2, and Ni levels was negated. Thus, a common cis-acting regulatory region localized within 50 bp is critical for the regulation of hydrogenase by hydrogen, oxygen, and nickel. As a control, the B. japonicum hemA gene which codes for delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase was also fused to the promoterless lacZ gene, and its regulation was tested in the presence of various concentrations of O2 and H2. hemA-lacZ transcription was not dependent on levels of Ni, O2, or H2. Two different hup-lacZ fusions were tested in a Hup- background, strain JH47; these hup-lacZ constructs in JH47 demonstrated dependency on nickel, O2, and H2, indicating that the hydrogenase protein itself is not a sensor for regulation by O2, H2, or nickel. PMID:2061281

  5. Locomotion and posture from the common hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special reference to the last common panin/hominin ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Crompton, R H; Vereecke, E E; Thorpe, S K S

    2008-01-01

    Based on our knowledge of locomotor biomechanics and ecology we predict the locomotion and posture of the last common ancestors of (a) great and lesser apes and their close fossil relatives (hominoids); (b) chimpanzees, bonobos and modern humans (hominines); and (c) modern humans and their fossil relatives (hominins). We evaluate our propositions against the fossil record in the context of a broader review of evolution of the locomotor system from the earliest hominoids of modern aspect (crown hominoids) to early modern Homo sapiens. While some early East African stem hominoids were pronograde, it appears that the adaptations which best characterize the crown hominoids are orthogrady and an ability to abduct the arm above the shoulder – rather than, as is often thought, manual suspension sensu stricto. At 7–9 Ma (not much earlier than the likely 4–8 Ma divergence date for panins and hominins, see Bradley, 2008) there were crown hominoids in southern Europe which were adapted to moving in an orthograde posture, supported primarily on the hindlimb, in an arboreal, and possibly for Oreopithecus, a terrestrial context. By 7 Ma, Sahelanthropus provides evidence of a Central African hominin, panin or possibly gorilline adapted to orthogrady, and both orthogrady and habitually highly extended postures of the hip are evident in the arboreal East African protohominin Orrorin at 6 Ma. If the traditional idea that hominins passed through a terrestrial ‘knuckle-walking’ phase is correct, not only does it have to be explained how a quadrupedal gait typified by flexed postures of the hindlimb could have preadapted the body for the hominin acquisition of straight-legged erect bipedality, but we would have to accept a transition from stem-hominoid pronogrady to crown hominoid orthogrady, back again to pronogrady in the African apes and then back to orthogrady in hominins. Hand-assisted arboreal bipedality, which is part of a continuum of orthograde behaviours, is used by

  6. National Corn Growers Association Clean Water Act and TMDL Program: An Introduction and Basic Desk Reference for Corn Growers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The primer from the National Corn Growers Association includes information on the Clean Water Act, TMDLs, a hypothetical TMDL case study and opportunities for the agricultural community's involvement in development and implementation of TMDLs.

  7. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16.

  8. Angiocardiographic appearances of atrioventricular defects with particular reference to distinction of ostium primum atrial septal defect from common atrioventricular orifice.

    PubMed Central

    Macartney, F J; Rees, P G; Daly, K; Piccoli, G P; Taylor, J F; De Leval, M R; Stark, J; Anderson, R H

    1979-01-01

    Preoperative distinction between common atrioventricular orifice and ostium primum atrial septal defect may be difficult. To improve diagnostic accuracy, the right and left ventricle angiocardiograms were reviewed 'blind' in 92 patients with atrioventricular defects. The true diagnosis was known from necropsy or surgery in 60. Angiocardiograms had been obtained in various projections with or without craniocaudal tilt. Those features thought to distinguish between common orifice and ostium primum were coded, together with the ventricular systolic pressures. Computerised disciminant function analysis identified the following distinguishing features: (1) right ventricular systolic pressure; (2) immediate right ventricular outflow tract opacification from the left ventricle; (3) identification of the anterior attachment of the mitral component; (4) recognition of a single straddling atrioventricular orifice; (5) passage of contrast medium above or below the anterior or posterior bridging leaflets. Feature (3) indicates that in contrast to classic teaching the direct septal attachment of the mitral component does not contribute to the 'gooseneck' in complete atrioventricular defects. The significance of (4) and (5) is that they may be identified from right as well as left ventriculography, and are more likely to be identified in oblique than standard projections. Computerisation produced a correct diagnosis in 92 per cent of known cases, and determined precise probabilities of diagnosis in the remainder. Images PMID:534581

  9. To amend section 1951 of title 18, United States Code (commonly known as the Hobbs Act), and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Broun, Paul C. [R-GA-10

    2013-05-16

    06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Contribution of 32 GWAS-Identified Common Variants to Severe Obesity in European Adults Referred for Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yousseif, Ahmed; Pucci, Andrea; Santini, Ferruccio; Karra, Efthimia; Querci, Giorgia; Pelosini, Caterina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥35.0 kg/m2, is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that severe obesity represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation, reflecting shared genetic factors operating across the spectrum. Here, we sought to determine whether a panel of 32 known common obesity-susceptibility variants contribute to severe obesity in patients (n = 1,003, mean BMI 48.4±8.1 kg/m2) attending bariatric surgery clinics in two European centres. We examined the effects of these 32 common variants on obesity risk and BMI, both as individual markers and in combination as a genetic risk score, in a comparison with normal-weight controls (n = 1,809, BMI 18.0–24.9 kg/m2); an approach which, to our knowledge, has not been previously undertaken in the setting of a bariatric clinic. We found strong associations with severe obesity for SNP rs9939609 within the FTO gene (P = 9.3×10−8) and SNP rs2815752 near the NEGR1 gene (P = 3.6×10−4), and directionally consistent nominal associations (P<0.05) for 12 other SNPs. The genetic risk score associated with severe obesity (P = 8.3×10−11) but, within the bariatric cohort, this score did not associate with BMI itself (P = 0.264). Our results show significant effects of individual BMI-associated common variants within a relatively small sample size of bariatric patients. Furthermore, the burden of such low-penetrant risk alleles contributes to severe obesity in this population. Our findings support that severe obesity observed in bariatric patients represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation. Moreover, future genetic studies focused on bariatric patients may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of

  11. Reference point indentation is insufficient for detecting alterations in traditional mechanical properties of bone under common experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Krege, John B; Aref, Mohammad W; McNerny, Erin; Wallace, Joseph M; Organ, Jason M; Allen, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    Reference point indentation (RPI) was developed as a novel method to assess mechanical properties of bone in vivo, yet it remains unclear what aspects of bone dictate changes/differences in RPI-based parameters. The main RPI parameter, indentation distance increase (IDI), has been proposed to be inversely related to the ability of bone to form/tolerate damage. The goal of this work was to explore the relationshipre-intervention RPI measurebetween RPI parameters and traditional mechanical properties under varying experimental conditions (drying and ashing bones to increase brittleness, demineralizing bones and soaking in raloxifene to decrease brittleness). Beams were machined from cadaveric bone, pre-tested with RPI, subjected to experimental manipulation, post-tested with RPI, and then subjected to four-point bending to failure. Drying and ashing significantly reduced RPI's IDI, as well as ultimate load (UL), and energy absorption measured from bending tests. Demineralization increased IDI with minimal change to bending properties. Ex vivo soaking in raloxifene had no effect on IDI but tended to enhance post-yield behavior at the structural level. These data challenge the paradigm of an inverse relationship between IDI and bone toughness, both through correlation analyses and in the individual experiments where divergent patterns of altered IDI and mechanical properties were noted. Based on these results, we conclude that RPI measurements alone, as compared to bending tests, are insufficient to reach conclusions regarding mechanical properties of bone. This proves problematic for the potential clinical use of RPI measurements in determining fracture risk for a single patient, as it is not currently clear that there is an IDI, or even a trend of IDI, that can determine clinically relevant changes in tissue properties that may contribute to whole bone fracture resistance.

  12. The Impact of the Common Core State Standards Initiative on Math ACT Scores of West Tennessee High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kirkland D.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative is the latest effort by educational leaders to improve educational outcomes of American students. The standards are intended to bring uniformity in educational content of what is being taught in schools across the nation in order to promote rigor and academic portability. Proponents claimed the new…

  13. Hemifield-dependent N1 and event-related theta/delta oscillations: An unbiased comparison of surface Laplacian and common EEG reference choices

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface Laplacian methodology has been used to reduce the impact of volume conduction and arbitrary choice of EEG recording reference for the analysis of surface potentials. However, the empirical implications of employing these different transformations to the same EEG data remain obscure. This study directly compared the statistical effects of four commonly-used (nose, linked mastoids, average) or recommended (reference electrode standardization technique [REST]) references and their spherical spline current source density (CSD) transformation for a large data set stemming from a well-understood experimental manipulation. ERPs (72 sites) recorded from 130 individuals during a visual half-field paradigm with highly-controlled emotional stimuli were characterized by mid-parietooccipital N1 (125 ms peak latency) and event-related synchronization (ERS) of theta/delta (160 ms), which were most robust over the contralateral hemisphere. All five data transformations were rescaled to the same covariance and submitted to a single temporal or time-frequency PCA (Varimax) to yield simplified estimates of N1 or theta/delta ERS. Unbiased nonparametric permutation tests revealed that these hemifield-dependent asymmetries were by far most focal and prominent for CSD data, despite all transformations showing maximum effects at mid-parietooccipital sites. Employing smaller subsamples (signal-to-noise) or window-based ERP/ERS amplitudes did not affect these comparisons. Furthermore, correlations between N1 and theta/delta ERS at these sites were strongest for CSD and weakest for nose-referenced data. Contrary to the common notion that the spatial high pass filter properties of a surface Laplacian reduce important contributions of neuronal generators to the EEG signal, the present findings demonstrate that instead volume conduction inherent in surface potentials weakens the representation of neuronal activation patterns at scalp that directly reflect regional brain activity. PMID

  14. 75 FR 17332 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act... issued under the authority of sections 2002(a), 3006 and 7004(b) of the Solid Waste and Disposal Act, as... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste...

  15. Utilisation of Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors with Dissipation (QCM-D) for a Clauss Fibrinogen Assay in Comparison with Common Coagulation Reference Methods.

    PubMed

    Oberfrank, Stephanie; Drechsel, Hartmut; Sinn, Stefan; Northoff, Hinnak; Gehring, Frank K

    2016-02-24

    The determination of fibrinogen levels is one of the most important coagulation measurements in medicine. It plays a crucial part in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, often associated with time-critical conditions. The commonly used measurement is the Clauss fibrinogen assay (CFA) where plasma is activated by thrombin reagent and which is conducted by mechanical/turbidimetric devices. As quartz crystal microbalance sensors with dissipation (QCM-D) based devices have a small footprint, can be operated easily and allow measurements independently from sample transportation time, laboratory location, availability and opening hours, they offer a great opportunity to complement laboratory CFA measurements. Therefore, the objective of the work was to (1) transfer the CFA to the QCM-D method; (2) develop an easy, time- and cost-effective procedure and (3) compare the results with references. Different sensor coatings (donor's own plasma; gold surface) and different QCM-D parameters (frequency signal shift; its calculated turning point; dissipation signal shift) were sampled. The results demonstrate the suitability for a QCM-D-based CFA in physiological fibrinogen ranges. Results were obtained in less than 1 min and in very good agreement with a standardized reference (Merlin coagulometer). The results provide a good basis for further investigation and pave the way to a possible application of QCM-D in clinical and non-clinical routine in the medical field.

  16. Structure elucidation and identification of a common metabolite for naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids using LC-TOF and comparison to a synthetic reference standard.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Dennis P; Yanes, Enrique G; Herbelin, Travis W; Knoerzer, Timm A; Levisky, Joseph A

    2013-03-10

    The identification of a predominate metabolite found in urine specimens which test positive for naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids is reported. The presence of this new metabolite was detected at the Air Force Drug Testing Lab Investigations Division during screening analysis for metabolites of JWH-018 and JWH-073, because it shares the same MRM transitions as the JWH-073 N-(3-hydroxybutyl) metabolite. However, the detected peak is chromatographically distinguished from other metabolites due to differences in retention time. This metabolite appears to be a common metabolite for select naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids that could potentially be used as a common biomarker for their qualitative and quantitative analyses. The new metabolite has been successfully identified as 3-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl) propanoic acid (1, JWH 072 N-propanoic acid metabolite, Fig. 1) by using various mass spectrometric and liquid chromatographic techniques as well as chemical derivatization. The metabolite identity was confirmed through the comparison of authentic positive urine and a chemically synthesized metabolite standard. Both materials shared the same chromatographic retention time on two separate chromatographic systems, mass fragmentation pattern and exact mass. Full characterization of the synthetic reference material and intermediates by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and HRMS was also conducted.

