Science.gov

Sample records for act commonly referred

  1. Genetics Home Reference: common variable immune deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... H, Lougaris V, Plebani A, Gertz EM, Schäffer AA, Hammarström L, Grimbacher B. Deleterious mutations in LRBA ... 2015 Jun 19. Review. Citation on PubMed Schäffer AA, Salzer U, Hammarström L, Grimbacher B. Deconstructing common ...

  2. Reference Librarians at the Reference Desk in a Learning Commons: A Mixed Methods Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth B.; Moore, Anne C.; Lang, Beth W.

    2008-01-01

    At the University of Massachusetts Amherst's W.E.B. Du Bois Library's Learning Commons, only reference librarians staff the Reference and Research Assistance Desk. Surveys, a focus group, reference question transcriptions, and question-type tallies indicate that this service model is strongly preferred by users and librarians over the previous…

  3. 75 FR 67088 - Clean Water Act (CWA) and Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Common...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act (CWA) and Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Common... Development (ORD) to develop common characterizations of effects from pesticides on fish, other aquatic... for water quality that accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge. Water quality criteria...

  4. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  5. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  6. An Investigation of Digital Reference Interviews: A Dialogue Act Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Keisuke

    2013-01-01

    The rapid increase of computer-mediated communications (CMCs) in various forms such as micro-blogging (e.g. Twitter), online chatting (e.g. digital reference) and community-based question-answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) characterizes a recent trend in web technologies, often referred to as the "social web". This trend highlights…

  7. FEMA Common Sense and Cost Effectiveness Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hoeven, John [R-ND

    2011-05-26

    05/26/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Handy Reference Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This guide provides general information about the application of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), as amended. Topics covered are basic wage standards, employees covered, tipped employees, employer-furnished facilities, subminimum wage provisions, equal pay provisions, exemptions, child labor provisions, recordkeeping, terms used in the FLSA,…

  9. Training Costs with Reference to the Industrial Training Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Douglas

    Provisions and implications of the British Industrial Training Act of 1964 (including the system of training grants and levies) are set forth. Procedures for accounting and budgeting for training costs, routines for collecting training information, documents (budgets, cost sheets, control statements) for collecting and controlling costs, means of…

  10. Common Sense in Consumer Product Safety Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Tester, Jon [D-MT

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2052-2053) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  12. When prosocials act like proselfs in a commons dilemma.

    PubMed

    Brucks, Wernher M; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2007-05-01

    Past research has shown that people with prosocial orientations exercise restraint when collectively shared resources are close to being depleted, whereas people with proself orientations tend to maintain high levels of consumption. This research seeks to extend this important finding by examining whether the presence of noise in social-ecological interaction may modify the effects of social values in a commons dilemma. Participants were taking resources from a gradually declining pool. For half of the participants, the intended consumption was subject to incidental increases in consumption (negative noise). Consistent with hypotheses, noise exerted detrimental effects on cooperation when resources became scarce, yet these effects were only observed for prosocials, not for proselfs. These results indicate that noise in social-ecological interaction plays an important role in common-pool management. It tends to undermine cooperation among those who are otherwise inclined to save resources.

  13. Rapid-acting treatment for a common sleep problem.

    PubMed

    Bramble, D

    1997-08-01

    A behavioural modification package incorporating stimulus control, cueing, and rapid-extinction techniques was applied to a group of 15 children with severe learning disability who had chronic sleep disorders. Improvements in their night-settling and night-waking patterns occurred quickly (within a few days) and, in 12 of them, were sustained at medium- and long-term (18 months) follow-up. Additional improvements in the children's daytime behaviour and their mothers' subjective stress indices were observed, though not explicitly addressed. These results compare favourably with those of other studies which have tested behavioural interventions in other cohorts of children with sleep disorders. Wider application of behavioural interventions with these extremely common and potentially handicapping sleep disorders is recommended.

  14. Rapid-acting treatment for a common sleep problem.

    PubMed

    Bramble, D

    1997-08-01

    A behavioural modification package incorporating stimulus control, cueing, and rapid-extinction techniques was applied to a group of 15 children with severe learning disability who had chronic sleep disorders. Improvements in their night-settling and night-waking patterns occurred quickly (within a few days) and, in 12 of them, were sustained at medium- and long-term (18 months) follow-up. Additional improvements in the children's daytime behaviour and their mothers' subjective stress indices were observed, though not explicitly addressed. These results compare favourably with those of other studies which have tested behavioural interventions in other cohorts of children with sleep disorders. Wider application of behavioural interventions with these extremely common and potentially handicapping sleep disorders is recommended. PMID:9295850

  15. Nationwide Multicenter Reference Interval Study for 28 Common Biochemical Analytes in China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Liangyu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Min; Tao, Zhihua; Li, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Cheng, Xinqi; Qin, Xuzhen; Han, Jianhua; Li, Pengchang; Hou, Li’an; Yu, Songlin; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Qiu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A nationwide multicenter study was conducted in the China to explore sources of variation of reference values and establish reference intervals for 28 common biochemical analytes, as a part of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (IFCC/C-RIDL) global study on reference values. A total of 3148 apparently healthy volunteers were recruited in 6 cities covering a wide area in China. Blood samples were tested in 2 central laboratories using Beckman Coulter AU5800 chemistry analyzers. Certified reference materials and value-assigned serum panel were used for standardization of test results. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore sources of variation. Need for partition of reference intervals was evaluated based on 3-level nested ANOVA. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, reference intervals were derived by a parametric method using the modified Box–Cox formula. Test results of 20 analytes were made traceable to reference measurement procedures. By the ANOVA, significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed in 12 and 12 analytes, respectively. A small regional difference was observed in the results for albumin, glucose, and sodium. Multiple regression analysis revealed BMI-related changes in results of 9 analytes for man and 6 for woman. Reference intervals of 28 analytes were computed with 17 analytes partitioned by sex and/or age. In conclusion, reference intervals of 28 common chemistry analytes applicable to Chinese Han population were established by use of the latest methodology. Reference intervals of 20 analytes traceable to reference measurement procedures can be used as common reference intervals, whereas others can be used as the assay system-specific reference intervals in China. PMID:26945390

  16. Reference Intervals of Common Clinical Chemistry Analytes for Adults in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lo, YC

    2012-01-01

    Background Defining reference intervals is a major challenge because of the difficulty in recruiting volunteers to participate and testing samples from a significant number of healthy reference individuals. Historical literature citation intervals are often suboptimal because they’re be based on obsolete methods and/or only a small number of poorly defined reference samples. Methods Blood donors in Hong Kong gave permission for additional blood to be collected for reference interval testing. The samples were tested for twenty-five routine analytes on the Abbott ARCHITECT clinical chemistry system. Results were analyzed using the Rhoads EP evaluator software program, which is based on the CLSI/IFCC C28-A guideline, and defines the reference interval as the 95% central range. Results Method specific reference intervals were established for twenty-five common clinical chemistry analytes for a Chinese ethnic population. The intervals were defined for each gender separately and for genders combined. Gender specific or combined gender intervals were adapted as appropriate for each analyte. Conclusion A large number of healthy, apparently normal blood donors from a local ethnic population were tested to provide current reference intervals for a new clinical chemistry system. Intervals were determined following an accepted international guideline. Laboratories using the same or similar methodologies may adapt these intervals if deemed validated and deemed suitable for their patient population. Laboratories using different methodologies may be able to successfully adapt the intervals for their facilities using the reference interval transference technique based on a method comparison study.

  17. Connecting Online Learners with Diverse Local Practices: The Design of Effective Common Reference Points for Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend Wise, Alyssa; Padmanabhan, Poornima; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study probed the effectiveness of three kinds of objects (video, theory, metaphor) as common reference points for conversations between online learners (student teachers). Individuals' degree of detail-focus was examined as a potentially interacting covariate and the outcome measure was learners' level of tacit knowledge related…

  18. Language Educational Policy and Language Learning Quality Management: The "Common European Framework of Reference"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenfanger, Olaf; Tschirner, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    The major goal of the Council of Europe to promote and facilitate communication and interaction among Europeans of different mother tongues has led to the development of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment" (CEFR). Among other things, the CEFR is intended to help language professionals reflect…

  19. Common-path endoscopic Fourier domain OCT with a reference Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Zinkovich, Joseph; Li, Bo; Yuan, Xiaocong; Goodwin, Richard; Markwald, Roger R.; Yao, Hai; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2010-02-01

    A common-path Fourier-domain OCT for endoscopic imaging, which uses the distal-end surface of the fiber as a selfaligned reference mirror, is reported. A miniaturized probe is designed for this OCT system. A reference Michelson interferometer is used to compensate for the optical path difference and mismatch of dispersion and polarization states due to the miniaturized probe. This configuration allows arbitrary probe fiber length and provides sufficient working space for imaging optics and their package, and thus is suitable for OCT imaging of lumens of various sizes. Additionally, the reference intensity is able to be tuned by index match oil to optimize the signal to noise ratio of the system. Due to this common-path configuration, the OCT signal is immune to the bending or handling of the fiber connecting with the probe.

  20. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  1. Toxic Substances Control Act. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  2. Environmental Guidance Program reference book: Toxic substances control act. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  3. On Statistical Methods for Common Mean and Reference Confidence Intervals in Interlaboratory Comparisons for Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkovský, Viktor; Wimmer, Gejza; Ďuriš, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    We consider a problem of constructing the exact and/or approximate coverage intervals for the common mean of several independent distributions. In a metrological context, this problem is closely related to evaluation of the interlaboratory comparison experiments, and in particular, to determination of the reference value (estimate) of a measurand and its uncertainty, or alternatively, to determination of the coverage interval for a measurand at a given level of confidence, based on such comparison data. We present a brief overview of some specific statistical models, methods, and algorithms useful for determination of the common mean and its uncertainty, or alternatively, the proper interval estimator. We illustrate their applicability by a simple simulation study and also by example of interlaboratory comparisons for temperature. In particular, we shall consider methods based on (i) the heteroscedastic common mean fixed effect model, assuming negligible laboratory biases, (ii) the heteroscedastic common mean random effects model with common (unknown) distribution of the laboratory biases, and (iii) the heteroscedastic common mean random effects model with possibly different (known) distributions of the laboratory biases. Finally, we consider a method, recently suggested by Singh et al., for determination of the interval estimator for a common mean based on combining information from independent sources through confidence distributions.

  4. Neuromuscular dysfunction with the experimental arm acting as its own reference following eccentric and isometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Anastassios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Maridaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Eccentric exercise has been extensively used as a model to study muscle damage-induced neuromuscular impairment, adopting mainly a bilateral matching task between the reference (unexercised) arm and the indicator (exercised) arm. However, little attention has been given to the muscle proprioceptive function when the exercised arm acts as its own reference. This study investigated muscle proprioception and motor control, with the arm acting both as reference and indicator, following eccentric exercise and compared them with those observed after isometric exercise. Fourteen young male volunteers were equally divided into two groups and performed an eccentric or isometric exercise protocol with the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm on an isokinetic dynamometer. Both exercise protocols induced significant changes in indicators of muscle damage, that is, muscle soreness, range of motion and maximal isometric force post-exercise (p < 0.05-0.001), and neuromuscular function was similarly affected following both protocols. Perception of force was impaired over the 4-day post-exercise period (p < 0.001), with the applied force being systematically overestimated. Perception of joint position was significantly disturbed (i.e., target angle was underestimated) only at one elbow angle on day 4 post-exercise (p < 0.05). The misjudgements and disturbed motor output observed when the exercised arm acted as its own reference concur with the view that they could be a result of a mismatch between the central motor command and an impaired motor control after muscle damage. PMID:20553224

  5. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Comprehensive Environmentally Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  6. Isotopic composition ( 238U/ 235U) of some commonly used uranium reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Daniel J.; McLean, Noah; Noble, Stephen R.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2010-12-01

    We have determined 238U/ 235U ratios for a suite of commonly used natural (CRM 112a, SRM 950a, and HU-1) and synthetic (IRMM 184 and CRM U500) uranium reference materials by thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (TIMS) using the IRMM 3636 233U- 236U double spike to accurately correct for mass fractionation. Total uncertainty on the 238U/ 235U determinations is estimated to be <0.02% (2σ). These natural 238U/ 235U values are different from the widely used 'consensus' value (137.88), with each standard having lower 238U/ 235U values by up to 0.08%. The 238U/ 235U ratio determined for CRM U500 and IRMM 184 are within error of their certified values; however, the total uncertainty for CRM U500 is substantially reduced (from 0.1% to 0.02%). These reference materials are commonly used to assess mass-spectrometer performance and accuracy, calibrate isotope tracers employed in U, U-Th and U-Pb isotopic studies, and as a reference for terrestrial and meteoritic 238U/ 235U variations. These new 238U/ 235U values will thus provide greater accuracy and reduced uncertainty for a wide variety of isotopic determinations.

  7. Common Observables of Trench Migration and Plate Motion in Different Global Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, W. P.; Stegman, D. A.; Freeman, J.; Moresi, L.

    2007-12-01

    Plate velocities and trench migration velocities are commonly described in some sort of global "absolute" reference frame. From calculating such motions for all plates and subduction zones on Earth, one might obtain insight into the importance of various driving and resistive forces of plate tectonics and plate boundary migration. Trench migration velocities and plate velocities have been calculated for all subduction zones on Earth in eight global reference frames. The calculations show that such velocities can differ substantially between different global reference frames (up to 4 cm/yr), in particular between one Pacific hotspot reference frame (HS3- NUVEL1A) and all the others. In addition, this reference frame shows a bimodal distribution of trench velocities, while all the others show a Gaussian distribution. Nevertheless, some common features are observed irrespective of the reference frame. First, trench retreat always dominates over trench advance, with 62-78% of the trench segments retreating, while the mean and median trench velocities are always positive (retreating). Second, trench retreat is always slow in the middle of wide subduction zones, i.e. far (>2000 km) from lateral slab edges (<2 cm/yr in seven reference frames). Third, fast trench retreat (>6 cm/yr) is only found close (<1500 km) to lateral slab edges. Fourth, plates with a substantial percentage of their circumference attached to a subducting slab (Pacific, Nazca, Cocos, Philippine, Australia) move trenchward. These calculations are predicted by three-dimensional geodynamic models of free subduction with a variable slab width (300-7000 km), in which the slab to upper mantle viscosity ratio is low (100-200). This suggests that trench velocities and plate velocities are indeed primarily controlled by the negative buoyancy and width of subducting slabs. It further suggests that slab/upper mantle viscosity ratios in nature are 100-200, as the models show trench motion dominated by retreat, and

  8. Production of Referring Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal Common Ground.

    PubMed

    Kutlak, Roman; van Deemter, Kees; Mellish, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a computational model of the production of referring expressions under uncertainty over the hearer's knowledge. Although situations where the hearer's knowledge is uncertain have seldom been addressed in the computational literature, they are common in ordinary communication, for example when a writer addresses an unknown audience, or when a speaker addresses a stranger. We propose a computational model composed of three complimentary heuristics based on, respectively, an estimation of the recipient's knowledge, an estimation of the extent to which a property is unexpected, and the question of what is the optimum number of properties in a given situation. The model was tested in an experiment with human readers, in which it was compared against the Incremental Algorithm and human-produced descriptions. The results suggest that the new model outperforms the Incremental Algorithm in terms of the proportion of correctly identified entities and in terms of the perceived quality of the generated descriptions. PMID:27630592

  9. Production of Referring Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal Common Ground

    PubMed Central

    Kutlak, Roman; van Deemter, Kees; Mellish, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a computational model of the production of referring expressions under uncertainty over the hearer's knowledge. Although situations where the hearer's knowledge is uncertain have seldom been addressed in the computational literature, they are common in ordinary communication, for example when a writer addresses an unknown audience, or when a speaker addresses a stranger. We propose a computational model composed of three complimentary heuristics based on, respectively, an estimation of the recipient's knowledge, an estimation of the extent to which a property is unexpected, and the question of what is the optimum number of properties in a given situation. The model was tested in an experiment with human readers, in which it was compared against the Incremental Algorithm and human-produced descriptions. The results suggest that the new model outperforms the Incremental Algorithm in terms of the proportion of correctly identified entities and in terms of the perceived quality of the generated descriptions.

  10. Production of Referring Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal Common Ground

    PubMed Central

    Kutlak, Roman; van Deemter, Kees; Mellish, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a computational model of the production of referring expressions under uncertainty over the hearer's knowledge. Although situations where the hearer's knowledge is uncertain have seldom been addressed in the computational literature, they are common in ordinary communication, for example when a writer addresses an unknown audience, or when a speaker addresses a stranger. We propose a computational model composed of three complimentary heuristics based on, respectively, an estimation of the recipient's knowledge, an estimation of the extent to which a property is unexpected, and the question of what is the optimum number of properties in a given situation. The model was tested in an experiment with human readers, in which it was compared against the Incremental Algorithm and human-produced descriptions. The results suggest that the new model outperforms the Incremental Algorithm in terms of the proportion of correctly identified entities and in terms of the perceived quality of the generated descriptions. PMID:27630592

  11. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals.

    PubMed

    Hart, Leslie B; Wells, Randall S; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Lamb, Stephen V; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual's response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000-2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91-4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32-6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of Sarasota Bay

  12. Adrenal Hormones in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Leslie B.; Wells, Randall S.; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lamb, Stephen V.; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Inshore common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic reference intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones commonly associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these reference intervals will be used to gauge an individual’s response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000–2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91–4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32–6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of

  13. Proposed preliminary diagnostic reference levels for three common interventional cardiology procedures in Ireland.

    PubMed

    D'Helft, C; McGee, A; Rainford, L; McFadden, S; Winder, J; Hughes, C; Brennan, P C

    2008-01-01

    This study has gathered data across Ireland to determine the range of radiation doses received during interventional cardiology (IC) investigations. Radiation doses for three common types of IC examinations where investigated: coronary angiography (CA), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and pacemaker insertions (PPI). A total of 22 cardiac imaging suites participated in the study. Radiation dose was monitored for 1804 adult patients using dose area product (DAP) meters. Individual patient DAP values ranged from 136-23,101 cGy cm2, 475-41,038 cGy cm2 and 45-17,192 cGy cm2 for CA, PCI and PPI respectively, with third quartile values of 4654 cGy cm2, 10,650 cGy cm2 and 1686 cGy cm2. The importance of optimising radiation dose, while not compromising diagnostic efficacy is clear. Although setting reference levels for these complex procedures has some difficulties, it is important that some guideline values are available as a benchmark to guide the operators during these potentially high dose procedures. The third quartile values as described by this paper may offer such guidance.