  17. The transcription factors E2A and HEB act in concert to induce the expression of FOXO1 in the common lymphoid progenitor

    PubMed Central

    Welinder, Eva; Mansson, Robert; Mercer, Elinore M.; Bryder, David; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Murre, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of transcriptional regulators, including E proteins, EBF1, FOXO1, and PAX5, that act together to orchestrate the B-cell fate. However, it still remains unclear as to how they are linked at the earliest stages of B-cell development. Here, we show that lymphocyte development in HEB-ablated mice exhibits a partial developmental arrest, whereas B-cell development in E2A+/−HEB−/− mice is completely blocked at the LY6D− common lymphoid progenitor stage. We show that the transcription signatures of E2A- and HEB-ablated common lymphoid progenitors significantly overlap. Notably, we found that Foxo1 expression was substantially reduced in the LY6D− HEB- and E2A-deficient cells. Finally, we show that E2A binds to enhancer elements across the FOXO1 locus to activate Foxo1 expression, linking E2A and FOXO1 directly in a common pathway. In summary, the data indicate that the earliest event in B-cell specification involves the induction of FOXO1 expression and requires the combined activities of E2A and HEB. PMID:21972416

  18. Applying the Writing Scales of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" to the New HSK Test of Proficiency in Chinese: Realities, Problems and Some Suggestions for Chinese Language Teachers and Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ya Ping; Broeder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article explores levels of proficiency in Chinese with reference to the new HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) Chinese Proficiency Test and the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR). Special attention is given to learning and teaching the writing of Chinese characters and the use of Pinyin, a phonetic Romanization…

  19. Use of reference chemicals to determine passive uptake rates of common indoor air VOCs by collocation deployment of active and passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Xian, Qiming; Feng, Yong-Lai; Chan, Cecilia C; Zhu, Jiping

    2011-09-01

    Passive samplers have become more popular in their application in the measurement of airborne chemicals. For volatile organic compounds, the rate of a chemical's diffusivity is a determining factor in the quantity of the chemical being collected for a given passive sampler. While uptake rate of a chemical in the passive sampler can be determined either by collocation deployment of both active and passive samplers or use of controlled facilities such as environmental chambers, a new approach without a need for accurate active flow rate in the collocation experiment was demonstrated in this study. This approach uses chemicals of known uptake rates as references to calculate the actual flow rate of the active sampling in the collocation experiment. The active sampling rate in turn can be used in the determination of the uptake rates of all other chemicals present in the passive samplers. The advantage of such approach is the elimination of the errors in actual active sampling rate associated with low flow employed in the collocation experiment. Using this approach, passive uptake rates of more than 80 volatile organic compounds commonly present in indoor air were determined. These experimentally determined uptake rates correlate well with air diffusivity of the chemicals, indicating the regression equation describing such correlation might be useful in predicting the uptake rates of other volatile organic chemicals in indoor air based on their air diffusivity.

  20. 16 CFR 1608.5 - Salvage operations of common carriers and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salvage operations of common carriers and... operations of common carriers and others. For the purposes of this act the ordinary course of business of common carriers, contract carriers or freight forwarders, as referred to in section 11 of the act,...

  1. A Common Variant of PROK1 (V67I) Acts as a Genetic Modifier in Early Human Pregnancy through Down-Regulation of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Su, Mei-Tsz; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Tsai, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chi; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2016-01-27

    PROK1-V67I has been shown to play a role as a modifier gene in the PROK1-PROKR system of human early pregnancy. To explore the related modifier mechanism of PROK1-V67I, we carried out a comparison study at the gene expression level and the cell function alternation of V67I, and its wild-type (WT), in transiently-transfected cells. We, respectively, performed quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assays to evaluate the protein and/or transcript level of V67I and WT in HTR-8/SV neo, JAR, Ishikawa, and HEK293 cells. Transiently V67I- or WT-transfected HTR-8/SV neo and HEK293 cells were used to investigate cell function alternations. The transcript and protein expressions were down-regulated in all cell lines, ranging from 20% to 70%, compared with WT. There were no significant differences in the ligand activities of V67I and WT with regard to cell proliferation, cell invasion, calcium influx, and tubal formation. Both PROK1 alleles promoted cell invasion and intracellular calcium mobilization, whereas they had no significant effects on cell proliferation and tubal formation. In conclusion, the biological effects of PROK1-V67I on cell functions are similar to those of WT, and the common variant of V67I may act as a modifier in the PROK1-PROKR system through down-regulation of PROK1 expression. This study may provide a general mechanism that the common variant of V67I, modifying the disease severity of PROK1-related pathophysiologies.

  2. A Common Variant of PROK1 (V67I) Acts as a Genetic Modifier in Early Human Pregnancy through Down-Regulation of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mei-Tsz; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Tsai, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chi; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    PROK1-V67I has been shown to play a role as a modifier gene in the PROK1-PROKR system of human early pregnancy. To explore the related modifier mechanism of PROK1-V67I, we carried out a comparison study at the gene expression level and the cell function alternation of V67I, and its wild-type (WT), in transiently-transfected cells. We, respectively, performed quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assays to evaluate the protein and/or transcript level of V67I and WT in HTR-8/SV neo, JAR, Ishikawa, and HEK293 cells. Transiently V67I- or WT-transfected HTR-8/SV neo and HEK293 cells were used to investigate cell function alternations. The transcript and protein expressions were down-regulated in all cell lines, ranging from 20% to 70%, compared with WT. There were no significant differences in the ligand activities of V67I and WT with regard to cell proliferation, cell invasion, calcium influx, and tubal formation. Both PROK1 alleles promoted cell invasion and intracellular calcium mobilization, whereas they had no significant effects on cell proliferation and tubal formation. In conclusion, the biological effects of PROK1-V67I on cell functions are similar to those of WT, and the common variant of V67I may act as a modifier in the PROK1-PROKR system through down-regulation of PROK1 expression. This study may provide a general mechanism that the common variant of V67I, modifying the disease severity of PROK1-related pathophysiologies. PMID:26828479

  3. Hydrologic index development and application to selected Coastwide Reference Monitoring System sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Swenson, Erick M.

    2012-01-01

    Hourly time-series salinity and water-level data are collected at all stations within the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) network across coastal Louisiana. These data, in addition to vegetation and soils data collected as part of CRMS, are used to develop a suite of metrics and indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. This document addresses the primary objectives of the CRMS hydrologic analytical team, which were to (1) adopt standard time-series analytical techniques that could effectively assess spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic characteristics across the Louisiana coastal zone on site, project, basin, and coastwide scales and (2) develop and apply an index based on wetland hydrology that can describe the suitability of local hydrology in the context of maximizing the productivity of wetland plant communities. Approaches to quantifying tidal variability (least squares harmonic analysis) and partitioning variability of time-series data to various time scales (spectral analysis) are presented. The relation between marsh elevation and the tidal frame of a given hydrograph is described. A hydrologic index that integrates water-level and salinity data, which are collected hourly, with vegetation data that are collected annually is developed. To demonstrate its utility, the hydrologic index is applied to 173 CRMS sites across the coast, and variability in index scores across marsh vegetation types (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) is assessed. The index is also applied to 11 sites located in three Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects, and the ability of the index to convey temporal hydrologic variability in response to climatic stressors and restoration measures, as well as the effect that this community may have on wetland plant productivity, is illustrated.

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PM 2.5 FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD TO DIFFERENTIATE FINE AND COARSE MODE AEROSOL (A RESPONSE TO SECTION 6102(E) OF THE TRANSPORTATION EQUITY ACT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is submitted in response to Section 6102(e) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, which states:

    "The Administrator shall conduct a field study of the ability of the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method to differentiate those particles that ...

  5. The "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" and the European Language Portfolio: Some History, a View of Language Learner Autonomy, and Some Implications for Language Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a plenary talk given at the CercleS seminar hosted by the University of Groningen in November 2011 to mark the tenth anniversary of the publication of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" and the launch of the European Language Portfolio. The first part of the article summarizes the history…

  6. Linking English-Language Test Scores onto the Common European Framework of Reference: An Application of Standard-Setting Methodology. TOEFL iBT Research Report TOEFL iBt-06. ETS RR-08-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL® iBT test, the TOEIC® assessment, and the TOEIC "Bridge"™ test.…

  7. Recovery Act: Billions of Dollars in Education Credits Appear to Be Erroneous. Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration. Reference Number: 2011-41-083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of the Treasury, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Education credits are available to help offset the costs of higher education for taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents who qualify as eligible students. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) amended the Hope Scholarship Tax Credit (Hope Credit) to provide for a refundable tax credit known as the American Opportunity…

  8. Anatomical architecture of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) with special reference to the derivation and course of its unique branches.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, S; Kawashima, T; Murakami, K; Takayanagi, M; Inoue, Y; Aoyagi, R; Sato, F

    2012-08-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), which has not been previously reported, was first examined bilaterally in a newborn hippopotamus. Our observations clarified the following: (1) the brachial plexus comprises the fifth cervical (C5) to first thoracic (T1) nerves. These formed two trunks, C5-C6 and C7-T1; in addition, the axillary artery passed in between C6 and C7, (2) unique branches to the brachialis muscle and those of the lateral cutaneous antebrachii nerves ramified from the median nerve, (3) nerve fibre analysis revealed that these unique nerve branches from the median nerve were closely related and structurally similar to the musculocutaneous (MC) nerve; however, they had changed course from the MC to the median nerve, and (4) this unique branching pattern is likely to be a common morphological feature of the brachial plexus in amphibians, reptiles and certain mammals.

  9. Open-lung biopsy in patients with undiagnosed lung lesions referred at a tertiary cancer center is safe and reveals noncancerous, noninfectious entities as the most common diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, S P; Sampsonas, F L; Rice, D; Granger, J M; Swisher, S; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic yield of open-lung biopsies (OLBs) in a large tertiary cancer center to determine the role of infectious diseases as causes of undiagnosed pulmonary lesions. All consecutive adult patients with either single or multiple pulmonary nodules or masses who underwent a diagnostic OLB over a period of 10 years (1998-2007) were retrospectively identified. Their risk factors for malignancy and clinical and radiological characteristics were reviewed, and their postoperative complications were assessed. We evaluated 155 patients with a median age of 57 years (range, 19-83 years). We identified infectious etiologies in 29 patients (19 %). The most common diagnosis in this group was histoplasmosis (12 [41 %]), followed by nontuberculous mycobacterial infection (7 [24 %]) and aspergillosis (4 [14 %]). The majority of the 126 remaining patients had nonmalignant diagnoses, the most prevalent being nonspecific granuloma (26 %), whereas only 17 % had malignant diagnoses. We observed no significant differences among the patients with infectious, malignant, or both noninfectious and nonmalignant final diagnoses regarding their demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics. Six percent of the patients had at least one post-OLB complication, and the post-OLB mortality rate was 1 %. OLB is a safe diagnostic procedure which frequently identifies a wide variety of infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  10. Towards a comprehensive atlas of cortical connections in a primate brain: Mapping tracer injection studies of the common marmoset into a reference digital template.

    PubMed

    Majka, Piotr; Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Tolpygo, Alexander; Mitra, Partha P; Wójcik, Daniel K; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2016-08-01

    The marmoset is an emerging animal model for large-scale attempts to understand primate brain connectivity, but achieving this aim requires the development and validation of procedures for normalization and integration of results from many neuroanatomical experiments. Here we describe a computational pipeline for coregistration of retrograde tracing data on connections of cortical areas into a 3D marmoset brain template, generated from Nissl-stained sections. The procedure results in a series of spatial transformations that are applied to the coordinates of labeled neurons in the different cases, bringing them into common stereotaxic space. We applied this procedure to 17 injections, placed in the frontal lobe of nine marmosets as part of earlier studies. Visualizations of cortical patterns of connections revealed by these injections are supplied as Supplementary Materials. Comparison between the results of the automated and human-based processing of these cases reveals that the centers of injection sites can be reconstructed, on average, to within 0.6 mm of coordinates estimated by an experienced neuroanatomist. Moreover, cell counts obtained in different areas by the automated approach are highly correlated (r = 0.83) with those obtained by an expert, who examined in detail histological sections for each individual. The present procedure enables comparison and visualization of large datasets, which in turn opens the way for integration and analysis of results from many animals. Its versatility, including applicability to archival materials, may reduce the number of additional experiments required to produce the first detailed cortical connectome of a primate brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2161-2181, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. S. 1220: This Act may be referred to as the National Energy Security Act of 1991, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 5, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill would reduce the Nation's dependence on imported oil and provide for the energy security of the US. The contents of this bill are extensive. The Titles are as follows: Findings and purposes; Definitions; Corporate average fuel economy; Fleets and alternative fuels; Renewable energy; Energy efficiency; Oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge; Advanced nuclear reactor commercialization; Nuclear reactor licensing; Uranium; Natural gas; Outer continental shelf; Research, development, demonstration and commercialization activities; Coal, coal technology, and electricity; Public Utility Holding Company Act reform; and Strategic petroleum reserve.

  12. A Comparison of Four Linear Equating Methods for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design Using Simulation Methods. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topczewski, Anna; Cui, Zhongmin; Woodruff, David; Chen, Hanwei; Fang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates four methods of linear equating under the common item nonequivalent groups design. Three of the methods are well known: Tucker, Angoff-Levine, and Congeneric-Levine. A fourth method is presented as a variant of the Congeneric-Levine method. Using simulation data generated from the three-parameter logistic IRT model we…

  13. Common Time Reference for Naval Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Virginia, 4-6 December 1990. 64. “Comparative Study of Time Scale Algorithms,” Metrologia 1991, 28, pp. 57-63. 65. R. Jones and P. Tryon, “Estimating...Plus Frequency Variance,” Metrologia 1991, 28, pp. 65-74. 74. K.R. Brown, “The Theory of the GPS Composite Clock,” Proc. of the ION GPS-91, 11-13 September 1991.

  14. Submergence Vulnerability Index development and application to Coastwide Reference Monitoring System Sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh A.; McGinnis, Thomas E.; Snedden, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its implementation in 2003, the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) in Louisiana has facilitated the creation of a comprehensive dataset that includes, but is not limited to, vegetation, hydrologic, and soil metrics on a coastwide scale. The primary impetus for this data collection is to assess land management activities, including restoration efforts, across the coast. The aim of the CRMS analytical team is to provide a method to synthesize this data to enable multiscaled evaluations of activities in Louisiana’s coastal wetlands. Several indices have been developed to facilitate data synthesis and interpretation, including a Floristic Quality Index, a Hydrologic Index, and a Landscape Index. This document details the development of the Submergence Vulnerability Index, which incorporates sediment-elevation data as well as hydrologic data to determine the vulnerability of a wetland based on its ability to keep pace with sea-level rise. The objective of this document is to provide Federal and State sponsors, project managers, planners, landowners, data users, and the rest of the coastal restoration community with the following: (1) data collection and model development methods for the sediment-elevation response variables, and (2) a description of how these response variables will be used to evaluate CWPPRA project and program effectiveness.

  15. Comparison of vilanterol, a novel long-acting beta2 agonist, with placebo and a salmeterol reference arm in asthma uncontrolled by inhaled corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current maintenance therapies for asthma require twice-daily dosing. Vilanterol (VI) is a novel long-acting beta2 agonist, under development in combination with fluticasone furoate, a new inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Findings from a previous 4-week study suggested that VI has inherent 24-hour activity and is therefore suitable for once-daily dosing. The study described here was a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, the aim of which was to assess the efficacy of once-daily VI compared with placebo in patients with persistent asthma. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in 24-hour weighted mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second after 12 weeks of treatment vs. placebo. An active control arm received salmeterol (SAL) twice daily. All patients were maintained on a stable background dose of ICS. Results Patients (n = 347) received VI, placebo or SAL (1:1:1). For the primary endpoint, substantial improvements in lung function were seen with VI (359 ml), SAL (283 ml) and placebo (289 ml). There were no statistically significant treatment differences between either the VI (70 ml, P = 0.244) or SAL (-6 ml, P = 0.926) groups and placebo. Both active treatments were well tolerated, with similarly low rates of treatment-related adverse events compared with placebo. No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred. Conclusions This study failed to show a treatment difference between VI and placebo for the primary endpoint, in the presence of a placebo response of unforeseen magnitude. Because the placebo response was so large, it is not possible to draw meaningful conclusions from the data. The reason for this magnitude of effect is unclear but it may reflect increased compliance with the anti-inflammatory therapy regimen during the treatment period. Trial registration NCT01181895 at ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:24928338

  16. Endogenous 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in microalga Chlorella kessleri acts as a bioactive indicator of pollution with common herbicides and growth regulating factor of hormesis.

    PubMed

    Spoljaric, Dubravka; Cipak, Ana; Horvatic, Janja; Andrisic, Luka; Waeg, Georg; Zarkovic, Neven; Jaganjac, Morana

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative stress, i.e. excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leads to lipid peroxidation and to formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g. 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; HNE), which act as second messengers of free radicals. It was previously shown that herbicides can induce ROS production in algal cells. In the current paper, the unicellular green microalga Chlorella kessleri was used to study the effect of two herbicides (S-metolachlor and terbuthylazine) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on oxidative stress induction, HNE formation, chlorophyll content and the cell growth. Production of HNE was detected in this study for the first time in the cells of unicellular green algae using the antibody specific for the HNE-histidine adducts revealing the HNE-histidine adducts even in untreated, control C. kessleri. Exposure of algal cells to herbicides and H(2)O(2) increased the ROS production, modifying production of HNE. Namely, 4h upon treatment the levels of HNE-histidine conjugates were below controls. However, their amount increased afterwards. The increase of HNE levels in algae was followed by their increased growth rate, as was previously described for human carcinoma cells. Hence, changes in the cellular HNE content upon herbicide treatment inducing lipid oxidative stress and alterations in cellular growth rate of C. kessleri resemble adaptation of malignant cells to the HNE treatment. Therefore, as an addition to the standard toxicity tests, the evaluation of HNE-protein adducts in C. kessleri might indicate environmental pollution with lipid peroxidation-inducing herbicides. Finally, C. kessleri might be a convenient experimental model to further study cellular hormetic adaptation to oxidative stress-derived aldehydes.

  17. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  18. A common cis-acting sequence in the DiGeorge critical region regulates bi-directional transcription of UFD1L and CDC45L.

    PubMed

    Kunte, A; Ivey, K; Yamagishi, C; Garg, V; Yamagishi, H; Srivastava, D

    2001-10-01

    Two to three megabase deletions on chromosome 22q11 are the cytogenetic findings most commonly associated with cardiac and craniofacial defects in humans. The constellation of clinical findings associated with these deletions is termed the 22q11 deletion syndrome. We had earlier described a patient with the 22q11 deletion phenotype who was hemizygous for an atypical 20 kb microdeletion in this region. The deletion included coding regions of two genes organized head-to-head, UFD1L and CDC45L, along with an 884 bp CpG-rich intervening region. Based on this genomic organization, we hypothesized that both genes may be co-expressed and co-regulated by sequences within this region. We demonstrate that expression of both genes is enhanced in a similar pattern in precursors of structures affected by the deletion. The intergenic region is sufficient to direct transcription most strongly in the developing pharyngeal arches and limb buds of transgenic mice and can also direct bi-directional transcriptional activation in a neural crest-derived cell line. Deletion analyses revealed that a 404 bp fragment closest to UFD1L is necessary and sufficient to direct this bi-directional transcriptional activity. These results reveal the presence of a conserved regulatory region in the 22q11 deletion locus that can direct simultaneous transcription of genes involved in ubiquitin mediated protein processing (UFD1L) and cell cycle control (CDC45L).

  19. Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998. Report to Congress on State Performance, Program Year 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998" (commonly referred to as "Perkins," "Perkins III," or "the Act" and referred to hereafter as Perkins III) requires, in Sec. 113(c)(3)(C), that the secretary provide the appropriate committees of Congress copies of annual reports received by…

  20. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Globalizing Students Acting for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencze, Larry; Carter, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    It is apparent that many of us live in a hyper-economized world, in which personal identities and routine practices are significantly oriented towards production and consumption of for-profit goods and services. Extreme consumerism resulting from this orientation often is associated with many personal, social, and environmental problems.…

  4. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  5. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  6. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  7. Reference Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  8. Privacy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  9. Selecting a reference object.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jared E; Carlson, Laura A; Hill, Patrick L

    2011-07-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected. The current research tests this assumption, assessing the relative importance of spatial, perceptual, and functional-interactive features. Three experiments demonstrated that spatial features have the strongest influence on reference object selection, with the perceptual feature of color playing no significant role. Functional-interactive features were shown to be spatially dependent, having an influence only when the spatial configuration enabled an interaction between the located object and the reference object. These findings challenge the common perspective that salience in and of itself dictates reference object selection and argue for a reliance on spatial features.

  10. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  11. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  12. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  13. Is the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act Really Beneficial to the Poorer Children in India? An Analysis with Special Reference to the Admission of Poorer Children in Public Unaided Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheruvalath, Reena

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed to examine whether the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act can achieve its major objective of ensuring education for all children in India. Indian parents like to enter their wards into private schools because they believe that the standard of education in the public schools is poor. The act strengthens this…

  14. Toxic Substances Control Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  15. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  16. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  17. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  18. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  19. QCI Common

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  20. 33 CFR 230.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Actions, January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979). (c) Clean Water Act (formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act) 33 U.S.C. 1344 (hereinafter referred to as section 404). (d) Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. (e) Environmental Effects Abroad of...

  1. 33 CFR 230.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Actions, January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979). (c) Clean Water Act (formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act) 33 U.S.C. 1344 (hereinafter referred to as section 404). (d) Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. (e) Environmental Effects Abroad of...

  2. 33 CFR 230.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Actions, January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979). (c) Clean Water Act (formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act) 33 U.S.C. 1344 (hereinafter referred to as section 404). (d) Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. (e) Environmental Effects Abroad of...

  3. Linguistic Competences of Learners of Dutch as a Second Language at the B1 and B2 Levels of Speaking Proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the Common European Framework of…

  4. 40 CFR 1508.2 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 1508.2 Section 1508.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.2 Act. Act means the National Environmental Policy Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.) which is also referred to as “NEPA.”...

  5. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  6. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  7. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  8. Common neuropathic itch syndromes.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic itch are diagnosed and treated by dermatologists. However, itch is a neural sensation and some forms of chronic itch are the presenting symptoms of neurological diseases. Dermatologists need some familiarity with the most common neuropathic itch syndromes to initiate diagnostic testing and to know when to refer to a neurologist. This review summarizes current knowledge, admittedly incomplete, on neuropathic itch caused by diseases of the brain, spinal cord, cranial or spinal nerve-roots, and peripheral nerves.

  9. Improving America's Schools Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John; Bridgforth, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    The Improving America's Schools ACT (IASA) emphasizes coherent systemic education reform, with Goals 2000 setting common standards for IASA and the recently authorized School-to-Work Program. IASA addresses the need to raise academic achievement, increase opportunities to learn, improve professional development, increase community involvement, utilize instructional applications of technology, and improve assessment, and allow more local flexibility in the use of funds.

  10. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    PubMed Central

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Pyle, Richard L.; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker, Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper. PMID:26877662

  11. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  12. Common Occupational Disability Tests and Case Law References: An Ontario MVA perspective on interpretation and best practice methodology supporting a holistic model, Part I of III (Pre-104 IRB).

    PubMed

    Salmon, J Douglas; Gouws, Jacques J; Bachmann, Corina Anghel

    2016-05-01

    This three-part paper presents practical holistic models of determining impairment and occupational disability with respect to common "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. The models consider physical, emotional and cognitive impairments in unison, and draw upon case law support for empirically based functional assessment of secondary cognitive symptoms arising from psychological conditions, including chronic pain disorders. Case law is presented, primarily in the context of Ontario motor vehicle accident legislation, to demonstrate how triers of fact have addressed occupational disability in the context of chronic pain; and interpreted the "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. In interpreting the definitions of "own occupation" and "any occupation", courts have considered various concepts, such as: work as an integrated whole, competitive productivity, demonstrated job performance vs. employment, work adaptation relative to impairment stability, suitable work, retraining considerations, self-employment, and remuneration/socio-economic status. The first segment of the paper reviews the above concepts largely in the context of pre-104 Income Replacement Benefit (IRB) entitlement, while the second segment focuses on post-104 IRB entitlement. In the final segment, the paper presents a critical evaluation of computerized transferable skills analysis (TSAs) in the occupational disability context. By contrast, support is offered for the notion that (neuro) psychovocational assessments and situational work assessments should play a key role in "own occupation" disability determination, even where specific vocational rehabilitation/retraining recommendations are not requested by the referral source (e.g., insurer disability examination).