  14. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act are major federal statutes designed to protect plant and animal resources from adverse effects due to development projects. Both Acts require consultation with wildlife authorities prior to committing resources to certain types of projects. The purposes and requirements of the two statutes are summarized in the following subsections. Also presented is a list of contacts in the regional and field offices of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference - Find Nutrient Value of Common Foods by Nutrient

    MedlinePlus

    ... Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 NDL Home Food ... Sort by: Measure by: * required field ​ National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 slightly revised May, ...

  16. Clean Water Act (Section 404) and Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10). Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (Section 404) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (Sections 9 and 10) and those regulations that implement those sections of the statutes and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, IH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  17. Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of common reference intervals to the Croatian population

    PubMed Central

    Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of reference value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated reference intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients’ care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization processes of analytical methods the ability to create unique reference intervals is achieved. Such reference intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same reference measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization processes in Croatia in the field of population based reference intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:27019800

  18. Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of common reference intervals to the Croatian population.

    PubMed

    Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea

    2016-03-26

    Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of reference value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated reference intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients' care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization processes of analytical methods the ability to create unique reference intervals is achieved. Such reference intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same reference measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization processes in Croatia in the field of population based reference intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:27019800

  19. A reference genome for common bean and genome wide analysis of dual domestications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the single most important grain legume for human consumption and, due to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms, has a valuable place in sustainable agriculture. We assembled 473 Mb of the common bean genome and geneti...

  20. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat. PMID:24098735

  1. Practised Intelligence Testing Based on a Modern Test Conceptualization and Its Reference to the Common Intelligence Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubinger, Klaus D.; Litzenberger, Margarete; Mrakotsky, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The question is to what extent intelligence test-batteries prove any kind of empirical reference to common intelligence theories. Of particular interest are conceptualized tests that are of a high psychometric standard--those that fit the Rasch model--and hence are not exposed to fundamental critique. As individualized testing, i.e., a…

  2. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

  3. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  4. A reference genome for common bean and genome-wide analysis of dual domestications.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Jeremy; McClean, Phillip E; Mamidi, Sujan; Wu, G Albert; Cannon, Steven B; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Shu, Shengqiang; Song, Qijian; Chavarro, Carolina; Torres-Torres, Mirayda; Geffroy, Valerie; Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Gao, Dongying; Abernathy, Brian; Barry, Kerrie; Blair, Matthew; Brick, Mark A; Chovatia, Mansi; Gepts, Paul; Goodstein, David M; Gonzales, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Hyten, David L; Jia, Gaofeng; Kelly, James D; Kudrna, Dave; Lee, Rian; Richard, Manon M S; Miklas, Phillip N; Osorno, Juan M; Rodrigues, Josiane; Thareau, Vincent; Urrea, Carlos A; Wang, Mei; Yu, Yeisoo; Zhang, Ming; Wing, Rod A; Cregan, Perry B; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Jackson, Scott A

    2014-07-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume for human consumption and has a role in sustainable agriculture owing to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. We assembled 473 Mb of the 587-Mb genome and genetically anchored 98% of this sequence in 11 chromosome-scale pseudomolecules. We compared the genome for the common bean against the soybean genome to find changes in soybean resulting from polyploidy. Using resequencing of 60 wild individuals and 100 landraces from the genetically differentiated Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools, we confirmed 2 independent domestications from genetic pools that diverged before human colonization. Less than 10% of the 74 Mb of sequence putatively involved in domestication was shared by the two domestication events. We identified a set of genes linked with increased leaf and seed size and combined these results with quantitative trait locus data from Mesoamerican cultivars. Genes affected by domestication may be useful for genomics-enabled crop improvement.

  5. Tasmania's Reproductive Health (Access to Terminations) Act 2013: An analysis of conscientious objection to abortion and the "obligation to refer".

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli

    2015-06-01

    This article focuses on Tasmania's Reproductive Health (Access to Terminations) Act 2013, which decriminalises abortion in that State. The article first provides an overview of the Tasmanian legislation, comparing it with Victoria's Abortion Law Reform Act 2008. It then provides a more in-depth analysis of a doctor's right to "conscientious objection" and the requirement in both Acts of an "obligation to refer". The article concludes that ultimately, as a democratic society, it is important that both a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy and a doctor's right to freedom of conscience is respected. Where these rights conflict, as is the case when a doctor with a conscientious objection to abortion is confronted with a patient who seeks information about abortion, they must be balanced. The Victorian and Tasmanian Acts represent a considered and reasonable approach to balancing the rights at issue. PMID:26349386

  6. Common path in-line holography using enhanced joint object reference digital interferometers

    PubMed Central

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Joint object reference digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 22(5), 4719 (2013)]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resolution and increased system applicability. Experimental results demonstrate successful hologram recording for various types of objects, including transmissive, reflective, three-dimensional, phase and highly scattering objects. The resolution limit of the system is analyzed and experimentally validated. Finally, the suitability of JORDI for microscopic applications is verified as a microscope objective based configuration of the system is demonstrated. PMID:24663838

  7. Young Children Follow Pointing over Words in Interpreting Acts of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Adults refer young children's attention to things in two basic ways: through the use of pointing (and other deictic gestures) and words (and other linguistic conventions). In the current studies, we referred young children (2- and 4-year-olds) to things in conflicting ways, that is, by pointing to one object while indicating linguistically (in…

  8. Coastal Zone Management Act and related legislation: Revision 3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    In recognition of the increasing pressures upon the nation`s coastal resources, Congress enacted the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. Its purpose is to encourage states to preserve, protect, develop, and, where possible, restore or enhance such valuable natural resources as wetlands, floodplains, estuaries, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, and coral reefs, as well as the fish and wildlife utilizing those habitats. A unique feature of the Act is that participation by states is voluntary. One key provision for encouraging states to participate is the availability of federal financial assistance to any coastal state or territory, including those on the Great Lakes, which is willing to develop and implement a comprehensive coastal management program. Additionally, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) was passed in 1983. This report contains the legislative history and statues associated with each Act. Regulations for implementation and other guidance are included.

  9. Statistical inference from multiple iTRAQ experiments without using common reference standards.

    PubMed

    Herbrich, Shelley M; Cole, Robert N; West, Keith P; Schulze, Kerry; Yager, James D; Groopman, John D; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee; O'Meally, Robert N; May, Damon H; McIntosh, Martin W; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2013-02-01

    Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) is a prominent mass spectrometry technology for protein identification and quantification that is capable of analyzing multiple samples in a single experiment. Frequently, iTRAQ experiments are carried out using an aliquot from a pool of all samples, or "masterpool", in one of the channels as a reference sample standard to estimate protein relative abundances in the biological samples and to combine abundance estimates from multiple experiments. In this manuscript, we show that using a masterpool is counterproductive. We obtain more precise estimates of protein relative abundance by using the available biological data instead of the masterpool and do not need to occupy a channel that could otherwise be used for another biological sample. In addition, we introduce a simple statistical method to associate proteomic data from multiple iTRAQ experiments with a numeric response and show that this approach is more powerful than the conventionally employed masterpool-based approach. We illustrate our methods using data from four replicate iTRAQ experiments on aliquots of the same pool of plasma samples and from a 406-sample project designed to identify plasma proteins that covary with nutrient concentrations in chronically undernourished children from South Asia.

  10. The Digital Bee Brain: Integrating and Managing Neurons in a Common 3D Reference System

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Jürgen; Kuß, Anja; Lamecker, Hans; Zachow, Stefan; Hege, Hans-Christian; Lienhard, Matthias; Singer, Jochen; Neubert, Kerstin; Menzel, Randolf

    2010-01-01

    The honeybee standard brain (HSB) serves as an interactive tool for relating morphologies of bee brain neurons and provides a reference system for functional and bibliographical properties (http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/beebrain/). The ultimate goal is to document not only the morphological network properties of neurons collected from separate brains, but also to establish a graphical user interface for a neuron-related data base. Here, we review the current methods and protocols used to incorporate neuronal reconstructions into the HSB. Our registration protocol consists of two separate steps applied to imaging data from two-channel confocal microscopy scans: (1) The reconstruction of the neuron, facilitated by an automatic extraction of the neuron's skeleton based on threshold segmentation, and (2) the semi-automatic 3D segmentation of the neuropils and their registration with the HSB. The integration of neurons in the HSB is performed by applying the transformation computed in step (2) to the reconstructed neurons of step (1). The most critical issue of this protocol in terms of user interaction time – the segmentation process – is drastically improved by the use of a model-based segmentation process. Furthermore, the underlying statistical shape models (SSM) allow the visualization and analysis of characteristic variations in large sets of bee brain data. The anatomy of neural networks composed of multiple neurons that are registered into the HSB are visualized by depicting the 3D reconstructions together with semantic information with the objective to integrate data from multiple sources (electrophysiology, imaging, immunocytochemistry, molecular biology). Ultimately, this will allow the user to specify cell types and retrieve their morphologies along with physiological characterizations. PMID:20827403

  11. Proposed diagnostic reference levels for 3 common cardiac interventional procedures in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Helft, C.; McGee, A. M.; Rainford, L. A.; Mc Fadden, S. L.; Hughes, C. M.; Winder, R. J.; Brennan, P. C.

    2007-03-01

    Radiation doses for 3 common types of cardiac radiological examinations where investigated: coronary angiography (CA), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and pacemaker insertions (PPI). 22 cardiac imaging suites participated in the study. Radiation dose was monitored for 1804 adult patients using dose area product (DAP) meters. Operational and examination details such as cardiologist grade, patient details and examination complexity were recorded for each examination. Both intra and inter-hospital variations where demonstrated by the results. Individual patient DAP values ranged from 136-23,101cGycm2, 475-41,038cGycm2 and 45- 17,192cGycm2 for CA, PCI and PPI respectively, with third quartile values of 4,173cGycm2, 8,836cGycm2 and 2,051cGycm2. Screening times varied from 0.22-27.6mins, 1.8-98mins and 0.33-54.5mins for CA, PCI and PPI respectively.

  12. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0–120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48–120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs

  13. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs onwards.

  14. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs onwards

  15. The Acquisition of Temporal Reference Cross-Linguistically Using Two Acting-Out Comprehension Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winskel, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The acquisition of temporal event referencing, encoded by the temporal connectives: then, before, after, when, while, together, until, and since in English, Thai and Lisu was investigated using two acting-out comprehension tasks, a Marble task and a Toy task. Forty children aged 3.6-7.6 years from each language participated. The Marble and Toy…

  16. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  17. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  18. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  19. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producers of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum resin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act,...

  20. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producers of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum resin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act,...

  1. Common-path double-pass optical interferometry using a wire-grid polarizer as a reference mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2008-11-01

    A novel common-path double-pass optical interferometer that employs a wire-grid polarizer (WGP) as a reference mirror is presented. When a laser beam polarized at 45° relative to the wire grid is incident on the WGP, the polarization component parallel to the grid direction ( s-polarized beam) is reflected and is used as a reference beam. The perpendicular component ( p-polarized beam) passes through the WGP coupled with a quarter-wave plate and serves as a probe beam, with its polarization transformed as p, right-circular, s, left-circular, and p, to irradiate the sample surface twice in order to double the phase change due to displacement of the sample. This beam is then retransmitted through the WGP, where it recombines and interferes with the reference beam. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that the WGP performs successfully as a reference mirror, and that the interferometer has a potential displacement sensitivity as low as 0.1 nm.

  2. Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (commonly referred to as DOP) in HEPA filter test

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), commonly referred to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with reference to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.

  3. 76 FR 12896 - References to Credit Ratings in Certain Investment Company Act Rules and Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    .... 58070 (July 1, 2008) [73 FR 40088 (July 11, 2008)]. Prior to this initiative, in 2003, the Commission.... 26066 (June 4, 2003) [68 FR 35258 (June 12, 2003)]. \\7\\ See References to Ratings of Nationally... Release No. 28807 (June 30, 2009) [74 FR 32688 (July 8, 2009)] (``Money Market Fund Reform...

  4. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Malcom, Jacob W; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-12-29

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act's prohibitions on "jeopardizing" listed species or "destroying or adversely modifying" these species' critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations.

  5. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Malcom, Jacob W; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-12-29

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act's prohibitions on "jeopardizing" listed species or "destroying or adversely modifying" these species' critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations. PMID:26668392

  6. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act

    PubMed Central

    Malcom, Jacob W.; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act’s prohibitions on “jeopardizing” listed species or “destroying or adversely modifying” these species’ critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations. PMID:26668392

  7. Dissociation between seeing and acting: insights from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Cacchione, Trix; Burkart, Judith Maria

    2012-01-01

    Perception-based measures often reveal much earlier competencies than action-based approaches. We explored this phenomenon generally labeled as "knowledge dissociation" in 28 common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) using a paradigm where subjects had to localize a food item dropped down an opaque tube. Experiments 1 and 2 assessed common marmoset monkeys' gravity bias in an action based version of the tubes task. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated whether marmosets' performance increases in an action-free task context where they simply look at objects falling down a tube. The results suggest that common marmosets have some intuition of continuity/solidity constraints when tested with perception based measures even though these principles do not appear to guide their search for falling objects.

  8. Development of genomic DNA reference materials for genetic testing of disorders common in people of ashkenazi jewish descent.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Lisa; Wilson, Jean Amos; Buller, Arlene; Dixon, John; Edelmann, Lisa; Geller, Louis; Highsmith, William Edward; Holtegaard, Leonard; Kornreich, Ruth; Rohlfs, Elizabeth M; Payeur, Toby L; Sellers, Tina; Toji, Lorraine; Muralidharan, Kasinathan

    2009-11-01

    Many recessive genetic disorders are found at a higher incidence in people of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent than in the general population. The American College of Medical Genetics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have recommended that individuals of AJ descent undergo carrier screening for Tay Sachs disease, Canavan disease, familial dysautonomia, mucolipidosis IV, Niemann-Pick disease type A, Fanconi anemia type C, Bloom syndrome, and Gaucher disease. Although these recommendations have led to increased test volumes and number of laboratories offering AJ screening, well-characterized genomic reference materials are not publicly available. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based Genetic Testing Reference Materials Coordination Program, in collaboration with members of the genetic testing community and Coriell Cell Repositories, have developed a panel of characterized genomic reference materials for AJ genetic testing. DNA from 31 cell lines, representing many of the common alleles for Tay Sachs disease, Canavan disease, familial dysautonomia, mucolipidosis IV, Niemann-Pick disease type A, Fanconi anemia type C, Bloom syndrome, Gaucher disease, and glycogen storage disease, was prepared by the Repository and tested in six clinical laboratories using three different PCR-based assay platforms. A total of 33 disease alleles was assayed and 25 different alleles were identified. These characterized materials are publicly available from Coriell and may be used for quality control, proficiency testing, test development, and research. PMID:19815695

  9. 17 CFR 230.132 - Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(a)(2) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âcommon trust... Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(a)(2) of the Act. The term common trust fund as used in section 3(a)(2) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 77c(a)(2)) shall include a common trust fund which...

  10. 17 CFR 240.3a12-6 - Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(a)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âcommon trust... § 240.3a12-6 Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(a)(12) of the Act. The term common trust fund as used in section 3(a)(12) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(12)) shall include a common...

  11. Serving the Common Interest in U.S. Forest Policy: A Case Study of the Healthy Forests Restoration Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Toddi A.; Dumond, Melissa Elefante

    2009-03-01

    In the United States, the common interest often is conceived as a by-product of the pluralist, interest-group-driven democratic process. Special interests dominate in many political arenas. Consequently, we have lost the language, vocabulary, and ability to talk about the common interest. The way to reverse this trend is to develop and practice with new tools that allow us to articulate what we mean by the common interest in specific contexts. In this article, we leveraged the literature on procedural, substantive, and pragmatic decision making to illustrate how they work together to demonstrate whether and how the common interest was served in three case studies of Healthy Forests Restoration Act implementation on the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in Arizona. In two of the cases we found that the common interest was mostly served, while in the third case it was not. Our results raise questions about the ability of procedural criteria or substantive criteria alone to determine effectiveness in decision making. When evaluated together they provide a more complete understanding of how the common interest is or is not served.