  13. DIPLOMA Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Chu, Judy [D-CA-32

    2010-09-28

    11/18/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Justice Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Jackson Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2014-09-18

    10/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. PESTT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Mulvaney, Mick [R-SC-5

    2013-02-14

    03/01/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. PACT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2014-07-09

    09/08/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. GPS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Chaffetz, Jason [R-UT-3

    2013-03-21

    04/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. POWER Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Landry, Jeffrey M. [R-LA-3

    2011-06-24

    12/08/2011 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. BRAVE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Cartwright, Matt [D-PA-17

    2014-05-29

    11/17/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. FIREARM Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Black, Diane [R-TN-6

    2014-09-18

    10/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. BASTA Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Posey, Bill [R-FL-8

    2014-07-31

    09/26/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. FEMA Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Inhofe, James M. [R-OK

    2009-02-11

    02/11/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. ACE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Thompson, Glenn [R-PA-5

    2013-07-11

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. PRIME Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Cohen, Steve [D-TN-9

    2011-03-03

    03/21/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. REDEEM Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Fattah, Chaka [D-PA-2

    2014-07-18

    09/02/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. CHOICE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Rokita, Todd [R-IN-4

    2014-05-29

    11/17/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. SALUTE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Meehan, Patrick [R-PA-7

    2013-05-23

    06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. FAIR Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Garrett, Scott [R-NJ-5

    2014-09-17

    10/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. REINS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2013-02-26

    02/26/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Innovation Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6

    2013-10-23

    12/09/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. DRONES Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Issa, Darrell E. [R-CA-49

    2013-06-19

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. SLICE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2013-06-27

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. SLICE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2012-05-16

    09/26/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. SALTS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Thornberry, Mac [R-TX-13

    2014-06-25

    07/21/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Relevancy Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ross, Dennis A. [R-FL-15

    2013-06-28

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. FOIA Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Issa, Darrell E. [R-CA-49

    2013-03-15

    02/26/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. SAC Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Scalise, Steve [R-LA-1

    2009-09-15

    10/23/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Lead Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Payne, Donald M. [D-NJ-10

    2010-06-09

    09/13/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Lead Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Payne, Donald M. [D-NJ-10

    2011-04-13

    05/20/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. STELLAR Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Davis, Susan A. [D-CA-53

    2013-02-15

    04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. AGREE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hanna, Richard L. [R-NY-24

    2011-11-18

    01/12/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. CURB Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Collins, Susan M. [R-ME

    2013-11-19

    11/19/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. CLEAN Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Schauer, Mark H. [D-MI-7

    2010-07-30

    09/29/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. FUELS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Crawford, Eric A. "Rick" [R-AR-1

    2011-10-12

    08/02/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. PLEA Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Engel, Eliot L. [D-NY-16

    2013-02-06

    02/28/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. REPAIR Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2009-05-20

    05/20/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5706) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. SKILLs Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-7

    2009-10-26

    12/08/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. FREE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Markey, Edward J. [D-MA-7

    2011-06-15

    06/30/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. STRONG Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2013-06-11

    06/12/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. GREEN Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. McNerney, Jerry [D-CA-11

    2009-03-30

    05/14/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. SKILLs Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-3

    2013-06-26

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. GREEN Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. McNerney, Jerry [D-CA-9

    2013-06-13

    07/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. SKILLS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-7

    2012-01-17

    03/29/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. SPOT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Gabbard, Tulsi [D-HI-2

    2014-09-18

    10/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. ACE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2011-12-01

    03/29/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. SISA Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Franks, Trent [R-AZ-8

    2014-11-14

    12/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. JUSTICE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lee, Barbara [D-CA-13

    2013-06-28

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. FACE Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Watson, Diane E. [D-CA-33

    2009-06-26

    08/19/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. EDIBLE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Gohmert, Louie [R-TX-1

    2014-09-18

    11/17/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. GONE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Fischer, Deb [R-NE

    2013-12-10

    12/10/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. SEED Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Carnahan, Russ [D-MO-3

    2010-07-27

    07/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. GENIUS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Sanchez, Loretta [D-CA-47

    2011-03-16

    04/04/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. PLANT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Huffman, Jared [D-CA-2

    2013-07-18

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. FUELS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Crawford, Eric A. "Rick" [R-AR-1

    2013-01-18

    03/12/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. CORRECT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2014-07-29

    07/29/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. CORRECT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Thompson, Bennie G. [D-MS-2

    2014-07-29

    09/26/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. DATA Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Warner, Mark R. [D-VA

    2011-06-16

    06/16/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. PRIDE Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-7

    2009-10-07

    11/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. LEARN Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Yarmuth, John A. [D-KY-3

    2013-07-17

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. LEARN Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Yarmuth, John A. [D-KY-3

    2009-11-06

    01/04/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. PRIDE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-7

    2011-09-13

    11/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. PRIDE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-3

    2013-06-26

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. BEST Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Brownley, Julia [D-CA-26

    2013-06-27

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. LEARN Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Yarmuth, John A. [D-KY-3

    2011-06-22

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. SERVe Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2013-11-19

    11/19/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S8193) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. FAIR Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Schatz, Brian [D-HI

    2014-05-22

    05/22/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. PASS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-2

    2013-06-28

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. RETAIN Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Baca, Joe [D-CA-43

    2012-05-08

    09/26/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. STAPLE Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Flake, Jeff [R-AZ-6

    2009-03-30

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. TALENT Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Gallegly, Elton [R-CA-24

    2011-05-02

    05/20/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. DIAPER Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. DeLauro, Rosa L. [D-CT-3

    2011-10-06

    11/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. DISASTER Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2014-09-18

    09/19/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. ALLERGY Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Cartwright, Matt [D-PA-17

    2013-12-05

    01/22/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Evaluating the Effects of Differences in Group Abilities on the Tucker and the Levine Observed-Score Methods for Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Equating. ACT Research Report Series 2010-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hanwei; Cui, Zhongmin; Zhu, Rongchun; Gao, Xiaohong

    2010-01-01

    The most critical feature of a common-item nonequivalent groups equating design is that the average score difference between the new and old groups can be accurately decomposed into a group ability difference and a form difficulty difference. Two widely used observed-score linear equating methods, the Tucker and the Levine observed-score methods,…

  5. Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    For some administrators and planners, designing and building education facilities may sometimes seem like a circus act--trying to project a persona of competence and confidence while juggling dozens of issues. Meanwhile, the audience--students, staff members and taxpayers--watch and wait with anticipation in hopes of getting what they paid for and…

  6. 33 CFR 230.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 1981 (46 FR 13193, February 19, 1981). (b) Executive Order 12114, Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions, January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979). (c) Clean Water Act (formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act) 33 U.S.C. 1344 (hereinafter referred to as section 404)....

  7. TEAM Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Landrieu, Mary L. [D-LA

    2012-05-22

    05/22/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3425-3426) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. HUMANE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cornyn, John [R-TX

    2014-07-15

    07/15/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4504-4509) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. GEDI Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Engel, Eliot L. [D-NY-17

    2010-05-20

    11/15/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. PRECAUTION Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Feingold, Russell D. [D-WI

    2010-03-24

    03/24/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2022-2024) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. SHOP Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2009-05-05

    05/05/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5135-5142) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. HOPE Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hoekstra, Peter [R-MI-2

    2010-02-04

    02/04/2010 Referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.5283, which became Public Law 111-293 on 12/9/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Wakefield Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Matheson, Jim [D-UT-2

    2009-01-13

    03/31/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Wakefield Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Inouye, Daniel K. [D-HI

    2009-02-10

    02/10/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2084) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. REAP Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2009-05-20

    05/20/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5710-5711) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. FIND Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Specter, Arlen [D-PA

    2010-03-16

    03/16/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1621-1623) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. RATE Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2009-05-19

    05/19/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5617-5620) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. NEWBORN Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Cohen, Steve [D-TN-9

    2009-07-31

    09/23/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. SPEECH Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2010-06-22

    06/22/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2765, which became Public Law 111-223 on 8/10/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. CALM Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Eshoo, Anna G. [D-CA-14

    2009-02-13

    12/16/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.2847, which became Public Law 111-311 on 12/15/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. SKILLS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2011-07-06

    07/06/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4395-4397) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. SUN Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2011-05-25

    05/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3344) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. GAPS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hahn, Janice [D-CA-36

    2012-02-09

    06/29/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. SAVE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Inouye, Daniel K. [D-HI

    2011-06-22

    06/22/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4026-4028) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. STOP Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2009-08-06

    08/06/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S8998-8999) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. OILSAVE Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2009-05-20

    05/20/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5708-5710) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. CROWDFUND Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Merkley, Jeff [D-OR

    2012-03-13

    03/13/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3606, which became Public Law 112-106 on 4/5/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. PLANT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2013-12-20

    12/20/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S9107-9108) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. DATA Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Issa, Darrell E. [R-CA-49

    2011-06-13

    04/26/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. POST Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2012-01-23

    01/23/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S44-45) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. SPEAK Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Dodd, Christopher J. [D-CT

    2009-06-10

    06/10/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6472-6475) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Transient-state kinetics of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 acting on an authentic AP site and commonly used substrate analogs: the effect of diverse metal ions and base mismatches.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Kelly M; Delaney, Sarah

    2013-10-29

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an Mg²⁺-dependent enzyme responsible for incising the DNA backbone 5' to an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. Here, we use rapid quench flow (RQF) techniques to provide a comprehensive kinetic analysis of the strand-incision activity (k(chemistry)) of APE1 acting on an authentic AP site along with two widely used analogs, a reduced AP site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF) site. In the presence of biologically relevant Mg²⁺, APE1 incises all three substrates at a rate faster than the resolution of the RQF, ≥700 s⁻¹. To obtain quantitative values of k(chemistry) and to facilitate a comparison of the authentic substrate versus the substrate analogs, we replaced Mg²⁺ with Mn²⁺ or Ni²⁺ or introduced a mismatch 5' to the lesion site. Both strategies were sufficient to slow k(chemistry) and resulted in rates within the resolution of the RQF. In all cases where quantitative rates were obtained, k(chemistry) for the reduced AP site is indistinguishable from the authentic AP site. Notably, there is a small decrease, ~1.5-fold, in k(chemistry) for the THF site relative to the authentic AP site. These results highlight a role in strand incision for the C1' oxygen of the AP site and warrant consideration when designing experiments using substrate analogs.

  13. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  14. 44 CFR 59.4 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 59.4 References. (a) The following are statutory references for the National Flood Insurance Program, under which these regulations are issued: (1) National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (title XIII of the Housing...

  15. 44 CFR 59.4 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 59.4 References. (a) The following are statutory references for the National Flood Insurance Program, under which these regulations are issued: (1) National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (title XIII of the Housing...

  16. 32 CFR 518.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true References. 518.2 Section 518.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.2 References. Required and...

  17. 32 CFR 518.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true References. 518.2 Section 518.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.2 References. Required and...

  18. 32 CFR 518.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 518.2 Section 518.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.2 References. Required and...

  19. Putting the Common European Framework of Reference to Good Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper recapitulates the aims of the CEFR and highlights three aspects of good practice in exploiting it: firstly, taking as a starting point the real-world language ability that is the aim of all modern language learners; secondly, the exploitation of good descriptors as transparent learning objectives in order to involve and empower the…

  20. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  1. Congressional Review Act Improvement Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Cohen, Steve [D-TN-9

    2009-05-05

    06/17/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. 49 CFR 1241.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common carriers. 1241.1 Section 1241.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT...-CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 1241.1 Common carriers. All common...

  3. 18 CFR 357.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common carriers. 357.1 Section 357.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 357.1 Common carriers. All common carriers by...

  4. Tank characterization reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  5. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  6. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

  7. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  8. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 505 - References

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References A Appendix A to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. A Appendix A to Part 505—References (a) The Privacy Act...

  9. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  10. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  11. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  12. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  13. Think global, act local: Preserving the global commons

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Oliver P.; Hendriks, Achim; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Preserving global public goods, such as the planet’s ecosystem, depends on large-scale cooperation, which is difficult to achieve because the standard reciprocity mechanisms weaken in large groups. Here we demonstrate a method by which reciprocity can maintain cooperation in a large-scale public goods game (PGG). In a first experiment, participants in groups of on average 39 people play one round of a Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) with their two nearest neighbours on a cyclic network after each PGG round. We observe that people engage in “local-to-global” reciprocity, leveraging local interactions to enforce global cooperation: Participants reduce PD cooperation with neighbours who contribute little in the PGG. In response, low PGG contributors increase their contributions if both neighbours defect in the PD. In a control condition, participants do not know their neighbours’ PGG contribution and thus cannot link play in the PD to the PGG. In the control we observe a sharp decline of cooperation in the PGG, while in the treatment condition global cooperation is maintained. In a second experiment, we demonstrate the scalability of this effect: in a 1,000-person PGG, participants in the treatment condition successfully sustain public contributions. Our findings suggest that this simple “local-to-global” intervention facilitates large-scale cooperation. PMID:27808222

  14. Does the War Powers Act Provide for the Common Defense?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-11

    behind the Union cause when Ft. Sumter was fired upon on April 12 C ~to 14, 1861. 13 8. The Whisky Rebellion , 1794 : President Washington ordered a...Veracruz, Mexico, in 1914 2 in an abortive attempt to interdict German arms shipments to Z 122 Mexico. Q 11 7. The Confederate Rebellion , April 1861: F...militia force of 12,900 men to confront the * Whiskey Rebelsm of western Pennsylvania, which he believed threatened the safety of the Union. Washington

  15. 29 CFR 779.219 - Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership. 779.219 Section 779.219 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.219 Unified operation...

  16. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 518 - References

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false References A Appendix A to Part 518 National... RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 518, App. A Appendix A to Part 518—References (a) References. (1) AR 1-20 Legislative Liaison; (2) AR 20-1 Inspector General Activities and Procedures; (3)...

  18. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  19. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  20. Herbal reference standards.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  1. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  2. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  3. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  4. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  5. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  6. References for marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-06-01

    Standard and Reference Materials for Marine Science, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memo OMA-51 (2nd edition, 434 pp.), by A. Y. Cantillo, is now available. This compilation of reference materials was prepared at the request of the Group of Experts on Standards and Reference Materials and was printed by NOAA. GESREM is sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the United Nations Program.Reference materials are included on ashes, gases, instrument performance materials, oils, physical properties, rocks, sediments, sludges, tissues and waters. For each reference material, source, description and preparation, analyses and values, cost, references, and comments are given. Indices are included for elements, isotopes and organic compounds. Cross references to Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers and alternate names and chemical structures of organic compounds are also provided.

  7. Behavioral Profiles of Clinically Referred Children with Intellectual Giftedness

    PubMed Central

    Guénolé, Fabian; Louis, Jacqueline; Creveuil, Christian; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Montlahuc, Claire; Fourneret, Pierre; Revol, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    It is common that intellectually gifted children—that is, children with an IQ ≥ 130—are referred to paediatric or child neuropsychiatry clinics for socio-emotional problems and/or school underachievement or maladjustment. These clinically-referred children with intellectual giftedness are thought to typically display internalizing problems (i.e., self-focused problems reflecting overcontrol of emotion and behavior), and to be more behaviorally impaired when “highly” gifted (IQ ≥ 145) or displaying developmental asynchrony (i.e., a heterogeneous developmental pattern, reflected in a significant verbal-performance discrepancy on IQ tests). We tested all these assumptions in 143 clinically-referred gifted children aged 8 to 12, using Wechsler's intelligence profile and the Child Behavior Checklist. Compared to a normative sample, gifted children displayed increased behavioral problems in the whole symptomatic range. Internalizing problems did not predominate over externalizing ones (i.e., acted-out problems, reflecting undercontrol of emotion and behavior), revealing a symptomatic nature of behavioral syndromes more severe than expected. “Highly gifted” children did not display more behavioral problems than the “low gifted.” Gifted children with a significant verbal-performance discrepancy displayed more externalizing problems and mixed behavioral syndromes than gifted children without such a discrepancy. These results suggest that developmental asynchrony matters when examining emotional and behavioral problems in gifted children. PMID:23956988

  8. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Providers use ...

  9. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  10. Circular common-path point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongzhao; Feng, Guoying; Li, Hongru; Vargas, J; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2012-10-01

    A simple and compact point-diffraction interferometer with circular common-path geometry configuration is developed. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, two reflection mirrors, and a telescope system composed by two lenses. The signal and reference waves travel along the same path. Furthermore, an opaque mask containing a reference pinhole and a test object holder or test window is positioned in the common focal plane of the telescope system. The object wave is divided into two beams that take opposite paths along the interferometer. The reference wave is filtered by the reference pinhole, while the signal wave is transmitted through the object holder. The reference and signal waves are combined again in the beam-splitter and their interference is imaged in the CCD. The new design is compact, vibration insensitive, and suitable for the measurement of moving objects or dynamic processes.

  11. 47 CFR 32.4 - Communications Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications Act. 32.4 Section 32.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.4 Communications Act. Attention is directed to...

  12. Long-acting reversible contraception.

    PubMed

    Peck, Susan A

    2013-10-01

    Although short-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives, such as oral contraceptives and the contraceptive patch and vaginal ring, remain the most commonly used contraceptive methods in the United States, they are also associated with the highest failure rates. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods, such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, offer high continuation rates and very low failure rates, and are safe for use in most women. The provision of LARC methods to adolescent, young adult and nulliparous women is a relatively new concept that offers an innovative option for these populations.

  13. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  14. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  15. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  16. 75 FR 13095 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... note, Unlawful Acts note referring to the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act; 28 U.S.C. 534 note... required by the DoJ under the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act; and statistical information required... enlisting, Officer Candidate School, federal agencies in connection with employment, security updates,...

  17. Quantum metrology in coarsened measurement reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of coarsened measurement reference, which originates from the coarsened reference time and basis, in quantum metrology. When the measurement is based on one common reference basis, the disadvantage of coarsened measurement can be removed by symmetry. Owing to the coarsened reference basis, the entangled state cannot perform better than the product state for a large number of probe particles in estimating the phase. Given a finite uncertainty of the coarsened reference basis, the optimal number of probe particles is obtained. Finally, we prove that the maximally entangled state always achieves better frequency precision in the case of non-Markovian dephasing than that in the case of Markovian dephasing. The product state is more resistant to the interference of the coarsened reference time than the entangled state.

  18. Preparing the references.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-07-01

    In a scientific paper, the references serve to provide background information and allow the researcher to compare and contrast the work of others in relation to his own study. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references cited. The references quoted should be easily accessible and retrievable by anyone wishing to obtain further information. There is a strong preference for citing journal articles listed in PubMed. The two major reference format systems are the Vancouver and Harvard systems, with increasing preference for the Vancouver system. Authors should adhere exactly to the instructions to authors of the target journal.

  19. 75 FR 67088 - Clean Water Act (CWA) and Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Common...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... organisms, and aquatic plants in aquatic ecosystems. The national meeting will be held in Washington, DC... aquatic organisms include toxicity studies containing information on survival, reproduction, and growth... Federal Regulations, Part 158. Studies are performed on laboratory test organisms in the following...

  20. Thermocouple, multiple junction reference oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved oven for maintaining the junctions of a plurality of reference thermocouples at a common and constant temperature is described. The oven is characterized by a cylindrical body defining a heat sink with axially extended-cylindrical cavity a singularized heating element which comprises a unitary cylindrical heating element consisting of a resistance heating coil wound about the surface of metallic spool with an axial bore defined and seated in the cavity. Other features of the oven include an annular array of radially extended bores defined in the cylindrical body and a plurality of reference thermocouple junctions seated in the bores in uniformly spaced relation with the heating element, and a temperature sensing device seated in the axial bore for detecting temperature changes as they occur in the spool and circuit to apply a voltage across the coil in response to detected drops in temperatures of the spool.

  1. ARRA Investments in Technology, Innovation, and K-12 Reform: The Digital Education Funding Cliff. A Preliminary Report on State Administration of the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009: Enhancing Education Through Technology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This is the first in a forthcoming series of reports documenting state administration of educational technology funding included in the "American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009" (ARRA). The ARRA included a $650 million allocation in ESEA Title II, Part D, commonly referred to as the "Enhancing Education through Technology…

  2. Reference Point Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N.; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income. PMID:27672374

  3. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  4. An Online Reference System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

  5. China Connections Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  6. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  7. Reference Point Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income.

  8. Information science. Going, going, gone: lost Internet references.

    PubMed

    Dellavalle, Robert P; Hester, Eric J; Heilig, Lauren F; Drake, Amanda L; Kuntzman, Jeff W; Graber, Marla; Schilling, Lisa M

    2003-10-31

    The use of Internet references in academic literature is common, and Internet references are frequently inaccessible. The extent of Internet referencing and Internet reference activity in medical or scientific publications was systematically examined in more than 1000 articles published between 2000 and 2003 in the New England Journal of Medicine, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and Science. Internet references accounted for 2.6% of all references (672/25548) and in articles 27 months old, 13% of Internet references were inactive. Publishers, librarians, and readers need to reassess policies, archiving systems, and other resources for addressing Internet reference attrition to prevent further information loss.

  9. Conceptual match as a determinant of reference reuse in dialogue.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Dominique; Le Bigot, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    As speakers interact, they add references to their common ground, which they can then reuse to facilitate listener comprehension. However, all references are not equally likely to be reused. The purpose of this study was to shed light on how the speakers' conceptualizations of the referents under discussion affect reuse (along with a generation effect in memory documented in previous studies on dialogic reuse). Two experiments were conducted in which participants interactively added references to their common ground. From each participant's point of view, these references either did or did not match their own conceptualization of the referents discussed, and were either self- or partner-generated. Although self-generated references were more readily accessible in memory than partner-generated ones (Experiment 1), reference reuse was mainly guided by conceptualization (Experiment 2). These results are in line with the idea that several different cues (conceptual match, memory accessibility) constrain reference reuse in dialogue. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  11. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  12. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  13. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  14. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  15. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several tests can help ... View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitor) Suspected arrhythmias ...

  16. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  17. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  18. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for the Normalization of Gene Expression Data in qRT-PCR Analysis in Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Kang-Sheng; Li, Fen; Liang, Ping-Zhuo; Chen, Xue-Wei; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    To obtain accurate and reliable results from quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, it is necessary to select suitable reference genes as standards for normalizing target gene expression data. QRT-PCR is a popular analytical methodology for studying gene expression and it has been used widely in studies of Aphis gossypii Glover in recent years. However, there is absence of study on the stability of the expression of reference genes in A. gossypii. In this study, eight commonly used candidate reference genes, including 18S, 28S, β-ACT, GAPDH, EF1α, RPL7, α-TUB, and TBP, were evaluated under various experimental conditions to assess their suitability for use in the normalization of qRT-PCR data. The optimal number of reference genes was determined using the geNorm program, and the suitability of particular reference genes was empirically validated by performing normalizations of expression data for the HSP70 gene. The results showed the most suitable combinations of reference genes for the different experimental conditions. For experiments based on divergent developmental stages, EF1α, β-ACT, and RPL7 are the optimal reference gene combination, both EF1α and β-ACT are the optimal combination used in the experiments of different geographical populations, whereas for experiments of the temperature changes, the combination of GAPDH and RPL7 is optimal, both 18S and β-ACT are an optimal combination for feeding assay experiments. These research results should be useful for the selection of the suitable reference genes to obtain reliable qRT-PCR data in the gene expression study of A. gossypii.

  19. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor…

  20. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  1. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  2. Genetics Home Reference: nephronophthisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... these are often referred to as nephronophthisis -associated ciliopathies. For example, Senior-Løken syndrome is characterized by ... Nephronophthisis Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Ciliopathy Alliance National Kidney Foundation GeneReviews (1 link) Nephronophthisis ...

  3. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  4. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  5. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    ... MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation ...

  6. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  7. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  8. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  9. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  10. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  11. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  12. 24 CFR 213.251 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES COOPERATIVE HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects § 213.251 Cross-reference. (a) All of... be deemed to refer to the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund in cases involving...