  12. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in

  13. 238U/235U determinations of some commonly used reference materials and U-bearing accessory minerals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, D.; Noble, S.; McLean, N.; Bowring, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    We have determined 238U/235U ratios for a suite of commonly used natural (CRM 112a, SRM 950a, HU-1) and synthetic (IRMM 184 and CRM U500) uranium reference materials in addition to several U-bearing accessory phases (zircon and monazite) by thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (TIMS) using the IRMM 3636 233U-236U double spike to accurately correct for mass fractionation. The 238U/235U values for the natural uranium reference materials differ, by up to 0.1%, from the widely used ‘consensus’ value (137.88) with all having 238U/235U values less than 137.88. Similarly, initial 238U/235U data from zircon and monazite yield 238U/235U values that are lower than the ‘consensus’ value. The data obtained from U-bearing minerals is used to assess how the uncertainty in the 238U/235U ratio contributes to the systematic discordance observed in 238U/206Pb and 235U/207Pb dates (Mattinson, 2000; Schoene et al., 2006) which has traditionally been wholly attributed to error in the U decay constants. The 238U/235U determinations made on the synthetic reference materials yield results that are considerably more precise and accurate than the certified values (0.02% vs. 0.1% for CRM U500). The calibration of isotopic tracers used for U-daughter geochronology that are partially based upon these reference materials, and the resultant age determinations, will benefit from increased accuracy and precision. Mattinson, J.M., 2000. Revising the “gold standard”—the uranium decay constants of Jaffey et al., 1971. Eos Trans. AGU, Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract V61A-02. Schoene B., Crowley J.L., Condon D.C., Schmitz M.D., Bowring S.A., 2006, Reassessing the uranium decay constants for geochronology using ID-TIMS U-Pb data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 426-445

  14. Pentapeptide-repeat proteins that act as topoisomerase poison resistance factors have a common dimer interface

    PubMed Central

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Zhang, Yong; Blanchard, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The protein AlbG is a self-resistance factor against albicidin, a nonribosomally encoded hybrid polyketide-peptide with antibiotic and phytotoxic properties produced by Xanthomonas albilineans. Primary-sequence analysis indicates that AlbG is a member of the pentapeptide-repeat family of proteins (PRP). The structure of AlbG from X. albilineans was determined at 2.0 Å resolution by SAD phasing using data collected from a single trimethyllead acetate derivative on a home source. AlbG folds into a right-handed quadrilateral β-helix composed of approximately eight semi-regular coils. The regularity of the β-­helix is blemished by a large loop/deviation in the β-helix between coils 4 and 5. The C-terminus of the β-helix is capped by a dimerization module, yielding a dimer with a 110 Å semi-collinear β-helical axis. This method of dimer formation appears to be common to all PRP proteins that confer resistance to topoisomerase poisons and contrasts with most PRP proteins, which are typically monomeric. PMID:21393830

  15. 17 CFR 270.3c-4 - Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âcommon trust... 1940 § 270.3c-4 Definition of “common trust fund” as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act. The term common trust fund as used in section 3(c)(3) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(c)(3)) shall include a...

  16. Analysing Tests of Reading and Listening in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference: The Experience of The Dutch CEFR Construct Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles; Figueras, Neus; Kuijper, Henk; Nold, Guenter; Takala, Sauli; Tardieu, Claire

    2006-01-01

    The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) is intended as a reference document for language education including assessment. This article describes a project that investigated whether the CEFR can help test developers construct reading and listening tests based on CEFR levels. If the CEFR scales together with the detailed description of…

  17. 76 FR 26549 - Removal of Certain References to Credit Ratings Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ..., Securities Act of 1933 (``Securities Act'') Release No. 9193 (Mar. 3, 2011), 76 FR 12896 (Mar. 9, 2011) and Security Ratings, Exchange Act Release No. 63874 (Feb. 9, 2011), 76 FR 8946 (Feb. 16, 2011). As is... Release No. 11497 (Jun. 26, 1975), 40 FR 29795 (Jul. 16, 1975) and 17 CFR 240.15c3-1. \\12\\ See...

  18. A reference interval study for common biochemical analytes in Eastern Turkey: a comparison of a reference population with laboratory data mining

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Ozarda, Yesim; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Umudum, Fatma Zuhal; Bakan, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to define the reference intervals (RIs) in a Turkish population living in Northeast Turkey (Erzurum) for 34 analytes using direct and indirect methods. In the present study, the regional RIs obtained were compared with other RI studies, primarily the nationwide study performed in Turkey. Materials and methods For the direct method, 435 blood samples were collected from a healthy group of females (N = 218) and males (N = 217) aged between 18 and 65 years. The sera were analysed in Ataturk University hospital laboratory using Roche reagents and analysers for 34 analytes. The data from 1,366,948 records were used to calculate the indirect RIs using a modified Bhattacharya method. Results Significant gender-related differences were observed for 17 analytes. There were also some apparent differences between RIs derived from indirect and direct methods particularly in some analytes (e.g. gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase, LDL-cholesterol and iron). The RIs derived with the direct method for some, but not all, of the analytes were generally comparable with the RIs reported in the nationwide study and other previous studies in Turkey.There were large differences between RIs derived by the direct method and the expected values shown in the kit insert (e.g. aspartate aminotransferase, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and vitamin B12). Conclusions These data provide region-specific RIs for 34 analytes determined by the direct and indirect methods. The observed differences in RIs between previous studies could be related to nutritional status and environmental factors. PMID:27346966

  19. Teaching Writing within the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR): A Supplement Asynchronous Blended Learning Approach in an EFL Undergraduate Course in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef; Lotfy, Nohayer Esmat

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and following a blended learning approach (a supplement model), this article reports on a quasi-experiment where writing was taught evenly with other language skills in everyday language contexts and where asynchronous online activities were required from students to extend learning beyond…

  20. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  1. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean.

  2. Locomotion and posture from the common hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special reference to the last common panin/hominin ancestor.

    PubMed

    Crompton, R H; Vereecke, E E; Thorpe, S K S

    2008-04-01

    Based on our knowledge of locomotor biomechanics and ecology we predict the locomotion and posture of the last common ancestors of (a) great and lesser apes and their close fossil relatives (hominoids); (b) chimpanzees, bonobos and modern humans (hominines); and (c) modern humans and their fossil relatives (hominins). We evaluate our propositions against the fossil record in the context of a broader review of evolution of the locomotor system from the earliest hominoids of modern aspect (crown hominoids) to early modern Homo sapiens. While some early East African stem hominoids were pronograde, it appears that the adaptations which best characterize the crown hominoids are orthogrady and an ability to abduct the arm above the shoulder - rather than, as is often thought, manual suspension sensu stricto. At 7-9 Ma (not much earlier than the likely 4-8 Ma divergence date for panins and hominins, see Bradley, 2008) there were crown hominoids in southern Europe which were adapted to moving in an orthograde posture, supported primarily on the hindlimb, in an arboreal, and possibly for Oreopithecus, a terrestrial context. By 7 Ma, Sahelanthropus provides evidence of a Central African hominin, panin or possibly gorilline adapted to orthogrady, and both orthogrady and habitually highly extended postures of the hip are evident in the arboreal East African protohominin Orrorin at 6 Ma. If the traditional idea that hominins passed through a terrestrial 'knuckle-walking' phase is correct, not only does it have to be explained how a quadrupedal gait typified by flexed postures of the hindlimb could have preadapted the body for the hominin acquisition of straight-legged erect bipedality, but we would have to accept a transition from stem-hominoid pronogrady to crown hominoid orthogrady, back again to pronogrady in the African apes and then back to orthogrady in hominins. Hand-assisted arboreal bipedality, which is part of a continuum of orthograde behaviours, is used by modern

  3. Locomotion and posture from the common hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special reference to the last common panin/hominin ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Crompton, R H; Vereecke, E E; Thorpe, S K S

    2008-01-01

    Based on our knowledge of locomotor biomechanics and ecology we predict the locomotion and posture of the last common ancestors of (a) great and lesser apes and their close fossil relatives (hominoids); (b) chimpanzees, bonobos and modern humans (hominines); and (c) modern humans and their fossil relatives (hominins). We evaluate our propositions against the fossil record in the context of a broader review of evolution of the locomotor system from the earliest hominoids of modern aspect (crown hominoids) to early modern Homo sapiens. While some early East African stem hominoids were pronograde, it appears that the adaptations which best characterize the crown hominoids are orthogrady and an ability to abduct the arm above the shoulder – rather than, as is often thought, manual suspension sensu stricto. At 7–9 Ma (not much earlier than the likely 4–8 Ma divergence date for panins and hominins, see Bradley, 2008) there were crown hominoids in southern Europe which were adapted to moving in an orthograde posture, supported primarily on the hindlimb, in an arboreal, and possibly for Oreopithecus, a terrestrial context. By 7 Ma, Sahelanthropus provides evidence of a Central African hominin, panin or possibly gorilline adapted to orthogrady, and both orthogrady and habitually highly extended postures of the hip are evident in the arboreal East African protohominin Orrorin at 6 Ma. If the traditional idea that hominins passed through a terrestrial ‘knuckle-walking’ phase is correct, not only does it have to be explained how a quadrupedal gait typified by flexed postures of the hindlimb could have preadapted the body for the hominin acquisition of straight-legged erect bipedality, but we would have to accept a transition from stem-hominoid pronogrady to crown hominoid orthogrady, back again to pronogrady in the African apes and then back to orthogrady in hominins. Hand-assisted arboreal bipedality, which is part of a continuum of orthograde behaviours, is used by

  4. Natural and Drug Rewards Act on Common Neural Plasticity Mechanisms with ΔFosB as a Key Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Pitchers, Kyle K.; Vialou, Vincent; Nestler, Eric J.; Laviolette, Steven R.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse induce neuroplasticity in the natural reward pathway, specifically the nucleus accumbens (NAc), thereby causing development and expression of addictive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that natural rewards may cause similar changes in the NAc, suggesting that drugs may activate mechanisms of plasticity shared with natural rewards, and allowing for unique interplay between natural and drug rewards. In this study, we demonstrate that sexual experience in male rats when followed by short or prolonged periods of loss of sex reward causes enhanced amphetamine reward, indicated by sensitized conditioned place preference for low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) amphetamine. Moreover, the onset, but not the longer-term expression, of enhanced amphetamine reward was correlated with a transient increase in dendritic spines in the NAc. Next, a critical role for the transcription factor ΔFosB in sex experience-induced enhanced amphetamine reward and associated increases in dendritic spines on NAc neurons was established using viral vector gene transfer of the dominant-negative binding partner ΔJunD. Moreover, it was demonstrated that sexual experience-induced enhanced drug reward, ΔFosB, and spinogenesis are dependent on mating-induced dopamine D1 receptor activation in the NAc. Pharmacological blockade of D1 receptor, but not D2 receptor, in the NAc during sexual behavior attenuated ΔFosB induction and prevented increased spinogenesis and sensitized amphetamine reward. Together, these findings demonstrate that drugs of abuse and natural reward behaviors act on common molecular and cellular mechanisms of plasticity that control vulnerability to drug addiction, and that this increased vulnerability is mediated by ΔFosB and its downstream transcriptional targets. PMID:23426671

  5. 'Lateral elbow tendinopathy' is the most appropriate diagnostic term for the condition commonly referred-to as lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Johnson, Mark I

    2006-01-01

    A plethora of terms that have been used to describe lateral epicondylitis including tennis elbow (TE), epicondylalgia, tendonitis, tendinosis and tendinopathy. These terms usually have the prefix extensor or lateral elbow. Lateral elbow tendinopathy seems to be the most appropriate term to use in clinical practice because other terms make reference to inappropriate aetiological, anatomical and pathophysiological terms. The correct diagnostic term is important for the right treatment. PMID:16843614

  6. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16.

  7. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16. PMID:25115040

  8. HIPAA Mental Health Parity Act--IRS. Notice of proposed rulemaking by cross-reference to temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    1997-12-22

    Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the IRS is issuing temporary regulations relating to mental health parity requirements imposed on group health plans. These requirements were added to the Internal Revenue Code by section 1532 of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997. The IRS is issuing the temporary regulations at the same time that the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor and the Health Care Financing Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations relating to mental health parity requirements added by the Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Public Health Service Act. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers and group health plans relating to the new mental health parity requirements. The text of those temporary regulations also serves as the text of these proposed regulations.

  9. Angiocardiographic appearances of atrioventricular defects with particular reference to distinction of ostium primum atrial septal defect from common atrioventricular orifice.

    PubMed Central

    Macartney, F J; Rees, P G; Daly, K; Piccoli, G P; Taylor, J F; De Leval, M R; Stark, J; Anderson, R H

    1979-01-01

    Preoperative distinction between common atrioventricular orifice and ostium primum atrial septal defect may be difficult. To improve diagnostic accuracy, the right and left ventricle angiocardiograms were reviewed 'blind' in 92 patients with atrioventricular defects. The true diagnosis was known from necropsy or surgery in 60. Angiocardiograms had been obtained in various projections with or without craniocaudal tilt. Those features thought to distinguish between common orifice and ostium primum were coded, together with the ventricular systolic pressures. Computerised disciminant function analysis identified the following distinguishing features: (1) right ventricular systolic pressure; (2) immediate right ventricular outflow tract opacification from the left ventricle; (3) identification of the anterior attachment of the mitral component; (4) recognition of a single straddling atrioventricular orifice; (5) passage of contrast medium above or below the anterior or posterior bridging leaflets. Feature (3) indicates that in contrast to classic teaching the direct septal attachment of the mitral component does not contribute to the 'gooseneck' in complete atrioventricular defects. The significance of (4) and (5) is that they may be identified from right as well as left ventriculography, and are more likely to be identified in oblique than standard projections. Computerisation produced a correct diagnosis in 92 per cent of known cases, and determined precise probabilities of diagnosis in the remainder. Images PMID:534581

  10. Chip based common-path optical coherence tomography system with an on-chip microlens and multi-reference suppression algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lantian; Weiss, Nicolás; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Pollnau, Markus; de Ridder, René M; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S

    2016-06-13

    We demonstrate an integrated optical probe including an on-chip microlens for a common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography system. This common-path design uses the end facet of the silicon oxynitride waveguide as the reference plane, thus eliminating the need of a space-consuming and dispersive on-chip loop reference arm, thereby obviating the need for dispersion compensation. The on-chip micro-ball lens eliminates the need of external optical elements for coupling the light between the chip and the sample. The use of this lens leads to a signal enhancement up to 37 dB compared to the chip without a lens. The light source, the common-path arm and the detector are connected by a symmetric Y junction having a wavelength independent splitting ratio (50/50) over a much larger bandwidth than can be obtained with a directional coupler. The signal-to-noise ratio of the system was measured to be 71 dB with 2.6 mW of power on a mirror sample at a distance of 0.3 mm from the waveguide end facet. Cross-sectional OCT images of a layered optical phantom sample are demonstrated with our system. A method, based on an extended Fourier-domain OCT model, for suppressing ghost images caused by additional parasitic reference planes is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:27410285

  11. Contribution of 32 GWAS-Identified Common Variants to Severe Obesity in European Adults Referred for Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yousseif, Ahmed; Pucci, Andrea; Santini, Ferruccio; Karra, Efthimia; Querci, Giorgia; Pelosini, Caterina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥35.0 kg/m2, is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that severe obesity represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation, reflecting shared genetic factors operating across the spectrum. Here, we sought to determine whether a panel of 32 known common obesity-susceptibility variants contribute to severe obesity in patients (n = 1,003, mean BMI 48.4±8.1 kg/m2) attending bariatric surgery clinics in two European centres. We examined the effects of these 32 common variants on obesity risk and BMI, both as individual markers and in combination as a genetic risk score, in a comparison with normal-weight controls (n = 1,809, BMI 18.0–24.9 kg/m2); an approach which, to our knowledge, has not been previously undertaken in the setting of a bariatric clinic. We found strong associations with severe obesity for SNP rs9939609 within the FTO gene (P = 9.3×10−8) and SNP rs2815752 near the NEGR1 gene (P = 3.6×10−4), and directionally consistent nominal associations (P<0.05) for 12 other SNPs. The genetic risk score associated with severe obesity (P = 8.3×10−11) but, within the bariatric cohort, this score did not associate with BMI itself (P = 0.264). Our results show significant effects of individual BMI-associated common variants within a relatively small sample size of bariatric patients. Furthermore, the burden of such low-penetrant risk alleles contributes to severe obesity in this population. Our findings support that severe obesity observed in bariatric patients represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation. Moreover, future genetic studies focused on bariatric patients may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of

  12. Reference gene validation for quantification of gene expression during final oocyte maturation induced by diethylstilbestrol and di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate in common carp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yanyan; Lu, Jie; Wang, Yilei; Wang, Shuhong

    2016-08-01

    Final oocyte maturation is the key step to successful spawning and fertilization. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the technique of election to quantify the abundance of functional genes in such study. Reference gene is essential for correct interpretation of qPCR data. However, an ideal universal reference gene that is stable under all experimental circumstances has not been described. Researchers should validate their reference genes while performing qPCR analysis. The expression of 6 candidate reference genes: 18s rRNA, 28s rRNA, Cathepsin Z, Elongation factor 1-α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and β-actin were investigated during final oocyte maturation induced by different compounds (DES and DEHP) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Four softwares (Bestkeeper, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder) were used to screen the most stable gene in order to evaluate their expression stability. The results revealed that EF1α was highly stable expressed when final oocyte maturation was induced by DES, while gapdh was the most stable gene when final oocyte maturation was induced by DEHP. Stable expressed reference gene selection is critical for all qPCR analysis to get accurate target gene mRNA expression information. PMID:27521935

  13. To amend section 1951 of title 18, United States Code (commonly known as the Hobbs Act), and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Broun, Paul C. [R-GA-10

    2013-05-16

    06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Reference point indentation is insufficient for detecting alterations in traditional mechanical properties of bone under common experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Krege, John B; Aref, Mohammad W; McNerny, Erin; Wallace, Joseph M; Organ, Jason M; Allen, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    Reference point indentation (RPI) was developed as a novel method to assess mechanical properties of bone in vivo, yet it remains unclear what aspects of bone dictate changes/differences in RPI-based parameters. The main RPI parameter, indentation distance increase (IDI), has been proposed to be inversely related to the ability of bone to form/tolerate damage. The goal of this work was to explore the relationshipre-intervention RPI measurebetween RPI parameters and traditional mechanical properties under varying experimental conditions (drying and ashing bones to increase brittleness, demineralizing bones and soaking in raloxifene to decrease brittleness). Beams were machined from cadaveric bone, pre-tested with RPI, subjected to experimental manipulation, post-tested with RPI, and then subjected to four-point bending to failure. Drying and ashing significantly reduced RPI's IDI, as well as ultimate load (UL), and energy absorption measured from bending tests. Demineralization increased IDI with minimal change to bending properties. Ex vivo soaking in raloxifene had no effect on IDI but tended to enhance post-yield behavior at the structural level. These data challenge the paradigm of an inverse relationship between IDI and bone toughness, both through correlation analyses and in the individual experiments where divergent patterns of altered IDI and mechanical properties were noted. Based on these results, we conclude that RPI measurements alone, as compared to bending tests, are insufficient to reach conclusions regarding mechanical properties of bone. This proves problematic for the potential clinical use of RPI measurements in determining fracture risk for a single patient, as it is not currently clear that there is an IDI, or even a trend of IDI, that can determine clinically relevant changes in tissue properties that may contribute to whole bone fracture resistance. PMID:27072518

  15. HIPAA Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act--IRS. Notice of proposed rulemaking by cross-reference to temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    1998-10-27

    Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the IRS is issuing temporary regulations relating to minimum hospital length-of-stay requirements imposed on group health plans with respect to mothers and newborns. The hospital length-of-stay requirements were added to the Internal Revenue Code by section 1531 of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997. The IRS is issuing the temporary regulations at the same time that the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor and the Health Care Financing Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations relating to hospital length-of-stay requirements added by the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act of 1996 to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Public Health Service Act. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers and group health plans relating to the new hospital length-of-stay requirements. The text of those temporary regulations also serves as the text of these proposed regulations.