  13. Groundwater chemicals desk reference

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.H.; Welkom, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Information is compiled on more than 135 compounds that may be groundwater pollutants. The compounds profiled include all the Priority Pollutants promulgated by the US EPA under the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977. Many of these priority pollutants were included among the Target Compounds promulgated by the EPA under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) in 1980 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. All chemicals described in the book are classified as priority pollutants and/or target compounds. For each chemical, the following information is given: (1) synonyms; (2) structural formula; (3) CAS Registry number; (4) DOT designation; (5) empirical formula; (6) formula weight; (7) RETCS number; (8) physical and chemical properties; (9) fire hazards; (10) health hazard data; and (11) manufacturing data and/or selected manufacturers.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of schizophrenia include false perceptions called hallucinations. Imaginary voices are the most common hallucinations in schizophrenia , but affected individuals can also experience ...

  15. Teaching the Dilemmas of Commons Property Management Using the Commons Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirts, Carla A.; Tumeo, Mark A.

    1991-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of 36 college students who played the Commons Game. This game was developed to illustrate the behavioral patterns, complexities, and frustrations involved in management of commons resources, cited as a major concern for future generations. (10 references) (MCO)

  16. 18 CFR 357.1 - Common carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Common carriers. 357.1 Section 357.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT ANNUAL SPECIAL OR PERIODIC REPORTS:...

  17. Privacy Act Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Any information you provide to the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Suspension and Debarment Program will be governed by the Privacy Act and will be included in the EPA Debarment and Suspension Files, a Privacy Act system of records.

  18. ACTS data center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Ali; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on ACTS Data Center status report are included. Topics covered include: ACTS Data Center Functions; data flow overview; PPD flow; RAW data flow; data compression; PPD distribution; RAW Data Archival; PPD Audit; and data analysis.

  19. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  20. Autism: Why Act Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  1. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  2. Common path interferometer based on the modified Michelson configuration using a reflective grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hongyi; Shan, Mingguang; Zhong, Zhi; Guo, Lili; Zhang, Yabin

    2015-12-01

    A common-path interferometer using the modified Michelson system with a reflective grating is proposed for quantitative phase imaging. The frequency spectrum of the object beam is split into two beams using a beam splitter. One beam is diffracted into +1, 0, and -1 orders by the reflective grating to act as an object beam, and the other beam is low-filtered and diffracted by a pinhole mirror to act as a reference beam. Three phase-shifted interferograms can be simultaneously captured using the proposed interferometer, and the specimen phase can then be reconstructed from the three interferograms. Experiments are carried out to prove the precision, real-time ability, and stability of the proposed method.

  3. The dermatology acting internship.

    PubMed

    Stephens, John B; Raimer, Sharon S; Wagner, Richard F

    2011-07-15

    Acting internships are an important component of modern day medical school curriculum. Several specialties outside of internal medicine now offer acting internship experiences to fourth year medical students. We have found that a dermatology acting internship is a valuable experience for fourth year medical students who are interested in pursuing a residency in dermatology. Our experience with the dermatology acting internship over the 2010-2011 academic year is described.

  4. 17 CFR 256.201 - Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Common stock issued. 256.201... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.201 Common stock issued. This account shall include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued and outstanding....

  5. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 201, Common... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common stock issued. This account must include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued...

  6. 17 CFR 256.201 - Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common stock issued. 256.201... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.201 Common stock issued. This account shall include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued and outstanding....

  7. Setting reference targets

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  8. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: Summary, Analysis, and Opportunities for Advocacy for the Academic Emergency Physician

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jeffrey A.; Walthall, Jennifer D.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Bill, commonly referred to as the “Health Care Bill” or the “Health Care Reform Bill,” became enacted in March, 2010. This article is a review and analysis of the sections of this Act that are relevant to researchers and teachers of emergency care. The purpose of this document is to serve as a citable reference for interested parties and a reference to quickly locate the sections of the Bill relevant to academic emergency physicians. When appropriate, text was copied verbatim from the bill. The source of the downloaded Act, and the page numbers of the text sections, are provided to help the reader to find the sections described. This review is presented in two parts. Part 1 presents 11 sections extirpated from the Act, with short interpretations of the significance of each section. Part II presents an analysis of the sections that the authors believe represent opportunities for emergency care researchers and teachers to make the most impact, through active involvement with the various departments and agencies of the federal government that will be charged with interpreting and implementing this Act. The Act contains sections that could lead to new funding opportunities for research in emergency care, especially for comparative clinical trials and clinical studies that focus on integration and efficiency of health care delivery. The Act will establish several new institutes, centers, and committees that will create policies highly relevant to emergency care. The authors conclude that this Act can be expected to have a profound influence on research and training in emergency care. PMID:20653573

  9. Common-path configuration in total internal reflection digital holography microscopy.

    PubMed

    Calabuig, Alejandro; Matrecano, Marcella; Paturzo, Melania; Ferraro, Pietro

    2014-04-15

    Total Internal Reflection Digital Holographic Microscopy (TIRDHM) is recognized to be a powerful tool for retrieving quantitative phase images of cell-substrate interfaces, adhesions, and tissue structures close to the prism surface. In this Letter, we develop an improved TIRDHM system, taking advantage of a refractive index mismatch between the prism and the sample substrate, to allow phase-shifting DH with just a single-beam interferometric configuration. Instead of the traditional off-axis method, phase-shift method is used to retrieve amplitude and phase images in coherent light and TIR modality. Essentially, the substrate-prism interface acts like a beam splitter generating a reference beam, where the phase-shift dependence on the incident angle is exploited in this common-path configuration. With the aim to demonstrate the technique's validity, some experiments are performed to establish the advantage of this compact and simple configuration, in which the reference arm in the setup is avoided.

  10. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  11. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  12. IERS Reference System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, K.

    Present circumstances related to IERS activities are described from various points of view. The NASA Dynamics of Solid Earth (DOSE) program and the IERS intensive campaign proposed by J. Dickey of JPL are particularly interesting. It is important to implement international cooperation to establish a fundamental radio reference frame by carrying out global solution based on all geodetic observations, past and future. A precession and nutation model may be determined observationally with an accuracy of 0.2 - 0.3 mas in a few years. Then it will become possible to establish the radio reference frame with this accuracy.

  13. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  14. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  15. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  16. [Euthanasia and medical act].

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    Right to life -as the prohibition of intentionally and arbitrarily taking life, even with authorization of the concerned one- is an internationally recognized right. In many countries, debate regarding euthanasia is more centered in its convenience, social acceptability and how it is regulated, than in its substantial legitimacy. Some argue that euthanasia should be included as part of clinical practice of health professionals, grounded on individual's autonomy claims-everyone having the liberty to choose how to live and how to die. Against this, others sustain that life has a higher value than autonomy, exercising autonomy without respecting the right to life would become a serious moral and social problem. Likewise, euthanasia supporters some-times claim a 'right to live with dignity', which must be understood as a personal obligation, referred more to the ethical than to the strictly legal sphere. In countries where it is already legalized, euthanasia practice has extended to cases where it is not the patient who requests this but the family or some healthcare professional, or even the legal system-when they think that the patient is living in a condition which is not worthy to live. Generalization of euthanasia possibly will end in affecting those who need more care, such as elder, chronically ill or dying people, damaging severely personal basic rights. Nature, purpose and tradition of medicine rule out the practice of euthanasia, which ought not be considered a medical act or legitimately compulsory for physicians. Today's medicine counts with effective treatments for pain and suffering, such as palliative care, including sedative therapy, which best preserves persons dignity and keeps safe the ethos of the medical profession.

  17. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  18. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  19. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  20. Sustainability of common pool resources

    PubMed Central

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426

  1. Individual Voices, Common Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausslein, Evelyn, Comp.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the "Early Childhood Bulletin" describes some of the ways in which parents are learning to speak out on behalf of young children and their families being served through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part H early intervention programs. The document consists of four sections in which parents share…

  2. Saving the Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollier, David

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the control of digital content and the stakes for libraries and our democratic culture. Highlights include copyright term extension, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, use of contract law to limit the public domain, database legislation, trademarks versus the public domain, the void in our cultural vocabulary, and the concept of the…

  3. Multimedia Reference Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  4. Digital Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the increasing demand for digital reference services from government Web sites via email, and describes a partnership between the Government Printing Office and the federal depository library at the University of Illinois at Chicago to create electronic access to the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network (DOSFAN). (Author/LRW)

  5. Reflections on Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Kerryn A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes programmatic changes in reference services at the Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical library and speculates on the future. Topics include institutional restructuring and consolidation; improvements in technology infrastructure; external economic pressure; and fiscal accountability, including library funding and cost center…

  6. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  7. The Reference Encounter Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  8. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  9. Virtual Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  10. Reference Collections and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1999-01-01

    Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

  11. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  12. Reference Sources for Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursing Outlook, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The ninth revision (including a Canadian supplement) of a list of nursing reference works lists items in the following sections: abstract journals, audiovisuals, bibliographies, dictionaries, directories, drug lists and pharmacologies, educational programs, histories, indexes, legal guides, library administration and organization, research grants,…

  13. Reference Sources for Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursing Outlook, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The tenth revision of a list of reference works for nurses, revised by a committee of the Interagency Council on Library Resources for Nursing, listed by type of publication as abstract journals, audiovisuals, bibliographies, books, dictionaries, directories, pharmacologies, indexes, guides, and so on. (MF)

  14. Isotope reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

  15. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  16. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  17. An Amharic Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

  18. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  19. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  20. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  1. The lack of a systematic validation of reference genes: a serious pitfall undervalued in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in plants.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Laurent; Mauriat, Mélanie; Guénin, Stéphanie; Pelloux, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Louvet, Romain; Rusterucci, Christine; Moritz, Thomas; Guerineau, François; Bellini, Catherine; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier

    2008-08-01

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approaches have been used in a large proportion of transcriptome analyses published to date. The accuracy of the results obtained by this method strongly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed genes, known as references. Statistical algorithms have been developed recently to help validate reference genes, and most studies of gene expression in mammals, yeast and bacteria now include such validation. Surprisingly, this important approach is under-utilized in plant studies, where putative housekeeping genes tend to be used as references without any appropriate validation. Using quantitative RT-PCR, the expression stability of several genes commonly used as references was tested in various tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides). It was found that the expression of most of these genes was unstable, indicating that their use as references is inappropriate. The major impact of the use of such inappropriate references on the results obtained by RT-PCR is demonstrated in this study. Using aspen as a model, evidence is presented indicating that no gene can act as a universal reference, implying the need for a systematic validation of reference genes. For the first time, the extent to which the lack of a systematic validation of reference genes is a stumbling block to the reliability of results obtained by RT-PCR in plants is clearly shown.

  2. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  3. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  4. The Common Core: Far from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the Common Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He refers to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are…

  5. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Kory

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history, legal standards, and enforcement procedures of Title IV and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the role those statutes have played in the federal enforcement of the equal protection clause. (82 references) (MLF)

  6. 78 FR 15553 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... 45 CFR Parts 155 and 156 RIN 0938-AR76 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of... of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act) related to the Small Business...

  7. 77 FR 17143 - Medicaid Program; Eligiblity Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...This final rule implements several provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). The Affordable Care Act expands access to health insurance coverage through improvements to the Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance (CHIP) programs, the establishment of......

  8. 75 FR 11627 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Provisions of the Government Securities Act and Treasury's Government Securities Act Regulations in... customer CDS transactions that reference government securities. Treasury is also granting a...

  9. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  10. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  11. How Common Is PTSD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... Public, Family, & Friends How Common Is PTSD? Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after you have been ...

  12. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  13. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  14. Common Causes of Stillbirth

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common placental problems. The placenta separates (partially or completely) from the uterine wall ... or abnormal placement of the cord into the placenta. This can deprive the baby of oxygen. Infectious ...

  15. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  16. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  17. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain ... nerve injuries. Damage to the nerve disrupts the myelin sheath ...

  18. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  19. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  1. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  2. Quantum Measurement Act as a Speech Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jean

    2005-10-01

    I show that the quantum measurement problem can be understood if the measurement is seen as a "speech act" in the sense of modern language theory. The reduction of the state vector is in this perspective an intersubjective -- or, better, a-subjective -- symbolic process. I then give some perspectives on applications to the "Mind-Body Problem".

  3. Open SHMEM Reference Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, Howard; Curtis, Anthony; Welch, Aaron; Fridley, Andrew

    2016-05-12

    OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a reference implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.

  4. Range Reference Notebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-15

    rifle grenade (inert), tin can lid, 15” tent peg 3 Table FRD-7. Fort Ritchie Sector 3 Representative Examples of Non-MEC Clutter Description 1/2...Appendix B—Indirect Fire Range Examples SITES ( ADI ) Adak Naval Air Facility, AK, Mitt Lake Mortar Range (FRI) Fort Ritchie...example range. B- ADI -1 Indirect-Fire Range,: Adak, AK, Mitt Lake Mortar Range Impact Area Site-Specific References – Adak NAF Foster Wheeler

  5. Identification of a novel reference gene for apple transcriptional profiling under postharvest conditions.

    PubMed

    Storch, Tatiane Timm; Pegoraro, Camila; Finatto, Taciane; Quecini, Vera; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Girardi, César Luis

    2015-01-01

    Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most important techniques for gene expression profiling due to its high sensibility and reproducibility. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on data normalization, performed by comparisons between the expression profiles of the genes of interest against those of constitutively expressed, reference genes. Although the technique is widely used in fruit postharvest experiments, the transcription stability of reference genes has not been thoroughly investigated under these experimental conditions. Thus, we have determined the transcriptional profile, under these conditions, of three genes commonly used as reference--ACTIN (MdACT), PROTEIN DISULPHIDE ISOMERASE (MdPDI) and UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME E2 (MdUBC)--along with two novel candidates--HISTONE 1 (MdH1) and NUCLEOSSOME ASSEMBLY 1 PROTEIN (MdNAP1). The expression profile of the genes was investigated throughout five experiments, with three of them encompassing the postharvest period and the other two, consisting of developmental and spatial phases. The transcriptional stability was comparatively investigated using four distinct software packages: BestKeeper, NormFinder, geNorm and DataAssist. Gene ranking results for transcriptional stability were similar for the investigated software packages, with the exception of BestKeeper. The classic reference gene MdUBC ranked among the most stably transcribed in all investigated experimental conditions. Transcript accumulation profiles for the novel reference candidate gene MdH1 were stable throughout the tested conditions, especially in experiments encompassing the postharvest period. Thus, our results present a novel reference gene for postharvest experiments in apple and reinforce the importance of checking the transcription profile of reference genes under the experimental conditions of interest.

  6. Precision optical reference frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz; Schnatz, Harald; Zinner, G.; Trebst, Tilmann; Helmcke, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    Optical reference frequencies are provided by lasers of which the frequencies are stabilized to suitable absorption lines. Presently, twelve reference frequencies/wavelengths within the wavelengths range from 243 nm to 10.3 micrometers are recommended by the International Committee of Weights and Measures as references for the realization of the meter and scientific applications. As typical examples, we describe a diode-pumped, frequency doubled YAG-laser stabilized to an absorption line of molecular iodine and a Ca-stabilized laser. The latter one has been developed in two versions, a transportable system utilizing a small beam of thermal Ca atoms and a stationary standard based on laser cooled and trapped Ca atoms. The frequency of the Ca standard based on cold Ca atoms has been measured by a frequency chain allowing a phase-coherent comparison against the primary standard of time and frequency, the caesium clock. Its value is vCa equals 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a relative standard uncertainty of 2.5 (DOT) 10-13.

  7. 76 FR 44776 - Provisions Common to Registered Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Provisions Common to Registered Entities AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Final Rule... certain statutory provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd... certain statutory provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and to amend existing regulations governing...

  8. Celestial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-03-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  9. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  10. The Reference Forward Model (RFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudhia, Anu

    2017-01-01

    The Reference Forward Model (RFM) is a general purpose line-by-line radiative transfer model, currently supported by the UK National Centre for Earth Observation. This paper outlines the algorithms used by the RFM, focusing on standard calculations of terrestrial atmospheric infrared spectra followed by a brief summary of some additional capabilities and extensions to microwave wavelengths and extraterrestrial atmospheres. At its most basic level - the 'line-by-line' component - it calculates molecular absorption cross-sections by applying the Voigt lineshape to all transitions up to ±25 cm-1 from line-centre. Alternatively, absorptions can be directly interpolated from various forms of tabulated data. These cross-sections are then used to construct infrared radiance or transmittance spectra for ray paths through homogeneous cells, plane-parallel or circular atmospheres. At a higher level, the RFM can apply instrumental convolutions to simulate measurements from Fourier transform spectrometers. It can also calculate Jacobian spectra and so act as a stand-alone forward model within a retrieval scheme. The RFM is designed for robustness, flexibility and ease-of-use (particularly by the non-expert), and no claims are made for superior accuracy, or indeed novelty, compared to other line-by-line codes. Its main limitations at present are a lack of scattering and simplified modelling of surface reflectance and line-mixing.

  11. 15 CFR 240.1 - Title of act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARDS FOR BARRELS BARRELS AND OTHER CONTAINERS FOR LIME... U.S.C. 237-242), entitled “An Act to standardize lime barrels,” shall be known and referred to as the “Standard Lime-Barrel Act.”...

  12. Regional Libraries and the Depository Library Act of 1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzkopf, LeRoy C.

    This report is a ten year review of the regional depository library system for federal government documents which was established by the Depository Library Act of 1962. It describes the status of programs which regional libraries have undertaken to comply with the requirements of the Act to "provide interlibrary loan, reference service, and…

  13. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buy American Act supply... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.4 Buy American Act supply contracts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions:...

  14. S. Rept. 111-323 - PUBLIC LANDS SERVICE CORPS ACT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-09-27

    ...The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, to which was referred the Act (H.R. 1612) to amend the Public Lands Corps Act of 1993 to expand the authorization of the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, and the Interior to provide service opportunities for young Americans; help restore the nation's natural, cultural, historic, archaeological, recreational and scenic resources; train a new......

  15. To amend that portion of title 28, United States Code, commonly called the Tort Claims Act, in order to assure that individuals accompanying Federal employees who are engaged in missions for the United States Government in foreign countries have legal recourse against the Government for certain tort claims, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Snyder, Vic [D-AR-2

    2009-07-21

    09/14/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  17. Reference materials and reference measurement systems in laboratory medicine. Harmonization of nomenclature and definitions in reference measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Dybkaer, R

    1995-12-01

    Reliability of clinical laboratory results is obtained through quality assurance in both their production and transmission. The former involves a reference measurement system of reference materials and reference measurement procedures with metrological and statistical verification of results. The latter requires that sender and receiver have access to a common terminology. Thus, two data banks are required. A plurilingual systematic vocabulary related to the reference measurement system, giving concepts with terms and definitions concerning measurement standards, reference measurement procedures, internal quality control, external quality assessment, probability and statistics-mainly based on existing authoritative publications. The material should be processed by standard scientific terminological procedure and offered to pertinent organizations and specialists for comment before finalization and authorization. A multilingual collection of systematic names for properties examined by the branches of Laboratory Medicine, such as clinical chemistry, clinical immunology, clinical microbiology, clinical pharmacology, haematology and blood banking, and histochemistry and cytology. The database should function as a reference to consultation and as a link in the transmission of data between local laboratory "dialects". This should be based on the ongoing comprehensive IUPAC/IFCC project for forming names in collaboration with relevant scientific organisations and area specialists. The relational data base including "run-time" software would be accessed by e-mail (gopher or other storage medium).

  18. False Claims Act Clarification Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Grassley, Chuck [R-IA

    2009-02-24

    02/24/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2426-2428) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Hatch Act Modernization Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Cummings, Elijah E. [D-MD-7

    2012-03-07

    03/07/2012 Referred to the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.2170, which became Public Law 112-230 on 12/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. ACT and College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…

  1. Clean Air Act Text

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  2. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  3. Terminal Forecast Reference Notebook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-07

    Figure 18 , Surface Map 1230Z, October 24, 1948). 4I 7Cm 19 (2) During late spring, suuer or early autumn high oells some- times move southward into the...TFRF, is an excellent reference for this subject. 0 06 0070 I.N ATC 1. A- 2 AREAI p/ A-2 AREA I 1. General: Most flights briefed by Det 18 are within or...in close proxi- mity to Area I. For this reason, Det 18 personnel must become extremely knowledgeable of Area I. 2. Location and Background: The ROK

  4. Americans With Disabilities Act.

    PubMed

    Walk, E E; Ahn, H C; Lampkin, P M; Nabizadeh, S A; Edlich, R F

    1993-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act gives all Americans with disabilities a chance to achieve the same quality of life that individuals without disabilities enjoy. This act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disabilities in employment, public services, privately operated public accommodations, services, and telecommunications. The Americans with Disabilities Act is divided into five titles. Title I of the act pertains to discrimination against the disabled in the workplace. Title II prevents discrimination against persons with a disability in state and local government services. Title III prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in places of public accommodations and commercial facilities. Title IV ensures that companies offering telephone services to the general public provide special services for individuals with hearing and speech impairments. Under the enforcement provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act, stringent penalties will be implemented for failure to comply with its provisions.

  5. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  6. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions. PMID:27092101

  7. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  8. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  9. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  10. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  11. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  12. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  13. Commonalities across Effective Collaboratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jill F.; Flynn, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Examined effective collaborations involving schools and colleges of education and other organizations, identifying commonly voiced reasons for collaboration and factors perceived as important in collaboration. Data come from research, case descriptions, survey responses, and input from collaborators. Willingness to listen, mutual respect,…

  14. The Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the conflicting principles revealed respectively by those who argue for the common school and by those who seek to promote a system of schools that, though maintained by the state, might reflect the different religious beliefs within the community. The philosopher, John Dewey, is appealed to in defence of the common…

  15. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  16. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay.

  17. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  18. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  19. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  20. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  1. Does Common Enrollment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant

    2016-01-01

    In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore common enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment process for all district-run and charter schools in their…

  2. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  3. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  4. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  5. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  6. Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Kathryn E; Bardi, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction.

  7. Draconian dress act repealed.

    PubMed

    Mhone, C

    1994-01-01

    The Dress Act was put into place in Malawi by the government of President Kamuzu Banda after the long period of direct colonialism. The act made it illegal for women in Malawi to be seen publicly wearing dresses which did not completely cover their knees or wearing pants; men had to wear their hair short. Police officers even scrutinized women's attire at private house parties and in homes. The autocratic political structure established by Banda, however, was voted out in a referendum June 14, 1993. Pressure by opposition forces such as the United Democratic Front forced a repeal of the act on November 16 of the same year. The repeal was vigorously attacked by female Parliament members as a move which would result in moral degradation and an increase in the level of sexual harassment against women. Other citizens and tourists have generally detested the act. The act has most certainly kept many potential visitors from vacationing in Malawi. Some expert observers think that repeals of the Dress Act, the Forfeiture Act, and legislation which allowed the government to detain opposition figures without trial were done to garner support from the Paris Club for the resumption of balance of payments support suspended due to the country's poor human rights record.

  8. ACTS: Technology Description and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, Richard T.; Schertler, Ronald; Gargione, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The ACTS Project was originated at NASA Glenn Research Center in the early 1980's to sponsor the development and application of technology that was intended to be used by the private sector. The program was formulated with the underlying philosophy of maintaining US leadership in satellite communications while focusing technology development for efficient use of the frequency spectrum. This report chronicles the execution and results of the program from the perspective of its technology managers, from inception through hardware and system development to on-orbit experiments and demonstrations of the technology. The first eight sections of the report discuss programmatic background, the specific satellite and ground terminal technology and the results generated by the program including industry relevance. A federally funded program of this type attracted strong advocates and adversaries and the resulting impact on the project schedule is also discussed. The last two sections are a list of useful acronyms and extensive references.