  16. High-throughput and sensitive particle counting by a novel microfluidic differential resistive pulse sensor with multidetecting channels and a common reference channel.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxin; Yang, Jiandong; Pan, Xinxiang; Li, Dongqing

    2015-02-01

    High-throughput particle counting by a differential resistive pulse sensing method in a microfluidic chip is presented in this paper. A sensitive differential microfluidic sensor with multiple detecting channels and one common reference channel was devised. To test the particle counting performance of this chip, an experimental system which consists of the microfluidic chip, electric resistors, an amplification circuit, a LabView based data acquisition device was developed. The influence of the common reference channel on the S/N of particle detection was investigated. The relationship between the hydraulic pressure drop applied across the detecting channel and the counting throughput was experimentally obtained. The experimental results show that the reference channel designed in this work can improve the S/N by ten times, thus enabling sensitive high-throughput particle counting. Because of the greatly improved S/N, the sensing gate with a size of 25 × 50 × 10 μm (W × L × H) in our chips can detect and count particles larger than 1.5 μm in diameter. The counting throughput increases with the increase in the flowing velocity of the sample solution. An average throughput of 7140/min under a flow rate of 10 μL/min was achieved. Comparing with other methods, the structure of the chip and particle detecting mechanism reported in this paper is simple and sensitive, and does not have the crosstalking problem. Counting throughput can be adjusted simply by changing the number of the detecting channels.

  17. A Lewis basicity scale in dichloromethane for amines and common nonprotogenic solvents using a zinc(II) Schiff-base complex as reference Lewis acid.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Ivan Pietro; Maccarrone, Giuseppe; Di Bella, Santo

    2011-11-01

    A consistent, reliable scale of Lewis basicity in dichloromethane for 26 bases, involving amines and nonprotogenic solvents, is presented. A Lewis acidic Zn(II) Schiff-base complex, involving formation of stable 1:1 adducts is used as reference acid. Evaluation of binding constants is achieved from spectrophotometric titrations, by the least-squares nonlinear regression of multiwavelength spectrophotometric data. This Lewis basicity scale represents a unique set of data reflecting the actual Lewis basicity with respect this "real world" Lewis acidic species. The comparison of present Lewis basicity scale with data reported in the literature indicates that while for the involved solvents their relative basicity is scarcely affected by the reference Lewis acid, in contrast for sterically encumbered amines the Lewis basicity seems to be dependent from the reference species. Thus, Lewis basicity is governed by the steric hindrance at the donor atom and involves very different relative basicities than those predicted considering typical reference Lewis acids. This is expected to have a major involvement in the organic synthesis and catalysis, given the sterically encumbered nature of commonly involved Lewis acidic organometallic complexes.

  18. The Impact of the Common Core State Standards Initiative on Math ACT Scores of West Tennessee High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kirkland D.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative is the latest effort by educational leaders to improve educational outcomes of American students. The standards are intended to bring uniformity in educational content of what is being taught in schools across the nation in order to promote rigor and academic portability. Proponents claimed the new…

  19. Structure elucidation and identification of a common metabolite for naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids using LC-TOF and comparison to a synthetic reference standard.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Dennis P; Yanes, Enrique G; Herbelin, Travis W; Knoerzer, Timm A; Levisky, Joseph A

    2013-03-10

    The identification of a predominate metabolite found in urine specimens which test positive for naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids is reported. The presence of this new metabolite was detected at the Air Force Drug Testing Lab Investigations Division during screening analysis for metabolites of JWH-018 and JWH-073, because it shares the same MRM transitions as the JWH-073 N-(3-hydroxybutyl) metabolite. However, the detected peak is chromatographically distinguished from other metabolites due to differences in retention time. This metabolite appears to be a common metabolite for select naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids that could potentially be used as a common biomarker for their qualitative and quantitative analyses. The new metabolite has been successfully identified as 3-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl) propanoic acid (1, JWH 072 N-propanoic acid metabolite, Fig. 1) by using various mass spectrometric and liquid chromatographic techniques as well as chemical derivatization. The metabolite identity was confirmed through the comparison of authentic positive urine and a chemically synthesized metabolite standard. Both materials shared the same chromatographic retention time on two separate chromatographic systems, mass fragmentation pattern and exact mass. Full characterization of the synthetic reference material and intermediates by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and HRMS was also conducted.

  20. 75 FR 17332 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act... issued under the authority of sections 2002(a), 3006 and 7004(b) of the Solid Waste and Disposal Act, as... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste...

  1. 76 FR 26681 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA... sections 2002(a), 3006 and 7004(b) of the Solid Waste and Disposal Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6912(a), 6926... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste...

  2. 77 FR 46994 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act...(b) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6912(a), 6926, and 6974(b). Dated: July 5... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management...

  3. Common and unique cis-acting elements mediate xanthotoxin and flavone induction of the generalist P450 CYP321A1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunni; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Yalin; Ni, Xinzhi; Li, Xianchun

    2014-01-01

    How polyphagous herbivores up-regulate their counterdefense genes in response to a broad range of structurally different allelochemicals remains largely unknown. To test whether this is accomplished by having more allelochemical-response elements or the similar number of functionally more diverse elements, we mapped out the cis-acting elements mediating the induction of the allelochemical-metabolizing CYP321A1 from the generalist Helicoverpa zea by xanthotoxin and flavone, two structurally distinct allelochemicals with very different encounter rate by this species. Seven xanthotoxin-responsive elements were localized by analyzing promoter activities of varying length of CYP321A1 promoter in H. zea fatbody cells. Compared with the 5 flavone-responsive elements mapped out previously, there are four common elements (1 essential element, 2 enhancers, and 1 negative element) mediating induction of CYP321A1 by both of the two allelochemicals. The remaining four elements (3 enhancers and 1 negative element), however, only regulate induction of CYP321A1 by either of the two allelochemicals. Co-administration of the two allelochemicals resulted in an induction fold that is significantly lower than the expected additive value of the two allelochemicals. These results indicate that xanthotoxin- and flavone-induced expressions of CYP321A1 are mediated mainly by the functionally more diverse common elements although the allelochemical-unique elements also play a role. PMID:25262756

  4. A family inheriting different subtypes of acute myelogenous leukemia identifies a gene common to the differentation of multiple hematopoetic lineages and acting early in leukemogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, M.S.; Radich, J.; Sabath, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    The initial steps promoting carcinogenesis in the hematologic malignancies remain poorly understood. We report on a family with an incompletely penetrant, autosomal dominant syndrome of acute myelogenous leukemia, affecting at least eight adults from three generations. The affected individuals have developed leukemias differing in morphologic subtype, tumor cytogenetics, and abruptness of presentation. Within this family are found subtypes affecting the granulocytic, monocytic, and megakaryocytic lineages. At least one individual has a normal tumor karyotype while another has complex rearrangements including monsomy 7, trisomy 8 and translocation 1;7. Some have presented with acute onset and others with a protracted myelodysplasia syndrome. One person at fifty percent risk of inheriting this gene developed disseminated atypical mycobacterium infection in the absence of leukemia, but also without apparent causes for acquired deficiencies in cellular immunity. Features common to affected family members, including the individual with mycobacterium infection, are the early presence in bone marrow of red cell and platelet maturation defects. A search for mutations in diseased marrows fails to detect abnormalities of p53 exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 or N-ras codons 12, 13 and 61. We conclude that there is a gene in this family that probably acts early in hematopoetic differentiation and confers susceptibility to a wide range of leukemia subtypes spanning the maturation of the myeloid series.

  5. Hydrologic index development and application to selected Coastwide Reference Monitoring System sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Swenson, Erick M.

    2012-01-01

    Hourly time-series salinity and water-level data are collected at all stations within the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) network across coastal Louisiana. These data, in addition to vegetation and soils data collected as part of CRMS, are used to develop a suite of metrics and indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. This document addresses the primary objectives of the CRMS hydrologic analytical team, which were to (1) adopt standard time-series analytical techniques that could effectively assess spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic characteristics across the Louisiana coastal zone on site, project, basin, and coastwide scales and (2) develop and apply an index based on wetland hydrology that can describe the suitability of local hydrology in the context of maximizing the productivity of wetland plant communities. Approaches to quantifying tidal variability (least squares harmonic analysis) and partitioning variability of time-series data to various time scales (spectral analysis) are presented. The relation between marsh elevation and the tidal frame of a given hydrograph is described. A hydrologic index that integrates water-level and salinity data, which are collected hourly, with vegetation data that are collected annually is developed. To demonstrate its utility, the hydrologic index is applied to 173 CRMS sites across the coast, and variability in index scores across marsh vegetation types (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) is assessed. The index is also applied to 11 sites located in three Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects, and the ability of the index to convey temporal hydrologic variability in response to climatic stressors and restoration measures, as well as the effect that this community may have on wetland plant productivity, is illustrated.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PM 2.5 FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD TO DIFFERENTIATE FINE AND COARSE MODE AEROSOL (A RESPONSE TO SECTION 6102(E) OF THE TRANSPORTATION EQUITY ACT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is submitted in response to Section 6102(e) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, which states:

    "The Administrator shall conduct a field study of the ability of the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method to differentiate those particles that ...

  7. Linking English-Language Test Scores onto the Common European Framework of Reference: An Application of Standard-Setting Methodology. TOEFL iBT Research Report TOEFL iBt-06. ETS RR-08-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL® iBT test, the TOEIC® assessment, and the TOEIC "Bridge"™ test.…

  8. 77 FR 29275 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred to as the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'',...

  9. Recovery Act: Billions of Dollars in Education Credits Appear to Be Erroneous. Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration. Reference Number: 2011-41-083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of the Treasury, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Education credits are available to help offset the costs of higher education for taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents who qualify as eligible students. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) amended the Hope Scholarship Tax Credit (Hope Credit) to provide for a refundable tax credit known as the American Opportunity…

  10. Anatomical architecture of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) with special reference to the derivation and course of its unique branches.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, S; Kawashima, T; Murakami, K; Takayanagi, M; Inoue, Y; Aoyagi, R; Sato, F

    2012-08-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), which has not been previously reported, was first examined bilaterally in a newborn hippopotamus. Our observations clarified the following: (1) the brachial plexus comprises the fifth cervical (C5) to first thoracic (T1) nerves. These formed two trunks, C5-C6 and C7-T1; in addition, the axillary artery passed in between C6 and C7, (2) unique branches to the brachialis muscle and those of the lateral cutaneous antebrachii nerves ramified from the median nerve, (3) nerve fibre analysis revealed that these unique nerve branches from the median nerve were closely related and structurally similar to the musculocutaneous (MC) nerve; however, they had changed course from the MC to the median nerve, and (4) this unique branching pattern is likely to be a common morphological feature of the brachial plexus in amphibians, reptiles and certain mammals.

  11. Anatomical architecture of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) with special reference to the derivation and course of its unique branches.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, S; Kawashima, T; Murakami, K; Takayanagi, M; Inoue, Y; Aoyagi, R; Sato, F

    2012-08-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), which has not been previously reported, was first examined bilaterally in a newborn hippopotamus. Our observations clarified the following: (1) the brachial plexus comprises the fifth cervical (C5) to first thoracic (T1) nerves. These formed two trunks, C5-C6 and C7-T1; in addition, the axillary artery passed in between C6 and C7, (2) unique branches to the brachialis muscle and those of the lateral cutaneous antebrachii nerves ramified from the median nerve, (3) nerve fibre analysis revealed that these unique nerve branches from the median nerve were closely related and structurally similar to the musculocutaneous (MC) nerve; however, they had changed course from the MC to the median nerve, and (4) this unique branching pattern is likely to be a common morphological feature of the brachial plexus in amphibians, reptiles and certain mammals. PMID:22250889

  12. Rural Educators' Understanding of the Legislations That Impact on School Practice with Specific Reference to the Bill of Rights and the South African Schools Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duma, M. A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the rural educators' understanding of the legislations that impact on school practice. An argument is presented that the understanding of the legal frameworks that govern school practice begins with the educators' understanding of the Bill of Rights and the South African Schools Act. The article reports on…

  13. Elder Justice Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Common synonyms: For chemicals listed under section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This glossary contains chemical names and synonyms for substances covered by the reporting requirements of section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) (Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)) (40 CFR Part 372). Part I is a listing in Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry number order. The CAS number is followed by the name by which the chemical is listed under section 313. Chemicals should be reported to TRI by their listing names. Each CAS number and associated listing name is followed by synonyms in alphabetical order. Part II of the glossary is an alphabetical list of chemical names and synonyms, with CAS numbers. In this list, section 313 names are followed by an asterisk and are footnoted as listing names.

  15. A Comparison of Four Linear Equating Methods for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design Using Simulation Methods. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topczewski, Anna; Cui, Zhongmin; Woodruff, David; Chen, Hanwei; Fang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates four methods of linear equating under the common item nonequivalent groups design. Three of the methods are well known: Tucker, Angoff-Levine, and Congeneric-Levine. A fourth method is presented as a variant of the Congeneric-Levine method. Using simulation data generated from the three-parameter logistic IRT model we…

  16. Wild Becomings: How the Everyday Experience of Common Wild Animals at Summer Camp Acts as an Entrance to the More-than-Human World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gavan P. L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the partial results of a research project which investigated conceptions of nature and the role of place in environmental education in children who attended Camp Arowhon. Through interviews and observations, utilizing a hybrid research drawing from phenomenography and ethnography, local common wild animals emerged as playing…

  17. Submergence Vulnerability Index development and application to Coastwide Reference Monitoring System Sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; McGinnis, Thomas E.; Snedden, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its implementation in 2003, the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) in Louisiana has facilitated the creation of a comprehensive dataset that includes, but is not limited to, vegetation, hydrologic, and soil metrics on a coastwide scale. The primary impetus for this data collection is to assess land management activities, including restoration efforts, across the coast. The aim of the CRMS analytical team is to provide a method to synthesize this data to enable multiscaled evaluations of activities in Louisiana’s coastal wetlands. Several indices have been developed to facilitate data synthesis and interpretation, including a Floristic Quality Index, a Hydrologic Index, and a Landscape Index. This document details the development of the Submergence Vulnerability Index, which incorporates sediment-elevation data as well as hydrologic data to determine the vulnerability of a wetland based on its ability to keep pace with sea-level rise. The objective of this document is to provide Federal and State sponsors, project managers, planners, landowners, data users, and the rest of the coastal restoration community with the following: (1) data collection and model development methods for the sediment-elevation response variables, and (2) a description of how these response variables will be used to evaluate CWPPRA project and program effectiveness.

  18. A five-year assessment of the affordable care act: market forces still trump the common good in U.S. Health care.

    PubMed

    Geyman, John P

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted in 2010 as the signature domestic achievement of the Obama presidency. It was intended to contain costs and achieve near-universal access to affordable health care of improved quality. Now, five years later, it is time to assess its track record. This article compares the goals and claims of the ACA with its actual experience in the areas of access, costs, affordability, and quality of care. Based on the evidence, one has to conclude that containment of health care costs is nowhere in sight, that more than 37 million Americans will still be uninsured when the ACA is fully implemented in 2019, that many more millions will be underinsured, and that profiteering will still dominate the culture of U.S. health care. More fundamental reform will be needed. The country still needs to confront the challenge that our for-profit health insurance industry, together with enormous bureaucratic waste and widespread investor ownership throughout our market-based system, are themselves barriers to health care reform. Here we consider the lessons we can take away from the ACA's first five years and lay out the economic, social/political, and moral arguments for replacing it with single-payer national health insurance.

  19. 77 FR 29231 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Downgradient Ground water Monitoring Well Locations. Removal of Legally Obsolete Rules 60 FR 33912 6/29/95... Disposal Act, as amended, commonly referred to as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), allows..., 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733. 4. Hand Delivery or Courier: Deliver your comments to...

  20. 75 FR 36546 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Status 56 FR 66365 12/23/91 Standards for Downgradient Ground- water Monitoring Well Locations. Removal... Disposal Act, as amended, commonly referred to as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), allows..., 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733. 4. Hand Delivery or Courier: Deliver your comments to...

  1. 77 FR 46964 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Standards for Downgradient Ground-water Monitoring Well Locations. Removal of Legally Obsolete Rules 60 FR... Disposal Act, as amended, commonly referred to as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), allows... Planning and Permitting Division, EPA Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733. 4....

  2. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  3. A common role of CRP in transcription activation: CRP acts transiently to stimulate events leading to open complex formation at a diverse set of promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Tagami, H; Aiba, H

    1998-01-01

    We have shown previously that the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is not required after the formation of the open complex at the lac promoter (Tagami and Aiba, 1995, Nucleic Acids Res., 19, 6705-6712). In this paper, we investigate the role of CRP in transcription activation at the malT and gal promoters. At the malT promoter, RNA polymerase (RNAP) forms a nonproductive RNAP-promoter binary complex in the absence of CRP and a productive CRP-RNAP-promoter ternary complex in the presence of CRP. CRP can be removed from the malT ternary complex by a moderate concentration of heparin. The resulting binary complex is functionally identical to the ternary complex. At the gal promoter, RNAP predominantly forms a binary complex at the P2 promoter in the absence of CRP and a ternary complex at the P1 promoter in the presence of CRP. A very high concentration of heparin is able to dissociate CRP from the galP1 ternary complex without changing the properties of the complex. These data indicate that CRP is not required for the maintenance of the ternary complex and plays no role in the subsequent steps, irrespective of the promoter. We conclude that the common role of CRP in the activation of transcription is to stimulate events leading to the formation of a productive open complex at a diverse set of CRP-dependent promoters. We suggest that the interaction between CRP and RNAP is needed only transiently for the activation of transcription. PMID:9501097

  4. Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998. Report to Congress on State Performance, Program Year 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998" (commonly referred to as "Perkins," "Perkins III," or "the Act" and referred to hereafter as Perkins III) requires, in Sec. 113(c)(3)(C), that the secretary provide the appropriate committees of Congress copies of annual reports received by the U.S. Department of Education…

  5. Globalizing Students Acting for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencze, Larry; Carter, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    It is apparent that many of us live in a hyper-economized world, in which personal identities and routine practices are significantly oriented towards production and consumption of for-profit goods and services. Extreme consumerism resulting from this orientation often is associated with many personal, social, and environmental problems.…

  6. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Rangel, Charles B. [D-NY-15

    2009-09-17

    03/23/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-148. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.4872 makes a number of health-related financing and revenue changes to this bill. Read together, this bill and the health care-related provisions of H.R.4872 are commonly referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. IL-2R common gamma-chain is epigenetically silenced by nucleophosphin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) and acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting NPM-ALK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hong Yi; Liu, Xiaobin; Bhutani, Gauri; Kantekure, Kanchan; Wasik, Mariusz

    2011-07-19

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), physiologically expressed only by certain neural cells, becomes highly oncogenic, when aberrantly expressed in nonneural tissues as a fusion protein with nucleophosphin (NPM) and other partners. The reason why NPM-ALK succeeds in transforming specifically CD4(+) T lymphocytes remains unknown. The IL-2R common γ-chain (IL-2Rγ) is shared by receptors for several cytokines that play key roles in the maturation and growth of normal CD4(+) T lymphocytes and other immune cells. We show that IL-2Rγ expression is inhibited in T-cell lymphoma cells expressing NPM-ALK kinase as a result of DNA methylation of the IL-2Rγ gene promoter. IL-2Rγ promoter methylation is induced in malignant T cells by NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK acts through STAT3, a transcription factor that binds to the IL-2Rγ gene promoter and enhances binding of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) to the promoter. In addition, STAT3 suppresses expression of miR-21, which selectively inhibits DNMT1 mRNA expression. Reconstitution of IL-2Rγ expression leads to loss of the NPM-ALK protein and, consequently, apoptotic cell death of the lymphoma cells. These results demonstrate that the oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces epigenetic silencing of the IL-2Rγ gene and that IL-2Rγ acts as a tumor suppressor by reciprocally inhibiting expression of NPM-ALK.

  8. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  9. 77 FR 3152 - New Mexico: Final Authorization of State-Initiated Changes and Incorporation-by-Reference of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... 3152-3157] [FR Doc No: 2012-999] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 [EPA-R06-RCRA... State-initiated changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... action. The Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, commonly referred to as the Resource Conservation...

  10. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  11. Reference Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  12. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  13. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  14. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  15. Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

  16. Alignment reference device

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  17. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  18. Volunteeer's Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Julie; And Others

    For Postpartum Education for Parents (PEP) volunteers, this reference guide provides background information about the common concerns of parents. Extensively reviewed for accuracy and content by pediatricians, psychologists, obstetricians, nurses, and childbirth educators, the guide contains a summary discussion of the postpartum infant and…

  19. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  20. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  1. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  2. Is the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act Really Beneficial to the Poorer Children in India? An Analysis with Special Reference to the Admission of Poorer Children in Public Unaided Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheruvalath, Reena

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed to examine whether the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act can achieve its major objective of ensuring education for all children in India. Indian parents like to enter their wards into private schools because they believe that the standard of education in the public schools is poor. The act strengthens this…

  3. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... been tried for colds, such as vitamin C, zinc supplements, and echinacea. Talk to your health care ... nih.gov/pubmed/22962927 . Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic ...

  4. Toxic Substances Control Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  5. Linguistic Competences of Learners of Dutch as a Second Language at the B1 and B2 Levels of Speaking Proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the Common European Framework of…

  6. ACT: Acting Out Central Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Joan Duff

    1982-01-01

    The author describes ACT (Acting Out Central Theme), a method for dealing with psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains in slow readers. The ACT approach involves three sessions which focus on discussion of a theme such as friendship, presentaton of the theme as a skit, and assignment of topics to individual students. (SW)

  7. The Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly called the Clean Water Act (CWA), was adopted on 18 October 1972. Since then it has been amended 18 times, the last amendments were adopted on 4 February 1987. As established, its objective is: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation`s waters. And has, as an interim goal: water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the water. It should be noted that Congress established as the Act`s ultimate goal: the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated. The Act set out to meet this lofty objective and goal through the development and implementation of controls on the point source discharges and the nonpoint source release of pollutants. The regulation of point and nonpoint sources as well as future requirements are discussed.

  8. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  9. Communication and common interest.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Martínez, Manolo

    2013-01-01

    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.

  10. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  11. Juggling Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudalevige, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Two education bills from George W. Bush's first term are long overdue for reauthorization. One, of course, is the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), passed in late 2001. The other is the Education Sciences Reform Act (ESRA), which in November 2002 replaced the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) with a new Institute of Education…

  12. Common Occupational Disability Tests and Case Law References: An Ontario MVA perspective on interpretation and best practice methodology supporting a holistic model, Part I of III (Pre-104 IRB).

    PubMed

    Salmon, J Douglas; Gouws, Jacques J; Bachmann, Corina Anghel

    2016-05-01

    This three-part paper presents practical holistic models of determining impairment and occupational disability with respect to common "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. The models consider physical, emotional and cognitive impairments in unison, and draw upon case law support for empirically based functional assessment of secondary cognitive symptoms arising from psychological conditions, including chronic pain disorders. Case law is presented, primarily in the context of Ontario motor vehicle accident legislation, to demonstrate how triers of fact have addressed occupational disability in the context of chronic pain; and interpreted the "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. In interpreting the definitions of "own occupation" and "any occupation", courts have considered various concepts, such as: work as an integrated whole, competitive productivity, demonstrated job performance vs. employment, work adaptation relative to impairment stability, suitable work, retraining considerations, self-employment, and remuneration/socio-economic status. The first segment of the paper reviews the above concepts largely in the context of pre-104 Income Replacement Benefit (IRB) entitlement, while the second segment focuses on post-104 IRB entitlement. In the final segment, the paper presents a critical evaluation of computerized transferable skills analysis (TSAs) in the occupational disability context. By contrast, support is offered for the notion that (neuro) psychovocational assessments and situational work assessments should play a key role in "own occupation" disability determination, even where specific vocational rehabilitation/retraining recommendations are not requested by the referral source (e.g., insurer disability examination). PMID:27476246

  13. Common Occupational Disability Tests and Case Law References: An Ontario MVA perspective on interpretation and best practice methodology supporting a holistic model, Part I of III (Pre-104 IRB).

    PubMed

    Salmon, J Douglas; Gouws, Jacques J; Bachmann, Corina Anghel

    2016-05-01

    This three-part paper presents practical holistic models of determining impairment and occupational disability with respect to common "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. The models consider physical, emotional and cognitive impairments in unison, and draw upon case law support for empirically based functional assessment of secondary cognitive symptoms arising from psychological conditions, including chronic pain disorders. Case law is presented, primarily in the context of Ontario motor vehicle accident legislation, to demonstrate how triers of fact have addressed occupational disability in the context of chronic pain; and interpreted the "own occupation" and "any occupation" definitions. In interpreting the definitions of "own occupation" and "any occupation", courts have considered various concepts, such as: work as an integrated whole, competitive productivity, demonstrated job performance vs. employment, work adaptation relative to impairment stability, suitable work, retraining considerations, self-employment, and remuneration/socio-economic status. The first segment of the paper reviews the above concepts largely in the context of pre-104 Income Replacement Benefit (IRB) entitlement, while the second segment focuses on post-104 IRB entitlement. In the final segment, the paper presents a critical evaluation of computerized transferable skills analysis (TSAs) in the occupational disability context. By contrast, support is offered for the notion that (neuro) psychovocational assessments and situational work assessments should play a key role in "own occupation" disability determination, even where specific vocational rehabilitation/retraining recommendations are not requested by the referral source (e.g., insurer disability examination).

  14. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank).

    PubMed

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Pyle, Richard L; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker, Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper. PMID:26877662

  15. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    PubMed Central

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Pyle, Richard L.; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker, Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper. PMID:26877662

  16. Improving America's Schools Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John; Bridgforth, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    The Improving America's Schools ACT (IASA) emphasizes coherent systemic education reform, with Goals 2000 setting common standards for IASA and the recently authorized School-to-Work Program. IASA addresses the need to raise academic achievement, increase opportunities to learn, improve professional development, increase community involvement, utilize instructional applications of technology, and improve assessment, and allow more local flexibility in the use of funds.

  17. ACT Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: ACT; Activated Coagulation Time Formal name: Activated Clotting Time Related tests: ... in the blood called platelets and proteins called coagulation factors are activated in a sequence of steps ...

  18. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Differences in Group Abilities on the Tucker and the Levine Observed-Score Methods for Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Equating. ACT Research Report Series 2010-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hanwei; Cui, Zhongmin; Zhu, Rongchun; Gao, Xiaohong

    2010-01-01

    The most critical feature of a common-item nonequivalent groups equating design is that the average score difference between the new and old groups can be accurately decomposed into a group ability difference and a form difficulty difference. Two widely used observed-score linear equating methods, the Tucker and the Levine observed-score methods,…

  20. SALTS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Thornberry, Mac [R-TX-13

    2014-06-25

    07/21/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. JUSTICE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lee, Barbara [D-CA-13

    2013-06-28

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. PRIME Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Cohen, Steve [D-TN-9

    2011-03-03

    03/21/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. CORRECT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Thompson, Bennie G. [D-MS-2

    2014-07-29

    09/26/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. SKILLs Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-3

    2013-06-26

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. GREEN Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. McNerney, Jerry [D-CA-9

    2013-06-13

    07/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. STELLAR Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Davis, Susan A. [D-CA-53

    2013-02-15

    04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. STRONG Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2013-06-11

    06/12/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Relevancy Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ross, Dennis A. [R-FL-15

    2013-06-28

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. EDIBLE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Gohmert, Louie [R-TX-1

    2014-09-18

    11/17/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. SERVe Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2013-11-19

    11/19/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S8193) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. DIAPER Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. DeLauro, Rosa L. [D-CT-3

    2011-10-06

    11/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. VET Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Newhouse, Dan [R-WA-4

    2015-07-27

    09/27/2016 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. REDEEM Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Fattah, Chaka [D-PA-2

    2014-07-18

    09/02/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. FUELS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Crawford, Eric A. "Rick" [R-AR-1

    2011-10-12

    08/02/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. PLANT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Huffman, Jared [D-CA-2

    2013-07-18

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. FACE Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Watson, Diane E. [D-CA-33

    2009-06-26

    08/19/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. ALLERGY Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Cartwright, Matt [D-PA-17

    2013-12-05

    01/22/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. DATA Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Warner, Mark R. [D-VA

    2011-06-16

    06/16/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. PACT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2014-07-09

    09/08/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. CLEAN Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Schauer, Mark H. [D-MI-7

    2010-07-30

    09/29/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Innovation Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Goodlatte, Bob [R-VA-6

    2013-10-23

    12/09/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. CURB Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Collins, Susan M. [R-ME

    2013-11-19

    11/19/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. FOIA Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Issa, Darrell E. [R-CA-49

    2013-03-15

    02/26/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. CORRECT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2014-07-29

    07/29/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. GPS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Chaffetz, Jason [R-UT-3

    2013-03-21

    04/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. GENIUS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Sanchez, Loretta [D-CA-47

    2011-03-16

    04/04/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. RETAIN Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Baca, Joe [D-CA-43

    2012-05-08

    09/26/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. FUELS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Crawford, Eric A. "Rick" [R-AR-1

    2013-01-18

    03/12/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. AGREE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hanna, Richard L. [R-NY-24

    2011-11-18

    01/12/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Lead Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Payne, Donald M. [D-NJ-10

    2011-04-13

    05/20/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. FAIR Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Garrett, Scott [R-NJ-5

    2014-09-17

    10/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. BOTS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Blackburn, Marsha [R-TN-7

    2016-04-28

    09/13/2016 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. STAPLE Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Flake, Jeff [R-AZ-6

    2009-03-30

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. PLEA Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Engel, Eliot L. [D-NY-16

    2013-02-06

    02/28/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. GONE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Fischer, Deb [R-NE

    2013-12-10

    12/10/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. DIPLOMA Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Chu, Judy [D-CA-32

    2010-09-28

    11/18/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. CHOICE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Rokita, Todd [R-IN-4

    2014-05-29

    11/17/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. SISA Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Franks, Trent [R-AZ-8

    2014-11-14

    12/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. DISASTER Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2014-09-18

    09/19/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. SKILLS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-7

    2012-01-17

    03/29/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. PASS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-2

    2013-06-28

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. TALENT Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Gallegly, Elton [R-CA-24

    2011-05-02

    05/20/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. LEARN Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Yarmuth, John A. [D-KY-3

    2011-06-22

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. LEARN Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Yarmuth, John A. [D-KY-3

    2013-07-17

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. FIREARM Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Black, Diane [R-TN-6

    2014-09-18

    10/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. BASTA Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Posey, Bill [R-FL-8

    2014-07-31

    09/26/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. ACE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2011-12-01

    03/29/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. ACE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Thompson, Glenn [R-PA-5

    2013-07-11

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. PESTT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Mulvaney, Mick [R-SC-5

    2013-02-14

    03/01/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. SPOT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Gabbard, Tulsi [D-HI-2

    2014-09-18

    10/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. PRIDE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-3

    2013-06-26

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. PRIDE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-7

    2011-09-13

    11/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. BEST Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Brownley, Julia [D-CA-26

    2013-06-27

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. BRAVE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Cartwright, Matt [D-PA-17

    2014-05-29

    11/17/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. POWER Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Landry, Jeffrey M. [R-LA-3

    2011-06-24

    12/08/2011 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. FAIR Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Schatz, Brian [D-HI

    2014-05-22

    05/22/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. SALUTE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Meehan, Patrick [R-PA-7

    2013-05-23

    06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. DRONES Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Issa, Darrell E. [R-CA-49

    2013-06-19

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. REINS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2013-02-26

    02/26/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. POWER Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Kennedy, Joseph P., III [D-MA-4

    2016-09-22

    10/11/2016 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. FREE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Markey, Edward J. [D-MA-7

    2011-06-15

    06/30/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. SLICE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2012-05-16

    09/26/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. SLICE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2013-06-27

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Justice Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Jackson Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2014-09-18

    10/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. PRIDE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Grijalva, Raul M. [D-AZ-3

    2016-02-26

    09/19/2016 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. 24 CFR 257.102 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the provisions of 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, concerning eligibility requirements of mortgages..., all references at 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer to section 257 of the Act. Any references at 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, to the “Mutual Mortgage...

  7. 33 CFR 274.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.3 References. (a) Pub. L. 92-516, Federal..., Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1609, 29 U.S.C. 668) 29 December 1970. (c)...

  8. Putting the Common European Framework of Reference to Good Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper recapitulates the aims of the CEFR and highlights three aspects of good practice in exploiting it: firstly, taking as a starting point the real-world language ability that is the aim of all modern language learners; secondly, the exploitation of good descriptors as transparent learning objectives in order to involve and empower the…

  9. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  10. PLANT Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2013-12-20

    12/20/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S9107-9108) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. TEAM Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Landrieu, Mary L. [D-LA

    2012-05-22

    05/22/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3425-3426) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. DATA Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Issa, Darrell E. [R-CA-49

    2011-06-13

    04/26/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. CALM Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Eshoo, Anna G. [D-CA-14

    2009-02-13

    12/16/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.2847, which became Public Law 111-311 on 12/15/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. SHOP Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2009-05-05

    05/05/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5135-5142) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. POST Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2012-01-23

    01/23/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S44-45) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. HUMANE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cornyn, John [R-TX

    2014-07-15

    07/15/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4504-4509) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. SAVE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Inouye, Daniel K. [D-HI

    2011-06-22

    06/22/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4026-4028) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. RATE Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2009-05-19

    05/19/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5617-5620) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. SUN Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2011-05-25

    05/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3344) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. CROWDFUND Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Merkley, Jeff [D-OR

    2012-03-13

    03/13/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3606, which became Public Law 112-106 on 4/5/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. SKILLS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2011-07-06

    07/06/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4395-4397) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. SPEAK Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Dodd, Christopher J. [D-CT

    2009-06-10

    06/10/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6472-6475) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. GEDI Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Engel, Eliot L. [D-NY-17

    2010-05-20

    11/15/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. FIND Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Specter, Arlen [D-PA

    2010-03-16

    03/16/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1621-1623) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. GAPS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hahn, Janice [D-CA-36

    2012-02-09

    06/29/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. [Patients' Rights Act].

    PubMed

    Haier, A J

    2016-09-01

    The new Patients' Rights Act does not reflect rights of patients as professional obligations of physicians for the first time. It adopted common longtime jurisdiction, but in some respects it is going beyond. This law clearly extended the documentation requirements of physicians, especially concerning the extent of documentation. In surgical fields the requirements for enlightening physicians were more strongly worded than in previous jurisdiction. In medical facilities it is now mandatory to establish an internal quality management system. PMID:27626814

  7. 44 CFR 59.4 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 59.4 References. (a) The following are statutory references for the National Flood Insurance Program, under which these regulations are issued: (1) National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (title XIII of the Housing...

  8. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  9. Tank characterization reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  10. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

  11. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  12. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  13. Assessment of candidate reference genes for the expression studies with brassinosteroids in Lolium perenne and Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Jurczyk, Barbara; Pociecha, Ewa; Janeczko, Anna; Paczyński, Robert; Rapacz, Marcin

    2014-10-15

    Quantitative PCR studies need proper reference genes with expression stability exclusively validated under certain experimental conditions. The expression stability of several genes commonly used as references was tested under 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) and temperature treatment. Different statistical approaches (qBase(PLUS), BestKeeper, NormFinder) were used to prepare rankings of expression stability in two species of an economic importance: common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Candidate reference genes were shown to be regulated differentially in these two plant species. The maximum stability values indicated that the expression stability was higher in T. aestivum. Taking into account of all ranks it seems that TBP-1 and UBI in ryegrass and ACT, ADP and EF1A in wheat should be used as reference genes in the brassinosteroids and temperature involving studies.

  14. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate.

  15. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  16. 26 CFR 301.9001-3 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cross reference. 301.9001-3 Section 301.9001-3... reference. See the Coast Guard regulations under 33 CFR parts 135 and 136 for rules relating to the implementation of the Act. (Sec. 302(d) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 (92 Stat....

  17. 26 CFR 301.9001-3 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cross reference. 301.9001-3 Section 301.9001-3... reference. See the Coast Guard regulations under 33 CFR parts 135 and 136 for rules relating to the implementation of the Act. (Sec. 302(d) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 (92 Stat....

  18. 26 CFR 301.9001-3 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cross reference. 301.9001-3 Section 301.9001-3... reference. See the Coast Guard regulations under 33 CFR parts 135 and 136 for rules relating to the implementation of the Act. (Sec. 302(d) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 (92 Stat....

  19. 26 CFR 301.9001-3 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross reference. 301.9001-3 Section 301.9001-3... reference. See the Coast Guard regulations under 33 CFR parts 135 and 136 for rules relating to the implementation of the Act. (Sec. 302(d) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 (92 Stat....

  20. Act resilient.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Genie; Bice-Stephens, Wynona

    2014-01-01

    Attendees have reported changing from being fearful to serene, from listless to energized, from disengaged to connected, and becoming markedly less anxious in a few weeks. Anecdotally, self-reported stress levels have been reduced by over 50% after just one class. Attendees learn not to be afraid of their feelings by working with emotions in a playful manner. When a person can act angry, but separate himself from his personal story, the emotional energy exists in a separate form that is not attached to specific events, and can be more easily dealt with and neutralized. Attendees are taught to "take out the emotional trash" through expressive comedy. They become less intimated by their own emotional intensity and triggers as they learn how even metaphorical buckets of anger, shame, guilt and hurt can be emotionally emptied. The added benefit is that this is accomplished without the disclosure of personal information of the requirement to reexperience past pain which can trigger its own cascade of stress. PMID:24706248

  1. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  2. American Indian Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Designed to aid librarians, school teachers, and others in need of American Indian references and reference sources, this compilation covers a wide variety of material which has generally been scattered throughout various individual references. Specifically, this reference book includes: (1) Location of Tribes by State; (2) Locations of Tribes by…

  3. Personal Reference in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a systematic investigation of the factors underlying the choice of personal reference. Five experiments examine how native-English-speaking undergraduates of Brown University refer to a professor or student in various situations. The Rule of Polite Reference (RPR) explains how speakers choose the way they will refer to a person in a given…

  4. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  5. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  6. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  7. 29 CFR 794.1 - General scope of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General § 794.1 General scope of the Act. The Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, hereinafter referred to as the... the relationship to interstate or foreign commerce which the Act specifies are subject to...

  8. 29 CFR 794.1 - General scope of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General § 794.1 General scope of the Act. The Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, hereinafter referred to as the... the relationship to interstate or foreign commerce which the Act specifies are subject to...

  9. 29 CFR 794.1 - General scope of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General § 794.1 General scope of the Act. The Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, hereinafter referred to as the... the relationship to interstate or foreign commerce which the Act specifies are subject to...

  10. 29 CFR 794.1 - General scope of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General § 794.1 General scope of the Act. The Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, hereinafter referred to as the... the relationship to interstate or foreign commerce which the Act specifies are subject to...

  11. 29 CFR 794.1 - General scope of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General § 794.1 General scope of the Act. The Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, hereinafter referred to as the... the relationship to interstate or foreign commerce which the Act specifies are subject to...

  12. 78 FR 47306 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB or Bureau), gives notice of the establishment of a revised Privacy Act System of...

  13. 76 FR 71327 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (``CFPB'') or the ``Bureau'' gives notice of the establishment of a Privacy Act System of...

  14. 76 FR 79150 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), gives notice of the establishment of this updated Privacy Act System of Records.\\1\\...

  15. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  16. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  17. 24 CFR 257.301 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... home lands; 203.666 Processing defaulted mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation... HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM Servicing Responsibilities § 257.301 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR... references in 24 CFR part 203, subpart C, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer to...

  18. 24 CFR 257.301 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... home lands; 203.666 Processing defaulted mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation... HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM Servicing Responsibilities § 257.301 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR... references in 24 CFR part 203, subpart C, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer to...

  19. 24 CFR 257.301 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... home lands; 203.666 Processing defaulted mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation... HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM Servicing Responsibilities § 257.301 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR... references in 24 CFR part 203, subpart C, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer to...

  20. 24 CFR 257.301 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... home lands; 203.666 Processing defaulted mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation... HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM Servicing Responsibilities § 257.301 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR... references in 24 CFR part 203, subpart C, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer to...

  1. 24 CFR 257.301 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... home lands; 203.666 Processing defaulted mortgages on property in Allegany Reservation of Seneca Nation... HOMEOWNERS PROGRAM Servicing Responsibilities § 257.301 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR... references in 24 CFR part 203, subpart C, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer to...

  2. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  3. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  4. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  5. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  6. A Common Cause on Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Alexa; Bradford, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates implementation of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act in the three-year collaborative efforts of tribal representatives, anthropologists, archeologists, Park Service staff, and other experts to excavate, analyze, and rebury human remains found in the Lake Meredith National Recreation Area (Texas). Lake Meredith…

  7. Automatism: comparison of common law and civil law approaches--a search for the optimal.

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2002-08-01

    This article reviews common and civil law approaches to automatism with discussion of legal definitions and the conditions in which automatism occurs. The common law approach to sane (exogenous) and insane (endogenous) automatism is examined. Despite a change in the law, which obviates mandatory incarceration for all persons found not guilty on the basis of insane automatism, the stigma of insanity remains. A number of Continental jurisdictions, though, have adopted an approach divorced from judgmental labels, whereby acts, which result from automatism, are classified under the rubric of unconsciousness. The article draws upon this approach, analyses alternatives to insane automatism and proposes instead an analysis by reference to "cognitive dysfunction", thereby removing all reference to the concept of insanity.

  8. 28 CFR 63.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....) and NFIP criteria (44 CFR part 59 et seq.). (d) Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND WETLAND PROTECTION PROCEDURES § 63.3 References. (a) Unified National Program for Floodplain Management, Water Resources Council, which...

  9. 28 CFR 63.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....) and NFIP criteria (44 CFR part 59 et seq.). (d) Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND WETLAND PROTECTION PROCEDURES § 63.3 References. (a) Unified National Program for Floodplain Management, Water Resources Council, which...

  10. 28 CFR 63.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....) and NFIP criteria (44 CFR part 59 et seq.). (d) Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND WETLAND PROTECTION PROCEDURES § 63.3 References. (a) Unified National Program for Floodplain Management, Water Resources Council, which...

  11. 28 CFR 63.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....) and NFIP criteria (44 CFR part 59 et seq.). (d) Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND WETLAND PROTECTION PROCEDURES § 63.3 References. (a) Unified National Program for Floodplain Management, Water Resources Council, which...

  12. 28 CFR 63.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....) and NFIP criteria (44 CFR part 59 et seq.). (d) Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND WETLAND PROTECTION PROCEDURES § 63.3 References. (a) Unified National Program for Floodplain Management, Water Resources Council, which...

  13. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  14. Behavioral Profiles of Clinically Referred Children with Intellectual Giftedness

    PubMed Central

    Guénolé, Fabian; Louis, Jacqueline; Creveuil, Christian; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Montlahuc, Claire; Fourneret, Pierre; Revol, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    It is common that intellectually gifted children—that is, children with an IQ ≥ 130—are referred to paediatric or child neuropsychiatry clinics for socio-emotional problems and/or school underachievement or maladjustment. These clinically-referred children with intellectual giftedness are thought to typically display internalizing problems (i.e., self-focused problems reflecting overcontrol of emotion and behavior), and to be more behaviorally impaired when “highly” gifted (IQ ≥ 145) or displaying developmental asynchrony (i.e., a heterogeneous developmental pattern, reflected in a significant verbal-performance discrepancy on IQ tests). We tested all these assumptions in 143 clinically-referred gifted children aged 8 to 12, using Wechsler's intelligence profile and the Child Behavior Checklist. Compared to a normative sample, gifted children displayed increased behavioral problems in the whole symptomatic range. Internalizing problems did not predominate over externalizing ones (i.e., acted-out problems, reflecting undercontrol of emotion and behavior), revealing a symptomatic nature of behavioral syndromes more severe than expected. “Highly gifted” children did not display more behavioral problems than the “low gifted.” Gifted children with a significant verbal-performance discrepancy displayed more externalizing problems and mixed behavioral syndromes than gifted children without such a discrepancy. These results suggest that developmental asynchrony matters when examining emotional and behavioral problems in gifted children. PMID:23956988

  15. Behavioral profiles of clinically referred children with intellectual giftedness.

    PubMed

    Guénolé, Fabian; Louis, Jacqueline; Creveuil, Christian; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Montlahuc, Claire; Fourneret, Pierre; Revol, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    It is common that intellectually gifted children--that is, children with an IQ ≥ 130--are referred to paediatric or child neuropsychiatry clinics for socio-emotional problems and/or school underachievement or maladjustment. These clinically-referred children with intellectual giftedness are thought to typically display internalizing problems (i.e., self-focused problems reflecting overcontrol of emotion and behavior), and to be more behaviorally impaired when "highly" gifted (IQ ≥ 145) or displaying developmental asynchrony (i.e., a heterogeneous developmental pattern, reflected in a significant verbal-performance discrepancy on IQ tests). We tested all these assumptions in 143 clinically-referred gifted children aged 8 to 12, using Wechsler's intelligence profile and the Child Behavior Checklist. Compared to a normative sample, gifted children displayed increased behavioral problems in the whole symptomatic range. Internalizing problems did not predominate over externalizing ones (i.e., acted-out problems, reflecting undercontrol of emotion and behavior), revealing a symptomatic nature of behavioral syndromes more severe than expected. "Highly gifted" children did not display more behavioral problems than the "low gifted." Gifted children with a significant verbal-performance discrepancy displayed more externalizing problems and mixed behavioral syndromes than gifted children without such a discrepancy. These results suggest that developmental asynchrony matters when examining emotional and behavioral problems in gifted children.

  16. Circular common-path point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongzhao; Feng, Guoying; Li, Hongru; Vargas, J; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2012-10-01

    A simple and compact point-diffraction interferometer with circular common-path geometry configuration is developed. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, two reflection mirrors, and a telescope system composed by two lenses. The signal and reference waves travel along the same path. Furthermore, an opaque mask containing a reference pinhole and a test object holder or test window is positioned in the common focal plane of the telescope system. The object wave is divided into two beams that take opposite paths along the interferometer. The reference wave is filtered by the reference pinhole, while the signal wave is transmitted through the object holder. The reference and signal waves are combined again in the beam-splitter and their interference is imaged in the CCD. The new design is compact, vibration insensitive, and suitable for the measurement of moving objects or dynamic processes.

  17. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  18. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  19. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  20. Selection of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge using transcriptome datasets under abiotic stress treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Huihui; Fu, Yanping; He, Wei; Wang, Lin; Wei, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge, an indigenous locoweed species in China, poses great threats to livestock on grasslands. There is a need for further genetic study in the plants per se, for understanding the basis of its acclimation mechanism in various unfavorable environmental conditions and to implement effective control measures. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most commonly used method for gene expression analysis. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable reference genes is required. The aim of this study was to select the most stable reference genes for transcriptional analysis in O. ochrocephala. Results: We selected 12 candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S RNA), actin2/7 (ACT7), β-actin (ACTB), actin101 (ACT101), actin11 (ACT11), β-tubulin (TUB), α-tubulin (TUA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 (GAPDH1), GAPDH2, metallothionein-like protein (MET), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and histone H3 (HIS), from the transcriptome datasets of O. ochrocephala and determined the suitability by analyzing their expression levels when exposed to a range of abiotic stress conditions. By employing software packages including geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, HIS, ACT7, and ACT101 were assessed as the most suitable set for normalization in all samples. When normalized with the most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of the three target genes were in accordance with those in the transcriptome data, indicating that the reference genes selected in this study are suitable. Conclusions: The study provided appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in O. ochrocephala and emphasized the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under specific experimental condition. The usage of inappropriate reference gene would cause misinterpretation. PMID

  1. Threads of common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  2. Threads of common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  3. 47 CFR 32.4 - Communications Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications Act. 32.4 Section 32.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.4 Communications Act. Attention is directed to...

  4. The Clean Water Act, Flow, and the Quest for Integrity of U. S. Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    The federal Clean Water Act (Public Law 92-500, amended in 1977 and 1987) contains one of the broadest goals for ecological protection found in American environmental legislation: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of U.S. waters. The act also refers to attaining water quality sufficient to propagate fish and wildlife and provides for a wide array of regulatory and non-regulatory protection tools. Despite the broad ecological connotations of its goals, its diverse toolbox, and its many successes, the Clean Water Act is not uniformly applicable to all forms of aquatic impairment because its most potent regulations are highly oriented toward controlling pollutants. Flow alterations and their biotic impacts are common examples of non-pollutant impairments that fit the Clean Water Act goal, but not its tools. Nevertheless, the lack of authority to regulate flow under the act has stimulated innovative, indirect approaches to the restoration of flow-related impairments. The presentation will address the limits of the Clean Water Act in addressing flow as well as a variety of examples of working within the scope of the act to overcome those limits.

  5. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the

  6. Reference Point Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income. PMID:27672374

  7. Reference Point Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N.; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income. PMID:27672374

  8. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  9. An Online Reference System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

  10. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  11. Reference Point Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N.; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income.

  12. Ethics and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  13. China Connections Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  14. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...

  15. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  16. 29 CFR 4.105 - The Act as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Act's coverage to white collar workers. Accordingly, the minimum wage protection of the Act now extends to all workers, both blue collar and white collar, other than persons employed in a bona fide...) of the Act a reference to 5 U.S.C. 5332, which deals with white collar workers, and by amending...

  17. 29 CFR 4.105 - The Act as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Act's coverage to white collar workers. Accordingly, the minimum wage protection of the Act now extends to all workers, both blue collar and white collar, other than persons employed in a bona fide...) of the Act a reference to 5 U.S.C. 5332, which deals with white collar workers, and by amending...

  18. 77 FR 24183 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial...

  19. The New Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

  20. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  1. Canonical Commonality Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, K. Dawn

    Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

  2. Information science. Going, going, gone: lost Internet references.

    PubMed

    Dellavalle, Robert P; Hester, Eric J; Heilig, Lauren F; Drake, Amanda L; Kuntzman, Jeff W; Graber, Marla; Schilling, Lisa M

    2003-10-31

    The use of Internet references in academic literature is common, and Internet references are frequently inaccessible. The extent of Internet referencing and Internet reference activity in medical or scientific publications was systematically examined in more than 1000 articles published between 2000 and 2003 in the New England Journal of Medicine, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and Science. Internet references accounted for 2.6% of all references (672/25548) and in articles 27 months old, 13% of Internet references were inactive. Publishers, librarians, and readers need to reassess policies, archiving systems, and other resources for addressing Internet reference attrition to prevent further information loss.

  3. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  4. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  5. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  6. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  7. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  8. USGS reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of measurements are made on the chemical composition of items that affect us on a daily basis. Determining the accuracy of these measurements is based on the analysis of appropriate reference materials whose composition was previously determined through rigorous testing. Today, reference materials help us evaluate the composition of the food we eat, medicine we use, soil we grow our crops in, and hundreds of other products that affect our everyday lives.

  9. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  10. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  11. Preserving sequence annotations across reference sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Matching and comparing sequence annotations of different reference sequences is vital to genomics research, yet many annotation formats do not specify the reference sequence types or versions used. This makes the integration of annotations from different sources difficult and error prone. Results As part of our effort to create linked data for interoperable sequence annotations, we present an RDF data model for sequence annotation using the ontological framework established by the OBO Foundry ontologies and the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). We defined reference sequences as the common domain of integration for sequence annotations, and identified three semantic relationships between sequence annotations. In doing so, we created the Reference Sequence Annotation to compensate for gaps in the SO and in its mapping to BFO, particularly for annotations that refer to versions of consensus reference sequences. Moreover, we present three integration models for sequence annotations using different reference assemblies. Conclusions We demonstrated a working example of a sequence annotation instance, and how this instance can be linked to other annotations on different reference sequences. Sequence annotations in this format are semantically rich and can be integrated easily with different assemblies. We also identify other challenges of modeling reference sequences with the BFO. PMID:25093075

  12. 16 CFR 1608.6 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibited. 1608.6 Section 1608.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT § 1608.6 Reference to... otherwise marketing or handling products, fabrics or related materials subject to the act that the act,...

  13. 16 CFR 1608.6 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prohibited. 1608.6 Section 1608.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT § 1608.6 Reference to... otherwise marketing or handling products, fabrics or related materials subject to the act that the act,...

  14. 16 CFR 1608.6 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prohibited. 1608.6 Section 1608.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT § 1608.6 Reference to... otherwise marketing or handling products, fabrics or related materials subject to the act that the act,...

  15. 16 CFR 1608.6 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prohibited. 1608.6 Section 1608.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT § 1608.6 Reference to... otherwise marketing or handling products, fabrics or related materials subject to the act that the act,...

  16. 16 CFR 1608.6 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prohibited. 1608.6 Section 1608.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT § 1608.6 Reference to... otherwise marketing or handling products, fabrics or related materials subject to the act that the act,...

  17. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  18. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  19. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  20. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  1. 16 CFR 301.46 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.46 Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion that a fur or fur product...

  2. 24 CFR 257.102 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hotel purposes; 203.17(d) Maturity; 203.18 Maximum mortgage amounts; 203.18a Solar-energy system; 203... the provisions of 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, concerning eligibility requirements of mortgages..., all references at 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer...

  3. 24 CFR 257.102 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hotel purposes; 203.17(d) Maturity; 203.18 Maximum mortgage amounts; 203.18a Solar-energy system; 203... the provisions of 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, concerning eligibility requirements of mortgages..., all references at 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer...

  4. 24 CFR 257.102 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hotel purposes; 203.17(d) Maturity; 203.18 Maximum mortgage amounts; 203.18a Solar-energy system; 203... the provisions of 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, concerning eligibility requirements of mortgages..., all references at 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer...

  5. 24 CFR 257.102 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hotel purposes; 203.17(d) Maturity; 203.18 Maximum mortgage amounts; 203.18a Solar-energy system; 203... the provisions of 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, concerning eligibility requirements of mortgages..., all references at 24 CFR part 203, subpart A, to section 203 of the Act shall be construed to refer...

  6. 24 CFR 244.251 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE FOR GROUP PRACTICE FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations § 244.251 Cross-reference. (a) All... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cross-reference. 244.251 Section... insured under section 207 of the National Housing Act apply to a mortgage covering a group...

  7. 24 CFR 4001.201 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians authorized by section 203(q) of the National Housing Act; and 203.440-203.495 Rehabilitation Loans. (b) For the purposes of this subpart, all references in 24 CFR part 203... Under the Contract of Insurance § 4001.201 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR part...

  8. 24 CFR 4001.201 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians authorized by section 203(q) of the National Housing Act; and 203.440-203.495 Rehabilitation Loans. (b) For the purposes of this subpart, all references in 24 CFR part 203... Under the Contract of Insurance § 4001.201 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR part...

  9. 24 CFR 4001.201 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians authorized by section 203(q) of the National Housing Act; and 203.440-203.495 Rehabilitation Loans. (b) For the purposes of this subpart, all references in 24 CFR part 203... Under the Contract of Insurance § 4001.201 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR part...

  10. 24 CFR 4001.201 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians authorized by section 203(q) of the National Housing Act; and 203.440-203.495 Rehabilitation Loans. (b) For the purposes of this subpart, all references in 24 CFR part 203... Under the Contract of Insurance § 4001.201 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR part...

  11. 24 CFR 4001.201 - Cross-reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Reservation of Seneca Nation of Indians authorized by section 203(q) of the National Housing Act; and 203.440-203.495 Rehabilitation Loans. (b) For the purposes of this subpart, all references in 24 CFR part 203... Under the Contract of Insurance § 4001.201 Cross-reference. (a) All of the provisions of 24 CFR part...

  12. Fortran 5 cross-reference

    SciTech Connect

    Brenneman, D.J.; Singer, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes FSTCOM and ROUTS, two cross-referencing programs. The programs have been prepared by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory and are written in CDC FORTRAN 5, following the standard FORTRAN 77 conventions. FSTCOM and ROUTS facilitate the creation of documentation for programs. Additionally, the programs are of great help in the debugging process due to the nature of their output. To aid the user, the programs are carefully documented. In fact, most users can run FSTCOM or ROUTS by simply referring to the prologue at the beginning of each program. FSTCOM creates reports concerning the common blocks in a FORTRAN 5 program by using a FTN5 compiled listing as input. Common block information contained in the listing is collected in an interface file for future output. However, it is important to note that only the common variables actually used in the program will be stored in the interface file. ROUTS generates a report concerning the program units and the procedures they call. Like FSTCOM, ROUTS uses a FTN5 compiled listing as input. The program unit information is collected into an interface file that is sorted by the CYBER SORT/MERGE utility to produce a report. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  14. Setting reference targets

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  15. 32 CFR 552.142 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false References. 552.142 Section 552.142 National.... 16 U.S.C. 470. c. Title 18, U.S.C. 1382. d. Internal Security Act of 1950, section 21 (50 U.S.C. 797... below. U.S. Codes referenced in this subpart can be obtained from the Government Printing Office or...

  16. 32 CFR 552.142 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true References. 552.142 Section 552.142 National.... 16 U.S.C. 470. c. Title 18, U.S.C. 1382. d. Internal Security Act of 1950, section 21 (50 U.S.C. 797... below. U.S. Codes referenced in this subpart can be obtained from the Government Printing Office or...

  17. 17 CFR 256.201 - Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common stock issued. 256.201... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.201 Common stock issued. This account shall include the par or stated value of all common capital stock issued and outstanding....

  18. Conceptualizing an Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Concepts from Strategic Alignment, a technology-management theory, are used to discuss the Information Commons as a new service-delivery model in academic libraries. The Information Commons, as a conceptual, physical, and instructional space, involves an organizational realignment from print to the digital environment. (Author)

  19. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  20. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  1. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  2. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  3. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  4. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  5. Reference in human and non-human primate communication: What does it take to refer?

    PubMed

    Sievers, Christine; Gruber, Thibaud

    2016-07-01

    The concept of functional reference has been used to isolate potentially referential vocal signals in animal communication. However, its relatedness to the phenomenon of reference in human language has recently been brought into question. While some researchers have suggested abandoning the concept of functional reference altogether, others advocate a revision of its definition to include contextual cues that play a role in signal production and perception. Empirical and theoretical work on functional reference has also put much emphasis on how the receiver understands the referential signal. However, reference, as defined in the linguistic literature, is an action of the producer, and therefore, any definition describing reference in non-human animals must also focus on the producer. To successfully determine whether a signal is used to refer, we suggest an approach from the field of pragmatics, taking a closer look at specific situations of signal production, specifically at the factors that influence the production of a signal by an individual. We define the concept of signaller's reference to identify intentional acts of reference produced by a signaller independently of the communicative modality, and illustrate it with a case study of the hoo vocalizations produced by wild chimpanzees during travel. This novel framework introduces an intentional approach to referentiality. It may therefore permit a closer comparison of human and non-human animal referential behaviour and underlying cognitive processes, allowing us to identify what may have emerged solely in the human lineage. PMID:26971953

  6. Dietary reference intervals for vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Dietary reference intervals relate to the distribution of dietary requirement for a particular nutrient as defined by the distribution of physiological requirement for that nutrient. These have more commonly been called Dietary Reference Values (DRV) or Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), amongst other names. The North American DRI for vitamin D are the most current dietary reference intervals and arguably arising from the most comprehensive evaluation and report on vitamin D nutrition to date. These are a family of nutrient reference values, including the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake, and Tolerable Upper Intake Level. In particular, the EAR is used for planning and assessing diets of populations; it also serves as the basis for calculating the RDA, a value intended to meet the needs of nearly all people. The DRVs for vitamin D in the UK and the European Community have been in existence for almost two decades, and both are currently under review. The present paper briefly overviews these three sets of dietary reference intervals as case studies to highlight both the similarities as well as possible differences that may exist between reference intervals for vitamin D in different countries/regions. In addition, it highlights the scientific basis upon which these are based, which may explain some of the differences. Finally, it also overviews how the dietary reference intervals for vitamin D may be applied, and especially in terms of assessing the adequacy of vitamin D intake in populations. PMID:22536775

  7. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  8. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  9. ACTS data center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Ali; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on ACTS Data Center status report are included. Topics covered include: ACTS Data Center Functions; data flow overview; PPD flow; RAW data flow; data compression; PPD distribution; RAW Data Archival; PPD Audit; and data analysis.

  10. Education Vital Signs. Bonus Desk Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Annual desk reference of key education facts is organized as follows: (1) year's education events in review; (2) common measures of education attainment; (3) cost of school construction; (4) demographics of school leadership; (5) gender gap in academic achievement; and (6) key education indicators by region and by state. (MLF)

  11. Genetics Home Reference: schizophrenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... affects a person's thinking, sense of self, and perceptions. The disorder typically appears during late adolescence or ... adulthood. Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia include false perceptions called hallucinations. Imaginary voices are the most common ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: achondroplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Description Achondroplasia is a form of short-limbed dwarfism. The word achondroplasia literally means "without cartilage formation." ... is the most common type of short-limbed dwarfism. The condition occurs in 1 in 15,000 ...

  13. Saving the Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollier, David

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the control of digital content and the stakes for libraries and our democratic culture. Highlights include copyright term extension, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, use of contract law to limit the public domain, database legislation, trademarks versus the public domain, the void in our cultural vocabulary, and the concept of the…

  14. The dermatology acting internship.

    PubMed

    Stephens, John B; Raimer, Sharon S; Wagner, Richard F

    2011-07-15

    Acting internships are an important component of modern day medical school curriculum. Several specialties outside of internal medicine now offer acting internship experiences to fourth year medical students. We have found that a dermatology acting internship is a valuable experience for fourth year medical students who are interested in pursuing a residency in dermatology. Our experience with the dermatology acting internship over the 2010-2011 academic year is described.

  15. Candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in water lily.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Wan, Hongjian; Chen, Fadi; Gu, Chunsun; Liu, Zhaolei

    2010-09-01

    The selection of an appropriate reference gene(s) is a prerequisite for the proper interpretation of quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction data. We report the evaluation of eight candidate reference genes across various tissues and treatments in the water lily by the two software packages geNorm and NormFinder. Across all samples, clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit (AP47) and actin 11 (ACT11) emerged as the most suitable reference genes. Across different tissues, ACT11 and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1alpha) exhibited a stable expression pattern. ACT11 and AP47 also stably expressed in roots subjected to various treatments, but in the leaves of the same plants the most stably expressed genes were ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 16 (UBC16) and ACT11. PMID:20452325

  16. Isotope reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

  17. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  18. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  19. Role and Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

  20. The Reference Encounter Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  1. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  2. Reference Collections and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1999-01-01

    Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

  3. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  4. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  5. Reference Book Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Bill, Ed.

    For each reference work there is a 5 1/2 x 8 1/2" card with information about the work in brief, standardized format. The card indicates what the subject coverage is, the types of materials included, the service given, frequency of publication, procedure for use, an example of the procedure, a sample entry with explanatory notes, other places to…

  6. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  7. Reflections on Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Kerryn A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes programmatic changes in reference services at the Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical library and speculates on the future. Topics include institutional restructuring and consolidation; improvements in technology infrastructure; external economic pressure; and fiscal accountability, including library funding and cost center…

  8. Chat Reference. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, Jana, Comp.; Turner, Carol, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to gather data on chat reference service. A total of 66 of 124 ARL member libraries responded to the survey. A copy of the questionnaire with tabulated results is presented. Representative…

  9. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  10. THAI, REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A REFERENCE GRAMMAR FOR THE THAI LANGUAGE IS PROVIDED. THE MAIN STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF STANDARD SPOKEN THAI ARE OUTLINED AND ELABORATED BY SUBCLASSIFICATION AND EXAMPLE. IN ADDITION, AN INDEX OF MINOR FORM-CLASS MEMBERS IS PROVIDED. THE APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF GRAMMATICAL FEATURES FOLLOWS CURRENT TECHNIQUES OF AMERICAN DESCRIPTIVE…

  11. Multimedia Reference Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  12. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  13. Forgetting ACT UP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    When ACT UP is remembered as the pinnacle of postmodern activism, other forms and forums of activism that were taking place during that time--practices that were linked, related, just modern, in dialogue or even opposition to ACT UP's "confrontational activism"--are forgotten. In its time, ACT UP was embedded in New York City, and a larger world,…

  14. 75 FR 77051 - Rules Implementing Amendments to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ....'' \\5\\ These provisions in Title IV of the Dodd- Frank Act will be effective on July 21, 2011.\\6\\ \\2...\\ See section 419 of the Dodd-Frank Act. For purposes of this Release, when we refer to the effective date of the Dodd-Frank Act, we are referring to the effective date of Title IV, which is July 21,...

  15. 75 FR 19463 - Procedures for Monitoring Bank Secrecy Act Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... the Currency and Foreign Transactions Report Act commonly known as the `Bank Secrecy Act' (``BSA''). The Money Laundering Control Act of 1986 further augmented the BSA's effectiveness by adding... establish and maintain procedures reasonably designed to assure and monitor compliance with the BSA and...

  16. Hazard Communication Project: reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This reference manual covers the following course objectives: to inform employees of their employer's requirements under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200); to instruct employees on the procedures for obtaining and using information on hazardous materials, including understanding labeling systems and the material safety data sheet (MSDS) information; to provide information on 11 classes of chemicals, including their common uses, potential physical and health hazards, detection methods, and safety measures to follow. There are 14 lessons, ranging in length from 30 minutes to 1 (one) hour. The lessons are contained on 6 disks that are programmed to run on an IBM-compatible PC with an EGA graphics card and monitor. The program will not run on monochrome or CGA systems.

  17. Common Lunar Lander (CLL) Engineering Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, Jonette

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Common Lunar Lander (CLL) engineering study results. The mission is to provide a delivery system to soft-land a 200 kg payload set at any given lunar latitude and longitude. Topics covered include the study schedule, mission goals and requirements, the CLL reference mission, costs, CLL options, and two stage performance analysis.

  18. The Common Core: Far from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the Common Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He refers to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are…

  19. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in the Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Sweet Osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans Lour.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiguang; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhao, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression, depends on the stability of the reference gene(s) used for data normalization. Several studies examining the selection of reference genes have been performed in ornamental plants but none in sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans Lour.). Based on transcriptomic sequencing data from O. fragrans buds at four developmental stages, six reference genes (OfACT, OfEF1α, OfIDH, OfRAN1, OfTUB, and OfUBC2) with stable expression (0.5 to 2 fold change in expression levels between any two developmental stages), as well as the commonly used reference gene Of18S, were selected as candidates for gene expression normalization in the RT-qPCR analysis of O. fragrans. For the normalization of RT-qPCR with two dyes, SYBR Green and EvaGreen, the expressional stability of seven candidate reference genes in 43 O. fragrans samples was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. For RT-qPCR using SYBR Green, OfRAN1 and OfUBC2 were the optimal reference genes for all samples and different cultivars, OfACT and OfEF1α were suitable for different floral developmental stages, and OfACT was the optimal reference gene for different temperature treatments. The geometric mean values of the optimal reference gene pairs for the normalization of RT-qPCR are recommended to be used for all samples, different cultivars and different floral developmental stages in O. fragrans. For RT-qPCR using EvaGreen, OfUBC2 was the optimal reference gene for all samples and different cultivars, and OfACT was the optimal reference gene for different floral developmental stages and different temperature treatments. As the worst reference gene, Of18S should not be used as a reference gene in O. fragrans in the future. Our results provide a reference gene application guideline for O. fragrans gene expression characterization using RT-qPCR. PMID:26302211

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  1. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  2. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  3. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  4. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  5. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  6. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  7. Common skin conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, M.; Safranek, M.

    1992-01-01

    Four common conditions: acne, psoriasis, eczema and urticaria are considered. Guidance is given on appropriate topical and systematic treatment for the different types and degrees of these conditions, with notes on management in general and criteria for referral to hospital outpatient departments. Where there are different types of the condition, with varying aetiology, for example in urticaria and eczema, management of the common types is outlined. PMID:1345156

  8. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  9. [Euthanasia and medical act].

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    Right to life -as the prohibition of intentionally and arbitrarily taking life, even with authorization of the concerned one- is an internationally recognized right. In many countries, debate regarding euthanasia is more centered in its convenience, social acceptability and how it is regulated, than in its substantial legitimacy. Some argue that euthanasia should be included as part of clinical practice of health professionals, grounded on individual's autonomy claims-everyone having the liberty to choose how to live and how to die. Against this, others sustain that life has a higher value than autonomy, exercising autonomy without respecting the right to life would become a serious moral and social problem. Likewise, euthanasia supporters some-times claim a 'right to live with dignity', which must be understood as a personal obligation, referred more to the ethical than to the strictly legal sphere. In countries where it is already legalized, euthanasia practice has extended to cases where it is not the patient who requests this but the family or some healthcare professional, or even the legal system-when they think that the patient is living in a condition which is not worthy to live. Generalization of euthanasia possibly will end in affecting those who need more care, such as elder, chronically ill or dying people, damaging severely personal basic rights. Nature, purpose and tradition of medicine rule out the practice of euthanasia, which ought not be considered a medical act or legitimately compulsory for physicians. Today's medicine counts with effective treatments for pain and suffering, such as palliative care, including sedative therapy, which best preserves persons dignity and keeps safe the ethos of the medical profession.

  10. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Immune System National Library of Medicine, Genetics Home Reference ​​​​​ ... and an increased risk of infections. Although the disease usually is diagnosed in ... a defect in the capability of immune cells to produce normal amounts of all types ...

  11. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression analysis using qRT-PCR in the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xun; Yuan, Miao; Shakeel, Muhammad; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wang, Xin; Zhan, Sha; Kang, Tinghao; Li, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a reliable and reproducible technique for measuring and evaluating changes in gene expression. The most common method for analyzing qRT-PCR data is to normalize mRNA levels of target genes to internal reference genes. Evaluating and selecting stable reference genes on a case-by-case basis is critical. The present study aimed to facilitate gene expression studies by identifying the most suitable reference genes for normalization of mRNA expression in qRT-PCR analysis of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). For this purpose, three software tools (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were used to investigate 10 candidate reference genes in nine developmental stages and five different tissues (epidermis, head, midgut, fat body and hemolymph) in three larval physiological stages (molting, feeding and wandering stages) of, S. exigua. With the exception of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), all other candidate genes evaluated, β-actin1(ACT1), β-actin2 (ACT2), elongation factor1(EF1), elongation factor 2 (EF2), Glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (L10), ribosomal protein L17A (L17A), superoxide dismutase (SOD), α-tubulin (TUB),proved to be acceptable reference genes. However, their suitability partly differed between physiological stages and different tissues. L10, EF2 and L17A ranked highest in all tissue sample sets. SOD, ACT2, GAPDH, EF1 and ACT1 were stably expressed in all developmental stage sample sets; ACT2, ACT1 and L10 for larvae sample sets; GAPDH, ACT1 and ACT2 for pupae and adults; SOD and L17A for males; and EF2 and SOD for females. The expression stability of genes varied in different conditions. The findings provided here demonstrated, with a few exceptions, the suitability of most of the 10 reference genes tested in tissues and life developmental stages. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in S. exigua.

  12. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  13. The NPL reference hazemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, G. H. C.

    1992-09-01

    The reference hazemeter is a development of a commercial pivotable sphere hazemeter. The principle improvements are a high quality photometer and its associated electronic and temperature controller, a stable power supply for the source and the determination of the lamp current of illuminants A and C, improvements to the optics to achieve a well shaped beam, and mechanical modifications to accommodate the improvements and allow a good mechanical movement. Various tests were carried out to validate the instrument behavior. These identified systematic errors caused by inter-reflections. To reduce the inter-reflection errors, the blue filter and the input lenses were antireflection coated. The reference hazemeter complies with BS 2782--methods of testing plastics; part 5--optical and color properties; method 521A--determination of haze of film and sheet. A calibration service using the hazemeter is now in operation.

  14. The Brewer reference triad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioletov, V. E.; Kerr, J. B.; McElroy, C. T.; Wardle, D. I.; Savastiouk, V.; Grajnar, T. S.

    2005-10-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the Brewer reference triad was established by Environment Canada at Toronto. The triad serves as a reference for traveling standard instruments that are used to calibrate Brewer spectrophotometers around the world. The members of the triad are calibrated on a regular basis at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Regular tests made with an internal quartz halogen lamp make it possible to track the instrument response between the calibrations. A new analysis of available column ozone data records indicates that the uncertainty in the daily values derived from each instrument is approximately 0.6%. The random errors of individual observations are within +/-1% for 90% of all measurements. Sources of potential errors in the individual Brewer measurements as well as quality control tools are also discussed.

  15. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam.

  16. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

  17. Reference Undulator Measurement Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; /SLAC

    2011-08-18

    The LCLS reference undulator has been measured 22 times during the course of undulator tuning. These measurements provide estimates of various statistical errors. This note gives a summary of the reference undulator measurements and it provides estimates of the undulator tuning errors. We measured the reference undulator many times during the tuning of the LCLS undulators. These data sets give estimates of the random errors in the tuned undulators. The measured trajectories in the reference undulator are stable and straight to within {+-}2 {micro}m. Changes in the phase errors are less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The phase advance in the cell varies by less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The rms variation between data sets of the first integral of B{sub x} is 9.98 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub x} is 17.4 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the first integral of B{sub y} is 6.65 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub y} is 12.3 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the x-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 35 {micro}m in the final production run This corresponds to an rms uncertainty in the K value of {Delta}K/K = 2.7 x 10{sup -5}. The rms variation of the y-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 4 {micro}m in the final production run.

  18. Long-acting hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gabelnick, Henry; Brosens, Ivo

    2015-11-01

    Today, a new category of fertility-regulating agents has been created: long-acting, reversible hormonal contraceptives; they minimize compliance, while maximize effectiveness. They comprise subdermal implants and intrauterine devices. Other long-acting agents exist, such as Depo Provera and Noristerat. Use of Depo Provera and Noristerat carries great effectiveness, good clinical safety and usefulness in developing countries. They cause no significant increase in breast cancer risk, but they may carry an increased risk of HIV. Subcutaneous delivery systems have two common features: prolongation of effect is obtained by a drug reservoir and for most of their duration of action they provide a continuous, sustained release of the active hormone. Finally, the intrauterine system Mirena represents both a very effective contraceptive and a specific treatment for menorrhagia.

  19. Celestial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-03-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  20. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  1. Genetics Home Reference: sialuria

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the GNE gene cause sialuria . The GNE gene provides instructions for making an enzyme found in cells and tissues throughout the body. This enzyme is involved in a chemical pathway that produces sialic acid, which is a ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: vitiligo

    MedlinePlus

    ... time, with larger areas of the skin losing pigment. Some people with vitiligo also have patches of pigment loss affecting the hair on their scalp or ... is the most common form, involves loss of pigment (depigmentation) in patches of skin all over the ...

  3. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  4. Current and future peripherally-acting antitussives.

    PubMed

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2006-07-28

    Cough is among the most common complaints for which medical evaluation is sought. The clinical significance of this problem is evidenced by the enormous financial expenditure on prescription and non-prescription cough remedies worldwide. Centrally-acting antitussive agents, such as opiates, are often associated with undesirable or intolerable side effects, including sedation, nausea, and constipation. Therefore, safe and effective peripherally-acting antitussive agents are particularly desirable. Relatively few commercially-available products suppress cough through a peripheral mechanism of action. Recent research in the field of cough has resulted in the development of several new classes of compounds that may prove to be clinically useful peripherally-acting antitussives.

  5. Identification of a novel reference gene for apple transcriptional profiling under postharvest conditions.

    PubMed

    Storch, Tatiane Timm; Pegoraro, Camila; Finatto, Taciane; Quecini, Vera; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Girardi, César Luis

    2015-01-01

    Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most important techniques for gene expression profiling due to its high sensibility and reproducibility. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on data normalization, performed by comparisons between the expression profiles of the genes of interest against those of constitutively expressed, reference genes. Although the technique is widely used in fruit postharvest experiments, the transcription stability of reference genes has not been thoroughly investigated under these experimental conditions. Thus, we have determined the transcriptional profile, under these conditions, of three genes commonly used as reference--ACTIN (MdACT), PROTEIN DISULPHIDE ISOMERASE (MdPDI) and UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME E2 (MdUBC)--along with two novel candidates--HISTONE 1 (MdH1) and NUCLEOSSOME ASSEMBLY 1 PROTEIN (MdNAP1). The expression profile of the genes was investigated throughout five experiments, with three of them encompassing the postharvest period and the other two, consisting of developmental and spatial phases. The transcriptional stability was comparatively investigated using four distinct software packages: BestKeeper, NormFinder, geNorm and DataAssist. Gene ranking results for transcriptional stability were similar for the investigated software packages, with the exception of BestKeeper. The classic reference gene MdUBC ranked among the most stably transcribed in all investigated experimental conditions. Transcript accumulation profiles for the novel reference candidate gene MdH1 were stable throughout the tested conditions, especially in experiments encompassing the postharvest period. Thus, our results present a novel reference gene for postharvest experiments in apple and reinforce the importance of checking the transcription profile of reference genes under the experimental conditions of interest.

  6. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  7. Commonality based interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Christine L.; Hepp, Jared J.; Harrell, John

    2016-05-01

    What interoperability is and why the Army wants it between systems is easily understood. Enabling multiple systems to work together and share data across boundaries in a co-operative manner will benefit the warfighter by allowing for easy access to previously hard-to-reach capabilities. How to achieve interoperability is not as easy to understand due to the numerous different approaches that accomplish the goal. Commonality Based Interoperability (CBI) helps establish how to achieve the goal by extending the existing interoperability definition. CBI is not an implementation, nor is it an architecture; it is a definition of interoperability with a foundation of establishing commonality between systems.

  8. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Kory

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history, legal standards, and enforcement procedures of Title IV and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the role those statutes have played in the federal enforcement of the equal protection clause. (82 references) (MLF)

  9. Act II of the Sunshine Act.

    PubMed

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2014-11-01

    To coincide with the introduction in the United States of the Sunshine Act, Genevieve Pham-Kanter discusses what we need to look for to fight hidden bias and deliberate or unconscious corruption. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  10. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  11. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  12. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  13. Common food allergies.

    PubMed

    McKevith, Brigid; Theobald, Hannah

    The incidence of allergic disease, including food allergy, appears to be increasing in the UK (Gupta et al 2003). Although any food has the potential to cause an allergic reaction, certain foods are more common causes of allergy than others. If diagnosed, food allergy is manageable. Correct diagnosis is important to ensure optimal management and a nutritionally balanced diet.

  14. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  15. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  16. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  17. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  18. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  19. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay.

  20. Common Dermatoses of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Irv

    1986-01-01

    Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297

  1. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  2. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  3. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  4. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  5. Pleasure: the common currency.

    PubMed

    Cabanac, M

    1992-03-21

    At present as physiologists studying various homeostatic behaviors, such as thermoregulatory behavior and food and fluid intake, we have no common currency that allows us to equate the strength of the motivational drive that accompanies each regulatory need, in terms of how an animal or a person will choose to satisfy his needs when there is a conflict between two or more of them. Yet the behaving organism must rank his priorities and needs a common currency to achieve the ranking (McFarland & Sibly, 1975, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 270 Biol 265-293). A theory is proposed here according to which pleasure is this common currency. The perception of pleasure, as measured operationally and quantitatively by choice behavior (in the case of animals), or by the rating of the intensity of pleasure or displeasure (in the case of humans) can serve as such a common currency. The tradeoffs between various motivations would thus be accomplished by simple maximization of pleasure. In what follows, the scientific work arising recently on this subject, with be reviewed briefly and our recent experimental findings will be presented. This will serve as the support for the theoretical position formulated in this essay. PMID:12240693

  6. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  7. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  8. Common conversion factors.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653

  9. Common file formats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Shonda A; Littlejohn, Timothy G; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2007-01-01

    This appendix discusses a few of the file formats frequently encountered in bioinformatics. Specifically, it reviews the rules for generating FASTA files and provides guidance for interpreting NCBI descriptor lines, commonly found in FASTA files. In addition, it reviews the construction of GenBank, Phylip, MSF and Nexus files. PMID:18428774

  10. A Language in Common.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

  11. COMMON LISP: The language

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, G.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes COMMON LISP,which is becoming the industry and government standard AI language. Topics covered include the following: data types; scope and extent; type specifiers; program structure; predicates; control structure; macros; declarations; symbols; packages; numbers; characters; sequences; lists; hash tables; arrays; strings; structures; the evaluator; streams; input/output; file system interface; and errors.

  12. Antares Reference Telescope System

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

  13. Antares reference telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares reference telescope system is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares reference telescope system consists of two similar electrooptical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9% optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and tradeoffs are discussed. The final system chosen and its current status are described.

  14. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  15. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88...

  16. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88...

  17. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88...

  18. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88...

  19. Hatch Act Modernization Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Cummings, Elijah E. [D-MD-7

    2012-03-07

    03/07/2012 Referred to the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.2170, which became Public Law 112-230 on 12/28/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - The Role of the School Nurse: Position Statement.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation’s students within the health care system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This law presents an opportunity to transform the health care system through three primary goals: expanding access, improving quality, and reducing cost (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010). School nurses stand at the forefront of this system change and continue to provide evidence-based, quality interventions and preventive care that, according to recent studies, actually save health care dollars (Wang et al., 2014). NASN supports the concept that school nursing services receive the same financial parity as other health care providers to improve overall health outcomes, including insurance reimbursement for services provided to students. PMID:25926418

  1. Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for most theoretical and computational accounts of linguistic reference is the observation that language users vary considerably in their referential choices. Part of the variation observed among and within language users and across tasks may be explained from variation in the cognitive resources available to speakers and listeners. This paper presents a computational model of reference production and comprehension developed within the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Through simulations with this ACT-R model, it is investigated how cognitive constraints interact with linguistic constraints and features of the linguistic discourse in speakers’ production and listeners’ comprehension of referring expressions in specific tasks, and how this interaction may give rise to variation in referential choice. The ACT-R model of reference explains and predicts variation among language users in their referential choices as a result of individual and task-related differences in processing speed and working memory capacity. Because of limitations in their cognitive capacities, speakers sometimes underspecify or overspecify their referring expressions, and listeners sometimes choose incorrect referents or are overly liberal in their interpretation of referring expressions. PMID:27092101

  2. ACT and College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…

  3. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updating School Board Policies, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Addressed to school board members, this article attempts to summarize requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and its implications for school districts. It warns against hasty purchase of private compliance assistance; then provides an overview of each of the Act's five Titles which address employment practices, activities…

  4. 77 FR 26580 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Information Services (OGIS), to the extent necessary to fulfill its responsibilities in 5 U.S.C. 552(h), to... of Information Act, Privacy Act, and Mandatory Declassification Review Records (DOJ-004),'' last published at 77 FR 16066 (Mar. 19, 2012). DOJ is modifying this notice by removing all references...

  5. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buy American Act supply... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.4 Buy American Act supply contracts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions:...

  6. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buy American Act supply... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.4 Buy American Act supply contracts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions:...

  7. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buy American Act supply... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.4 Buy American Act supply contracts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions:...

  8. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Buy American Act supply... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.4 Buy American Act supply contracts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions:...

  9. S. Rept. 111-323 - PUBLIC LANDS SERVICE CORPS ACT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-09-27

    ...The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, to which was referred the Act (H.R. 1612) to amend the Public Lands Corps Act of 1993 to expand the authorization of the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, and the Interior to provide service opportunities for young Americans; help restore the nation's natural, cultural, historic, archaeological, recreational and scenic resources; train a new......

  10. 75 FR 2893 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Science Foundation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1862n-5), and the Government in the Sunshine Act (5 U.S.C... Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. Please refer to the National Science Board...

  11. 76 FR 68395 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (``CFPB'') or the ``Bureau'', gives notice of...

  12. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Mark

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational contexts. This leads students, in my experience, to frequently and erroneously attribute magnetic poles based on geometric associations rather than actual observed behavior. This polarity discrepancy can provide teachers the opportunity to engage students in authentic inquiry about objects in their daily experiences. I've found that investigation of the magnetic polarities of common magnets provides a productive context for students in which to develop valuable and authentic scientific inquiry practices.

  13. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  14. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  15. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  16. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  17. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  18. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  19. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-07-30

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  20. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  1. PASCAL/48 reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This reference manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.

  2. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Stephen E; Rao, Idupulapati M; Blair, Matthew W; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  3. A common-view disciplined oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Michael A.; Dahlen, Aaron P.

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

  4. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  5. Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2006-08-01

    Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

  6. 'Historicising common sense'.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  7. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  8. Common Geometry Module

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore » top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less

  9. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  10. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  11. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  12. Starlight: a common heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Cipriano

    2011-06-01

    The Starlight Initiative brings a new view of the night sky and of its value enhancement, claiming the access to starlight as a scientific, environmental, and cultural right of humankind. Night sky quality has been seriously damaged in the last years because of light and atmospheric pollution, and an international action in favour of intelligent outdoor lighting is urgently needed. After the promulgation of the Starlight Declaration, we are jointly working with UNESCO, the World Heritage Centre, the MaB Programme, and other international institutions in the development of Starlight Reserves as exemplary areas that would act as models for the recovery of the heritage associated to star observation. The possibility arises to design and launch new tourist products and destinations based on astronomy and starry sceneries.

  13. Reframing Student Affairs Leadership: An Analysis of Organizational Frames of Reference and Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tull, Ashley; Freeman, Jerrid P.

    2011-01-01

    Examined in this study were the identified frames of reference and locus of control used by 478 student affairs administrators. Administrator responses were examined to identify frames of reference most commonly used and their preference order. Locus of control most commonly used and the relationship between frames of reference and locus of…

  14. Identification of four soybean reference genes for gene expression normalization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression analysis requires the use of reference genes stably expressed independently of specific tissues or environmental conditions. Housekeeping genes (e.g., actin, tubulin, ribosomal, polyubiquitin and elongation factor 1-alpha) are commonly used as reference genes with the assumption tha...

  15. Bioregenerative life support - The initial CELSS reference configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Averner, Mel

    1991-01-01

    The next major step in the development of an operational Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) is the creation of a human-rated ground-based demonstrator able to constitute a CELSS's proof-of-concept. The reference configuration recently devised for such a ground facility by NASA will furnish a common reference to all investigators in the field, thereby facilitating performance comparisons among candidate subsystems and clarifying system-level modeling. A detailed NASA reference CELSS flowcharting is presented.

  16. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...

  17. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...

  18. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...

  19. 18 CFR 367.2010 - Account 201, Common stock issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 201, Common stock issued. 367.2010 Section 367.2010 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2010 Account 201, Common...

  20. The Common Core Is an Opportunity for Education Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for American Progress, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core helps address inequity in education by ensuring all students are taught to the same high standards and held to the same rigorous expectations. This helps make sure that ZIP codes do not determine education quality. The Common Core-aligned assessments are integral to realizing the promise of the standards; they act as a…