  9. Reference genes for gene expression studies in wheat flag leaves grown under different farming conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internal control genes with highly uniform expression throughout the experimental conditions are required for accurate gene expression analysis as no universal reference genes exists. In this study, the expression stability of 24 candidate genes from Triticum aestivum cv. Cubus flag leaves grown under organic and conventional farming systems was evaluated in two locations in order to select suitable genes that can be used for normalization of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) reactions. The genes were selected among the most common used reference genes as well as genes encoding proteins involved in several metabolic pathways. Findings Individual genes displayed different expression rates across all samples assayed. Applying geNorm, a set of three potential reference genes were suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR reactions in winter wheat flag leaves cv. Cubus: TaFNRII (ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase; AJ457980.1), ACT2 (actin 2; TC234027), and rrn26 (a putative homologue to RNA 26S gene; AL827977.1). In addition of these three genes that were also top-ranked by NormFinder, two extra genes: CYP18-2 (Cyclophilin A, AY456122.1) and TaWIN1 (14-3-3 like protein, AB042193) were most consistently stably expressed. Furthermore, we showed that TaFNRII, ACT2, and CYP18-2 are suitable for gene expression normalization in other two winter wheat varieties (Tommi and Centenaire) grown under three treatments (organic, conventional and no nitrogen) and a different environment than the one tested with cv. Cubus. Conclusions This study provides a new set of reference genes which should improve the accuracy of gene expression analyses when using wheat flag leaves as those related to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. PMID:21951810

  10. Molecular biology references.

    PubMed

    2003-05-01

    Many of the units in this manual describe methods and techniques for the cloning, expression, and structural analysis of neural genes and proteins. We assume that users of these protocols have at least some introductory background in recombinant DNA technology (or are working with a collaborator who does); therefore, we have not provided comprehensive coverage of all of these topics, but rather have concentrated on presenting selected techniques that will be of the most interest and use to the general neuroscience laboratory. More comprehensive coverage of these topics can be found in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (CPMB), which is extensively cross-referenced throughout this manual. These cross-references are summarized in this appendix.

  11. Bulk Site Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barich, J.J. III; Jones, R.R. Sr.

    1996-12-31

    The selection, manufacture and use of Bulk Site Reference Materials (BSRMs) at hazardous waste sites is discussed. BSRMs are useful in preparing stabilization/solidification (S/S) formulations for soils, ranking competing S/S processes, comparing S/S alternatives to other technologies, and in interpreting data from different test types. BSRMs are large volume samples that are representative of the physical and chemical characteristics of a site soil, and that contain contaminants at reasonably high levels. A successful BSRM is extremely homogeneous and well-characterized. While not representative of any point on the site, they contain the contaminants of the site in the matrices of the site. Design objectives for a BSRM are to produce a material that (1) maintains good fidelity to site matrices and contaminants, and (2) exhibits the lowest possible relative standard deviation.

  12. PASCAL/48 reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This reference manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.

  13. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-07-30

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  14. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  15. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  16. On establishing reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J H; Mullen, K

    1978-01-01

    In order to establish a range of reference values for any characteristic one can use Gaussian or nonparametric techniques, whichever are most appropriate. One has the choice of calculating tolerance intervals or percentile intervals. A tolerance interval is said to contain, say 95% of the population with probability, say 0.90. A percentile interval simply simply calculates the values between which 95% of the observations fall. If the data can be said to have a Gaussian distribution, the same precision can be obtained with smaller sample sizes than using the nonparametric techniques. In some cases, data which are not Gaussian can be transformed into a Gaussian form and hence make use of the more efficient Gaussian techniques. In both cases, the data should be checked for outliers or rogue observations and these should be eliminated if the testing procedure fails to imply that they are an integral part of the data. PMID:688072

  17. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  18. International Reference Ionosphere -2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    The International Reference Ionosphere 2010 includes several important improvements and ad-ditions. This presentation introduces these changes and discusses their benefits. The electron and ion density profiles for the bottomside ionosphere will be significantly improved by using more ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional lower iono-sphere parameter IRI-2010 will include the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Net models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. At high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity. The homepage for the IRI project is at http://IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  19. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  20. A common-view disciplined oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Michael A.; Dahlen, Aaron P.

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

  1. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  2. Common medical pains

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

  3. Reference Desk Staffing Patterns: Report of a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of public and academic libraries conducted to obtain information on length of reference desk shifts and proportion of the reference librarian's time spent at the desk found the two-hour weekday shift to be the most common, and that librarians typically work 7 to 21 hours per week at the desk. (EM)

  4. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  5. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  6. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  7. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  8. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  9. Common Geometry Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  10. Spintronic Memristor Based Temperature Sensor Design with CMOS Current Reference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    torques acting on its free layer magnetization vector, which is significantly impacted by thermal fluctuations. Therefore, the memristance, a.k.a. the...when HP lab firstly discovered it through a TiO2 thin-film structure [2]. Memristors show many promising characteristics as the next- generation data...As illustrated in Figure 2(a), the device is composed of two ferromagnetic layers : reference and free layers . The reference layer is coupled to a

  11. ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

  12. Disabilities Act in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daynes, Kristine S.

    1990-01-01

    Eight true or false questions explore implications of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Topics include AIDS, drug abuse, undue hardship, reasonable accommodation, and company size affected by the law. (SK)

  13. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common stock issued. This account must include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued...

  14. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common stock issued. This account must include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common stock issued. This account must include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued...

  16. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common stock issued. This account must include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued...

  17. The Common Core Is an Opportunity for Education Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for American Progress, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core helps address inequity in education by ensuring all students are taught to the same high standards and held to the same rigorous expectations. This helps make sure that ZIP codes do not determine education quality. The Common Core-aligned assessments are integral to realizing the promise of the standards; they act as a…

  18. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  19. America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dingell, John D. [D-MI-15

    2009-07-14

    10/14/2009 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 168. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3590, which became Public Law 111-148 on 3/23/2010. H.R.3590, often referred to as the Affordable Care Act, is the bill that became the health care reform law. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Validation of suitable reference genes for expression normalization in Echinococcus spp. larval stages.

    PubMed

    Espínola, Sergio Martin; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a significant amount of sequence data (both genomic and transcriptomic) for Echinococcus spp. has been published, thereby facilitating the analysis of genes expressed during a specific stage or involved in parasite development. To perform a suitable gene expression quantification analysis, the use of validated reference genes is strongly recommended. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify suitable reference genes to allow reliable expression normalization for genes of interest in Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi upon induction of the early pre-adult development. Untreated protoscoleces (PS) and pepsin-treated protoscoleces (PSP) from E. granulosus s.s. (G1) and E. ortleppi metacestode were used. The gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes (βTUB, NDUFV2, RPL13, TBP, CYP-1, RPII, EF-1α, βACT-1, GAPDH, ETIF4A-III and MAPK3) was assessed using geNorm, Normfinder, and RefFinder. Our qPCR data showed a good correlation with the recently published RNA-seq data. Regarding expression stability, EF-1α and TBP were the most stable genes for both species. Interestingly, βACT-1 (the most commonly used reference gene), and GAPDH and ETIF4A-III (previously identified as housekeeping genes) did not behave stably in our assay conditions. We propose the use of EF-1α as a reference gene for studies involving gene expression analysis in both PS and PSP experimental conditions for E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi. To demonstrate its applicability, EF-1α was used as a normalizer gene in the relative quantification of transcripts from genes coding for antigen B subunits. The same EF-1α reference gene may be used in studies with other Echinococcus sensu lato species. This report validates suitable reference genes for species of class Cestoda, phylum Platyhelminthes, thus providing a foundation for further validation in other epidemiologically important cestode species, such as those from the

  1. Reference materials for cellular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bravery, Christopher A; French, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The development of cellular therapeutics (CTP) takes place over many years, and, where successful, the developer will anticipate the product to be in clinical use for decades. Successful demonstration of manufacturing and quality consistency is dependent on the use of complex analytical methods; thus, the risk of process and method drift over time is high. The use of reference materials (RM) is an established scientific principle and as such also a regulatory requirement. The various uses of RM in the context of CTP manufacturing and quality are discussed, along with why they are needed for living cell products and the analytical methods applied to them. Relatively few consensus RM exist that are suitable for even common methods used by CTP developers, such as flow cytometry. Others have also identified this need and made proposals; however, great care will be needed to ensure any consensus RM that result are fit for purpose. Such consensus RM probably will need to be applied to specific standardized methods, and the idea that a single RM can have wide applicability is challenged. Written standards, including standardized methods, together with appropriate measurement RM are probably the most appropriate way to define specific starting cell types. The characteristics of a specific CTP will to some degree deviate from those of the starting cells; consequently, a product RM remains the best solution where feasible. Each CTP developer must consider how and what types of RM should be used to ensure the reliability of their own analytical measurements.

  2. Incidental findings: a common law approach.

    PubMed

    Tovino, Stacey A

    2008-01-01

    Federal regulations governing human subjects research do not address key questions raised by incidental neuroimaging findings, including the scope of a researcher's disclosure with respect to the possibility of incidental findings and the question whether a researcher has an affirmative legal cuty to seek, detect, and report incidental findings. The scope of researcher duties may, however, be mapped with reference to common law doctrine, including fiduciary, tort, contract, and bailment theories of liability.

  3. Preliminary reference Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  4. Reference change values.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Callum G

    2011-09-30

    Reference change values (RCV) provide objective tools for assessment of the significance of differences in serial results from an individual. The concept is simple and the calculation easy, since all laboratories know their analytical imprecision (CV(A)) and estimates of within-subject biological variation (CV(I)) are available for a large number of quantities. Generally, CV(I) are constant over time, geography, methodology and in health and chronic stable disease. The formula is RCV=2(1/2) · Z · (CV(A)(2) + CV(I)(2))(1/2), where Z is the number of standard deviations appropriate to the probability. Correct interpretation of the semantics describing the clinical use of RCV is vital for selection of the Z-score. Many quantities of clinically importance exist for which good estimates of RCV are unavailable. Derivation of CV(I) may be difficult for such quantities: flair and imagination are required in selecting populations with chronic but stable disease on whom CV(I) can be determined. RCV can be used for delta-checking and auto-verification and laboratory information management systems (LIMS) can be adapted to do this. Recently, log-normal transformation to obtain unidirectional RCV has been used. Gaps in knowledge of RCV still require filling since the need for measures of change is clearly expressed in guidelines.

  5. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  6. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    multiple sclerosis . Lyme disease was associated in distribution with Ixodes ticks but the etiologic agent was not isolated. The reference center distributed 566 ampoules of reference sera, viruses, and antigens during 1977; mosquito and vertebrate cell lines were also distributed.

  7. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed.

  8. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  9. Web Reference: A Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Presents ideas and strategies to enhance digital reference services available via the Internet in public libraries. Describes print publications which include Web reference columns; subject guides, both print and online; and the resources of the Internet Public Library and other virtual reference desks. (LRW)

  10. Paraprofessionals at the Reference Desk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Marjorie E.; Bunge, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that compared the quality of reference services provided by reference librarians and paraprofessionals, using patron satisfaction as the measure of success. Factors associated with satisfactory service are identified, and suggestions for the effective use of paraprofessional staff are presented. (4 references) (CLB)

  11. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  12. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative PCR Under Various Biotic and Abiotic Stress Conditions in Toxoptera citricida (Hemiptera, Aphidiae).

    PubMed

    Shang, Feng; Wei, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Wei, Dong; Shen, Guang-Mao; Feng, Ying-Cai; Li, Ting; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-08-01

    The regulation of mRNA expression level is critical for gene expression studies. Currently, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is commonly used to investigate mRNA expression level of genes under various experimental conditions. An important factor that determines the optimal quantification of qRT-PCR data is the choice of the reference gene for normalization. To advance gene expression studies in Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), an important citrus pest and a main vector of the Citrus tristeza virus, we used five tools (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCt methods, and RefFinder) to evaluate seven candidate reference genes (elongation factor-1 alpha [EF1α], beta tubulin [β-TUB], 18S ribosomal RNA [18S], RNA polymerase II large subunit (RNAP II), beta actin (β-ACT), alpha tubulin, and glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) under different biotic (developmental stages and wing dimorphism) and abiotic stress (thermal, starvation, and UV irradiation) conditions. The results showed that EF1α and 18S were the most stable genes under various biotic states, β-ACT and β-TUB during thermal stress, EF1α and RNAP II under starvation stress, and RNAP II, β-ACT, and EF1α under UV irradiation stress conditions. This study provides useful resources for the transcriptional profiling of genes in T. citricida and closely related aphid species.

  13. Human Trafficking Reporting Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Carter, John R. [R-TX-31

    2013-02-28

    04/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Human Trafficking Prevention Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Maloney, Sean Patrick [D-NY-18

    2014-04-10

    07/24/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Telephone Metadata Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Schiff, Adam B. [D-CA-28

    2014-01-14

    03/20/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. DREAM Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Berman, Howard L. [D-CA-28

    2010-12-07

    12/20/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. No More Solyndras Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Upton, Fred [R-MI-6

    2012-07-26

    09/19/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Telephone Records Protection Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Amash, Justin [R-MI-3

    2013-05-16

    06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. PREPARE Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Bennet, Michael F. [D-CO

    2013-08-01

    08/01/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Preventing Gun Violence Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Israel, Steve [D-NY-3

    2014-04-04

    04/16/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation: