Science.gov

Sample records for act endangered species

  1. 3 CFR - The Endangered Species Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Endangered Species Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 3, 2009 The Endangered Species Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531 et...

  2. Bioeconomic analysis supports the endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Salau, Kehinde R; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-10-01

    The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted to protect and restore declining fish, wildlife, and plant populations. The ESA mandates endangered species protection irrespective of costs. This translates to the restriction of activities that harm endangered populations. We discuss criticisms of the ESA in the context of public land management and examine under what circumstance banning non-conservation activity on multiple use federal lands can be socially optimal. We develop a bioeconomic model to frame the species management problem under the ESA and identify scenarios where ESA-imposed regulations emerge as optimal strategies. Results suggest that banning harmful activities is a preferred strategy when valued endangered species are in decline or exposed to poor habitat quality. However, it is not optimal to sustain such a strategy in perpetuity. An optimal plan involves a switch to land-use practices characteristic of habitat conservation plans.

  3. Bioeconomic analysis supports the endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Salau, Kehinde R; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-10-01

    The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted to protect and restore declining fish, wildlife, and plant populations. The ESA mandates endangered species protection irrespective of costs. This translates to the restriction of activities that harm endangered populations. We discuss criticisms of the ESA in the context of public land management and examine under what circumstance banning non-conservation activity on multiple use federal lands can be socially optimal. We develop a bioeconomic model to frame the species management problem under the ESA and identify scenarios where ESA-imposed regulations emerge as optimal strategies. Results suggest that banning harmful activities is a preferred strategy when valued endangered species are in decline or exposed to poor habitat quality. However, it is not optimal to sustain such a strategy in perpetuity. An optimal plan involves a switch to land-use practices characteristic of habitat conservation plans. PMID:25312414

  4. Environmental Politics and the Endangered Species Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahr, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the controversial issue of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) discussing the Act and the scope of the extinction problem. Reviews the arguments for and against the ESA, addresses the tactics that have been used in the political struggle over the ESA, and highlights the future of the ESA. Includes teaching activities. (CMK)

  5. The Endangered Species Act and a Deeper Look at Extinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borowski, John F.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the importance of saving species and dispels myths surrounding the endangered species act as background to three student activities that include a round table debate, writing to congresspeople, and a research project suggestion. Lists reference materials for endangered species. (MCO)

  6. The Endangered Species Act: Interfacing with Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides protective measures and a framework for establishing compliance criteria for actions that may affect species (and their habitat) listed under the Act. In many cases, the ESA can be effectively used under Section & of the Act, which provides procedures for c...

  7. The future of the US endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Losos, E

    1993-09-01

    The United States Endangered Species Act of J973 (ESA) is the strongest tool for protecting plants and animals in the US and has served as a model of species protection for many other nations. Because the goals of the Act - to conserve all endangered and threatened species in the US and the ecosystems upon which they depend - are widely supported among US environmentalists and biologists, it is commonly believed that these groups offer united support for the legislation. Within the US, however, vigorous debate ensues among conservation biologists as to the effectiveness of the species-oriented approach of the Act. PMID:21236184

  8. SALMON AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: TROUBLESOME QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest and California, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. In response to requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, the Canadian Species at Risk Act, and ...

  9. 77 FR 30261 - Petition To List 83 Species of Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT12 Petition To List 83 Species of Coral as... 82 coral species in response to a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) to list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The purposes of...

  10. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  11. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  12. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  13. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  14. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  15. The Endangered Species Act: The Law of Last Resort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the possibility that the salmon found in the Columbia River (Idaho) is an endangered species. A list of threatened or endangered animal species in the Pacific Northwest is included. Activities that deal with the topics of diversity, endangered species, and what is being done about them are provided. (KR)

  16. A bioeconomic perspective on the Endangered Species Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salau, K. R.; Fenichel, E. P.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat destruction threatens species existence and has recently accelerated due to population growth, urban sprawl, agricultural development and other profitable land conversions on public and private lands. To exacerbate this issue, the public good nature of species existence creates strong incentives for landowners to engage in free-riding behavior and forego conservation on managed lands. To reverse these negative effects, the United States Congress passed the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1973 to create a set of rules for planning government intervention to protect dwindling fish, wildlife, and plant populations and create a platform for recovery and conservation. The ESA is quite explicit about how to make tradeoffs when listing a species as threatened or endangered - only evaluation of biological risks faced are considered. But the act is unclear about what information can or should be used when determining delisting criteria for endangered species. The ESA mandates federal participation in conservation and, in many cases, agencies must curtail socially beneficial activities (e.g. grazing, renewable energy development, mining, military training) in order to meet species recovery objectives. As funding for conservation on federal lands is limited, this creates an implicit tradeoff between recovering species - to gain post-delisting managerial flexibility - and preventing extinction - to minimize management costs. In this respect, reconciliation of biological recovery goals amidst budget constraints and alternate land-use benefits should be supplemented by economic analysis. Economic tradeoffs are inherent in species recovery under the ESA, but the act does not discuss how agencies should structure a recovery plan in light of such factors. This study outlines a bioeconomic approach to framing the recovery problem under the ESA and provides a framework for simultaneously establishing measurable delisting criteria and a least-cost path to recovery. This

  17. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  18. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  19. 18 CFR 380.13 - Compliance with the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Endangered Species Act. 380.13 Section 380.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.13 Compliance with the Endangered Species Act. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Listed species and critical habitat have the same meaning as provided in 50 CFR...

  20. 18 CFR 380.13 - Compliance with the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Endangered Species Act. 380.13 Section 380.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.13 Compliance with the Endangered Species Act. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Listed species and critical habitat have the same meaning as provided in 50 CFR...

  1. 18 CFR 380.13 - Compliance with the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Endangered Species Act. 380.13 Section 380.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.13 Compliance with the Endangered Species Act. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Listed species and critical habitat have the same meaning as provided in 50 CFR...

  2. 18 CFR 380.13 - Compliance with the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Endangered Species Act. 380.13 Section 380.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.13 Compliance with the Endangered Species Act. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Listed species and critical habitat have the same meaning as provided in 50 CFR...

  3. 18 CFR 380.13 - Compliance with the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Endangered Species Act. 380.13 Section 380.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.13 Compliance with the Endangered Species Act. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Listed species and critical habitat have the same meaning as provided in 50 CFR...

  4. Wildlife Legislation before and after the Endangered Species Act of 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Dorothy A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent federal legislation on endangered species, the early history of wildlife legislation, and administration of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Annotated lists of congressional hearings and reports, laws, and comments on the laws are attached, as well as chronological listings of acts and court decisions. (MES)

  5. Adaptive management to protect biodiversity: best available science and the Endangered Species Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although flawed, the most powerful tool for protecting biodiversity in the United States is the Endangered Species Act, which requires the use of the best available science to ensure that endangered and threatened species are not put in jeopardy of extinction. Unfortunately, the ...

  6. Recovery of imperiled species under the Endangered Species Act: The need for a new approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.M.; Goble, D.D.; Wiens, J.A.; Wilcove, D.S.; Bean, M.; Male, T.

    2005-01-01

    The recovery (delisting) of a threatened or endangered species is often accompanied by the expectation that conservation management of the species will no longer be necessary. However, the magnitude and pace of human impacts on the environment make it unlikely that substantial progress will be made in delisting many species unless the definition of "recovery" includes some form of active management. Preventing delisted species from again being at risk of extinction may require continuing, species-specific management actions. We characterize such species as "conservation-reliant", and suggest that viewing "recovery" as a continuum of states rather than as a simple "recovered/not recovered" dichotomy may enhance our ability to manage such species within the framework of the Endangered Species Act. With ongoing loss of habitat, disruption of natural disturbance regimes, and the increasing impacts of non-native invasive species, it is probable that the number of conservation-reliant species will increase. We propose the development of "recovery management agreements", with legally and biologically defensible contracts that would provide for continu-ing conservation management following delisting. The use of such formalized agreements will facilitate shared management responsibilities between federal wildlife agencies and other federal agencies, and with state, local, and tribal governments, as well as with private entities that have demonstrated the capability to meet the needs of conservation-reliant species. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  7. By the numbers: how is recovery defined by the U.S. Endangered Species Act?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neel, Maile C.; Leidner, Allison K.; Haines, Aaron; Goble, Dale D.; Scott, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after passage of the US Endangered Species Act, the prospects for listed species remain dim because they are too severely imperiled by the time they receive the act's protection. Even if threats are abated, the low abundances required for recovery often preclude a high probability of persistence. The lack of sufficient data for setting recovery objectives also remains a barrier. Delisting is considered possible for only 74% of the 1173 species with recovery plans—92% of threatened and 69% of endangered species. The median number of populations required for delisting (8) was at or below the historical numbers for 64% and at or below the numbers at listing for 37% of the species. The median number of individuals required for recovery (2400) exceeded the abundances at listing for 93% of the species, but most were below the levels considered necessary for long-term persistence, especially in changing environments.

  8. Effect of Environment-Based Coursework on the Nature of Attitudes toward the Endangered Species Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Alan D.; Tarrant, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines college students' attitudes and complexity of thinking about the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the effects of environment-based coursework on their attitudes and thinking. Investigates attitudes in terms of their direction, extremity, ambivalence, and importance and measures complexity of thinking as integrative complexity. (Contains…

  9. Protecting the piping plover under section 7 of the endangered species act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidle, John G.; Mayne, Karen; McPhillips, Elizabeth N.

    1991-05-01

    Section 7(a)(2) of the Endangered Species Act directs federal agencies to ensure that their actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of endangered and threatened species. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) issues jeopardy or nonjeopardy biological opinions on proposed federal actions that affect endangered and threatened species. We summarize several biological opinions issued by the USFWS to protect the threatened piping plover ( Charadrius melodus). These opinions address federal actions involving hundreds of piping plovers on the Missouri River system and a few piping plover pairs on short stretches of Atlantic coast beach. Some of these opinions are decisive, but most allow the proposed action to proceed conditional upon a lengthy set of reasonable and prudent alternatives to protect the piping plover. These conditions may prove difficult to track and will add to the workload of the USFWS.

  10. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act are major federal statutes designed to protect plant and animal resources from adverse effects due to development projects. Both Acts require consultation with wildlife authorities prior to committing resources to certain types of projects. The purposes and requirements of the two statutes are summarized in the following subsections. Also presented is a list of contacts in the regional and field offices of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. 76 FR 2348 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA140 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... Fort Fisher. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The North Carolina Aquarium at...

  12. 76 FR 1405 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA128 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent...

  13. Incorporating climate science in applications of the US endangered species act for aquatic species.

    PubMed

    McClure, Michelle M; Alexander, Michael; Borggaard, Diane; Boughton, David; Crozier, Lisa; Griffis, Roger; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Lindley, Steven T; Nye, Janet; Rowland, Melanie J; Seney, Erin E; Snover, Amy; Toole, Christopher; VAN Houtan, Kyle

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic species are threatened by climate change but have received comparatively less attention than terrestrial species. We gleaned key strategies for scientists and managers seeking to address climate change in aquatic conservation planning from the literature and existing knowledge. We address 3 categories of conservation effort that rely on scientific analysis and have particular application under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA): assessment of overall risk to a species; long-term recovery planning; and evaluation of effects of specific actions or perturbations. Fewer data are available for aquatic species to support these analyses, and climate effects on aquatic systems are poorly characterized. Thus, we recommend scientists conducting analyses supporting ESA decisions develop a conceptual model that links climate, habitat, ecosystem, and species response to changing conditions and use this model to organize analyses and future research. We recommend that current climate conditions are not appropriate for projections used in ESA analyses and that long-term projections of climate-change effects provide temporal context as a species-wide assessment provides spatial context. In these projections, climate change should not be discounted solely because the magnitude of projected change at a particular time is uncertain when directionality of climate change is clear. Identifying likely future habitat at the species scale will indicate key refuges and potential range shifts. However, the risks and benefits associated with errors in modeling future habitat are not equivalent. The ESA offers mechanisms for increasing the overall resilience and resistance of species to climate changes, including establishing recovery goals requiring increased genetic and phenotypic diversity, specifying critical habitat in areas not currently occupied but likely to become important, and using adaptive management. Incorporación de las Ciencias Climáticas en las Aplicaciones del

  14. Incorporating climate science in applications of the US endangered species act for aquatic species.

    PubMed

    McClure, Michelle M; Alexander, Michael; Borggaard, Diane; Boughton, David; Crozier, Lisa; Griffis, Roger; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Lindley, Steven T; Nye, Janet; Rowland, Melanie J; Seney, Erin E; Snover, Amy; Toole, Christopher; VAN Houtan, Kyle

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic species are threatened by climate change but have received comparatively less attention than terrestrial species. We gleaned key strategies for scientists and managers seeking to address climate change in aquatic conservation planning from the literature and existing knowledge. We address 3 categories of conservation effort that rely on scientific analysis and have particular application under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA): assessment of overall risk to a species; long-term recovery planning; and evaluation of effects of specific actions or perturbations. Fewer data are available for aquatic species to support these analyses, and climate effects on aquatic systems are poorly characterized. Thus, we recommend scientists conducting analyses supporting ESA decisions develop a conceptual model that links climate, habitat, ecosystem, and species response to changing conditions and use this model to organize analyses and future research. We recommend that current climate conditions are not appropriate for projections used in ESA analyses and that long-term projections of climate-change effects provide temporal context as a species-wide assessment provides spatial context. In these projections, climate change should not be discounted solely because the magnitude of projected change at a particular time is uncertain when directionality of climate change is clear. Identifying likely future habitat at the species scale will indicate key refuges and potential range shifts. However, the risks and benefits associated with errors in modeling future habitat are not equivalent. The ESA offers mechanisms for increasing the overall resilience and resistance of species to climate changes, including establishing recovery goals requiring increased genetic and phenotypic diversity, specifying critical habitat in areas not currently occupied but likely to become important, and using adaptive management. Incorporación de las Ciencias Climáticas en las Aplicaciones del

  15. Geography and recovery under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Carlos; Vucetich, John A; Nelson, Michael P; Rohlf, Daniel J; Phillips, Michael K

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) defines an endangered species as one "at risk of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range." The prevailing interpretation of this phrase, which focuses exclusively on the overall viability of listed species without regard to their geographic distribution, has led to development of listing and recovery criteria with fundamental conceptual, legal, and practical shortcomings. The ESA's concept of endangerment is broader than the biological concept of extinction risk in that the "esthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational, and scientific" values provided by species are not necessarily furthered by a species mere existence, but rather by a species presence across much of its former range. The concept of "significant portion of range" thus implies an additional geographic component to recovery that may enhance viability, but also offers independent benefits that Congress intended the act to achieve. Although the ESA differs from other major endangered-species protection laws because it acknowledges the distinct contribution of geography to recovery, it resembles the "representation, resiliency, and redundancy" conservation-planning framework commonly referenced in recovery plans. To address representation, listing and recovery standards should consider not only what proportion of its former range a species inhabits, but the types of habitats a species occupies and the ecological role it plays there. Recovery planning for formerly widely distributed species (e.g., the gray wolf [Canis lupus]) exemplifies how the geographic component implicit in the ESA's definition of endangerment should be considered in determining recovery goals through identification of ecologically significant types or niche variation within the extent of listed species, subspecies, or "distinct population segments." By linking listing and recovery standards to niche and ecosystem concepts, the concept of ecologically

  16. 76 FR 14424 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  17. 78 FR 37840 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  18. 77 FR 37700 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with ] endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows...

  19. 76 FR 39888 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  20. 78 FR 27249 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  1. 77 FR 71818 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  2. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA087 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened...

  3. Snail darters and sacred places: creative application of the endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Robert Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Rather than exploring how indigenous people have been alienated from resources by environmental policies, this paper explores how indigenous peoples have worked with environmental organizations to use the broad protections provided by environmental laws to protect cultural resources. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, along with other concerned groups, partnered with environmentalists in opposing the destruction of the endangered snail darter's critical habitat by the Tennessee Valley Authority's Tellico Dam. The dam had been opposed by a shifting alliance of Cherokees, local farmers, trout fisherman, and environmentalists since it was announced in 1963. A previous lawsuit by this coalition delayed the project from 1972 to 1974 under the National Environmental Policy Act. The Endangered Species Act provided this coalition with a powerful tool for opposing the destruction of burial grounds and sacred village sites throughout the lower Little Tennessee River valley. The coalition of environmental organizations, Cherokees, and others was ultimately unsuccessful in stopping the dam from being built, but was successful in establishing a strict precedent for the enforcement of the Endangered Species Act. The lawsuit also created a space for the Eastern Band to negotiate for the return of Cherokee remains and halt the removal of any additional burials. In this situation, the strategic support of environmental regulation enabled the Eastern Band to exert some degree of control over the fate of cultural resources in the valley, and also demonstrates the significant role American Indian peoples played in one of the seminal events of the environmental movement during the 1970s. PMID:23161253

  4. Snail darters and sacred places: creative application of the endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Robert Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Rather than exploring how indigenous people have been alienated from resources by environmental policies, this paper explores how indigenous peoples have worked with environmental organizations to use the broad protections provided by environmental laws to protect cultural resources. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, along with other concerned groups, partnered with environmentalists in opposing the destruction of the endangered snail darter's critical habitat by the Tennessee Valley Authority's Tellico Dam. The dam had been opposed by a shifting alliance of Cherokees, local farmers, trout fisherman, and environmentalists since it was announced in 1963. A previous lawsuit by this coalition delayed the project from 1972 to 1974 under the National Environmental Policy Act. The Endangered Species Act provided this coalition with a powerful tool for opposing the destruction of burial grounds and sacred village sites throughout the lower Little Tennessee River valley. The coalition of environmental organizations, Cherokees, and others was ultimately unsuccessful in stopping the dam from being built, but was successful in establishing a strict precedent for the enforcement of the Endangered Species Act. The lawsuit also created a space for the Eastern Band to negotiate for the return of Cherokee remains and halt the removal of any additional burials. In this situation, the strategic support of environmental regulation enabled the Eastern Band to exert some degree of control over the fate of cultural resources in the valley, and also demonstrates the significant role American Indian peoples played in one of the seminal events of the environmental movement during the 1970s.

  5. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Malcom, Jacob W; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-12-29

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act's prohibitions on "jeopardizing" listed species or "destroying or adversely modifying" these species' critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations.

  6. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Malcom, Jacob W; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-12-29

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act's prohibitions on "jeopardizing" listed species or "destroying or adversely modifying" these species' critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations. PMID:26668392

  7. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act

    PubMed Central

    Malcom, Jacob W.; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act’s prohibitions on “jeopardizing” listed species or “destroying or adversely modifying” these species’ critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations. PMID:26668392

  8. 78 FR 48943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... ``distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife'' (61 FR 4722). The joint DPS... ``distinct population segment'' for the purpose of listing, delisting, and reclassifying species (61 FR 4721... FR 4721): (1) It must be discrete in relation to the remainder of the species to which it...

  9. Snail Darters and Sacred Places: Creative Application of the Endangered Species Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmer, Robert Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Rather than exploring how indigenous people have been alienated from resources by environmental policies, this paper explores how indigenous peoples have worked with environmental organizations to use the broad protections provided by environmental laws to protect cultural resources. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, along with other concerned groups, partnered with environmentalists in opposing the destruction of the endangered snail darter’s critical habitat by the Tennessee Valley Authority’s Tellico Dam. The dam had been opposed by a shifting alliance of Cherokees, local farmers, trout fisherman, and environmentalists since it was announced in 1963. A previous lawsuit by this coalition delayed the project from 1972 to 1974 under the National Environmental Policy Act. The Endangered Species Act provided this coalition with a powerful tool for opposing the destruction of burial grounds and sacred village sites throughout the lower Little Tennessee River valley. The coalition of environmental organizations, Cherokees, and others was ultimately unsuccessful in stopping the dam from being built, but was successful in establishing a strict precedent for the enforcement of the Endangered Species Act. The lawsuit also created a space for the Eastern Band to negotiate for the return of Cherokee remains and halt the removal of any additional burials. In this situation, the strategic support of environmental regulation enabled the Eastern Band to exert some degree of control over the fate of cultural resources in the valley, and also demonstrates the significant role American Indian peoples played in one of the seminal events of the environmental movement during the 1970s.

  10. 76 FR 74778 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA850 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C..., notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 33703) that a request for a scientific...

  11. Integrating climate change into habitat conservation plans under the U.S. endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Bernazzani, Paola; Bradley, Bethany A; Opperman, Jeffrey J

    2012-06-01

    Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) are an important mechanism for the acquisition of land and the management of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. HCPs have become a vital means of protecting endangered and threatened species and their habitats throughout the United States, particularly on private land. The scientific consensus that climate is changing and that these changes will impact the viability of species has not been incorporated into the conservation strategies of recent HCPs, rendering plans vulnerable biologically. In this paper we review the regulatory context for incorporating climate change into HCPs and analyze the extent to which climate change is linked to management actions in a subset of large HCPs. We conclude that most current plans do not incorporate climate change into conservation actions, and so we provide recommendations for integrating climate change into the process of HCP development and implementation. These recommendations are distilled from the published literature as well as the practice of conservation planning and are structured to the specific needs of HCP development and implementation. We offer nine recommendations for integrating climate change into the HCP process: (1) identify species at-risk from climate change, (2) explore new strategies for reserve design, (3) increase emphasis on corridors, linkages, and connectivity, (4) develop anticipatory adaptation measures, (5) manage for diversity, (6) consider assisted migration, (7) include climate change in scenarios of water management, (8) develop future-oriented management actions, and (9) increase linkages between the conservation strategy and adaptive management/monitoring programs.

  12. Available data support protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theimer, Tad C.; Smith, Aaron D.; Mahoney, Sean M.; Ironside, Kirsten E.

    2016-01-01

    Zink (2015) argued there was no evidence for genetic, morphological, or ecological differentiation between the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and other Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Using the same data, we show there is a step-cline in both the frequency of a mtDNA haplotype and in plumage variation roughly concordant with the currently recognized boundary between E. t. extimus and E. t adastus, the subspecies with which it shares the longest common boundary. The geographical pattern of plumage variation is also concordant with previous song analyses differentiating those 2 subspecies and identified birds in one low-latitude, high-elevation site in Arizona as the northern subspecies. We also demonstrate that the ecological niche modeling approach used by Zink yields the same result whether applied to the 2 flycatcher subspecies or to 2 unrelated species, E. t. extimus and Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia). As a result, any interpretation of those results as evidence for lack of ecological niche differentiation among Willow Flycatcher subspecies would also indicate no differentiation among recognized species and would therefore be an inappropriate standard for delineating subspecies. We agree that many analytical techniques now available to examine genetic, morphological, and ecological differentiation would improve our understanding of the distinctness (or lack thereof) of Willow Flycatcher subspecies, but we argue that currently available evidence supports protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act.

  13. Impacts of phylogenetic nomenclature on the efficacy of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Matthew S

    2015-02-01

    Cataloging biodiversity is critical to conservation efforts because accurate taxonomy is often a precondition for protection under laws designed for species conservation, such as the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Traditional nomenclatural codes governing the taxonomic process have recently come under scrutiny because taxon names are more closely linked to hierarchical ranks than to the taxa themselves. A new approach to naming biological groups, called phylogenetic nomenclature (PN), explicitly names taxa by defining their names in terms of ancestry and descent. PN has the potential to increase nomenclatural stability and decrease confusion induced by the rank-based codes. But proponents of PN have struggled with whether species and infraspecific taxa should be governed by the same rules as other taxa or should have special rules. Some proponents advocate the wholesale abandonment of rank labels (including species); this could have consequences for the implementation of taxon-based conservation legislation. I examined the principles of PN as embodied in the PhyloCode (an alternative to traditional rank-based nomenclature that names biological groups based on the results of phylogenetic analyses and does not associate taxa with ranks) and assessed how this novel approach to naming taxa might affect the implementation of species-based legislation by providing a case study of the ESA. The latest version of the PhyloCode relies on the traditional rank-based codes to name species and infraspecific taxa; thus, little will change regarding the main targets of the ESA because they will retain rank labels. For this reason, and because knowledge of evolutionary relationships is of greater importance than nomenclatural procedures for initial protection of endangered taxa under the ESA, I conclude that PN under the PhyloCode will have little impact on implementation of the ESA.

  14. Guidance on the Use of Best Available Science under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Dennis D.; Weiland, Paul S.

    2016-07-01

    The Endangered Species Act's best available science mandate has been widely emulated and reflects a Congressional directive to ensure that decisions made under the Act are informed by reliable knowledge applied using a structured approach. We build on a standing literature by describing the role of the best science directive in the Act's implementation and best practices that can be employed to realize the directive. Next we describe recurring impediments to realizing determinations by the federal wildlife agencies that are based on the best available science. We then identify the types of data, analyses, and modeling efforts that can serve as best science. Finally, we consider the role and application of best available science in effects analysis and adaptive management. We contend that more rigorous adherence by the wildlife agencies to the best available science directive and more assiduous judicial oversight of agency determinations and actions is essential for effective implementation of the Act, particularly where it has substantial ramifications for listed species, stakeholder segments of society, or both.

  15. Guidance on the Use of Best Available Science under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dennis D; Weiland, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    The Endangered Species Act's best available science mandate has been widely emulated and reflects a Congressional directive to ensure that decisions made under the Act are informed by reliable knowledge applied using a structured approach. We build on a standing literature by describing the role of the best science directive in the Act's implementation and best practices that can be employed to realize the directive. Next we describe recurring impediments to realizing determinations by the federal wildlife agencies that are based on the best available science. We then identify the types of data, analyses, and modeling efforts that can serve as best science. Finally, we consider the role and application of best available science in effects analysis and adaptive management. We contend that more rigorous adherence by the wildlife agencies to the best available science directive and more assiduous judicial oversight of agency determinations and actions is essential for effective implementation of the Act, particularly where it has substantial ramifications for listed species, stakeholder segments of society, or both.

  16. Taxonomic considerations in listing subspecies under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Haig, S.M.; Chambers, Steven M.; Draheim, Hope M.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Dunham, Susie; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Fontaine, Joseph B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Knaus, Brian J.; Lopes, Iara F.; Loschl, Peter J.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Sheffield, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) allows listing of subspecies and other groupings below the rank of species. This provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service with a means to target the most critical unit in need of conservation. Although roughly one-quarter of listed taxa are subspecies, these management agencies are hindered by uncertainties about taxonomic standards during listing or delisting activities. In a review of taxonomic publications and societies, we found few subspecies lists and none that stated standardized criteria for determining subspecific taxa. Lack of criteria is attributed to a centuries-old debate over species and subspecies concepts. Nevertheless, the critical need to resolve this debate for ESA listings led us to propose that minimal biological criteria to define disjunct subspecies (legally or taxonomically) should include the discreteness and significance criteria of distinct population segments (as defined under the ESA). Our subspecies criteria are in stark contrast to that proposed by supporters of the phylogenetic species concept and provide a clear distinction between species and subspecies. Efforts to eliminate or reduce ambiguity associated with subspecies-level classifications will assist with ESA listing decisions. Thus, we urge professional taxonomic societies to publish and periodically update peer-reviewed species and subspecies lists. This effort must be paralleled throughout the world for efficient taxonomic conservation to take place.

  17. Endangered Species Act Amendments of 1987. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, December 7, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1976 was passed in response to a concern that various species of fish, wildlife, and plants had become or were in danger of becoming extinct from pressures of trade or economic growth and development. The Act is administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for species under their respective jurisdictions and by the Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to regulate the import and export of endangered plants. APHIS has inadequate resources to prevent the sizeable and sophisticated illegal international trade in protected plants. The Committee recognizes the need to authorize the Fish and Wildlife Service to share the responsibility now vested in APHIS for prosecuting violations of plant importation and exportation provisions of the Act. The purpose of this legislation is to authorize appropriations to carry out the Act for Fiscal Years 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992, and to amend the Act.

  18. 76 FR 20705 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY: Fish and... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA.... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, the...

  19. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning.

  20. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning. PMID:26108948

  1. Actual and potential use of population viability analyses in recovery of plant species listed under the US endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Sara L; Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2013-12-01

    Use of population viability analyses (PVAs) in endangered species recovery planning has been met with both support and criticism. Previous reviews promote use of PVA for setting scientifically based, measurable, and objective recovery criteria and recommend improvements to increase the framework's utility. However, others have questioned the value of PVA models for setting recovery criteria and assert that PVAs are more appropriate for understanding relative trade-offs between alternative management actions. We reviewed 258 final recovery plans for 642 plants listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to determine the number of plans that used or recommended PVA in recovery planning. We also reviewed 223 publications that describe plant PVAs to assess how these models were designed and whether those designs reflected previous recommendations for improvement of PVAs. Twenty-four percent of listed species had recovery plans that used or recommended PVA. In publications, the typical model was a matrix population model parameterized with ≤5 years of demographic data that did not consider stochasticity, genetics, density dependence, seed banks, vegetative reproduction, dormancy, threats, or management strategies. Population growth rates for different populations of the same species or for the same population at different points in time were often statistically different or varied by >10%. Therefore, PVAs parameterized with underlying vital rates that vary to this degree may not accurately predict recovery objectives across a species' entire distribution or over longer time scales. We assert that PVA, although an important tool as part of an adaptive-management program, can help to determine quantitative recovery criteria only if more long-term data sets that capture spatiotemporal variability in vital rates become available. Lacking this, there is a strong need for viable and comprehensive methods for determining quantitative, science-based recovery criteria for

  2. 77 FR 22749 - Petition To List 83 Species of Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... petitioned species (75 FR 6616). The 90-day finding was followed by a public comment period, during which we..., along with the information received on the 90-day finding (75 FR 6616; February 10, 2010), when we make... workshops on this topic. The Status Review Report examines the biology of, threats to, and extinction...

  3. Endangered Species Employment Transition Assistance Act of 1992. Hearing To Amend the Job Training Partnership Act To Establish an Endangered Species Employment Transition Assistance Program, and for Other Purposes, before the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional hearing focuses on the Endangered Species Employment Transition Assistance Act of 1992, which would amend the Job Training Partnership Act to provide job training and supportive services to workers dislocated as a result of enforcement of the Endangered Species Act. Testimony includes statements, articles, publications,…

  4. 77 FR 38652 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY: Fish and... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), along with Executive Order...

  5. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  6. Biological review of 82 species of coral petitioned to be included in the Endangered Species Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brainard, Russell E.; Birkeland, Charles; Eakin, C. Mark; McElhany, Paul; Miller, Margaret W.; Patterson, Matt; Piniak, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The BRT considered two major factors in conducting this review. The first factor was the interaction of natural phenomena and anthropogenic stressors that could potentially contribute to coral extinction. After extensive review of available scientific information, the BRT considers ocean warming, disease, and ocean acidification to be the most influential threats in posing extinction risks to the 82 candidate coral species between now and the year 2100. Threats of local origin but having widespread impact, such as sedimentation, nutrient enrichment, and fishing, were considered of medium importance in determining extinction risks. It is acknowledged that many other threats (e.g., physical damage from storms or ship groundings, invasive species or predator outbreaks, collection and trade) also negatively affect corals, often acutely and dramatically, but generally at relatively small local scales. These local threats were considered to be of limited scope and not deemed to contribute appreciably to the risk of species extinction, except in those special cases where species have restricted geographic or habitat ranges or species have already undergone precipitous population declines such that these local threats further contribute to depensatory processes that can magnify extinction risks (e.g., feedback-loops whereby individual survival decreases with smaller population size). The BRT acknowledges that local and global threats operate on different time scales and, though there is high confidence in the general progression of some key global threats, such as ocean warming and ocean acidification, there is much less certainty in the timing and spatial patterns of these threats. There is also substantial uncertainty in the abilities of the 82 candidate coral species to tolerate or adapt to each of the threats examined, as well as uncertainty in the dynamics of multiple simultaneous stresses. The BRT specifically identified increasing human population levels and the

  7. 18 CFR Appendix I to Subpart F of... - Procedures for Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) I Appendix I to Subpart F of... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) The following procedures apply to... this appendix, “listed species” and “critical habitat” shall have the same meanings as set forth in...

  8. 18 CFR Appendix I to Subpart F of... - Procedures for Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) I Appendix I to Subpart F of... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) The following procedures apply to... this appendix, “listed species” and “critical habitat” shall have the same meanings as set forth in...

  9. 18 CFR Appendix I to Subpart F of... - Procedures for Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) I Appendix I to Subpart F of... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) The following procedures apply to... this appendix, “listed species” and “critical habitat” shall have the same meanings as set forth in...

  10. 18 CFR Appendix I to Subpart F of... - Procedures for Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) I Appendix I to Subpart F of... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) The following procedures apply to... this appendix, “listed species” and “critical habitat” shall have the same meanings as set forth in...

  11. 18 CFR Appendix I to Subpart F of... - Procedures for Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) I Appendix I to Subpart F of... Compliance With the Endangered Species Act of 1973 Under § 157.206(b)(3)(i) The following procedures apply to... this appendix, “listed species” and “critical habitat” shall have the same meanings as set forth in...

  12. Fisheries management under the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and the Endangered Species Act. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, K.A.G.

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine what steps might be taken to ensure that fishery management plans (FMPs) developed under the Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA) are ecologically sound and fully consistent with the FCMA and with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The relevant provisions of the three Acts were examined and four FMPs were reviewed in detail. Persons involved in developing, reviewing and implementing FMPs were interviewed. It appears that FMPs are based primarily on single species rather than ecosystem oriented management concepts, so are not fully consistent with the FCMA, and that FMPs do not effectively incorporate potential impacts on non-target species into determining optimum fishery yields, so are not fully consistent with the FCMA or the ESA. In many cases data are sufficient for developing ecosystem oriented management plans. This report recommends that experts on marine mammals, birds, etc. become involved in FMP drafting, that guidelines for FMP preparation be amended to emphasize impacts on nontarget ecosystem components.

  13. 32 CFR 643.32 - Policy-Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Endangered species. 643.32 Section 643.32... ESTATE Policy § 643.32 Policy—Endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), declares the intention of Congress to conserve threatened and endangered species of...

  14. 32 CFR 643.32 - Policy-Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Endangered species. 643.32 Section 643.32... ESTATE Policy § 643.32 Policy—Endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), declares the intention of Congress to conserve threatened and endangered species of...

  15. 32 CFR 643.32 - Policy-Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-Endangered species. 643.32 Section 643.32... ESTATE Policy § 643.32 Policy—Endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), declares the intention of Congress to conserve threatened and endangered species of...

  16. 32 CFR 643.32 - Policy-Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-Endangered species. 643.32 Section 643.32... ESTATE Policy § 643.32 Policy—Endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), declares the intention of Congress to conserve threatened and endangered species of...

  17. 32 CFR 643.32 - Policy-Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-Endangered species. 643.32 Section 643.32... ESTATE Policy § 643.32 Policy—Endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), declares the intention of Congress to conserve threatened and endangered species of...

  18. 75 FR 1810 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and... Service is amending their existing permit, to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The Act requires that we invite public comment on...

  19. Agency interaction at the Savannah River Plant under the Endangered Species Act

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The 300 square mile Savannah River Plant (SRP) offers a variety of protected habitats for endangered species including the alligator (resident), red-cockaded woodpecker (resident), short-nose sturgeon (migratory), and wood stock (fish-forager). The most recent of these four species to be listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (US FWS) is the wood stock. It had been observed prior to 1983 as an infrequent forager in the SRP Savannah River swamp which adjoins SRP on the south and southwest. In anticipation of its listing as an endangered species, DOE-SR requested in the spring of 1983 that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, conduct field surveys and studies of the nearest colony of wood storks to SRP (the Birdsville colony in north-central Georgia). The objective of these studies was to determine potential effects of the flooding of the Steel Creek swamp area with cooling water from L-Reactor. L-Reactor, which is proposed for restart, has not been operated since 1968. The survey found that wood storks forage in the Steel Creek delta swamp area of the Savannah River at SRP. Based on the numbers of storks at various foraging locations, sites at SRP ranked higher than non-SRP sites during the pre-fledging phase of the colony. Cold flow testing of L-Reactor also demonstrated that foraging sites in the Steel Creek delta would be unavailable during L-Reactor operation because of increased water levels. Consultation meetings between DOE-SR and US FWS in April 1984, resulted in an agreement between the two agencies to develop alternative foraging habitat for the wood stork to replace potential losses in the Steel Creek delta area. A suitable habitat was located on the National Audubon Society's Silver Bluff Plantation Sanctuary just west of SRP. This location will be developed by the US Soil Conservation Service through an interagency agreement with DOE-SR. 6 references, 4 figures.

  20. 78 FR 27187 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Green Sturgeon Endangered Species Act Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... scientific research, scientific monitoring, and fisheries activities conducted under an approved 4(d) program... Species Act (ESA) were promulgated for the species on June 2, 2010 (75 FR 30714) (the final ESA 4(d) Rule... Respondents: 67. Estimated Time per Response: Written notification describing research, monitoring or...

  1. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

  2. The Economics of Saving Endangered Species: A Teaching Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Shaw, Jane S.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that well-intentioned government policies, such as the Endangered Species Act, can actually cause harm to endangered species by creating disincentives to preserving the habitat for endangered species. Maintains that the use of incentives can lead to voluntary species protection. Includes instructions for an in-class teaching activity. (MJP)

  3. 76 FR 18725 - Endangered Species; File No. 16174

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA348 Endangered Species; File No. 16174 AGENCY... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Dr. Salmon proposes to characterize juvenile green...

  4. 78 FR 13642 - Endangered Species; File No. 17506

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC518 Endangered Species; File No. 17506 AGENCY... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant requests a 5-year...

  5. 76 FR 66042 - Endangered Species; File No. 1551

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA785 Endangered Species; File No. 1551 AGENCY... of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226)....

  6. 75 FR 21601 - Endangered Species; File No. 14604

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV94 Endangered Species; File No. 14604 AGENCY... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226)....

  7. 76 FR 76950 - Endangered Species; File No. 16134

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA848 Endangered Species; File No. 16134 AGENCY.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant requests a...

  8. 77 FR 55194 - Endangered Species; File No. 17095

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB155 Endangered Species; File No. 17095 AGENCY... issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in section...

  9. 77 FR 57559 - Endangered Species; File No. 13330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB144 Endangered Species; File No. 13330 AGENCY... modification has been granted under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U... the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes...

  10. 78 FR 29114 - Endangered Species; File No. 17304

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC667 Endangered Species; File No. 17304 AGENCY... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant requests a...

  11. 75 FR 26715 - Endangered Species; File No. 1596

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW36 Endangered Species; File No. 1596 AGENCY... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit...

  12. 77 FR 31586 - Endangered Species; File No. 16556

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC037 Endangered Species; File No. 16556 AGENCY.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The NEFSC requests a five-year...

  13. 78 FR 27255 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management...

  14. 77 FR 72326 - Endangered Species; File No. 17381

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC372 Endangered Species; File No. 17381 AGENCY... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). The applicant requests a 5-year permit...

  15. 78 FR 38952 - Endangered Species; File No. 17506

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC518 Endangered Species; File No. 17506 AGENCY... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226)....

  16. 78 FR 17355 - Endangered Species; File No. 17787

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC576 Endangered Species; File No. 17787 AGENCY... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant proposes to gather...

  17. 76 FR 77780 - Endangered Species; File No. 10022

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA867 Endangered Species; File No. 10022 AGENCY... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226)....

  18. 75 FR 22106 - Endangered Species; File No. 14510

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW06 Endangered Species; File No. 14510 AGENCY... been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531... disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent with the purposes and policies...

  19. 78 FR 57132 - Endangered Species; File No. 16230

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC289 Endangered Species; File No. 16230 AGENCY... incidental take of sea turtles listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) associated with commercial and..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). This permit...

  20. The Politics of Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Fran

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information and teaching suggestions about endangered species for social studies teachers. Discusses political processes, economics, current events, and ethics. Lists resource information. (DC)

  1. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community about the…

  2. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Organ, John

    2016-01-01

    Review info:  Inside the equal access to justice act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats. By Lowell E. Baier, 2016. ISBN: 978-1442257443, 678 pp.

  3. 76 FR 77781 - Endangered Species; File No. 15802

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA603 Endangered Species; File No. 15802 AGENCY... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened...

  4. 78 FR 26323 - Endangered Species; File No. 17183

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC078 Endangered Species; File No. 17183 AGENCY... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened...

  5. 77 FR 61745 - Endangered Species; File No. 16803

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC058 Endangered Species; File No. 16803 AGENCY... issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... for in good faith, (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened...

  6. 78 FR 3882 - Endangered Species; File No. 13543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XJ40 Endangered Species; File No. 13543 AGENCY... requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened...

  7. ENDANGERED SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service share a common responsibility for the protection of our nation's aquatic species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The EPA, under the Federal Insectici...

  8. Written Research: An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bonnie Campbell

    1989-01-01

    Describes how an integrated unit on endangered species brings research alive for second through sixth graders. Presents lessons involving pre-writing, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, revision, and publication of student papers. (KEH)

  9. Deriving protection thresholds for threatened and endangered species potentially exposed to pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Endangered Species Act requires specific and stringent protection to threatened and endangered species and their critical habitat. Therefore, protective methods for risk assessment for such species are needed. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are a common tool used fo...

  10. Testing decision rules for categorizing species' extinction risk to help develop quantitative listing criteria for the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Regan, Tracey J; Taylor, Barbara L; Thompson, Grant G; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Ralls, Katherine; Runge, Michael C; Merrick, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Lack of guidance for interpreting the definitions of endangered and threatened in the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) has resulted in case-by-case decision making leaving the process vulnerable to being considered arbitrary or capricious. Adopting quantitative decision rules would remedy this but requires the agency to specify the relative urgency concerning extinction events over time, cutoff risk values corresponding to different levels of protection, and the importance given to different types of listing errors. We tested the performance of 3 sets of decision rules that use alternative functions for weighting the relative urgency of future extinction events: a threshold rule set, which uses a decision rule of x% probability of extinction over y years; a concave rule set, where the relative importance of future extinction events declines exponentially over time; and a shoulder rule set that uses a sigmoid shape function, where relative importance declines slowly at first and then more rapidly. We obtained decision cutoffs by interviewing several biologists and then emulated the listing process with simulations that covered a range of extinction risks typical of ESA listing decisions. We evaluated performance of the decision rules under different data quantities and qualities on the basis of the relative importance of misclassification errors. Although there was little difference between the performance of alternative decision rules for correct listings, the distribution of misclassifications differed depending on the function used. Misclassifications for the threshold and concave listing criteria resulted in more overprotection errors, particularly as uncertainty increased, whereas errors for the shoulder listing criteria were more symmetrical. We developed and tested the framework for quantitative decision rules for listing species under the U.S. ESA. If policy values can be agreed on, use of this framework would improve the implementation of the ESA by

  11. 76 FR 60862 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) prohibits activities with listed species unless a Federal permit is issued that allows such activities. The... brain of one stranded dead wild leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) from the Canadian...

  12. 75 FR 13256 - Endangered Species; File No. 14176

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV28 Endangered Species; File No. 14176 AGENCY... permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov/ , and...

  13. 76 FR 27306 - Endangered Species; File No. 15661

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA425 Endangered Species; File No. 15661 AGENCY... requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File...

  14. 78 FR 39258 - Endangered Species; File No. 18069

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC725 Endangered Species; File No. 18069 AGENCY... permit is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page,...

  15. 76 FR 33703 - Endangered Species; Permit No. 16439

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA484 Endangered Species; Permit No. 16439 AGENCY... permit is requested under the ] authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S...'' from the Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page,...

  16. Teaching an Endangered Species Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Joan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a student speech activity can serve as a culminating exercise in a unit on endangered species. Offers suggestions and guidelines for researching, formatting, and delivering the speech. A table is also included explaining the causes and prevention of species endangerment. (ML)

  17. Endangered Species Program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Construction and development activities, which are conducted by DOE at Naval Petroleum Reserve {number sign}1 (NPR-1) to comply with the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), potentially threaten the continued existence of four federally-listed endangered species: the San Joaquin kit fox, (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), and Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides). All four are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1990 (FY90).

  18. Dealing with Endangered Species Issues on Private Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Jack

    1995-01-01

    A Travis County (Texas) survey of 1,270 landowners received 480 responses. Most respondents expected a large decline in agricultural land use and an increase in use for endangered species and wildlife habitats. Most were interested in educational programs but were unaware of provisions of the Endangered Species Act. (SK)

  19. 76 FR 32144 - Endangered Species; File No. 15677

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA467 Endangered Species; File No. 15677 AGENCY... permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S... 30, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 74003) that a scientific...

  20. 75 FR 61133 - Endangered Species; File No. 14176

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ31 Endangered Species; File No. 14176 AGENCY... issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... Register (75 FR 13256) that a request for a scientific research permit to take shortnose sturgeon had...

  1. 75 FR 7443 - Endangered Species; File No. 14381

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU26 Endangered Species; File No. 14381 AGENCY... issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...: On May 22, 2009, notice was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 23995) that a request for...

  2. Micropropagation of endangered plant species.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the multiple-shoot-based methods of micropropagation for endangered plant species. Taxus and aloe are used here as examples. For Taxus, the process of micropropagation includes initiating multiple shoots, elongating shoots, rooting shoots, and transplanting plantlets. For aloe, the process of micropropagation includes initiating multiple shoots, rooting shoots, and transplanting plantlets.

  3. Endangered Species: An Educator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jean, M., Comp.

    Presented are two articles, an annotated bibliography, and other information useful in teaching about endangered species, especially those found in Florida. The articles provide an ethical rationale, teaching suggestions, and a discussion of the value of wildlife. Descriptions of over 100 pertinent books, periodicals, movies, and filmstrips are in…

  4. Endangered Species and Human Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenstein, Lewis

    1984-01-01

    In wiping out the natural heritage over which we were given dominion and stewardship responsibilities, we are sowing the seeds of our own destruction. With the advent of the Reagan administration, the government's endangered species program has all but ceased to function. (RM)

  5. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...

  6. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...

  7. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...

  8. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...

  9. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for...

  10. 75 FR 11862 - Endangered Species; File No. 14759

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and the regulations... (Albemarle Sound) using non-lethal sampling methods combining hydroacoustic surveys (side-scan, DIDSON)...

  11. 77 FR 21750 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16549 and 17095

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and... regions and depth strata. Researchers would non-lethally capture, handle, measure, weigh, scan for...

  12. Endangered Species. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mark; And Others

    This unit is intended to examine the causes of the endangerment of Florida's plant and animal species with a detailed look at varied ecological systems. Individual lessons are designed to be used either by individual students progressing at their own rate or by small groups. Units may be modified for use by large groups. (Author/RE)

  13. Endangered Species. Issue Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans and student data sheets, and a poster. The overview presents the history, causes, and present state of species endangerment and a review of legislation by Congress designed to protect threatened or…

  14. Use of Artificial Propagation and Supplementation for Rebuilding Salmon Stocks Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 5 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Lichatowich, Jim; Watson, Bruce

    1993-06-01

    Conventional hatcheries, supplementation, and habitat protection are management activities located on a production continuum. At one end of the continuum is the conventional hatchery which attempts to separate artificially propagated fish from naturally reproducing populations. On the other end of the continuum is natural production. Supplementation which attempts to increase natural production through the use of artificial propagation lies somewhere between natural production and conventional hatcheries on the continuum. The use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species is controversial. Guidance on the use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species comes from three sources: The Endangered Species Act (ESA), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) policies and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) guidelines.

  15. Endangered Species Program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides) and Hoover's Wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declares that it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for the continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1991 (FY91).

  16. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC): the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides), and Hoover's wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declaresthat it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered SpeciesAct. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1992 (FY92).

  17. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPR-C) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Construction and development activities, which are conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR- 1), potentially threaten the continued existence of four federally-listed endangered species: the San Joaquin kit fox, ({ital Vulpes macrotis mutica}), blunt-nosed leopard lizard ({ital Gambelia silus}), giant kangaroo rat ({ital Dipodomys ingens}), and Tipton kangaroo rat ({ital Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides}). All four are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any detrimental effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during FY 1989. 5 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Endangered species: Deciding which species to save

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibodeau, Francis R.

    1983-03-01

    Many species face extinction because preservation organizations do not have the resources to mount all of the interventions that are needed. Decision analysis provides techniques that can help managers of these organizations to make judgments about which species they will attempt to rescue. A formal analysis of the choices available to the US Fish and Wildlife Services' endangered species program with regard to Isotria medeoloides illustrates how the difficulties of making preservation decisions can be lessened. I. medeoloides is perhaps the rarest orchid in the United States. Little is known of the species' biology and less about effective management. Yet unless a preservation effort is mounted, the species will continue to be threatened by habitat destruction and botanical collecting. The analysis employs formal probabalistic techniques to weigh the utility of possible intervention strategies, that is, their likelihood of achieving different amounts of increase in the longevity of the species, and to balance these gains against their costs. If similar decision analyses are performed on other endangered species, the technique can be used to choose among them, as well as among strategies for individual species.

  19. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  20. Endangered species program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Construction and development activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPR-C), at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) to comply with the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 potentially threatened the continued existence of four federally-listed endangered species: the San Joaquin kit fox. (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens) and Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides). All four are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. DOE is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any detrimental effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1989 (FY89). 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lynette K.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of "Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions" is to create awareness about a critical environmental issue. There is a special urgency to this project because large numbers of animal species are currently endangered or on the brink of extinction. In addition to being enlightened about this important topic through research, students…

  2. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  3. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  4. Endangered species toxicity extrapolation using ICE models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Research Council’s (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...

  5. Comprehensive genetic analyses reveal evolutionary distinction of a mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) proposed for delisting from the US Endangered Species Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, T.L.; Switzer, J.F.; Morrison, C.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Young, C.C.; Lubinski, B.A.; Cryan, P.

    2006-01-01

    Zapus hudsonius preblei, listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA), is one of 12 recognized subspecies of meadow jumping mice found in North America. Recent morphometric and phylogenetic comparisons among Z. h. preblei and neighbouring conspecifics questioned the taxonomic status of selected subspecies, resulting in a proposal to delist the Z. h. preblei from the ESA. We present additional analyses of the phylogeographic structure within Z. hudsonius that calls into question previously published data (and conclusions) and confirms the original taxonomic designations. A survey of 21 microsatellite DNA loci and 1380 base pairs from two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions (control region and cytochrome b) revealed that each Z. hudsonius subspecies is genetically distinct. These data do not support the null hypothesis of a homogeneous gene pool among the five subspecies found within the southwestern portion of the species' range. The magnitude of the observed differentiation was considerable and supported by significant findings for nearly every statistical comparison made, regardless of the genome or the taxa under consideration. Structuring of nuclear multilocus genotypes and subspecies-specific mtDNA haplotypes corresponded directly with the disjunct distributions of the subspecies investigated. Given the level of correspondence between the observed genetic population structure and previously proposed taxonomic classification of subspecies (based on the geographic separation and surveys of morphological variation), we conclude that the nominal subspecies surveyed in this study do not warrant synonymy, as has been proposed for Z. h. preblei, Z. h. campestris, and Z. h. intermedius. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  6. Endangered Species of Florida Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Merlien W.

    This coloring book portrays endangered animal and plant species of Florida in their natural environment. Each picture is to be colored by the student. On the back of each page bearing the picture to be colored is a description of the animal or plant, its preferred habitat, and the reason the animal or plant is endangered. (RE)

  7. The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species" and describes a lesson plan for grades five and six that includes library media skills objectives, science objectives, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedure for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (LRW)

  8. 50 CFR 451.03 - Endangered Species Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Endangered Species Committee. 451.03... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS APPLICATION PROCEDURE § 451.03 Endangered Species Committee. (a) Scope. This section...

  9. 50 CFR 451.03 - Endangered Species Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endangered Species Committee. 451.03... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS APPLICATION PROCEDURE § 451.03 Endangered Species Committee. (a) Scope. This section...

  10. 50 CFR 451.03 - Endangered Species Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Endangered Species Committee. 451.03... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS APPLICATION PROCEDURE § 451.03 Endangered Species Committee. (a) Scope. This section...

  11. 50 CFR 451.03 - Endangered Species Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Endangered Species Committee. 451.03... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS APPLICATION PROCEDURE § 451.03 Endangered Species Committee. (a) Scope. This section...

  12. 50 CFR 451.03 - Endangered Species Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endangered Species Committee. 451.03... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS APPLICATION PROCEDURE § 451.03 Endangered Species Committee. (a) Scope. This section...

  13. 77 FR 28855 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Plans AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... the Proposed Endangered Species Act (ESA) Recovery Plan for Lower Columbia River Chinook Salmon, Lower Columbia River Coho Salmon, Columbia River Chum Salmon, and Lower Columbia River Steelhead (Proposed...

  14. 76 FR 44306 - Endangered Species; File No. 16146

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ...). ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Kristen Hart, U.S... under the ] authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... loggerhead sea turtles at Buck Island Reef National Monument, U.S. Virgin Islands. The purposes of...

  15. 78 FR 6072 - Endangered Species; File No. 17095-01

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 21750), is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of..., measure, weigh, scan for tags, insert passive integrated transponder and dart tags, photograph,...

  16. 78 FR 17359 - Endangered Species; File No. 17095-01

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...: On January 29, 2013, notice was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 6072) that a request for a... of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations...). Researchers are authorized to non-lethally capture, handle, measure, weigh, scan for tags, insert...

  17. 77 FR 43109 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Protection Act (MMPA). ADDRESSES: Brenda Tapia, Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and ]...

  18. 78 FR 77430 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Coast steelhead populations and applied the DPS designation in place of the ESU designation on January 5... California Coast Steelhead DPS, current population trends, and the threats to their viability. The Final... the adoption of an Endangered Species Act (ESA) recovery plan for the South-Central California...

  19. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... endangered or threatened species as identified in 50 CFR part 17. (c) As used in this section: (1) Endangered... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section 257... and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not cause or...

  20. EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY OF COPPER TO ENDANGERED AND SURROGATE FISH SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of aquatic life have not explicitly considered the degree of protection afforded to aquatic species listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (listed species) . Most WQCs are based primarily on respon...

  1. 75 FR 23671 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Research Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... proposed research is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The applications may be viewed online at:...

  2. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  3. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  4. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  5. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  6. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  7. Endangered Species Program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY90

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Construction and development activities, which are conducted by DOE at Naval Petroleum Reserve {number_sign}1 (NPR-1) to comply with the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), potentially threaten the continued existence of four federally-listed endangered species: the San Joaquin kit fox, (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), and Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides). All four are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1990 (FY90).

  8. National Wildlife. Special Issue: Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohm, John, Ed.

    This is the first special issue in the 12-year history of "National Wildlife," and is devoted entirely to endangered species of animals and plants in the United States. An overview of the problem stresses the impact of man's haphazard development, suburban sprawl, and urban pollution upon a fragile environment, resulting in dozens of wild animals…

  9. Threatened and Endangered Species: Tour Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Victoria; Samia, Cory

    This resource unit contains a teacher information packet and a middle school student activity packet to be used in creating a threatened and endangered species unit. The packet of student activities is designed to help maximize a field trip to the zoo and build on students' zoo experience in the classroom. The teacher information packet covers the…

  10. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  11. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... habitat of endangered or threatened species as identified in 50 CFR part 17. (c) As used in this section... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not...

  12. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... habitat of endangered or threatened species as identified in 50 CFR part 17. (c) As used in this section... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not...

  13. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... habitat of endangered or threatened species as identified in 50 CFR part 17. (c) As used in this section... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not...

  14. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... habitat of endangered or threatened species as identified in 50 CFR part 17. (c) As used in this section... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not...

  15. DNA barcoding of endangered Indian Paphiopedilum species.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Iffat; Singh, Hemant K; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Pradhan, Udai C; Babbar, Shashi B

    2012-01-01

    The indiscriminate collections of Paphiopedilum species from the wild for their exotic ornamental flowers have rendered these plants endangered. Although the trade of these endangered species from the wild is strictly forbidden, it continues unabated in one or other forms that elude the current identification methods. DNA barcoding that offers identification of a species even if only a small fragment of the organism at any stage of development is available could be of great utility in scrutinizing the illegal trade of both endangered plant and animal species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to develop DNA barcodes of Indian species of Paphiopedilum along with their three natural hybrids using loci from both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. The five loci tested for their potential as effective barcodes were RNA polymerase-β subunit (rpoB), RNA polymerase-β' subunit (rpoC1), Rubisco large subunit (rbcL) and maturase K (matK) from the chloroplast genome and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) from the nuclear genome. The intra- and inter-specific divergence values and species discrimination rates were calculated by Kimura 2 parameter (K2P) method using mega 4.0. The matK with 0.9% average inter-specific divergence value yielded 100% species resolution, thus could distinguish all the eight species of Paphiopedilum unequivocally. The species identification capability of these sequences was further confirmed as each of the matK sequences was found to be unique for the species when a blast analysis of these sequences was carried out on NCBI. nrITS, although had 4.4% average inter-specific divergence value, afforded only 50% species resolution. DNA barcodes of the three hybrids also reflected their parentage.

  16. Man...An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  17. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.

  18. Conservation triage or injurious neglect in endangered species recovery.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Leah R

    2016-03-29

    Listing endangered and threatened species under the US Endangered Species Act is presumed to offer a defense against extinction and a solution to achieve recovery of imperiled populations, but only if effective conservation action ensues after listing occurs. The amount of government funding available for species protection and recovery is one of the best predictors of successful recovery; however, government spending is both insufficient and highly disproportionate among groups of species, and there is significant discrepancy between proposed and actualized budgets across species. In light of an increasing list of imperiled species requiring evaluation and protection, an explicit approach to allocating recovery funds is urgently needed. Here I provide a formal decision-theoretic approach focusing on return on investment as an objective and a transparent mechanism to achieve the desired recovery goals. I found that less than 25% of the $1.21 billion/year needed for implementing recovery plans for 1,125 species is actually allocated to recovery. Spending in excess of the recommended recovery budget does not necessarily translate into better conservation outcomes. Rather, elimination of only the budget surplus for "costly yet futile" recovery plans can provide sufficient funding to erase funding deficits for more than 180 species. Triage by budget compression provides better funding for a larger sample of species, and a larger sample of adequately funded recovery plans should produce better outcomes even if by chance. Sharpening our focus on deliberate decision making offers the potential to achieve desired outcomes in avoiding extinction for Endangered Species Act-listed species.

  19. Conservation triage or injurious neglect in endangered species recovery.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Leah R

    2016-03-29

    Listing endangered and threatened species under the US Endangered Species Act is presumed to offer a defense against extinction and a solution to achieve recovery of imperiled populations, but only if effective conservation action ensues after listing occurs. The amount of government funding available for species protection and recovery is one of the best predictors of successful recovery; however, government spending is both insufficient and highly disproportionate among groups of species, and there is significant discrepancy between proposed and actualized budgets across species. In light of an increasing list of imperiled species requiring evaluation and protection, an explicit approach to allocating recovery funds is urgently needed. Here I provide a formal decision-theoretic approach focusing on return on investment as an objective and a transparent mechanism to achieve the desired recovery goals. I found that less than 25% of the $1.21 billion/year needed for implementing recovery plans for 1,125 species is actually allocated to recovery. Spending in excess of the recommended recovery budget does not necessarily translate into better conservation outcomes. Rather, elimination of only the budget surplus for "costly yet futile" recovery plans can provide sufficient funding to erase funding deficits for more than 180 species. Triage by budget compression provides better funding for a larger sample of species, and a larger sample of adequately funded recovery plans should produce better outcomes even if by chance. Sharpening our focus on deliberate decision making offers the potential to achieve desired outcomes in avoiding extinction for Endangered Species Act-listed species. PMID:26976572

  20. Conservation triage or injurious neglect in endangered species recovery

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    Listing endangered and threatened species under the US Endangered Species Act is presumed to offer a defense against extinction and a solution to achieve recovery of imperiled populations, but only if effective conservation action ensues after listing occurs. The amount of government funding available for species protection and recovery is one of the best predictors of successful recovery; however, government spending is both insufficient and highly disproportionate among groups of species, and there is significant discrepancy between proposed and actualized budgets across species. In light of an increasing list of imperiled species requiring evaluation and protection, an explicit approach to allocating recovery funds is urgently needed. Here I provide a formal decision-theoretic approach focusing on return on investment as an objective and a transparent mechanism to achieve the desired recovery goals. I found that less than 25% of the $1.21 billion/year needed for implementing recovery plans for 1,125 species is actually allocated to recovery. Spending in excess of the recommended recovery budget does not necessarily translate into better conservation outcomes. Rather, elimination of only the budget surplus for “costly yet futile” recovery plans can provide sufficient funding to erase funding deficits for more than 180 species. Triage by budget compression provides better funding for a larger sample of species, and a larger sample of adequately funded recovery plans should produce better outcomes even if by chance. Sharpening our focus on deliberate decision making offers the potential to achieve desired outcomes in avoiding extinction for Endangered Species Act-listed species. PMID:26976572

  1. 78 FR 47635 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for Yelloweye Rockfish, Canary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and bocaccio as endangered (75 FR 22276). We are responsible for... yelloweye rockfish, canary rockfish, and bocaccio (74 FR 18516, April 23, 2009), we requested information on... (i.e., have multiple reproductive cycles during their lifetime) and are typically long-lived (Love...

  2. Endangered Species Program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report, FY91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides) and Hoover`s Wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declares that it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for the continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1991 (FY91).

  3. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report, FY92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC): the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declaresthat it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered SpeciesAct. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1992 (FY92).

  4. Estimating Effects of Species Interactions on Populations of Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Roth, Tobias; Bühler, Christoph; Amrhein, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    Global change causes community composition to change considerably through time, with ever-new combinations of interacting species. To study the consequences of newly established species interactions, one available source of data could be observational surveys from biodiversity monitoring. However, approaches using observational data would need to account for niche differences between species and for imperfect detection of individuals. To estimate population sizes of interacting species, we extended N-mixture models that were developed to estimate true population sizes in single species. Simulations revealed that our model is able to disentangle direct effects of dominant on subordinate species from indirect effects of dominant species on detection probability of subordinate species. For illustration, we applied our model to data from a Swiss amphibian monitoring program and showed that sizes of expanding water frog populations were negatively related to population sizes of endangered yellow-bellied toads and common midwife toads and partly of natterjack toads. Unlike other studies that analyzed presence and absence of species, our model suggests that the spread of water frogs in Central Europe is one of the reasons for the decline of endangered toad species. Thus, studying population impacts of dominant species on population sizes of endangered species using data from biodiversity monitoring programs should help to inform conservation policy and to decide whether competing species should be subject to population management. PMID:27028074

  5. Estimating Effects of Species Interactions on Populations of Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Roth, Tobias; Bühler, Christoph; Amrhein, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    Global change causes community composition to change considerably through time, with ever-new combinations of interacting species. To study the consequences of newly established species interactions, one available source of data could be observational surveys from biodiversity monitoring. However, approaches using observational data would need to account for niche differences between species and for imperfect detection of individuals. To estimate population sizes of interacting species, we extended N-mixture models that were developed to estimate true population sizes in single species. Simulations revealed that our model is able to disentangle direct effects of dominant on subordinate species from indirect effects of dominant species on detection probability of subordinate species. For illustration, we applied our model to data from a Swiss amphibian monitoring program and showed that sizes of expanding water frog populations were negatively related to population sizes of endangered yellow-bellied toads and common midwife toads and partly of natterjack toads. Unlike other studies that analyzed presence and absence of species, our model suggests that the spread of water frogs in Central Europe is one of the reasons for the decline of endangered toad species. Thus, studying population impacts of dominant species on population sizes of endangered species using data from biodiversity monitoring programs should help to inform conservation policy and to decide whether competing species should be subject to population management.

  6. Lunar Gene Bank For Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, R.; Behera, D.; Sahoo, P. K.; Swain, S. K.; Sasmal, A.

    2012-09-01

    Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. The gene pools of many human ethnic groups are also threatened. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. Against such indispensable losses scientists are starting cryopreservation of germplasms by creation of gene banks. I propose to construct a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions [4].

  7. Cloning of endangered mammalian species: any progress?

    PubMed

    Loi, Pasqualino; Galli, Cesare; Ptak, Grazyna

    2007-05-01

    Attempts through somatic cell nuclear transfer to expand wild populations that have shrunk to critical numbers is a logical extension of the successful cloning of mammals. However, although the first mammal was cloned 10 years ago, nuclear reprogramming remains phenomenological, with abnormal gene expression and epigenetic deregulation being associated with the cloning process. In addition, although cloning of wild animals using host oocytes from different species has been successful, little is known about the implication of partial or total mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in cloned embryos, fetuses and offspring. Finally, there is a need for suitable foster mothers for inter-intra specific cloned embryos. Considering these issues, the limited success achieved in cloning endangered animals is not surprising. However, optimism comes from the rapid gain in the understanding of the molecular clues underlying nuclear reprogramming. If it is possible to achieve a controlled reversal of the differentiated state of a cell then it is probable that other issues that impair the cloning of endangered animals, such as the inter-intra species oocyte or womb donor, will be overcome in the medium term.

  8. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two surrogate species (fathead minnow, Pimephales...

  9. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Katherine E; Currie, David J

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

  10. 77 FR 7134 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA907 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery..., 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine... announced the release of the Draft Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast Recovery Plan (Draft Plan)...

  11. 76 FR 19052 - Endangered Species; File No. 14344

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA340 Endangered Species; File No. 14344 AGENCY..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The permit authorizes.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 27, 2009, notice was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 43679) that...

  12. 77 FR 64121 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... to conduct certain activities with endangered species (77 FR 20838). We are now reopening the comment... certain activities with endangered species (77 FR 46514). We are now amending the publication...

  13. 78 FR 32622 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 17557 and 17273

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... National Ocean Service Marine Forensic Lab (NOS Lab) , 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (File No... to take marine mammal and endangered species parts for purposes of scientific research. DATES... taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The NOS...

  14. 76 FR 63322 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Jacobsen, Chief, Endangered Species Division, P.O. Box... Division of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 1306, Room 6034, Albuquerque, NM... Applicant: David Griffin, Las Cruces, New Mexico. Applicant requests a new permit for research and...

  15. Endangered species program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY88

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Construction and development activities conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) potentially threatened the continued existence of four federally-listed endangered species; the San Joaquin kit fox, (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys engines), and Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides). All four are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. We are also obliged to determine whether actions taken by lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any detrimental effects on endangered species or their habitats. NPR-1 and NPR-2 are located approximately 26 miles west-southwest and southwest, respectively, of Bakersfield, Kern County, California. NPR-1 consists of 47,245 acres and is located just north of NPR-2 and abuts its northwestern border. NPR-2 consists of 30,080 acres of which 10,400 acres are administered by DOE. The remainder of NPR-2 is privately owned and the city of Taft occupies 1,280 acres in the southern corner. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1988 (FY88).

  16. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  17. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, human gene pools, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. We propose cryopreservation of germplasms by constructing a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions. Rationale: Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreservation can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced gravity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn't allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40- 60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeorite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of endangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved

  18. CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF THREATENED AND ENDANGERED FISHES COMPARED TO STANDARD SURROGATE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act requires Federal agencies to insure that any action authorized, funded or carried out by them is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of listed species or modify their critical habitat. The wide use of pesticides and other comm...

  19. FORUM: Balancing Endangered Species and Ecosystems: A Case Study of Adaptive Management in Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Meretsky; Wegner; Stevens

    2000-06-01

    / Adaptive ecosystem management seeks to sustain ecosystems while extracting or using natural resources. The goal of endangered species management under the Endangered Species Act is limited to the protection and recovery of designated species, and the act takes precedence over other policies and regulations guiding ecosystem management. We present an example of conflict between endangered species and ecosystem management during the first planned flood on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in 1996. We discuss the resolution of the conflict and the circumstances that allowed a solution to be reached. We recommend that adaptive management be implemented extensively and early in ecosystem management so that information and working relationships will be available to address conflicts as they arise. Though adaptive management is not a panacea, it offers the best opportunity for balanced solutions to competing management goals.

  20. Ecological equivalency as a tool for endangered species management.

    PubMed

    Searcy, Christopher A; Rollins, Hilary B; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The use of taxon substitutes for extinct or endangered species is a controversial conservation measure. We use the example of the endangered California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense; CTS), which is being replaced by hybrids with the invasive barred tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium), to illustrate a strategy for evaluating taxon substitutes based on their position in a multivariate community space. Approximately one-quarter of CTS's range is currently occupied by "full hybrids" with 70% nonnative genes, while another one-quarter is occupied by "superinvasives" where a specific set of 3/68 genes comprising 4% of the surveyed genome is nonnative. Based on previous surveys of natural CTS breeding ponds, we stocked experimental mesocosms with field-verified, realistic densities of tiger salamander larvae and their prey, and used these mesocosms to evaluate ecological equivalency between pure CTS, full hybrids, and superinvasives in experimental pond communities. We also included a fourth treatment with no salamanders present to evaluate the community effects of eliminating Ambystoma larvae altogether. We found that pure CTS and superinvasive larvae were ecologically equivalent, because their positions in the multivariate community space were statistically indistinguishable and they did not differ significantly along any univariate community axes. Full hybrids were ecologically similar, but not equivalent, to the other two genotypes, and the no-Ambystoma treatment was by far the most divergent. We conclude that, at least for the larval stage, superinvasives are adequate taxon substitutes for pure CTS and should probably be afforded protection under the Endangered Species Act. The proper conservation status for full hybrids remains debatable. PMID:27039512

  1. Ecological equivalency as a tool for endangered species management.

    PubMed

    Searcy, Christopher A; Rollins, Hilary B; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The use of taxon substitutes for extinct or endangered species is a controversial conservation measure. We use the example of the endangered California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense; CTS), which is being replaced by hybrids with the invasive barred tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium), to illustrate a strategy for evaluating taxon substitutes based on their position in a multivariate community space. Approximately one-quarter of CTS's range is currently occupied by "full hybrids" with 70% nonnative genes, while another one-quarter is occupied by "superinvasives" where a specific set of 3/68 genes comprising 4% of the surveyed genome is nonnative. Based on previous surveys of natural CTS breeding ponds, we stocked experimental mesocosms with field-verified, realistic densities of tiger salamander larvae and their prey, and used these mesocosms to evaluate ecological equivalency between pure CTS, full hybrids, and superinvasives in experimental pond communities. We also included a fourth treatment with no salamanders present to evaluate the community effects of eliminating Ambystoma larvae altogether. We found that pure CTS and superinvasive larvae were ecologically equivalent, because their positions in the multivariate community space were statistically indistinguishable and they did not differ significantly along any univariate community axes. Full hybrids were ecologically similar, but not equivalent, to the other two genotypes, and the no-Ambystoma treatment was by far the most divergent. We conclude that, at least for the larval stage, superinvasives are adequate taxon substitutes for pure CTS and should probably be afforded protection under the Endangered Species Act. The proper conservation status for full hybrids remains debatable.

  2. 77 FR 47587 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are extending the comment period on our proposed rule to, among other things, list 38 species on the Hawaiian Islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, and designate critical habitat on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe for 135 species. We made the proposed rule available......

  3. 75 FR 75491 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... FR 65505). The applicant subsequently submitted additional information in support of their... applications. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: International Elephant Foundation, Fort... biological specimens of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) from wild animals in all range countries and...

  4. 76 FR 34967 - Endangered Species; File No. 10027

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    .... 10027, issued on July 30, 2008 (73 FR 44224), is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species... the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History (Responsible...

  5. 75 FR 66724 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish in May 2008, and solicited information from the public (73 FR 29483... sawfish should remain listed as endangered species because it is in danger of extinction throughout...

  6. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  7. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  8. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  9. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  10. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  11. Qualitative Assessment: Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Change on Endangered Species Act Recovery Actions for the South Fork Nooksack River, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The South Fork Nooksack River (South Fork) is located in northwest Washington State and is home to nine species of Pacific salmon, including Nooksack early Chinook (aka, spring Chinook salmon), an iconic species for the Nooksack Indian Tribe. The quantity of salmon in the South F...

  12. Selected vertebrate endangered species of the seacoast of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This series of species accounts provides resource managers and the public with information about Federally listed endangered and/or threatened vertebrate species that occur along, or within 100 kilometers of, the seacoast of the United States. Information about life history, distribution, requirements, and conservation of the subject species is included (range maps and other distributional data are not necessarily equivalent to critical habitat as defined in the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended). This series of accounts is intended to complement the computerized Sensitive Wildlife Information System (SWIS) developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in coordination with the Offices of Endangered Species and Biological Services of the Fish and Wildlife Service.

  13. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mammalian Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nun, Inbar Friedrich; Montague, Susanne C; Houck, Marlys L; Ryder, Oliver; Loring, Jeanne F

    2015-01-01

    For some highly endangered species there are too few reproductively capable animals to maintain adequate genetic diversity, and extraordinary measures are necessary to prevent their extinction. Cellular reprogramming is a means to capture the genomes of individual animals as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which may eventually facilitate reintroduction of genetic material into breeding populations. Here, we describe a method for generating iPSCs from fibroblasts of mammalian endangered species.

  14. 77 FR 21754 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16526, 16323, 16436, 16422, 16438, 16431, 16507, 16547, 16375...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... 21, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 58469) that 12 requests for scientific... the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the... will be captured using a combination of side-scan sonar and gill nets. Captured individuals will...

  15. 78 FR 60254 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The.... ADDRESSES: Written comments on the applications should be sent to the Protected Resources Division, NMFS.... The creek is currently listed as water-quality impaired and the WDOE is attempting to determine...

  16. 75 FR 56986 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The.... ADDRESSES: Written comments on the applications should be sent to the ] Protected Resources Division, NMFS.... Some would be tissue-sampled and some would receive passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags....

  17. 78 FR 79674 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...Notice is hereby given that NMFS has received an application for a scientific research and enhancement permit (permit 17781) relating to salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). This document serves to notify the public of the availability of the permit application for review and comment. The applications and related documents may be viewed online at: http://swr.nmfs.noaa.gov/......

  18. 78 FR 79622 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Below Friant Dam in the San Joaquin River, CA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Endangered Species Act (ESA) in portions of the San Joaquin River, California, and establish take exceptions...-3723) or Dwayne Meadows, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910...

  19. 77 FR 60777 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... to list the coqu llanero as an endangered species (76 FR 63420). In that document, we explained that... Register (74 FR 32510) our finding that the petition to list the coqu llanero presented substantial... species. On October 12, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 63420) our 12-month finding...

  20. Rare and endangered species of plants--the soviet side.

    PubMed

    Elias, T S

    1983-01-01

    In late 1972, the Soviet Union embarked on a program to identify and document plant species that are threatened with extinction. Perhaps 2000 species in the Soviet Union are in need of monitoring or protective measures, while nearly 200 may be in immediate danger of extinction. Currently, the Soviet Union has an official, national list of endangered species, and each of the 15 republics has prepared a regional list. Once a revised national list is prepared, Soviet scientists hope that the Supreme Soviet will pass a law protecting those species. A corresponding law for endangered animals was passed in 1980. PMID:17734310

  1. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  2. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part II. chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Wang, N.; Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at ??? 11 ??g/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 ??g/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  3. Endangered Species Program: Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY87

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Construction and development activities conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPR-C), at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in compliance with the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258) potentially threatened the continued existence of three federally-listed endangered species: the San Joaquin kit fox, (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), and giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). All three are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205) which declares that it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any detrimental effects on endangered species or their habitats. 54 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. [Strategies for Conservation of Endangered Amphibian and Reptile Species].

    PubMed

    Anan'eva, N B; Uteshev, V K; Orlova, N L; Gakhova, E N

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for conservation of endangered amphibian and reptile species are discussed. One-fifth of all vertebrates belongs to the category of "endangered species," and amphibians are first on the list (41%). Every fifth reptile species is in danger of extinction, and insufficient information is characteristic of every other fifth. As has been demonstrated, efficient development of a network of nature conservation areas, cryopreservation, and methods for laboratory breeding and reintroduction play.the key roles in adequate strategies for preservation of amphibians and reptiles. PMID:26638239

  5. [Strategies for Conservation of Endangered Amphibian and Reptile Species].

    PubMed

    Anan'eva, N B; Uteshev, V K; Orlova, N L; Gakhova, E N

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for conservation of endangered amphibian and reptile species are discussed. One-fifth of all vertebrates belongs to the category of "endangered species," and amphibians are first on the list (41%). Every fifth reptile species is in danger of extinction, and insufficient information is characteristic of every other fifth. As has been demonstrated, efficient development of a network of nature conservation areas, cryopreservation, and methods for laboratory breeding and reintroduction play.the key roles in adequate strategies for preservation of amphibians and reptiles.

  6. TOXICITY OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL TO ENDANGERED AND SURROGATE FISH SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality criteria (WQC) generally are based on the responses of easily cultured and tested surrogate species. Little is known about the relative sensitivity of surrogate and endangered species. The objective of this study was to compare acute and chronic (early life-stage) ...

  7. 76 FR 51945 - Endangered Species; File No. 16548

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA648 Endangered Species; File No. 16548 AGENCY... Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 16548 from the list of...- 0376, or by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov . Please include the File No. 16548 in the subject...

  8. 77 FR 34349 - Endangered Species; File No. 16803

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC058 Endangered Species; File No. 16803 AGENCY... Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No... the Chief, Permits and Conservation Division by email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov (include the...

  9. 76 FR 15300 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16266 and 16291

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA306 Endangered Species; File Nos. 16266 and 16291 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... educating the public on shortnose sturgeon life history and the reasons for the species decline....

  10. 75 FR 61424 - Endangered Species; File No. 15596

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ37 Endangered Species; File No. 15596 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... shortnose sturgeon life history and the reasons for the species decline. The proposed project to...

  11. 21st Century Endangered Species Transparency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cornyn, John [R-TX

    2014-07-22

    07/22/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4707) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Endangered Species Transparency and Reasonableness Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Doc [R-WA-4

    2014-03-27

    07/30/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Endangered Species. IUCN Special Report: How and Why We Should Conserve Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUCN Bulletin, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains articles addressing the need to protect endangered species. Includes an introductory article that stresses the relationships between the loss of species diversity and the future of the human society. Seventeen brief articles follow that deal with specific endangered plants and animals. (TW)

  14. 77 FR 60749 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Species Status for the Florida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... FPL = Florida Power and Light FR = Federal Register FSPSP = Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park... published a Review of Vertebrate Wildlife for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (50 FR 37958... to support a listing proposal. In a January 6, 1989, Animal Notice of Review (54 FR 554), the...

  15. 78 FR 41227 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for Six...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... endangered on August 16, 2012 (77 FR 49602). We also reopened the public comment on the proposed rules on February 5, 2013 (78 FR 8096). A complete description of the previous Federal actions for these species can be found in the Previous Federal Actions section of the August 16, 2012, proposed rules (77 FR...

  16. 78 FR 61003 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Florida Bonneted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... bonneted bat as an endangered species (77 FR 60750). After careful consideration of all public and peer... October 4, 2012, are outlined in our proposed rule (77 FR 60750), which was published on that date. Publication of the proposed rule (77 FR 60750) opened a 60-day comment period, which closed on December...

  17. 77 FR 19552 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... FR 56138) and subsequently reclassified as an endangered species on June 28, 2005 (70 FR 37160). At... Coast Salmonids and Final 4(d) Protective Regulations for Threatened Salmonid ESUs; Final Rule'' (70 FR... California Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU)'' (61 FR 56138; October 31, 1996)....

  18. 77 FR 63927 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... FR 10305), and Mezoneuron kavaiense, listed as an endangered species on July 8, 1986 (51 FR 24672... species (76 FR 66370; October 26, 2011). Candidate species are those taxa for which the Service has... are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened (CNOR) (76 FR 66370). On May 4, 2004,...

  19. When should we save the most endangered species?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Howard B; Joseph, Liana N; Moore, Alana L; Possingham, Hugh P

    2011-09-01

    At the heart of our efforts to protect threatened species, there is a controversial debate about whether to give priority to cost-effective actions or whether focusing solely on the most endangered species will ultimately lead to preservation of the greatest number of species. By framing this debate within a decision-analytic framework, we show that allocating resources solely to the most endangered species will typically not minimise the number of extinctions in the long-term, as this does not account for the risk of less endangered species going extinct in the future. It is only favoured when our planning timeframe is short or we have a long-term view and we are optimistic about future conditions. Conservation funding tends to be short-term in nature, which biases allocations to more endangered species. Our work highlights the need to consider resource allocation for biodiversity over the long-term; 'preventive conservation', rather than just short-term fire-fighting.

  20. Establishing endangered species recovery criteria using predictive simulation modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gratto-Trevor, Cheri L.; Aron, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Listing a species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and developing a recovery plan requires U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to establish specific and measurable criteria for delisting. Generally, species are listed because they face (or are perceived to face) elevated risk of extinction due to issues such as habitat loss, invasive species, or other factors. Recovery plans identify recovery criteria that reduce extinction risk to an acceptable level. It logically follows that the recovery criteria, the defined conditions for removing a species from ESA protections, need to be closely related to extinction risk. Extinction probability is a population parameter estimated with a model that uses current demographic information to project the population into the future over a number of replicates, calculating the proportion of replicated populations that go extinct. We simulated extinction probabilities of piping plovers in the Great Plains and estimated the relationship between extinction probability and various demographic parameters. We tested the fit of regression models linking initial abundance, productivity, or population growth rate to extinction risk, and then, using the regression parameter estimates, determined the conditions required to reduce extinction probability to some pre-defined acceptable threshold. Binomial regression models with mean population growth rate and the natural log of initial abundance were the best predictors of extinction probability 50 years into the future. For example, based on our regression models, an initial abundance of approximately 2400 females with an expected mean population growth rate of 1.0 will limit extinction risk for piping plovers in the Great Plains to less than 0.048. Our method provides a straightforward way of developing specific and measurable recovery criteria linked directly to the core issue of extinction risk. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?

    PubMed

    Taberlet, P; Valentini, A; Rezaei, H R; Naderi, S; Pompanon, F; Negrini, R; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2008-01-01

    For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic characteristics, and reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced. This corresponded to a strong fragmentation of the initial populations. A few decades ago, the selection pressures were increased again in order to further improve productivity, without enough emphasis on the preservation of the overall genetic diversity. The efficiency of modern selection methods successfully increased the production, but with a dramatic loss of genetic variability. Many industrial breeds now suffer from inbreeding, with effective population sizes falling below 50. With the development of these industrial breeds came economic pressure on farmers to abandon their traditional breeds, and many of these have recently become extinct as a result. This means that genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. It is therefore important to take measures that promote a sustainable management of these genetic resources; first, by in situ preservation of endangered breeds; second, by using selection programmes to restore the genetic diversity of industrial breeds; and finally, by protecting the wild relatives that might provide useful genetic resources. PMID:17927711

  2. Protecting endangered species under future climate change: From single-species preservation to an anticipatory policy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomgarden, Carol A.

    1995-09-01

    Anthropogenic climate climate change presents a unique challenge for endangered species policy and an opportunity for policy makers to develop a more predictive and robust approach to preserving the nation's biological resources. Biological and ecological reactions to shifting climate conditions and the potential feedbacks and synergistic effects of such changes may threaten the well-being of many species, particularly of those already in jeopardy of extinction. The United States Endangered Species Act of 1973 will fail to keep pace with increasing numbers of species needing protection as long as it remains focused on protecting species individually. The act must not be abandoned, however; it holds tremendous promise for preserving biological diversity through a more proactive, anticipatory perspective. The current Endangered Species Act should be reinforced and improved by better integration of scientific expertise into habitat and community preservation listing decisions and recovery plan devlopment. Given the uncertainties surrounding long-term environmental consequences of human activities and resource use, a longer-term perspective must be integrated into all efforts to protect our biotic resources.

  3. Examining differences between recovered and declining endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbitt, R.J.F.; Michael, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1999, 43 species in the United States were reclassified from endangered to threatened or removed entirely from the Endangered Species List. Of these, 23 were identified as recovered. In 1999 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) published a list of 33 additional species for possible reclassification and/or delisting. We initiated this study to examine why some endangered species recover but others continue to decline and to identify differences in management activities between these two groups. We defined recovered/recovering species as previously recovered species and the additional recovered/recovering species listed by the USFWS. We defined declining species as those identified as declining in the most recent USFWS Report to Congress. Information on recovered/recovering and declining species was gathered from relevant literature, recovery plans, U.S. Federal Register documents, and individuals responsible for the recovery management of each species. We used this information to examine (1) the percentage of current and historic range covered by management activities; (2) threats affecting the species; (3) population sizes at the time of listing; (4) current versus historic range size; and (5) percentage of recovery management objectives completed. Although few statistical analyses provided significant results, those that did suggest the following differences between recovered/recovering and declining species: (1) recovered/recovering species face threats that are easier to address; (2) recovered/recovering species occupy a greater percentage of their historic range; and (3) recovered/recovering species have a greater percentage of their recovery management objectives completed. Those species with threats easier to address and that occupy a greater percentage of their historic range are recovered/recovering. In contrast, declining species face threats more difficult to address and occupy significantly less of their historic range. If this

  4. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  5. 76 FR 39432 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... endangered species (76 FR 36934). We made an error by omitting one animal in the Feld Entertainment, Inc. application, which starts at the bottom of column 3 on page 36934. The omitted animal is a captive-born tiger... conservation education, one African leopard (Panthera pardus), one Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris...

  6. 78 FR 9725 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... certain activities with endangered species (76 FR 51052). We are now reopening the comment period to allow... permits to re-export and re-import six captive-born tigers (Panthera tigris) and an additional nine...

  7. 76 FR 35842 - Endangered Species; File No. 15685

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA502 Endangered Species; File No. 15685 AGENCY... (APPS) home page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 15685 from the list of..., Conservation and Education Division By e-mail to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov (include the File No. in the...

  8. 77 FR 15997 - Endangered Species; File No. 15672

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ..., notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 23305) that a request for a scientific research... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB083 Endangered Species; File No. 15672...

  9. 77 FR 21751 - Endangered Species; File No. 16645

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB152 Endangered Species; File No. 16645 AGENCY... comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only....

  10. 77 FR 1062 - Endangered Species; File No. 16146

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 44306) that a request for a scientific research permit to take loggerhead, green... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA900 Endangered Species; File No. 16146...

  11. 78 FR 41034 - Endangered Species; File No. 18102

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC711 Endangered Species; File No. 18102 AGENCY...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats...

  12. 77 FR 24686 - Endangered Species; File No. 15634

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Register (76 FR 58471) that a request for a scientific research permit to take leatherback sea turtles had... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA714 Endangered Species; File No. 15634...

  13. 78 FR 2659 - Endangered Species; File No. 16645

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... INFORMATION: On April 11, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 21751) that a request for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB152 Endangered Species; File No. 16645...

  14. 75 FR 13488 - Endangered Species; File No. 14949

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV33 Endangered Species; File No. 14949 AGENCY...://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov/ , and then selecting File No. 14949 from the list of available applications. These... the subject line of the e-mail comment the following document identifier: File No. 14949. FOR...

  15. 77 FR 58812 - Endangered Species; File No. 17316

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC252 Endangered Species; File No. 17316 AGENCY... page, https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov , and then selecting File No. 17316 from the list of available... By email to NMFS.Pr1Comments@noaa.gov (include the File No. in the subject line of the email),...

  16. 75 FR 78227 - Endangered Species; File No. 14400

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... INFORMATION: On August 27, 2009, notice was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 43679) that a request for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA085 Endangered Species; File No. 14400...

  17. 78 FR 22517 - Endangered Species; File No. 16549

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 11, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 21750) that a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB155 Endangered Species; File No. 16549...

  18. 77 FR 30261 - Endangered Species; File No. 16306

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ..., 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 58471) that a request for a scientific... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA712 Endangered Species; File No. 16306...

  19. 77 FR 2314 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685... comment on several applications for permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species (77 FR... permit to import one captive-born male snow leopard (Uncia uncia) from Canada for the purpose...

  20. 77 FR 16553 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan Jacobsen, Chief, Endangered Species Division, P.O. Box 1306, Albuquerque, NM 87103; (505) 248-6651. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Public Availability of Comments.... Documents and other information the applicants have submitted with these applications are available...

  1. 76 FR 68206 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... date notice 773494 Florida Fish and 75 FR 62139; October October 20, 2011. Wildlife. 7, 2010... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of issuance of permits. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  2. 78 FR 62648 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    .... Graham Worthy, 78 FR 30325; May 22, 2013 September 30, 2013. University of Central Florida. 067925 U.S..., New College 78 FR 37563; June 21, September 30, 2013. of Florida. 2013. 19806A Thomas Postel 78 FR.... Applicant Federal Register notice Permit issuance date Endangered Species 10814B Larry Bell 78 FR...

  3. Designing a Zoo-Based Endangered Species Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christopher L.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a class activity that uses the database feature of the Appleworks program to create a database from which students may study endangered species. The use of a local zoo as a base of information about the animals is suggested. Procedures and follow-up activities are included. (CW)

  4. All about Owls: Studying Owls, State Birds, and Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivard, Leonard P.

    1991-01-01

    Activities are included that acquaint students with the parts of birds and the structure of feathers; that identify the prey of owls by opening owl pellets; working with information about threatened and endangered species of birds; and follow-up activities for bird study. A list of state and provincial birds of the United States and Canada and…

  5. Saving Endangered Species: Using Technology to Teach Thematically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wepner, Shelly B.; Seminoff, Nancy E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a project using software in kindergarten instruction. Seven pieces of software used in a unit on endangered species that included social studies, math, art, language arts, and music emphases are briefly described. Ideas for managing a one-computer classroom and general recommendations drawn from the study are given. (KRN)

  6. 77 FR 54565 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Central California Coast coho salmon as threatened in the Federal Register on October 21, 1996 (61 FR 56138). Due to severe declines, we uplisted the species to endangered status on June 28, 2005 (70 FR... March 18, 2010 (75 FR 13081) and held three public meetings to obtain comments on the Draft Plan....

  7. 78 FR 42540 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... ARIZONA GAME AND FISH DEPARTMENT 163125 11/19/2012 12/31/2016 BROWN AND CALDWELL 75311A 6/5/2012 4/30/2017... PLANET AQUARIUM 131638 4/24/2013 3/31/2018 MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF FISH, WILDLIFE AND PARKS 047250 7/9/2012... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  8. 77 FR 34059 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... before final action is taken. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Naples Zoo, Inc...: Turtle Back Zoo, West Orange, NJ; PRT-75693A The applicant requests a captive-bred wildlife...

  9. 78 FR 5779 - Endangered Species; File No. 16248

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... INFORMATION: On October 30, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 65673) that a request.... ACTION: Issuance of permit. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Riverbanks Zoo and Garden, P.O. Box... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Riverbanks Zoo and Garden...

  10. 78 FR 113 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... FR 46514; August December 21, 2012. Aquarium. 3, 2012. Availability of Documents Documents and other... application Federal Permit issuance date Register notice Endangered Species 75492A John Farham......... 77 FR 34059; June 8, August 27, 2012. 2012. 75399A Eric Moore 77 FR 34059; June 8, August 15, 2012....

  11. 77 FR 38653 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    .... 58210A Point Defiance Zoo & 77 FR 9687; February May 4, 2012. Aquarium. 17, 2012. 65782A, 65783A, 65785A.... Applicant Federal Register Permit issuance date notice Endangered Species 51599A Kurt Wille 76 FR 61733; October November 16, 2011. 5, 2011. 57058A Hahn Laboratory, 77 FR 298; January 4, April 12,...

  12. Another Look at Mother Goose: Prior Knowledge or Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Lenore

    Arguing that Mother Goose is becoming an endangered species, this paper reports on the results of an informal survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in a children's literature course. The survey results reported in the paper indicated that some students were able to complete a cloze-type Mother Goose couplet, but others audibly…

  13. 76 FR 52317 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA647 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... designated Upper Willamette Chinook salmon as threatened on in the Federal Register on June 28, 2005 (70...

  14. Managing conservation reliant species: Hawai'i's endangered endemic waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jared G; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē). All five species are categorized as being "conservation reliant." The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current management paradigm, we compared species population trends across the state to those on six actively managed wetland national wildlife refuges (Refuges) thought to be critical for the survival of these endangered species. To perform the evaluation we relied on systematic semiannual population counts that have been conducted across most wetlands in the state and monthly population counts that have occurred on Refuges during the same time period. We found that statewide and Refuge populations of the Hawaiian Coot, Stilt and Gallinule have rebounded from historic lows and over the last 20 years have slowly increased or remained stable. We also documented that Refuges are important to each species year-round and that a disproportionately larger percentage of the population for each species is found on them. Understanding of why Refuges successfully house a disproportionate percentage of these "conservation reliant" species can inform current and future conservation efforts as well as ensure long-term population viability for these species.

  15. Managing conservation reliant species: Hawai'i's endangered endemic waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jared G; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē). All five species are categorized as being "conservation reliant." The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current management paradigm, we compared species population trends across the state to those on six actively managed wetland national wildlife refuges (Refuges) thought to be critical for the survival of these endangered species. To perform the evaluation we relied on systematic semiannual population counts that have been conducted across most wetlands in the state and monthly population counts that have occurred on Refuges during the same time period. We found that statewide and Refuge populations of the Hawaiian Coot, Stilt and Gallinule have rebounded from historic lows and over the last 20 years have slowly increased or remained stable. We also documented that Refuges are important to each species year-round and that a disproportionately larger percentage of the population for each species is found on them. Understanding of why Refuges successfully house a disproportionate percentage of these "conservation reliant" species can inform current and future conservation efforts as well as ensure long-term population viability for these species. PMID:23825687

  16. Scientific Encounters of the Endangered Kind. Reading Activities That Explore Nature's Endangered Species. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    Many forms of wildlife are being threatened by changing ecological conditions, pollution, pesticides, human carelessness, and conditions. Efforts are being made to preserve endangered wildlife species. This document provides a partial listing of endangered and threatened species of mammals, birds, and reptiles in North America and its nearby…

  17. Ecosystem studies, endangered species survey - Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas, Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report is published as a product of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. The objective of this program is the development of terminal waste storage facilities in deep stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the federal government is responsible. This report is part of the location and site characterization phase and contains threatened and endangered species information for the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas of the Paradox Region. The threatened and endangered species information was obtained through site surveys designed and implemented by area experts. The site surveys were performed during the period late summer 1981 - spring 1982 in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge Study Areas. No threatened or endangered species were identified in either Lavender or Davis canyons. Additional studies at the borehole locations in Beef Basin did identify the nearest occurrence of a species proposed for endangered status (Astragalus monumentalis, a monument milkvetch, member of the legume family). The species was identified approximately 160 to 300 m (500 to 1000 ft) from a hydro testing drill site. Consequently, construction and operation activity should not cause any adverse impacts. This report will be used to satisfy Section 7 requirements of the Endangered Species Act (PL 93-205 as amended) and to allow the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to verify that no protected species are subject to disturbance as the result of project activities occurring in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas.

  18. Protected areas and prospects for endangered species conservation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Deguise, Isabelle E; Kerr, Jeremy T

    2006-02-01

    Reserve networks figure prominently in conservation strategies that aim to reduce extinction rates. We tested the effectiveness of the current reserve network at protecting species at risk in Canada, where relatively extensive wilderness areas remain. We compared numbers of terrestrial species at risk included in existing reserves to randomly generated networks with the same total area and number of reserves. Existing reserve networks rarely performed better than randomly selected areas and several included fewer endangered species than expected by chance, particularly in the most biologically imperiled regions. The extent of protected area and density of species at risk were unrelated at either broad (countrywide) or finer spatial scales (50 x 50 km grids), although there was a tendency for the most threatened regions of the country to have few or no protected areas (1.5% of areas with >30 endangered species were in reserves). Although reserves will play a useful role in conserving endangered species that occur within them, reducing extinction rates in a region with much of the world's remaining wilderness will require integrating conservation strategies with agricultural and urban land-use plans outside formally protected areas. PMID:16909658

  19. 77 FR 19597 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Chinook Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... of Chinook salmon, we use the description of that ESU (Myers et al., 1998 and 63 FR 11482; March 9... substantial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted (76 FR 20302; April 12, 2011... of Species Under the Endangered Species Act to Pacific Salmon (ESU Policy; 56 FR 68612; November...

  20. 77 FR 53223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal... with endangered species authorized by section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and...

  1. Sea-level rise: Destruction of threatened and endangered species habitat in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Richard C.; White, Tammy W.; Chapman, Kimberly K.

    1993-05-01

    Concern for the environment has increased over the past century, and the US Congress has responded to this concern by passing legislation designed to protect the nation’s ecological biodiversity. This legislation, culminating with the Endangered Species Act of 1973, has been instrumental in defining methods for identifying and protecting endangered or threatened species and their habitats. Current legislation, however, assumes that the range of a protected species will stay constant over time. This assumption may no longer be valid, as the unprecedented increase in the number and concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has the potential to cause a global warming of 1.0-4.5°C and a sea-level rise (SLR) of 31-150 cm by the year 2100. Changes in climate of this magnitude are capable of causing shifts in the population structure and range of most animal species. This article examines the effects that SLR may have on the habitats of endangered and threatened species at three scales. At the regional scale 52 endangered or threatened plant and animal species were found to reside within 3 m of mean sea level in the coastal stages of the US Southeast. At the state level, the habitats of nine endangered or threatened animals that may be at risk from future SLR were identified. At the local level, a microscale analysis was conducted in the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, USA, on the adverse effects that SLR may have on the habitats of the American alligator, brown pelican, loggerhead sea turtle, and wood stork.

  2. Veterinary diclofenac threatens Africa's endangered vulture species.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Cuthbert, R; Duncan, N

    2009-04-01

    Veterinary diclofenac has been responsible for the devastation of three species of Gyps vulture on the Indian subcontinent, and it is now regarded as one of the worst environmental contaminants in the recent past. While measures have been taken to control the manufacture of veterinary diclofenac in South Asia, the promotion of diclofenac on the African continent poses a risk to vultures in this region. In Southern Africa, the species of greatest conservation concern is the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres), as only 2900 breeding pairs remain in the wild. The objective of this study was to test if this species is toxicologically sensitive to diclofenac. In a single dose-toxicity study, two adult Cape Griffon Vultures with severe injuries, that were considered to have a very poor prognostic outcome, were dosed intravenously with diclofenac at 0.8mg/kg. The changes in the clinical pathology were compared to the normal reference range established for 24 healthy Cape Griffon Vultures. Both birds died within 48h of dosing. The clinical signs, clinical pathology, gross pathology and histopathological finding were typical for diclofenac toxicity. It would appear that the sensitivity of the Cape Griffon is similar to that of their Asian counterparts and the African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus). Diclofenac is almost certainly toxic to all Gyps vultures species and strong efforts must be taken to ensure that veterinary diclofenac products are not licensed or introduced to the African continent. PMID:19545505

  3. Veterinary diclofenac threatens Africa's endangered vulture species.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Cuthbert, R; Duncan, N

    2009-04-01

    Veterinary diclofenac has been responsible for the devastation of three species of Gyps vulture on the Indian subcontinent, and it is now regarded as one of the worst environmental contaminants in the recent past. While measures have been taken to control the manufacture of veterinary diclofenac in South Asia, the promotion of diclofenac on the African continent poses a risk to vultures in this region. In Southern Africa, the species of greatest conservation concern is the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres), as only 2900 breeding pairs remain in the wild. The objective of this study was to test if this species is toxicologically sensitive to diclofenac. In a single dose-toxicity study, two adult Cape Griffon Vultures with severe injuries, that were considered to have a very poor prognostic outcome, were dosed intravenously with diclofenac at 0.8mg/kg. The changes in the clinical pathology were compared to the normal reference range established for 24 healthy Cape Griffon Vultures. Both birds died within 48h of dosing. The clinical signs, clinical pathology, gross pathology and histopathological finding were typical for diclofenac toxicity. It would appear that the sensitivity of the Cape Griffon is similar to that of their Asian counterparts and the African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus). Diclofenac is almost certainly toxic to all Gyps vultures species and strong efforts must be taken to ensure that veterinary diclofenac products are not licensed or introduced to the African continent.

  4. 50 CFR 224.102 - Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits for endangered marine and..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.102 Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species. No person...

  5. 50 CFR 224.102 - Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits for endangered marine and..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES § 224.102 Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species. No person...

  6. Use of standard effluent toxicity tests for protection of endangered and threatened species

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, C.E.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    1995-12-31

    Water quality criteria and many other environmental assessment tools are based on the results of laboratory toxicity tests. For a variety of reasons, these tests are typically conducted using one of several common laboratory species; results from these tests are then extrapolated with the intention of providing protection for other species not tested directly. This surrogate species approach is particularly necessary for threatened and endangered (listed) species, for which direct toxicity testing is often impractical. However, without direct knowledge of listed species sensitivity, it is not possible to be certain whether these species are adequately protected by current environmental practices. Moreover, the level of protection intended by water quality criteria (e.g., 95% of species) may not be sufficient to meet the requirements of the Endangered Species Act. The authors conducted short-term chronic toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and two listed species, bonytail chub and Colorado squawfish. Methods for Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow tests were as described by USEPA for effluent testing under the NPDES program; tests with listed species were patterned after the fathead minnow test procedures. Tests were conducted with; (1) ammonia, (2) carbaryl, and (3) a mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin. Preliminary data analysis indicates that the two listed species respond in a similar manner as the fathead minnow. The sensitivity of listed species to contaminant exposures and implications for regulatory procedures will be discussed.

  7. Valuing improvements to threatened and endangered marine species: an application of stated preference choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2011-07-01

    Non-market valuation research has produced value estimates for over forty threatened and endangered (T&E) species, including mammals, fish, birds, and crustaceans. Increasingly, Stated Preference Choice Experiments (SPCE) are utilized for valuation, as the format offers flexibility for policy analysis and may reduce certain types of response biases relative to the more traditional Contingent Valuation method. Additionally, SPCE formats can allow respondents to make trade-offs among multiple species, providing information on the distinctiveness of preferences for different T&E species. In this paper we present results of an SPCE involving three U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed species: the Puget Sound Chinook salmon, the Hawaiian monk seal, and the smalltooth sawfish. We estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) values for improving each species' ESA listing status and statistically compare these values between the three species using a method of convolutions approach. Our results suggest that respondents have distinct preferences for the three species, and that WTP estimates differ depending on the species and the level of improvement to their ESA status. Our results should be of interest to researchers and policy-makers, as we provide value estimates for three species that have limited, if any, estimates available in the economics literature, as well as new information about the way respondents make trade-offs among three taxonomically different species. PMID:21392881

  8. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  9. Protectiveness of Species Sensitivity Distribution Hazard Concentrations for Acute Toxicity Used in Endangered Species Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    A primary objective of threatened and endangered species conservation is to ensure that chemical contaminants and other stressors do not adversely affect listed species. Assessments of the ecological risks of chemical exposures to listed species often rely on the use of surrogate...

  10. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose

  11. Low profile harmonic radar transponder for tracking small endangered species.

    PubMed

    Kiriazi, John; Nakakura, Jayson; Hall, Kevin; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation of threatened species' habitat attributable to anthropogenic activity is a major concern. Understanding these animals' dispersal ecology and range utilization can greatly aid in designing preserves for their conservation, but this data is extremely difficult to obtain for populations of small animals. Presented here is a study miniature passive harmonic radar tags which allow the tracking of an endangered snail species without adversely affecting the tagged subjects. Whip antennas were found to be problematic through snagging and interference with snail activity. Alternative low-profile planar antennas were also tested, with bow-tie related antenna forms providing reasonable (up to 7 ft) detection range.

  12. Critical habitat for threatened and endangered species: how should the economic costs be evaluated?

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Andrew J; Helvoigt, Ted L; Walker, Kirsten

    2014-02-15

    The designation of critical habitat is a feature of endangered species protection laws in many countries. Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, economics cannot enter into decisions to list species as threatened or endangered, but can be considered when critical habitat is designated. Areas can be excluded from proposed critical habitat if the economic cost of including them is determined to exceed the benefits of inclusion, and exclusion would not result in extinction of the species. The economic analysis done to support critical habitat exclusions has been controversial, and the focus of much litigation. We evaluate a sample of these analyses, and discuss the exclusions that were made in each case. We discuss how the methodology used to measure economic costs of critical habitat has changed over time and provide a critique of these alternative methods. We find that the approach currently in use is sound from an economic perspective. Nevertheless, quantification of the costs of critical habitat faces numerous challenges, including great uncertainty about future events, questions about the appropriate scale for the analysis, and the need to account for complex market feedbacks and values of non-market goods. For the studies we reviewed, there was no evidence that the results of the economic analyses provided information that was useful for making decisions about exemptions from critical habitat designations. If economics is to play a meaningful role in determining endangered species protections, an alternative would be to allow listing decisions to be based on economic as well as biological factors, as is typical for species conservation laws in other countries.

  13. 76 FR 62375 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist Coho Salmon Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... California Coast (SONCC) coho salmon ESU, which is listed as threatened (70 FR 37160; June 28, 2005), and... June 28, 2005 (70 FR 37160). In that final rule, we concluded that the SONCC coho salmon ESU includes... Endangered Species Act Listing Determinations for Pacific Salmon and Steelhead'' (70 FR 37204; June 28,...

  14. 78 FR 64691 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Five Foreign Bird Species in Colombia and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... numerous threats and warrant listing under the Act as endangered species (74 FR 32308). Therefore, we... reopened the comment period for an additional 60 days (74 FR 57987). During the comment periods, we sought... published a positive 90-day finding on May 12, 1981 (46 FR 26464), to initiate a status review for...

  15. 76 FR 46361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... 23 species proposed for listing are candidate species (75 FR 69222; November 10, 2010). Candidate... are Candidates for Listing as Threatened or Endangered (CNOR) (75 FR 69222). On May 4, 2004, the... (including our findings on the 19 candidate species listed above) in the CNORs dated May 11, 2005 (70...

  16. Biodiversity and the Recovery of Threatened and Endangered Salmon Species in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report of 8 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, C. R.

    1993-06-01

    The stated purpose of the Endangered Species Act is to provide a means whereby the ecosystem upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved. Conservation of the Columbia River ecosystem and the diversity of gene pools, life histories, species, and communities that comprise it, should become a major objective of species recovery and fish and wildlife management programs in the Columbia River Basin. Biodiversity is important to both species and ecosystem health, and is a prerequisite to long-term sustainability of biological resources. In this paper, I provide an overview of various approaches to defining, measuring, monitoring, and protecting biodiversity. A holistic approach is stressed that simultaneously considers diverse species and resource management needs. Emphasis is on threatened and endangered species of salmon and their associated habitat.

  17. 75 FR 78731 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... certain activities with endangered species (75 FR 57977). The applicant subsequently submitted additional... period. Applicant: Los Angeles Zoo, Los Angeles, CA; PRT-106091 The applicant requests renewal of...

  18. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  19. An introduction to adaptive management for threatened and endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Management of threatened and endangered species would seem to be a perfect context for adaptive management. Many of the decisions are recurrent and plagued by uncertainty, exactly the conditions that warrant an adaptive approach. But although the potential of adaptive management in these settings has been extolled, there are limited applications in practice. The impediments to practical implementation are manifold and include semantic confusion, institutional inertia, misperceptions about the suitability and utility, and a lack of guiding examples. In this special section of the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, we hope to reinvigorate the appropriate application of adaptive management for threatened and endangered species by framing such management in a decision-analytical context, clarifying misperceptions, classifying the types of decisions that might be amenable to an adaptive approach, and providing three fully developed case studies. In this overview paper, I define terms, review the past application of adaptive management, challenge perceived hurdles, and set the stage for the case studies which follow.

  20. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED AQUATIC SPECIES WITH ACUTE TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to endangered and threatened (listed) species requires understanding of a species' sensitivity to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation...

  1. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of acute toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several species of threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  2. Is the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, an endangered species? It depends on what "endangered" means.

    PubMed

    Oates, John F

    2006-01-01

    I review information on the status in the wild of the robust chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, and consider whether this evidence is consistent with the designation of P. troglodytes as Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List, and with public statements to the effect that great apes as a whole will be extinct within a few decades. Chimpanzees remain widespread in tropical Africa, occurring in a variety of forested habitats. Estimates of total surviving numbers have increased from about 200,000 in the 1980s to a maximum of almost 300,000 in 2003. However, this apparent increase comes about from new survey data, rather than representing a measured increase in actual population numbers. Infectious disease decimated several chimpanzee populations during the 1990s, and data from parts of Gabon, extrapolated to that country as a whole, suggest a major decline in great ape populations caused by disease and hunting. However, accurate data on population numbers are absent for the majority of wild chimpanzee populations. I found reports of the presence of Pan troglodytes in at least 51 national parks in at least 19 countries; some of these parks have been established very recently. Chimpanzees also occur in many non-park conservation areas. A set of large, well-protected parks could safeguard chimpanzees for the foreseeable future. Although many African parks do not function well at present, mechanisms to improve their function are understood and available. By a strict application of IUCN threat criteria, P. troglodytes can be considered Endangered, based on estimated rates of past decline and on the species' long generation time. Relatively speaking, however, P. troglodytes is less endangered than are orangutans or gorillas, and the species is unlikely to go extinct by the year 2100, especially if existing conservation measures improve. The IUCN threat-rating system has become overly complex; the system can

  3. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Treglia, Michael L.; Grant, William E.; Smeins, Fred E.; Rogers, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  4. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Treglia, Michael L; Grant, William E; Smeins, Fred E; Rogers, William E

    2015-04-21

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  5. Videographic evidence of endangered species depredation by feral cat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judge, Seth; Lippert, Jill S.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Hess, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis cafus) have long been implicated as nest predators of endangered 'Ua'u (Hawaiian Petrel; Pterodroma sandwichensis) on Hawaii Island, but until recently, visual confirmation has been limited by available technology. 'Ua'u nest out of view, deep inside small cavities, on alpine lava flows. During the breeding seasons of 2007 and 2008, we monitored known burrows within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Digital infrared video cameras assisted in determining the breeding behaviour and nesting success at the most isolated of burrows. With 7 cameras, we collected a total of 819 videos and 89 still photographs of adult and nestling 'Ua'u at 14 burrows. Videos also confirmed the presence of rats (Rattus spp.) at 2 burrows, 'Ōmao (Myadestes obscurus) at 8 burrows, and feral cats at 6 burrows. A sequence of videos showed a feral cat taking a downy 'Ua'u chick from its burrow, representing the first direct evidence of 'Ua'u depredation by feral cat in Hawai'i. This technique provides greater understanding of feral cat behaviour in 'Ua'u colonies, which may assist in the development of more targeted management strategies to reduce nest predation on endangered insular bird species.

  6. Endangered Species Listing Handbook: handbook to preparing and processing actions to list, delist, or reclassify endangered or threatened species (third edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This Handbook is used to prepare or complete actions to list, delist, or reclassify endangered or threatened species. The handbook provides technical guidelines for the preparation of any notice, proposed rule, or final rule relating to endangered species listings, delistings, reclassifications, critical habitat designation, special rules, petition findings, and experimental populations. The handbook will assist managers, biologists, and clerical staffs in the preparation of listing documents.

  7. 76 FR 10623 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit AGENCY... the Federal Register, we are forwarding copies of the above application to the Marine Mammal... conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. With some exceptions,...

  8. 76 FR 77006 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government'' (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... conduct certain activities with endangered species (76 FR 66954). We made an error by omitting one animal... final action is taken. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Mountain...

  9. Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Shuster, Stephen [Penn State University

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Stephen Shuster of Penn State University gives a presentation on "Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  10. Rare and endangered species: freshwater gastropods of southern New England

    SciTech Connect

    Jokinen, E.H.; Pondick, J.

    1981-01-01

    The rare and endangered species of freshwater gastropods of southern New England are reported on based upon data collected over the past four years. Field sampling was concentrated in Connecticut but included parts of southern Massachusetts east to Cape Code (69 55 W to 73 45'W, 40 00'N). Water chemistry data were collected along with the snails. Collection methods and water analysis techniques have been described elsewhere by Jokinen (The Nautilus 92:156-160, 1978). Voucher specimens have been placed in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, The Florida State Museum, and the Museum of Zoology, the University of Michigan. Acid rain poses a threat to poorly buffered habitats. 6 references, 1 table.

  11. Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Shuster, Stephen

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Stephen Shuster of Penn State University gives a presentation on "Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  12. Hybridization and endangered species protection in the molecular era.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Robert K; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2016-06-01

    After decades of discussion, there is little consensus on the extent to which hybrids between endangered and nonendangered species should be protected by US law. As increasingly larger, genome-scale data sets are developed, we can identify individuals and populations with even trace levels of genetic admixture, making the 'hybrid problem' all the more difficult. We developed a decision-tree framework for evaluating hybrid protection, including both the processes that produced hybrids (human-mediated or natural) and the ecological impact of hybrids on natural ecosystems. We then evaluated our decision tree for four case studies drawn from our own work and briefly discuss several other cases from the literature. Throughout, we highlight the management outcomes that our approach provides and the nuances of hybridization as a conservation problem.

  13. Hybridization and endangered species protection in the molecular era.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Robert K; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2016-06-01

    After decades of discussion, there is little consensus on the extent to which hybrids between endangered and nonendangered species should be protected by US law. As increasingly larger, genome-scale data sets are developed, we can identify individuals and populations with even trace levels of genetic admixture, making the 'hybrid problem' all the more difficult. We developed a decision-tree framework for evaluating hybrid protection, including both the processes that produced hybrids (human-mediated or natural) and the ecological impact of hybrids on natural ecosystems. We then evaluated our decision tree for four case studies drawn from our own work and briefly discuss several other cases from the literature. Throughout, we highlight the management outcomes that our approach provides and the nuances of hybridization as a conservation problem. PMID:27064931

  14. On the Value of Endangered and Other Species

    PubMed

    SAGOFF

    1996-11-01

    / This paper describes two frameworks-utilitarian and Kantian-society uses to make decisions concerning environmental management and, in particular, species protection. The utilitarian framework emphasizes the consequences of choices for prior preferences. A perfectly competitive market, on this model, correctly values environmental resources. The Kantian approach identifies rules appropriate to recognized situations given the identity of the decision maker. It relies on democratic political processes and institutions to provide the means by which citizens determine the identity of their community-its moral character and aspirations-and match appropriate rules to recognized situations. This paper argues that markets do not fail in any general way in measuring the economic value of plants and animals. Market prices, in general, correctly represent the marginal or exchange value of species. If society legislates against extinction, this must be understood as an exercise in Kantian decision making in view of the moral value of species, not as an attempt to "correct" a market failure or to promote social welfare or utility.KEY WORDS: Biodiversity; Endangered species; Cost-benefit analysis; Social choice; Contingent valuation; Kant

  15. Mycorrhizal dependency of some endemic and endangered Hawaiian plant species.

    PubMed

    Gemma, J N; Koske, R E; Habte, M

    2002-02-01

    Four endemic species of Hawaiian plants were tested for their response to inoculation with a Hawaiian isolate of Glomus aggregatum (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus [AMF]) when grown in a native soil with or without P added to achieve different soil-solution P levels. The endangered species (Sesbania tomentosa [Fabaceae] and Colubrina oppositifolia [Rhamnaceae]) and two nonendangered species (Bidens sandvicensis and B. asymmetrica × sandvicensis [Asteraceae]) were tested. When soil-solution P levels in greenhouse trials were similar to unfertilized field soils (e.g., 0.005-0.020 mg P/L), shoots of inoculated plants were 2.1 to 7.0 times larger than noninoculated plants. Leaf tissue P levels and root biomass in these species showed similar responses to inoculation. Mycorrhizal dependencies ranging from 44 to 88% were measured when plants were grown in low-P soils and were -4-42% in soil with P levels typical of highly productive agricultural soils. A survey of P levels in a variety of native (nonagricultural) Hawaiian soils indicated the widespread occurrence of P-limited sites (mean = 0.010 mg P/L, range = <0.001-0.030 mg P/L; N = 41). The terms "ecological mycorrhizal dependency" (EMD) and "agricultural mycorrhizal dependency" (AMD) are introduced to refine the concept of mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:21669742

  16. Endangered and threatened plant species on the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.

    1984-10-01

    Plant species considered endangered or threatened on the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) were identified through a review of pertinent literature and evaluation of herbarium voucher specimens. Thirteen plant species are on the official Tennessee list of endangered and threatened plants. Three of those species have been proposed for inclusion on the Federal list as rare in Tennessee. These rare plants will be given careful consideration in land-use planning. Protection of endangered and threatened species in their native habitat is considered the best method of ensuring their survival. In addition to habitat preservation, natural history studies of the rare species is important in determ

  17. 78 FR 60607 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Echinomastus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... of Dripping Spring within 3 m (10 ft) of the U.S.-Mexico border; an exact location was not provided... Their Ranges AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish... Federal protections provided by the Act for these species. The effect of this regulation will be to...

  18. Threatened and Endangered Species Evaluation for Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-15

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 requires that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered (T&E) species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) staff have performed appropriate assessments of potential impacts to threatened or endangered species, and consulted with appropriate agencies with regard to protection of such species in authorizing the construction, operation, and relicensing of nuclear power generating facilities. However, the assessments and consultations concerning many facilities were performed during the 1970's or early 1980's, and have not been re-evaluated in detail or updated since those initial evaluations. A review of potential Endangered Species Act issues at licensed nuclear power facilities was completed in 1997. In that review 484 different ESA-listed species were identified as potentially occurring near one or more of the 75 facility sites that were examined. An update of the previous T&E species evaluation at this time is desired because, during the intervening 6 years: nearly 200 species have been added to the ESA list, critical habitats have been designated for many of the listed species, and significantly more information is available online, allowing for more efficient high-level evaluations of potential species presence near sites and the potential operation impacts. The updated evaluation included searching the NRC's ADAMS database to find any documents related to T

  19. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  20. Use of SSDs in the USA – endangered species and water quality criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are used in the United States (US) in the development of national ambient water quality criteria (AWQC), with site-specific and numeric modifications to protect sensitive taxa including threatened and endangered species. The US Environment...

  1. 77 FR 71012 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Sixteenth Regular Meeting; Public Meeting AGENCY: Fish..., as a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora...: Background The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora,...

  2. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzner, R.E.; Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  3. Protectiveness of species sensitivity distribution hazard concentrations for acute toxicity used in endangered species risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Delos, Charles; Barron, Mace G

    2008-12-01

    A primary objective of threatened and endangered species conservation is to ensure that chemical contaminants and other stressors do not adversely affect listed species. Assessments of the ecological risks of chemical exposures to listed species often rely on the use of surrogate species, safety factors, and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of chemical toxicity; however, the protectiveness of these approaches can be uncertain. We comprehensively evaluated the protectiveness of SSD first and fifth percentile hazard concentrations (HC1, HC5) relative to the application of safety factors using 68 SSDs generated from 1,482 acute (lethal concentration of 50%, or LC50) toxicity records for 291 species, including 24 endangered species (20 fish, four mussels). The SSD HC5s and HCls were lower than 97 and 99.5% of all endangered species mean acute LC50s, respectively. The HC5s were significantly less than the concentrations derived from applying safety factors of 5 and 10 to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) toxicity data, and the HCls were generally lower than the concentrations derived from a safety factor of 100 applied to rainbow trout toxicity values. Comparison of relative sensitivity (SSD percentiles) of broad taxonomic groups showed that crustaceans were generally the most sensitive taxa and taxa sensitivity was related to chemical mechanism of action. Comparison of relative sensitivity of narrow fish taxonomic groups showed that standard test fish species were generally less sensitive than salmonids and listed fish. We recommend the use of SSDs as a distribution-based risk assessment approach that is generally protective of listed species.

  4. Value for money: protecting endangered species on Danish heathland.

    PubMed

    Strange, Niels; Jacobsen, Jette B; Thorsen, Bo J; Tarp, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Biodiversity policies in the European Union (EU) are mainly implemented through the Birds and Habitats Directives as well as the establishment of Natura 2000, a network of protected areas throughout the EU. Considerable resources must be allocated for fulfilling the Directives and the question of optimal allocation is as important as it is difficult. In general, economic evaluations of conservation targets at most consider the costs and seldom the welfare economic benefits. In the present study, we use welfare economic benefit estimates concerning the willingness-to-pay for preserving endangered species and for the aggregate area of heathland preserved in Denmark. Similarly, we obtain estimates of the welfare economic cost of habitat restoration and maintenance. Combining these welfare economic measures with expected species coverage, we are able to estimate the potential welfare economic contribution of a conservation network. We compare three simple nonprobabilistic strategies likely to be used in day-to-day policy implementation: i) a maximum selected area strategy, ii) a hotspot selection strategy, and iii) a minimizing cost strategy, and two more advanced and informed probabilistic strategies: i) a maximum expected coverage strategy and ii) a strategy for maximum expected welfare economic gain. We show that the welfare economic performance of the strategies differ considerably. The comparison between the expected coverage and expected welfare shows that for the case considered, one may identify an optimal protection level above which additional coverage only comes at increasing welfare economic loss. PMID:17906890

  5. A model for improving endangered species recovery programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brian; Reading, Richard; Conway, Courtney; Jackson, Jerome A.; Hutchins, Michael; Snyder, Noel; Forrest, Steve; Frazier, Jack; Derrickson, Scott

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses common organizational problems that cause inadequate planning and implementation processes of endangered species recovery across biologically dissimilar species. If these problems occur, even proven biological conservation techniques are jeopardized. We propose a solution that requires accountability in all phases of the restoration process and is based on cooperative input among government agencies, nongovernmental conservation organizations, and the academic community. The first step is formation of a task-oriented recovery team that integrates the best expertise into the planning process. This interdisciplinary team should be composed of people whose skills directly address issues critical for recovery. Once goals and procedures are established, the responsible agency (for example, in the United States, the US Fish and Wildlife Service) could divest some or all of its obligation for implementing the plan, yet still maintain oversight by holding implementing entities contractually accountable. Regular, periodic outside review and public documentation of the recovery team, lead agency, and the accomplishments of implementing bodies would permit evaluation necessary to improve performance. Increased cooperation among agency and nongovernmental organizations provided by this model promises a more efficient use of limited resources toward the conservation of biodiversity.

  6. Value for Money: Protecting Endangered Species on Danish Heathland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, Niels; Jacobsen, Jette B.; Thorsen, Bo J.; Tarp, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Biodiversity policies in the European Union (EU) are mainly implemented through the Birds and Habitats Directives as well as the establishment of Natura 2000, a network of protected areas throughout the EU. Considerable resources must be allocated for fulfilling the Directives and the question of optimal allocation is as important as it is difficult. In general, economic evaluations of conservation targets at most consider the costs and seldom the welfare economic benefits. In the present study, we use welfare economic benefit estimates concerning the willingness-to-pay for preserving endangered species and for the aggregate area of heathland preserved in Denmark. Similarly, we obtain estimates of the welfare economic cost of habitat restoration and maintenance. Combining these welfare economic measures with expected species coverage, we are able to estimate the potential welfare economic contribution of a conservation network. We compare three simple nonprobabilistic strategies likely to be used in day-to-day policy implementation: i) a maximum selected area strategy, ii) a hotspot selection strategy, and iii) a minimizing cost strategy, and two more advanced and informed probabilistic strategies: i) a maximum expected coverage strategy and ii) a strategy for maximum expected welfare economic gain. We show that the welfare economic performance of the strategies differ considerably. The comparison between the expected coverage and expected welfare shows that for the case considered, one may identify an optimal protection level above which additional coverage only comes at increasing welfare economic loss.

  7. 50 CFR 224.102 - Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species. 224.102 Section 224.102 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED...

  8. 50 CFR 224.102 - Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species. 224.102 Section 224.102 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED...

  9. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  10. 50 CFR 224.102 - Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for endangered marine and anadromous species. 224.102 Section 224.102 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS ENDANGERED...

  11. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover's Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus).

  12. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover`s Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus).

  13. A Guide to the Recorded Distribution of Endangered, Threatened and Rare Species in Michigan. Providing a Bibliographic Discussion of the Subject, Annotated List of Reference Sources and Directory of Local Nature Associations, Centers, Agencies, and University Field Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakes, Nancy A.

    This document is a guide to sources of information on endangered species distribution in Michigan. It was prepared for CETA (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act) students who will collect the documents. The guide is divided into three major sections. The first section includes an introduction (briefly discussing endangered, rare, threatened…

  14. 76 FR 3391 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sheepnose and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list two freshwater mussels, the spectaclecase mussel (Cumberlandia monodonta) and sheepnose (Plethobasus cyphyus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to these species throughout their ranges, including sheepnose in......

  15. Results of preconstruction surveys used as a management technique for conserving endangered species and their habitats on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.T.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Johnson, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    In 1976 an intensive program of petroleum production at maximum efficient rate was initiated on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills) in western Kern County, California. In a Biological Opinion required by the Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that proposed construction and production activities may jeopardize the continued existence of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and the blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Gambelia silus, inhabiting the Reserve. DOE committed itself to carrying out a compensation/mitigation plan to offset impacts of program activities on endangered species and their habitats. One compensation/mitigation strategy was to develop and implement preconstruction surveys to assess potential conflicts between proposed construction activities, and endangered species and their critical habitats, and to propose reasonable and prudent alternatives to avoid conflicts. Between 1980 and 1984, preconstruction surveys were completed for 296 of a total of 387 major construction projects encompassing 3590 acres. Fewer than 22% of the projects potentially conflicted with conservation of endangered species, and most conflicts were easily resolved by identifying sensitive areas that required protection. Only 8% of the projects received minor modification in their design or locations to satisfy conservation needs, and only three projects had to be completely relocated. No projects were cancelled or delayed because of conflicts with endangered species, and costs to conduct preconstruction surveys were minimal. 27 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 75 FR 76022 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... include. The comments and recommendations that will be most useful and likely to influence agency..., in interstate commerce specimen cultures from endangered non-human primates for the purpose...

  17. 78 FR 43145 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC767 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  18. 76 FR 30386 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; PRT-124346 The applicant requests renewal of the permit to import biological samples...

  19. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures were conducted (EPA 1994) with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and four endangered fish species: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucias ), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and Gila t...

  20. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: 3. EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dwyer, F. James, Douglas K. Hardesty, Christopher E. Henke, Christopher G. Ingersoll, David W. Whites, Tom Augspurger, Timothy J. Canfield, David R. Mount and Foster L. Mayer. Submitted. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Species: 3. Effluent Tests. Ar...

  1. 78 FR 57749 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... proposed rule (77 FR 59518) to list the Mount Charleston blue butterfly as endangered, and the lupine blue.... 8-9). In the September 27, 2012, proposed rule (77 FR 59518), we identified Lee Meadows to be... FR 59518), we identified the Bonanza Trail location (Location 10) as presumed occupied. Detections...

  2. 75 FR 18959 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Proposed for Listing as Threatened or Endangered (CNOR) (73 FR 75176, December 10, 2008). On May 4, 2004... (70 FR 24870), September 12, 2006 (71 FR 53756), December 6, 2007 (72 FR 69033), and December 10, 2008 (73 FR 75176). On October 11, 2007, we received a petition from Dr. Eric VanderWerf and the...

  3. Spatial Designation of Critical Habitats for Endangered and Threatened Species in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, Mark A; Singh, Nagendra; Sabesan, Aarthy

    2008-01-01

    Establishing biological reserves or "hot spots" for endangered and threatened species is critical to support real-world species regulatory and management problems. Geographic data on the distribution of endangered and threatened species can be used to improve ongoing efforts for species conservation in the United States. At present no spatial database exists which maps out the location endangered species for the US. However, spatial descriptions do exists for the habitat associated with all endangered species, but in a form not readily suitable to use in a geographic information system (GIS). In our study, the principal challenge was extracting spatial data describing these critical habitats for 472 species from over 1000 pages of the federal register. In addition, an appropriate database schema was designed to accommodate the different tiers of information associated with the species along with the confidence of designation; the interpreted location data was geo-referenced to the county enumeration unit producing a spatial database of endangered species for the whole of US. The significance of these critical habitat designations, database scheme and methodologies will be discussed.

  4. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  5. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management. PMID:27376076

  6. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species

    PubMed Central

    Irizarry, Kristopher J. L.; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L.; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C.

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management. PMID:27376076

  7. 75 FR 11863 - Endangered Species; File No. 15135

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... endangered sea turtles for purposes of scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments... promise for reducing sea turtle bycatch in another location. Two contracted commercial gillnet vessels..., photographed, and flipper and PIT tagged. Captured sea turtles would be examined for any possible...

  8. 76 FR 33245 - Endangered Species; File No. 15135

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Register (75 FR 11863) that a request for a scientific research permit to take sea turtles had been... Isle, NC 28594, has been issued a permit to take threatened and endangered sea turtles for purposes... determine if gear modifications can eliminate or reduce sea turtle bycatch. Two contracted...

  9. 78 FR 14078 - Endangered Species; File No. 17405

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ..., San Diego, CA 92152 has applied in due form for a permit to take black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii... endangered black abalone (focusing on successful spawning, increased fertilization, increased settlement, and recruitment). No black abalone will be taken from the wild, nor will animals be returned to the wild...

  10. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  11. Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Robin; Arvai, Joseph; Gerber, Leah R

    2013-12-01

    The management of endangered species under climate change is a challenging and often controversial task that incorporates input from a variety of different environmental, economic, social, and political interests. Yet many listing and recovery decisions for endangered species unfold on an ad hoc basis without reference to decision-aiding approaches that can improve the quality of management choices. Unlike many treatments of this issue, which consider endangered species management a science-based problem, we suggest that a clear decision-making process is equally necessary. In the face of new threats due to climate change, managers' choices about endangered species require closely linked analyses and deliberations that identify key objectives and develop measurable attributes, generate and compare management alternatives, estimate expected consequences and key sources of uncertainty, and clarify trade-offs across different dimensions of value. Several recent cases of endangered species conservation decisions illustrate our proposed decision-focused approach, including Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recovery framework development, Cultus Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) management, and Upper Columbia River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recovery planning. Estructuración de Decisiones para Manejar Especies Amenazadas y en Peligro en un Clima Cambiante. PMID:24299087

  12. Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Robin; Arvai, Joseph; Gerber, Leah R

    2013-12-01

    The management of endangered species under climate change is a challenging and often controversial task that incorporates input from a variety of different environmental, economic, social, and political interests. Yet many listing and recovery decisions for endangered species unfold on an ad hoc basis without reference to decision-aiding approaches that can improve the quality of management choices. Unlike many treatments of this issue, which consider endangered species management a science-based problem, we suggest that a clear decision-making process is equally necessary. In the face of new threats due to climate change, managers' choices about endangered species require closely linked analyses and deliberations that identify key objectives and develop measurable attributes, generate and compare management alternatives, estimate expected consequences and key sources of uncertainty, and clarify trade-offs across different dimensions of value. Several recent cases of endangered species conservation decisions illustrate our proposed decision-focused approach, including Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recovery framework development, Cultus Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) management, and Upper Columbia River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) recovery planning. Estructuración de Decisiones para Manejar Especies Amenazadas y en Peligro en un Clima Cambiante.

  13. 78 FR 13694 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Sixteenth Regular Meeting; Tentative U.S. Negotiating... to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), will... Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, referred to here as CITES or the Convention, is an international...

  14. 75 FR 16745 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist Coho Salmon South of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... salmon ESU. The CCC coho salmon ESU was listed as a threatened species on October 31, 1996 (61 FR 56138), and subsequently reclassified as an endangered species on June 28, 2005 (70 FR 37160). For more... FR 33102; June 14, 2004) or ``Final Rule Endangered and Threatened Species; Threatened Status...

  15. Rare, threatened, and endangered plant species southwest Florida and potential OCS activity impacts

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    This report on rare, threatened, and endangered plants of southwest Florida is a compilation of all species so designated or considered for listing by Federal, State, and private agencies or organizations. Of 274 species in Pinellas, Hillsborough, Manatee, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, Collier, and Monroe Counties, 43 occurring in coastal habitats will be most affected by Outer Continental Shelf development.

  16. 75 FR 8053 - A Framework for Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of public... Endangered Species to Climate Change'' (EPA/600/R-09/011). This extension is being granted in response to... framework that may be used to categorize the relative vulnerability of species to climate change....

  17. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplement to IUCN Bulletin, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the endangered species of wild animals and plants of the world prompted the drafting of this international convention regulating the import, export, and re-export of such species. Nations signing this document are required to impose strict controls on the international trade of these plants and animals or their recognizable parts. The…

  18. 76 FR 20179 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of Critical Habitat for Cook Inlet Beluga Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ..., 2008, we published a Final Rule to list the Cook Inlet beluga whale as an endangered species (73 FR... beluga whales. This critical habitat was subsequently proposed on December 2, 2009 (74 FR 63080). The... beluga whale is a northern hemisphere species that inhabits fjords, estuaries, and shallow waters of...

  19. Development of microsatellite loci for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii (Asteraceae)1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii and will permit genetic and conservation studies of the species. Methods and Results:A microsatellite enriched library was used to develop 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for P. ruthii. The loci ...

  20. 76 FR 12308 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Six Species of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ....S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish as endangered on April 1, 2003 (68 FR 15674). Smalltooth sawfish whose... reclassifying a species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is... elasmobranches, fertilization in sawfishes is internal. Development is believed to be ovoviviparous. The...

  1. A framework for developing objective and measurable recovery criteria for threatened and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Himes Boor, Gina K

    2014-02-01

    For species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service are tasked with writing recovery plans that include "objective, measurable criteria" that define when a species is no longer at risk of extinction, but neither the act itself nor agency guidelines provide an explicit definition of objective, measurable criteria. Past reviews of recovery plans, including one published in 2012, show that many criteria lack quantitative metrics with clear biological rationale and are not meeting the measureable and objective mandate. I reviewed how objective, measureable criteria have been defined implicitly and explicitly in peer-reviewed literature, the ESA, other U.S. statutes, and legal decisions. Based on a synthesis of these sources, I propose the following 6 standards be used as minimum requirements for objective, measurable criteria: contain a quantitative threshold with calculable units, stipulate a timeframe over which they must be met, explicitly define the spatial extent or population to which they apply, specify a sampling procedure that includes sample size, specify a statistical significance level, and include justification by providing scientific evidence that the criteria define a species whose extinction risk has been reduced to the desired level. To meet these 6 standards, I suggest that recovery plans be explicitly guided by and organized around a population viability modeling framework even if data or agency resources are too limited to complete a viability model. When data and resources are available, recovery criteria can be developed from the population viability model results, but when data and resources are insufficient for model implementation, extinction risk thresholds can be used as criteria. A recovery-planning approach centered on viability modeling will also yield appropriately focused data-acquisition and monitoring plans and will facilitate a seamless transition

  2. A framework for developing objective and measurable recovery criteria for threatened and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Himes Boor, Gina K

    2014-02-01

    For species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service are tasked with writing recovery plans that include "objective, measurable criteria" that define when a species is no longer at risk of extinction, but neither the act itself nor agency guidelines provide an explicit definition of objective, measurable criteria. Past reviews of recovery plans, including one published in 2012, show that many criteria lack quantitative metrics with clear biological rationale and are not meeting the measureable and objective mandate. I reviewed how objective, measureable criteria have been defined implicitly and explicitly in peer-reviewed literature, the ESA, other U.S. statutes, and legal decisions. Based on a synthesis of these sources, I propose the following 6 standards be used as minimum requirements for objective, measurable criteria: contain a quantitative threshold with calculable units, stipulate a timeframe over which they must be met, explicitly define the spatial extent or population to which they apply, specify a sampling procedure that includes sample size, specify a statistical significance level, and include justification by providing scientific evidence that the criteria define a species whose extinction risk has been reduced to the desired level. To meet these 6 standards, I suggest that recovery plans be explicitly guided by and organized around a population viability modeling framework even if data or agency resources are too limited to complete a viability model. When data and resources are available, recovery criteria can be developed from the population viability model results, but when data and resources are insufficient for model implementation, extinction risk thresholds can be used as criteria. A recovery-planning approach centered on viability modeling will also yield appropriately focused data-acquisition and monitoring plans and will facilitate a seamless transition

  3. Predicting recovery criteria for threatened and endangered plant species on the basis of past abundances and biological traits.

    PubMed

    Neel, Maile C; Che-Castaldo, Judy P

    2013-04-01

    Recovery plans for species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act are required to specify measurable criteria that can be used to determine when the species can be delisted. For the 642 listed endangered and threatened plant species that have recovery plans, we applied recursive partitioning methods to test whether the number of individuals or populations required for delisting can be predicted on the basis of distributional and biological traits, previous abundance at multiple time steps, or a combination of traits and previous abundances. We also tested listing status (threatened or endangered) and the year the recovery plan was written as predictors of recovery criteria. We analyzed separately recovery criteria that were stated as number of populations and as number of individuals (population-based and individual-based criteria, respectively). Previous abundances alone were relatively good predictors of population-based recovery criteria. Fewer populations, but a greater proportion of historically known populations, were required to delist species that had few populations at listing compared with species that had more populations at listing. Previous abundances were also good predictors of individual-based delisting criteria when models included both abundances and traits. The physiographic division in which the species occur was also a good predictor of individual-based criteria. Our results suggest managers are relying on previous abundances and patterns of decline as guidelines for setting recovery criteria. This may be justifiable in that previous abundances inform managers of the effects of both intrinsic traits and extrinsic threats that interact and determine extinction risk.

  4. 78 FR 48898 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... species of freshwater crayfish, 2 species of freshwater snails, and 43 species of freshwater mussels for... crypticus), palezone shiner (Notropis albizonatus), ring pink mussel (Obovaria retusa), Nashville...

  5. Elk Hills endangered and threatened species program: Phase 1 progress summary

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.

    1980-03-01

    The endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and bluntnosed leopard lizard, Crotaphytus silus, are known to occur on the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, NPR-1. An integrated, multiphased field program was designed to gather, synthesize, and interpret ecological information necessary for Biological Assessments required by the Secretary of Interior. These assessments will be used as the basis for a formal consultation with the Department of Interior to determine whether DOE activities on Elk Hills are compatible with the continued existence of the two species. Transects totalling 840 km were walked through all sections of Elk Hills to determine: (1) the presence and relative densities of endangered or threatened species; (2) past and potential impacts of NPR-1 activities on endangered and threatened species; and (3) the potential application of remote sensing for gathering necessary data.

  6. Invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. Species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. I examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. The invasive non-native plant Casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. On Anijima in 2006 and 2009, I examined endemic land snails in the genus Ogasawarana. I compared the density of live specimens and frequency of predation scars (from black rats [Rattus rattus]) on empty shells in native vegetation and Casuarina forests. The density of land snails was greater in native vegetation than in Casuarina forests in 2006. Nevertheless, radical declines in the density of land snails occurred in native vegetation since 2006 in association with increasing predation by black rats. In contrast, abundance of Ogasawarana did not decline in the Casuarina forest, where shells with predation scars from rats were rare. As a result, the density of snails was greater in the Casuarina forest than in native vegetation. Removal of Casuarina was associated with an increased proportion of shells with predation scars from rats and a decrease in the density of Ogasawarana. The thick and dense litter of Casuarina appears to provide refugia for native land snails by protecting them from predation by rats; thus, eradication of rats should precede eradication of Casuarina. Adaptive strategies, particularly those that consider the removal order of non-native species, are crucial to minimizing the unintended effects of eradication on native species. In addition, my results suggested that in some cases a given non-native species can be used to mitigate the impacts of other non-native species on native species. PMID:20184648

  7. Invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. Species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. I examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. The invasive non-native plant Casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. On Anijima in 2006 and 2009, I examined endemic land snails in the genus Ogasawarana. I compared the density of live specimens and frequency of predation scars (from black rats [Rattus rattus]) on empty shells in native vegetation and Casuarina forests. The density of land snails was greater in native vegetation than in Casuarina forests in 2006. Nevertheless, radical declines in the density of land snails occurred in native vegetation since 2006 in association with increasing predation by black rats. In contrast, abundance of Ogasawarana did not decline in the Casuarina forest, where shells with predation scars from rats were rare. As a result, the density of snails was greater in the Casuarina forest than in native vegetation. Removal of Casuarina was associated with an increased proportion of shells with predation scars from rats and a decrease in the density of Ogasawarana. The thick and dense litter of Casuarina appears to provide refugia for native land snails by protecting them from predation by rats; thus, eradication of rats should precede eradication of Casuarina. Adaptive strategies, particularly those that consider the removal order of non-native species, are crucial to minimizing the unintended effects of eradication on native species. In addition, my results suggested that in some cases a given non-native species can be used to mitigate the impacts of other non-native species on native species.

  8. Updating Known Distribution Models for Forecasting Climate Change Impact on Endangered Species

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Antonio-Román; Márquez, Ana Luz; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    To plan endangered species conservation and to design adequate management programmes, it is necessary to predict their distributional response to climate change, especially under the current situation of rapid change. However, these predictions are customarily done by relating de novo the distribution of the species with climatic conditions with no regard of previously available knowledge about the factors affecting the species distribution. We propose to take advantage of known species distribution models, but proceeding to update them with the variables yielded by climatic models before projecting them to the future. To exemplify our proposal, the availability of suitable habitat across Spain for the endangered Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) was modelled by updating a pre-existing model based on current climate and topography to a combination of different general circulation models and Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our results suggested that the main threat for this endangered species would not be climate change, since all forecasting models show that its distribution will be maintained and increased in mainland Spain for all the XXI century. We remark on the importance of linking conservation biology with distribution modelling by updating existing models, frequently available for endangered species, considering all the known factors conditioning the species' distribution, instead of building new models that are based on climate change variables only. PMID:23840330

  9. Updating known distribution models for forecasting climate change impact on endangered species.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Antonio-Román; Márquez, Ana Luz; Real, Raimundo

    2013-01-01

    To plan endangered species conservation and to design adequate management programmes, it is necessary to predict their distributional response to climate change, especially under the current situation of rapid change. However, these predictions are customarily done by relating de novo the distribution of the species with climatic conditions with no regard of previously available knowledge about the factors affecting the species distribution. We propose to take advantage of known species distribution models, but proceeding to update them with the variables yielded by climatic models before projecting them to the future. To exemplify our proposal, the availability of suitable habitat across Spain for the endangered Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata) was modelled by updating a pre-existing model based on current climate and topography to a combination of different general circulation models and Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our results suggested that the main threat for this endangered species would not be climate change, since all forecasting models show that its distribution will be maintained and increased in mainland Spain for all the XXI century. We remark on the importance of linking conservation biology with distribution modelling by updating existing models, frequently available for endangered species, considering all the known factors conditioning the species' distribution, instead of building new models that are based on climate change variables only.

  10. Optimal approaches for balancing invasive species eradication and endangered species management.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Adam; Hastings, Alan; Grosholz, Edwin D; Jardine, Sunny L; Sanchirico, James N

    2014-05-30

    Resolving conflicting ecosystem management goals-such as maintaining fisheries while conserving marine species or harvesting timber while preserving habitat-is a widely recognized challenge. Even more challenging may be conflicts between two conservation goals that are typically considered complementary. Here, we model a case where eradication of an invasive plant, hybrid Spartina, threatens the recovery of an endangered bird that uses Spartina for nesting. Achieving both goals requires restoration of native Spartina. We show that the optimal management entails less intensive treatment over longer time scales to fit with the time scale of natural processes. In contrast, both eradication and restoration, when considered separately, would optimally proceed as fast as possible. Thus, managers should simultaneously consider multiple, potentially conflicting goals, which may require flexibility in the timing of expenditures. PMID:24876497

  11. Advances in the reintroduction of rare and endangered wild plant species.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Jian, ShuGuang; Liu, HongXiao; Zhang, QianMei; Lu, HongFang

    2014-06-01

    Human disturbance and climate change have increased the risk of extinction for rare and endangered wild plant species. One effective way to conserve these rare and endangered species is through reintroduction. In this review, we summarize the advances in wild plant reintroduction from five perspectives: the establishment of reintroduction biology as an important tool for biodiversity conservation; the importance of genetic diversity in reintroduction; reintroduction under global climate change; recruitment limitation in reintroduction; and reintroduction and ecological restoration. In addition, we consider the future of plant reintroduction strategies. PMID:24824586

  12. Species diversity, structure and dynamics of two populations of an endangered species, Magnolia dealbata (Magnoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Pineda-López, María del Rosario

    2006-09-01

    Little is known about the ecology and demography of the genus Magnolia. Magnolia dealbata Zucc. is an endangered species endemic to Mexico. Two contrasting populations of M. dealbata (one from the grasslands and other from a secondary cloud forest) were studied. We asked the following questions: (a) Are size structure (diameter at breast height, DBH) and infrutescence production significantly different between the two populations? (b) What are the populations' growth rates (lambda) based on an initial 1987 study? (c) Are the associated species diversity indices of these M. dealbata populations significantly different? The results show no significant differences between the population size structure (p=.094); the growth rates of the populations were 0.992 in grassland and 1.053 in secondary cloud forest. The number of infrutescences produced in year 2001 and DBH relationship were significantly linear (p<.001) in both populations, and there was no significant difference (p>.01) between their slopes. The diversity indices were not significantly different (p>.05), and only 54% of the species were common to both sites. Our study suggests that both populations are relatively stable and that the management history could impact more on the species composition than on the diversity indices. PMID:18494171

  13. Species diversity, structure and dynamics of two populations of an endangered species, Magnolia dealbata (Magnoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Pineda-López, María del Rosario

    2006-09-01

    Little is known about the ecology and demography of the genus Magnolia. Magnolia dealbata Zucc. is an endangered species endemic to Mexico. Two contrasting populations of M. dealbata (one from the grasslands and other from a secondary cloud forest) were studied. We asked the following questions: (a) Are size structure (diameter at breast height, DBH) and infrutescence production significantly different between the two populations? (b) What are the populations' growth rates (lambda) based on an initial 1987 study? (c) Are the associated species diversity indices of these M. dealbata populations significantly different? The results show no significant differences between the population size structure (p=.094); the growth rates of the populations were 0.992 in grassland and 1.053 in secondary cloud forest. The number of infrutescences produced in year 2001 and DBH relationship were significantly linear (p<.001) in both populations, and there was no significant difference (p>.01) between their slopes. The diversity indices were not significantly different (p>.05), and only 54% of the species were common to both sites. Our study suggests that both populations are relatively stable and that the management history could impact more on the species composition than on the diversity indices.

  14. Global versus local conservation focus of U.S. state agency endangered bird species lists.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jeffrey V; Robertson, Bruce; Rosenberg, Kenneth V; Mehlman, David W

    2010-01-06

    The development of species priorities for conservation at local or regional scales (for example, within a state or province) poses an interesting paradox. One the one hand, locally or regionally-derived species priorities may lead to greater interest in and resources directed to biodiversity conservation by local or regional institutions. On the other hand, locally or regionally-derived species priorities could overlook national or global priorities. We assessed U.S. state government agency endangered-threatened bird lists to determine the comparative representation of species of global versus local conservation significance on them. State lists tended to be represented primarily by species of low global risk-low global responsibility (range: 15-100%; mean 51%) and high global risk-high global responsibility (range: 0-73%; mean 35%). In 25 states, more than half of the species on the state lists were in the low global risk-low global responsibility category. Most U.S. state agency lists represent a combined strategy of highlighting species of both local and global conservation significance. Even with this combined local-global strategy, most state lists were predominated by species that represent local but not global conservation significance. Such a strategy could have profound negative consequences for many species that are not formally recognized under national endangered species protections but that are also left off of state-level endangered species lists.

  15. 77 FR 61835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... species' former name Opuntia spinosissima) on September 27, 1985 (50 FR 39526). It was removed from the...) published in the Federal Register on October 25, 1999 (64 FR 57534) included C. corallicola (under the... priority number (LPN) of 5 to the species (64 FR 57534). Candidate species are assigned LPNs based...

  16. 77 FR 58569 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... permit (ITP) TE83706A-0. The applicant requests a 5-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... species listed as endangered or threatened. Take of listed fish or wildlife is defined under the Act...

  17. Rare and endangered species of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; endangered, threatened, and rare animal, plant, and community handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; Pratt, Thane K.; Foote, David; Marcos Gorresen, mgorresen@usgs.gov

    2011-01-01

    In some cases, HAVO offers the best opportunity to save these species and communities from extinction. Increasingly, the park has attempted to restore rare populations by conducting surveys to locate them, controlling threats such as feral livestock, and bolstering existing populations or creating new ones by planting nursery stock. To aid such efforts, our original intent was to publish an identification guide for researchers and field management personnel. Particularly, we wanted to familiarize the reader with the many rare plant species which otherwise are known mainly from the technical literature. Because we soon came to realize that this handbook would be useful to a much larger, general readership, our aim is to make this information available to anyone interested in endangered animals and plants at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

  18. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: TOXICANT CLASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act and the Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with determining if the manufacture, use, or disposal of a chemical will present an unreasonable risk ...

  19. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    PubMed

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  20. Conservation genetics and evolution in an endangered species: research in Sonoran topminnows*

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Philip W; Hurt, Carla R

    2012-01-01

    Conservation genetics of endangered species has primarily focused on using neutral markers to determine units of conservation and estimating evolutionary parameters. Because the endangered Sonoran topminnow can be bred in the laboratory and has a relatively short generation length, experiments to examine both detrimental and adaptive variations are also possible. Here, we discuss over two decades of empirical and experimental observations in the Sonoran topminnow. Results from this research have been used to determine species and evolutionary significant units using neutral markers, document inbreeding and outbreeding depression and genetic load using experimental crosses, and measure adaptive differences in fitness-related traits and variation in pathogen resistance among populations and major histocompatibility complex genotypes. In addition, both premating and postmating reproductive isolation between Gila and Yaqui topminnows have been experimentally determined, and the predicted and observed ancestry of these two species in experimental crosses has been examined over time. Although some have suggested that endangered species are unsuitable for experimentation because of both practical and ethical considerations, these results demonstrate that in this case an endangered species can be employed to examine fundamental questions in conservation and evolution. PMID:23346226

  1. Conservation genetics and evolution in an endangered species: research in Sonoran topminnows.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Hurt, Carla R

    2012-12-01

    Conservation genetics of endangered species has primarily focused on using neutral markers to determine units of conservation and estimating evolutionary parameters. Because the endangered Sonoran topminnow can be bred in the laboratory and has a relatively short generation length, experiments to examine both detrimental and adaptive variations are also possible. Here, we discuss over two decades of empirical and experimental observations in the Sonoran topminnow. Results from this research have been used to determine species and evolutionary significant units using neutral markers, document inbreeding and outbreeding depression and genetic load using experimental crosses, and measure adaptive differences in fitness-related traits and variation in pathogen resistance among populations and major histocompatibility complex genotypes. In addition, both premating and postmating reproductive isolation between Gila and Yaqui topminnows have been experimentally determined, and the predicted and observed ancestry of these two species in experimental crosses has been examined over time. Although some have suggested that endangered species are unsuitable for experimentation because of both practical and ethical considerations, these results demonstrate that in this case an endangered species can be employed to examine fundamental questions in conservation and evolution.

  2. 50 CFR 222.103 - Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conservation of endangered and threatened species. 222.103 Section 222.103 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL... Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species. (a) Application for... Agreement with any state that establishes and maintains an active and adequate program for the...

  3. 50 CFR 222.103 - Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conservation of endangered and threatened species. 222.103 Section 222.103 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL... Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species. (a) Application for... Agreement with any state that establishes and maintains an active and adequate program for the...

  4. 50 CFR 222.103 - Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conservation of endangered and threatened species. 222.103 Section 222.103 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL... Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species. (a) Application for... Agreement with any state that establishes and maintains an active and adequate program for the...

  5. 76 FR 6383 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist Coho Salmon South of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ...) was listed as a threatened species on October 31, 1996 (61 FR 56138), and subsequently reclassified as an endangered species on June 28, 2005 (70 FR 37160). Coho salmon in coastal streams of Santa Cruz... ESUs; Final Rule'' (70 FR 37160; June 28, 2005) and ``Final Rule Endangered and Threatened...

  6. 76 FR 61733 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Species Applicant: Erie Zoo, Erie, PA; PRT-200682 The applicant requests renewal and amendment of their... Aplonis pelzelni). Species: Komodo island monitor (Varanus komodoensis). Applicant: Lincoln Park...

  7. 78 FR 58938 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... the Federal Register on June 13, 2002 (67 FR 40657). Candidate species are assigned listing priority... published in the Federal Register (69 FR 24876, 70 FR 24870, 71 FR 53756, 72 FR 69034, 73 FR 75176, 74 FR 57804, 75 FR 69222, 76 FR 66370) continued to maintain an LPN of 2 for the species. On September...

  8. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  9. 78 FR 75369 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... meshweaver (Cicurina vespera) Government Canyon Bat Cave spider (Neoleptoneta microps) Ground beetle (Rhadine... texana) Tooth Cave spider (Neoleptoneta (=Leptoneta) myopica) National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)...

  10. 76 FR 12292 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: Correction To Codify in the Code of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Columbia River steelhead DPS under the ESA in 1997 as an endangered species (62 FR 43937; August 18, 1997). In January 2006, we conducted a status review and downgraded the DPS's status to threatened (71 FR... the DPS on June 14, 2004 and February 1, 2006, respectively (69 FR 33102; 71 FR 5178). In 2007,...

  11. Propagation and conservation of the federally endangered perennial species Pityopsis ruthii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pityopsis ruthii is an endangered species endemic to the Hiwassee and Ocoee Rivers in Tennessee, United States. As part of a recovery effort focused on P. ruthii, vegetative propagation and in vitro multiplication techniques and seed germination were developed. Plants were vegetatively propagated us...

  12. A novel Fusarium species causes a canker disease of the critically endangered conifer, Torreya taxifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A canker disease of Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia), here designated CDFT, has been implicated in the decline of this critically endangered species in its native range of northern Florida and southeastern Georgia. In our current surveys of eight Florida torreya sites, cankers were present on all...

  13. Caring for our natural community: Region 1. Threatened, endangered, and sensitive species program

    SciTech Connect

    Reel, S.; Schassberger, L.; Ruediger, W.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a summary of Region One's threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant, fish, and wildlife resources, as well as a summary of the program to conserve each species. The program information was developed at the field level and reflects what could be accomplished under existing Forest Plans.

  14. 77 FR 15719 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... and weighed, and released back into lower Putah Creek. Permit 15542 will expire on November 1, 2016...: (1) The effects of attraction flow augmentation on adult salmonid migration timing and on salmonid... December 31, 2016. Dated: March 13, 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office...

  15. Student Science Teachers' Ideas about Endangered Bird Species: Hermit Ibis, Chukar Partridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa

    2009-01-01

    In this study, student science teachers' ideas and views of endangered bird species and their protection are analysed. 173 student science teachers studying at Selcuk University in the department of science education, participated in the study. Data analysis provides evidence that the majority of students thought that human intervention is…

  16. 78 FR 27253 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... discretion of the Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Los Angeles Zoo...-tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata) from Aqua Zoo Friesland, Netherlands, for the purpose...

  17. 77 FR 41198 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... discretion of the Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Los Angeles Zoo.... Applicant: Sacramento Zoo, Sacramento, CA; PRT-76156A The applicant requests a permit to import one...

  18. 77 FR 70457 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... discretion of the Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: Blank Park Zoo... (Nesoenas mayeri) Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki). Applicant: Staten Island Zoo, Staten Island,...

  19. 78 FR 44961 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... discretion of the Service Director. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: St. Louis Zoo... jubatus) that live or lived in zoos in Canada from the Toronto Zoo, Scarborough, Canada, for the...

  20. 76 FR 77466 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Subspecies of the Ringed Seal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... largha) under the ESA (73 FR 16617). On May 28, 2008, we received a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity to list these three species of seals as threatened or endangered under the ESA... substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted (73...

  1. 75 FR 81584 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Sperm Whale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... ocean basin and discussed in three sections: Those sperm whales in the Atlantic Ocean/Mediterranean Sea, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, those in the Pacific Ocean and its adjoining seas and gulfs... endangered species under the ESA on December 2, 1970 (35 FR 18319). Sperm whales have a global...

  2. 78 FR 43858 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... 17, 2013. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National... analysis. SUMMARY: NMFS has evaluated the Tribal Resource Management Plans (Plans) submitted by the... submitted a Tribal Resource Management Plan for harvest of Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon in...

  3. 77 FR 15019 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 13, 17, and 23 RIN 1018-AW82 Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Updates Following the Fifteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES; Correction AGENCY:...

  4. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts 223 and 224 RIN 0648-BB41 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Proposed...

  5. 75 FR 12597 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... loggerhead sea turtle as threatened throughout its worldwide range on July 28, 1978 (43 FR 32800). On July 12... endangered species under the ESA. NMFS published a notice in the Federal Register on November 16, 2007 (72 FR... Federal Register on March 5, 2008 (73 FR 11849), concluding that the petitioners (Center for...

  6. 76 FR 27017 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA419 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... The study's additional goals are to define what life history strategies are present in these areas...

  7. 77 FR 60803 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Fluted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... identified as a candidate for protection under the Act in the October 25, 1999, Federal Register (64 FR 57534... consider the LPN when prioritizing and funding conservation actions. In our 1999 (64 FR 57534), 2001 (66 FR 54808), 2002 (67 FR 40657), 2004 (69 FR 24876), 2005 (70 FR 24870), and 2006 (71 FR 53756)...

  8. Wildlife mortality investigation and disease research: contributions of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center to endangered species management and recovery.

    PubMed

    Brand, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey-National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) provides diagnostic services, technical assistance, applied research, and training to federal, state, territorial, and local government agencies and Native American tribes on wildlife diseases and wildlife health issues throughout the United States and its territories, commonwealth, and freely associated states. Since 1975, >16,000 carcasses and specimens from vertebrate species listed under the Endangered Species Act have been submitted to NWHC for determination of causes of morbidity or mortality or assessment of health/disease status. Results from diagnostic investigations, analyses of the diagnostic database, technical assistance and consultation, field investigation of epizootics, and wildlife disease research by NWHC wildlife disease specialists have contributed importantly to the management and recovery of listed species.

  9. Wildlife mortality investigation and disease research: contributions of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center to endangered species management and recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey—National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) provides diagnostic services, technical assistance, applied research, and training to federal, state, territorial, and local government agencies and Native American tribes on wildlife diseases and wildlife health issues throughout the United States and its territories, commonwealth, and freely associated states. Since 1975, >16,000 carcasses and specimens from vertebrate species listed under the Endangered Species Act have been submitted to NWHC for determination of causes of morbidity or mortality or assessment of health/disease status. Results from diagnostic investigations, analyses of the diagnostic database, technical assistance and consultation, field investigation of epizootics, and wildlife disease research by NWHC wildlife disease specialists have contributed importantly to the management and recovery of listed species.

  10. Evaluating the "recovery level" of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion.

    PubMed

    Watari, Yuya; Nishijima, Shota; Fukasawa, Marina; Yamada, Fumio; Abe, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    For maintaining social and financial support for eradication programs of invasive species, quantitative assessment of recovery of native species or ecosystems is important because it provides a measurable parameter of success. However, setting a concrete goal for recovery is often difficult owing to lack of information prior to the introduction of invaders. Here, we present a novel approach to evaluate the achievement level of invasive predator management based on the carrying capacity of endangered species estimated using long-term monitoring data. In Amami-Oshima Island, Japan, where the eradication project of introduced small Indian mongoose is ongoing since 2000, we surveyed the population densities of four endangered species threatened by the mongoose (Amami rabbit, the Otton frog, Amami tip-nosed frog, and Amami Ishikawa's frog) at four time points ranging from 2003 to 2011. We estimated the carrying capacities of these species using the logistic growth model combined with the effects of mongoose predation and environmental heterogeneity. All species showed clear tendencies toward increasing their density in line with decreased mongoose density, and they exhibited density-dependent population growth. The estimated carrying capacities of three endangered species had small confidence intervals enough to measure recovery levels by the mongoose management. The population density of each endangered species has recovered to the level of the carrying capacity at about 20-40% of all sites, whereas no individuals were observed at more than 25% of all sites. We propose that the present approach involving appropriate monitoring data of native organism populations will be widely applicable to various eradication projects and provide unambiguous goals for management of invasive species.

  11. Evaluating the "recovery level" of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion.

    PubMed

    Watari, Yuya; Nishijima, Shota; Fukasawa, Marina; Yamada, Fumio; Abe, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    For maintaining social and financial support for eradication programs of invasive species, quantitative assessment of recovery of native species or ecosystems is important because it provides a measurable parameter of success. However, setting a concrete goal for recovery is often difficult owing to lack of information prior to the introduction of invaders. Here, we present a novel approach to evaluate the achievement level of invasive predator management based on the carrying capacity of endangered species estimated using long-term monitoring data. In Amami-Oshima Island, Japan, where the eradication project of introduced small Indian mongoose is ongoing since 2000, we surveyed the population densities of four endangered species threatened by the mongoose (Amami rabbit, the Otton frog, Amami tip-nosed frog, and Amami Ishikawa's frog) at four time points ranging from 2003 to 2011. We estimated the carrying capacities of these species using the logistic growth model combined with the effects of mongoose predation and environmental heterogeneity. All species showed clear tendencies toward increasing their density in line with decreased mongoose density, and they exhibited density-dependent population growth. The estimated carrying capacities of three endangered species had small confidence intervals enough to measure recovery levels by the mongoose management. The population density of each endangered species has recovered to the level of the carrying capacity at about 20-40% of all sites, whereas no individuals were observed at more than 25% of all sites. We propose that the present approach involving appropriate monitoring data of native organism populations will be widely applicable to various eradication projects and provide unambiguous goals for management of invasive species. PMID:24363899

  12. 75 FR 81793 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Seven Brazilian Bird Species as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... INFORMATION: Background On August 12, 2009, we published a proposed rule (74 FR 154) to list the following... petition, we published a substantial 90-day finding on May 12, 1981 (46 FR 26464), for 58 foreign species and initiated a status review. On January 20, 1984 (49 FR 2485), we published a 12-month...

  13. 75 FR 65505 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... or Freedom of Information Act. Before including your address, phone number, e-mail address, or other... Facility, Frederick, MD; PRT-25390A The applicant requests a permit for the one-time acquisition of...

  14. 75 FR 19987 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... inspection, by appointment only, during normal business hours at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 500 Gold.... 1531 et seq. Dated: April 8, 2010. Thomas L Bauer, Acting Regional Director, Southwest Region, Fish...

  15. In search of critically endangered species: the current situation of two tiny salamander species in the Neotropical mountains of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Comte, Adriana; Pineda, Eduardo; Aguilar-López, José L

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion of their species in one of the risk categories, even higher than the frogs. To date there have been few studies that have used recent field data to examine the status of populations of endangered salamanders. In this study we evaluate the current situation of two tiny salamanders, Parvimolge townsendi and Thorius pennatulus, both of which are distributed at intermediate elevations in the mountains of the northern Neotropics and are considered to be critically endangered; the first has been proposed as possibly extinct. By carrying out exhaustive surveys in both historical and potentially suitable sites for these two species, we evaluated their abundance and the characteristics of their habitats, and we estimated their potential geographic distribution. We visited 22 sites, investing 672 person-hours of sampling effort in the surveys, and found 201 P. townsendi salamanders in 11 sites and only 13 T. pennatulus salamanders in 5 sites. Both species were preferentially found in cloud forest fragments that were well conserved or only moderately transformed, and some of the salamanders were found in shade coffee plantations. The potential distribution area of both species is markedly fragmented and we estimate that it has decreased by more than 48%. The results of this study highlight the importance of carrying out exhaustive, systematic field surveys to obtain accurate information about the current situation of critically endangered species, and help us better understand the crisis that amphibians are facing worldwide.

  16. 77 FR 6139 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... crocodile) Iguanidae Testudinidae Species: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) Andean condor (Vultur...

  17. 78 FR 14817 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Hylobatidae Lemuridae Cracidae Gruidae Species: Woylie (Bettongia penicillata) Pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74...

  18. 78 FR 25296 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... include American crocodile) Varanidae Species Lesser slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) Dhole (Cuon alpinus... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74...

  19. 76 FR 52965 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... samples taken from hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) collected in the wild in Panama and.... Background To help us carry out our conservation responsibilities for affected species, section...

  20. 76 FR 68500 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...) the following mussel species; Ovate clubshell (Pleurobema perovatum), Inflated heelsplitter (Potamilus inflatus), stirrup shell mussel (Quadrula stapes) and heavy pigtoe (Pleurobema taitianum) for the...

  1. 78 FR 53157 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...) Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) Southwestern willow... conduct presence/absence surveys of the following animal species and seed collection for the...

  2. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation: Volume 24, Threatened and endangered animal species

    SciTech Connect

    Kroodsma, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    United States and Tennessee laws provide protection for wildlife species that the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) have determined to be endangered or threatened. These laws and their implications for management of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are briefly discussed. The historical occurrence, current status, and recommended surveys and management plans for all threatened and endangered (T and E) wildlife species with a reasonable probability of occurring on the ORR are also discussed. Seventeen species of T and E mollusks historically occurred in the Oak Ridge area, but no management action is recommended because reservoir construction and other factors not related to Department of Energy operations have eliminated suitable habitat. Systematic surveys and management actions are also not recommended for three species of T and E fish, one amphibian species, one reptile species, six bird species, and two mammal species because of the very low potential for the occurrence of these species on the ORR. For three T and E bird species on the ORR, no feasible or significantly beneficial management actions could be identified. Surveys and consideration of possible management actions are recommended for three state-listed bird species that occur on or near the ORR and for two federally listed bat species that occur in East Tennessee and may occur on the ORR.

  3. Dorstenia triseriata (Moraceae) a new and endangered species from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Anderson F. P.; Pereira, Jorge Fontella; Carauta, J. Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Moraceae is described, illustrated and compared to its close morphological relatives. Dorstenia triseriata presents similarities with Dorstenia turnerifolia but distinguished by size of peduncle, diameter of receptacle, number of bract rows, color of marginal bracts, and by an indistinct fringe on inflorescence. A conservation assessment based on IUCN criteria determines the new species to be vulnerable (VU). PMID:25009436

  4. Dorstenia triseriata (Moraceae) a new and endangered species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Anderson F P; Pereira, Jorge Fontella; Carauta, J Pedro P

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Moraceae is described, illustrated and compared to its close morphological relatives. Dorstenia triseriata presents similarities with Dorstenia turnerifolia but distinguished by size of peduncle, diameter of receptacle, number of bract rows, color of marginal bracts, and by an indistinct fringe on inflorescence. A conservation assessment based on IUCN criteria determines the new species to be vulnerable (VU).

  5. World Wildlife Conference, Efforts to Save Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of State, Washington, DC.

    A Plenipotentiary Conference to Conclude and International Convention on Trade in Certain Species of Wildlife was held in Washington, D.C., February 12 through March 2, 1973. Its purpose was to prepare and adopt a convention on export, import, and transit of certain species of wild fauna and flora. Representatives and observers from 90 countries…

  6. 50 CFR 222.103 - Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal/state cooperation in the conservation of endangered and threatened species. 222.103 Section 222.103 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND...

  7. Molecular evidence for species status of the endangered Hainan peacock pheasant.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiang; Wang, Biao; Zhang, Yang-Yun; Liu, Ying; Liang, Wei; Wang, Ji-Chao; Shi, Hai-Tao; Su, Wen-Ba; Zhang, Zheng-Wang

    2008-01-01

    The Hainan peacock pheasant is an endangered taxon found only on Hainan Island of China. Due to lack of detailed taxonomic studies, whether it is a subspecies of the grey peacock pheasant (Polyplectron bicalcaratum katsumatae) or a full species (Polyplectron katsumatae) remained unclear. We used molecular markers, including the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and intron G of the nuclear ovomucoid gene, to reevaluate the taxonomy of the Hainan peacock pheasant. The results showed phylogeographic monophyly and large genetic distance between the Hainan peacock pheasant and the grey peacock pheasant. Sequence differences corroborated the species-level distinction between these two peacock pheasants, which were inferred to have diverged about 1.4+/-0.3 million years ago, near the time Hainan Island became separated from mainland China. Because the population density of the Hainan peacock pheasant is very low in its tropical forest on the island and the wild population is declining, it is now becoming severely endangered and should be ranked as the rarest species in the Order Galliformes in China. Our results increase the urgency of getting more morphological data to support the classification of the Hainan peacock pheasant as a distinct species and taking more conservation action immediately to protect this endangered island species.

  8. Genetic depletion at adaptive but not neutral loci in an endangered bird species.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Stefanie A; Schaefer, H Martin; Segelbacher, Gernot

    2014-12-01

    Many endangered species suffer from the loss of genetic diversity, but some populations may be able to thrive even if genetically depleted. To investigate the underlying genetic processes of population bottlenecks, we apply an innovative approach for assessing genetic diversity in the last known population of the endangered Pale-headed Brushfinch (Atlapetes pallidiceps) in Ecuador. First, we measure genetic diversity at eleven neutral microsatellite loci and adaptive SNP variation in five Toll-like receptor (TLR) immune system genes. Bottleneck tests confirm genetic drift as the main force shaping genetic diversity in this species and indicate a 99 % reduction in population size dating back several hundred years. Second, we compare contemporary microsatellite diversity with historic museum samples of A. pallidiceps, finding no change in genetic diversity. Third, we compare genetic diversity in the Pale-headed Brushfinch with two co-occurring-related brushfinch species (Atlapetes latinuchus, Buarremon torquatus), finding a reduction of up to 91% diversity in the immune system genes but not in microsatellites. High TLR diversity is linked to decreased survival probabilities in A. pallidiceps. Low TLR diversity is thus probably an adaptation to the specific selection regime within its currently very restricted distribution (approximately 200 ha), but could severely restrict the adaptive potential of the species in the long run. Our study illustrates the importance of investigating both neutral and adaptive markers to assess the effect of population bottlenecks and for recommending specific management plans in endangered species.

  9. 76 FR 75897 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552). Permit TE-54884A Applicant: Gabriela Casares, Austin, Texas..., Austin, Texas. Applicant requests a renewal to a current permit for research and recovery purposes to..., San Antonio, Texas. Permit TE-58781A Applicant: University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona....

  10. 76 FR 54480 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... samples from captive-bred non-human primates from the following species: lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), white- cheeked gibbon (Hylobates leucogenys), Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), ring-tailed...

  11. 77 FR 57107 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... comment before issuing these permits. DATES: We must receive written data or comments on the applications... following species: Indiana bat Myotis sodalis Gray bat Myotis grisescens Virginia big-eared bat...

  12. 76 FR 58471 - Endangered Species; File No. 16306

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... species (50 CFR 222-226). The applicant proposes to collect information on shortnose sturgeon life history in the Gulf of Maine, including movement, natal river origin, and other vital population...

  13. 77 FR 298 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Species: Lesser slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) White-naped crane (Grus... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26,...

  14. 78 FR 66901 - Endangered Species; File No. 16482-01

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 16482 was issued April 6, 2012 (77 FR 21754) to the... sectioned, laparoscoped, and implanted with an internal acoustic tag. Incidental mortality of serious...

  15. 78 FR 57410 - Endangered Species; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... would not be to the disadvantage of the listed species; that the proposed activities were for scientific... Marine And Wildlife Resources; American Samoa..... 094808 1/25/2013 1/24/2016 Haleakala National...

  16. 76 FR 51051 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... period. Applicant: Nashville Zoo, Nashville, TN; PRT-48554A The applicant requests a permit to import two... enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: Valley Zoological Society dba Gladys Porter...

  17. 77 FR 65673 - Endangered Species; File No. 16248

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    .... ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Riverbanks Zoo and... species (50 CFR 222-226). The Riverbanks Zoo and Garden is requesting a permit to continue...

  18. 75 FR 69701 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... orientalis), bred in captivity for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species through... requests a permit to import one captive-born mandrill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), from the Toronto...

  19. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... for 124 Species (76 FR 46362). Previous Federal Actions Twenty of the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing are candidate species (75 FR 69222; November 10, 2010). Candidate species are those... Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened (CNOR) (75 FR 69222). On May...

  20. Public willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine species.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2012-10-01

    Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value estimates exist, it is often difficult to compare values from different studies due to variations in study design, implementation, and modeling specifications. We conducted a stated-preference choice experiment to estimate the value of recovering or downlisting 8 threatened and endangered marine species in the United States: loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), and smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). In May 2009, we surveyed a random sample of U.S. households. We collected data from 8476 households and estimated willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting the 8 species from these data. Respondents were willing to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine taxa. Willingness-to-pay values ranged from $40/household for recovering Puget Sound Chinook salmon to $73/household for recovering the North Pacific right whale. Statistical comparisons among willingness-to-pay values suggest that some taxa are more economically valuable than others, which suggests that the U.S. public's willingness to pay for recovery may vary by species.

  1. Public willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine species.

    PubMed

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2012-10-01

    Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value estimates exist, it is often difficult to compare values from different studies due to variations in study design, implementation, and modeling specifications. We conducted a stated-preference choice experiment to estimate the value of recovering or downlisting 8 threatened and endangered marine species in the United States: loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), and smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). In May 2009, we surveyed a random sample of U.S. households. We collected data from 8476 households and estimated willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting the 8 species from these data. Respondents were willing to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine taxa. Willingness-to-pay values ranged from $40/household for recovering Puget Sound Chinook salmon to $73/household for recovering the North Pacific right whale. Statistical comparisons among willingness-to-pay values suggest that some taxa are more economically valuable than others, which suggests that the U.S. public's willingness to pay for recovery may vary by species. PMID:22827248

  2. Effects of ozone on solidago albopilosa, an endangered species of goldenrod from central Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Mavity, E.; Berrang, P. )

    1994-06-01

    Solidago albopilosa Braun is an endangered species of goldenrod that is found in a very limited area of central Kentucky. The reasons for the limited distribution of this species are not known. The Daniel Boone National Forest was concerned that increased in ambient ozone might endanger the survival of this species. Little work has been done to assess the sensitivity of goldenrods to ozone and apparently none has been done on this endangered species. Plants were exposed to either ambient, half ambient or twice ambient concentrations of ozone for 39 days in mid summer using June 1992 data from Mammoth Cave National Park as ambient. Few statistically significant effects were found; however, consistent trends toward lower leaf and stem biomass, leaf area and less height growth in the higher ozone treatments were seen. Carbon allocation patterns appear to be different with plants in the higher treatment allocating more to reproductive structures. Net photosynthesis and leaf conductance were measured several days after fumigations ended and plants in the half ambient treatment had the lowest rates and plants in the highest treatment had the highest rate. No characteristics visible ozone injury was seen. This study suggests that ozone has little effect on Solidago albopilosa; however, concentrations used were quite low.

  3. 78 FR 62647 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... following applicants each request a permit to import the sport- hunted trophy of one male bontebok... Republic of South Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant:...

  4. 77 FR 54604 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR...; PRT-68962A The applicant requests a permit to import biological samples of Western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) from Canada for the purpose of enhancement of the species through scientific research....

  5. 77 FR 74506 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) in the wild in South Africa and Costa Rica, for the purpose of scientific... of the Republic of South Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74...

  6. 76 FR 66954 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... registration under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) to enhance their propagation or.... Families: Bovidae. Equidae. Psittacidae. Crocodilidae. Species: Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoides nigra). radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata). Red-crowned crane (Grus japonica). ring-tailed lemur (Lemur...

  7. 76 FR 45230 - Endangered Species; File No. 15802

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Conservation Commission, 100 Eighth Avenue, SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 , has applied in due form for a permit to take smalltooth sawfish and listed sea turtle species for purposes of scientific research. DATES... (Dermochelys coriacea), and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) sea turtles. Sea turtles would be...

  8. Conservation of Endangered Species: What Do Children Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Sarah; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes results of questionnaire studies of children's ideas on which species most warrant conservation and why. When six animals meriting conservation were presented, children listed them in the following order: whale, panda, elephant, monkey, shark, and crocodile. The study showed that children tend to be most influenced toward the worthiness…

  9. 77 FR 1061 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16229 and 16548

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... the Federal Register (76 FR 51945 and 76 FR 40699) that requests for enhancement permits to take... Zoo, 4401 Zoo ] Parkway, Asheboro, NC 27203 , and the Springfield Science Museum, 21 Edwards Street... species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The North Carolina Zoo and the Springfield Science Museum have been...

  10. 77 FR 15383 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... Tragopan Species Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) ] Applicant: Oakland Zoo, Oakland, CA; PRT-199071 The... Ana Zoo, Santa Ana, CA; PRT-691733 The applicant requests renewal of their captive-bred...

  11. 78 FR 16703 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... by survey) the Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino), and take (survey, capture... checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino) in conjunction with surveys throughout the range of the... butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino) in ] conjunction with surveys throughout the range of the species...

  12. 76 FR 48146 - Endangered Species; File No. 1551

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... coriacea) sea turtles in coastal and inshore waters of the North Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea... threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 1551, issued on July 24, 2008 (73 FR 44225), authorizes... the permit to increase the number of sea turtles (an additional 75 leatherback, 1,150 loggerhead,...

  13. 77 FR 40375 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... reintroduction. The mice will be captured in Florida and housed at Harvard University. Permit Application Number... conducted in Kentucky. Permit Application Number: TE-71613A Applicant: University of Tennessee, Knoxville... species in the State of Ohio. Permit Application Number: TE-76082A Applicant: Hopi Hoekstra,...

  14. 78 FR 19731 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009), which call on all Federal agencies to promote... (Nanger dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This... (Nanger dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) from the captive herd maintained at their facility, for...

  15. 77 FR 59961 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009), which call on all Federal agencies to promote openness and... Africa, for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: John Panettiere, Atlanta, GA; PRT-85524A Applicant: John Deford, Long Valley, NJ; PRT-84244A Applicant: Rian...

  16. 76 FR 37065 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 16266 and 16291

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 15300) that a request for enhancement permits to take... Aquarium at Norwalk, 10 North Water Street, South Norwalk, CT 06854 have been issued permits to take... species (50 CFR Parts 222-226). The Virginia Living Museum and the Maritime Aquarium at Norwalk have...

  17. 78 FR 32623 - Endangered Species; File No. 17452

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... permit to take shortnose (Acipenser brevirostrum) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus... shortnose sturgeon. For each species, up to 20 adult and juvenile animals would be collected annually using gill nets. Once captured, sturgeon would be measured, weighed, tissue sampled, and passive...

  18. 76 FR 31597 - Endangered Species; File No. 15614

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ..., notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 78974) that a request for a scientific research... shortnose sturgeon for purposes of scientific research. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are... threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The applicant is authorized to conduct a five-year...

  19. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Beissenger, S.R.; Wiley, J.W.; Smith, T.B.; Toone, W.D.; Miller, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3.) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species population is declining or bas fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be reviewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for witch effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

  20. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  1. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  2. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  3. Applications of emerging technologies to the study and conservation of threatened and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Travis, Alexander J; Wildt, David E

    2006-01-01

    Sustaining viable populations of all wildlife species requires the maintenance of habitat, as well as an understanding of the behaviour and physiology of individual species. Despite substantial efforts, there are thousands of species threatened by extinction, often because of complex factors related to politics, social and environmental conditions and economic needs. When species become critically endangered, ex situ recovery programmes that include reproductive scientists are the usual first line of defence. Despite the potential of reproductive technologies for rapidly increasing numbers in such small populations, there are few examples of success. This is not the result of a failure on the part of the technologies per se, but rather is due to a lack of knowledge about the fundamental biology of the species in question, information essential for allowing reproductive technologies to be effective in the production of offspring. In addition, modern conservation concepts correctly emphasise the importance of maintaining heterozygosity to sustain genetic vigour, thereby limiting the practical usefulness of some procedures (such as nuclear transfer). However, because of the goal of maintaining all extant gene diversity and because, inevitably, many species are (or will become) 'critically endangered', it is necessary to explore every avenue for a potential contributory role. There are many 'emerging technologies' emanating from the study of livestock and laboratory animals. We predict that a subset of these may have application to the rescue of valuable genes from individual endangered species and eventually to the genetic management of entire populations or species. The present paper reviews the potential candidate techniques and their potential value (and limitations) to the study and conservation of rare wildlife species.

  4. Syzygium pyneei (Myrtaceae), a new critically endangered endemic species from Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Byng, James W.; Florens, F. B. Vincent; Baider, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Syzygium Gaertn. (Myrtaceae), Syzygium pyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider, is described from Mondrain Reserve on the island of Mauritius. This species is endemic to the island and differs from any other species by its combination of cauliflory, relatively large flowers, light green to cream hypanthium, light pink stamens, short thick petioles, coriaceous leaves and round, cuneate or sub-cordate to cordate leaf bases. Syzygium pyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider is known from only two individuals from the type locality and merits the conservation status of Critically Endangered (CR C2a(i,ii); D). PMID:25878549

  5. On the value of endangered and other species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagoff, Mark

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes two frameworks—utilitarian and Kantian—society uses to make decisions concerning environmental management and, in particular, species protection. The utilitarian framework emphasizes the consequences of choices for prior preferences. A perfectly competitive market, on this model, correctly values environmental resources. The Kantian approach identifies rules appropriate to recognized situations given the identity of the decision maker. It relies on democratic political processes and institutions to provide the means by which citizens determine the identity of their community—its moral character and aspirations—and match appropriate rules to recognized situations. This paper argues that markets do not fail in any general way in measuring the economic value of plants and animals. Market prices, in general, correctly represent the marginal or exchange value of species. If society legislates against extinction, this must be understood as an exercise in Kantian decision making in view of the moral value of species, not as an attempt to “correct” a market failure or to promote social welfare or utility.

  6. The World of Endangered Wildlife. [Filmstrip, Cassette Tape Narration, Teacher's Guide, Two Copies of National Wildlife Magazine's Special Issue on Endangered Species, State-by-State List of Endangered Animals, and Wildlife Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    The gradual disappearance of many species of wildlife, too often a prelude to extinction, is a problem of large proportions and increasing urgency. This filmstrip kit is designed to help students and teachers to understand the more serious threats to endangered species, what is being done about them, and how the individual can help. The kit…

  7. Incentive structure of and private landowner participation in an endangered species conservation program.

    PubMed

    Sorice, Michael G; Haider, Wolfgang; Conner, J Richard; Ditton, Robert B

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, voluntary incentive programs that aid conservation of plant and wildlife species on private lands provide a structural solution to the problem of protecting endangered species by reducing costs and enhancing benefits to landowners. We explored the potential for incentives to encourage landowners to manage land cover for the benefit of endangered songbirds in central Texas (U.S.A.) by asking landowners to indicate their preferences for financial incentives, technical assistance, and regulatory assurances. We identified owners of potential songbird habitat and collected data in face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires. We used a latent-class stated-choice model to identify 3 classes of landowners whose choices varied on the basis of their attitudes and perceived social norms: (1) strong positive attitude, perceived social pressure to participate, and willing to participate with relatively few incentives, (2) weak positive attitude, perceived no social pressure to participate, and required strongest incentives, and (3) negative attitude, perceived social pressure not to enroll, and unwilling to participate regardless of incentive structure. Given this heterogeneity in preferences, conservation incentives may increase management of land cover to benefit endangered species on private lands to some degree; however, exclusive reliance on incentives may be insufficient. Promoting conservation on private lands may be enhanced by integrating incentives into an approach that incorporates other strategies for conservation, including social networks and collaborative processes that reinforce social norms. PMID:21488955

  8. Karyotype and identification of sex in two endangered crane species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodpasture, C.; Seluja, G.; Gee, G.; Wood, Don A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory procedure for sex identification of monomorphic birds was developed using modern cytological methods of detecting chromosome abnormalities in human amniotic fluid samples. A pin feather is taken from a pre-fledging bird for tissue culture and karyotype analysis. Through this method, the sex was identified and the karyotype described of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Mississippi sandhill crane (G. canadensis pulla). Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these species showed an identical chromosome constitution with 2n = 78 + 2. However, differences in the amount of centromeric heterochromatin were observed in the Mississippi sandhill crane when compared to the whooping crane C-banded karyotype.

  9. 78 FR 38011 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Oregon Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC732 Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of...: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare a recovery plan; request for information. SUMMARY: The National...

  10. Contaminant sensitivity of threatened and endangered fishes compared to standard surrogate species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sappington, L.C.; Mayer, F.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Buckler, D.R.; Jones, J.R.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Standard environmental assessment procedures are designed to protect terrestrial and aquatic species. However, it is not known if endangered species are adequately protected by these procedures. At present, toxicological data obtained from studies with surrogate test fishes are assumed to be applicable to endangered fish species, but this assumption has not been validated. Static acute toxicity tests were used to compare the sensitivity of rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows to several federally listed fishes (Apache trout, Lahontan cutthroat trout, greenback cutthroat trout, bonytail chub, Colorado pikeminnow, razorback sucker, Leon Springs pupfish, and desert pupfish). Chemicals tested included carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin. Results indicated that the surrogates and listed species were of similar sensitivity. In two cases, a listed species had a 96-h LC50 (lethal concentration to 50% of the population) that was less than one half of its corresponding surrogate. In all other cases, differences between listed and surrogate species were less than twofold. A safety factor of two would provide a conservative estimate for listed cold-water, warm-water, and euryhaline fish species.

  11. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W

    2009-04-01

    The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species.

  12. Advances in conservation endocrinology: the application of molecular approaches to the conservation of endangered species.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, Christopher; McDonough, Caitlin E; Felton, Rachel; Milnes, Matthew R

    2014-07-01

    Among the numerous societal benefits of comparative endocrinology is the application of our collective knowledge of hormone signaling towards the conservation of threatened and endangered species - conservation endocrinology. For several decades endocrinologists have used longitudinal hormone profiles to monitor reproductive status in a multitude of species. Knowledge of reproductive status among individuals has been used to assist in the management of captive and free-ranging populations. More recently, researchers have begun utilizing molecular and cell-based techniques to gain a more complete understanding of hormone signaling in wildlife species, and to identify potential causes of disrupted hormone signaling. In this review we examine various in vitro approaches we have used to compare estrogen receptor binding and activation by endogenous hormones and phytoestrogens in two species of rhinoceros; southern white and greater one-horned. We have found many of these techniques valuable and practical in species where access to research subjects and/or tissues is limited due to their conservation status. From cell-free, competitive binding assays to full-length receptor activation assays; each technique has strengths and weaknesses related to cost, sensitivity, complexity of the protocols, and relevance to in vivo signaling. We then present a novel approach, in which receptor activation assays are performed in primary cell lines derived from the species of interest, to minimize the artifacts of traditional heterologous expression systems. Finally, we speculate on the promise of next generation sequencing and transcriptome profiling as tools for characterizing hormone signaling in threatened and endangered species.

  13. Wildlife studies of Site 300 emphasizing rare and endangered species: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, S.

    1986-11-01

    The primary purpose of this project was to determine the presence and status of any endangered, threatened, fully protected, or otherwise sensitive wildlife species on Site 300 that might be affected by Site operations and developments. We directed our studies mainly toward the federally endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), but also toward another 15 special status species that potentially occur on site, including the state threatened Alameda striped racer (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus).

  14. Preliminary assessment of the potential impact of fog oil smoke on selected threatened and endangered species. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Getz, L.L.; Reinbold, K.A.; Tazik, D.J.; Hayden, T.J.; Cassels, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to smokes and obscurants is perceived to constitute a potential negative impact on individuals or populations of threatened and endangered species present in training areas. This research provides a preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke used in training exercises based on available data and information (and assumptions stated in the report), especially as they might affect threatened and endangered species. This research also identifies specific data and information gaps that should be the focus of future research efforts.

  15. 78 FR 62523 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Ashy Storm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments Under the Endangered Species Act (61 FR 4722, February 7, 1996... Finding on a Petition To List Ashy Storm-Petrel as an Endangered or Threatened Species AGENCY: Fish and... homochroa) as an endangered or threatened species and to designate critical habitat under the...

  16. Endangered species: review of law triggered by tellico impasse.

    PubMed

    Holden, C

    1977-06-24

    To condense the evolution of life on Earth . . . suppose the whole history of the planet is contained within a single year. The conditions suitable for life do not develop until late June. The oldest known fossils are living creatures around mid-October, and life is abundant . . . by the end of that month. In mid-December, dinosaurs and other reptiles dominate the scene. Mammals . . . appear in large numbers only a little before Christmas. On New Year's Eve, at about five minutes to midnight, man emerges. . . . The period since 1600 A.D., when man-induced extinction began to increase rapidly, amounts to three seconds, and the quarter century just begun, when the disappearance of species may be on the scale of all the mass extinctions of the past put together, will take another sixth of a second-a twinkling of an eye in evolutionary time.

  17. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  18. 76 FR 31556 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... finding in the Federal Register (FR) (75 FR 57431). Following our positive 90-day finding, we convened an... request in the FR notice announcing the 90-day finding. In order to provide the SRT with all available... communities that are necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity,...

  19. Do laboratory species protect endangered species? Interspecies variation in responses to 17β-estradiol, a model endocrine active compound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of estrogens on model laboratory species are well documented, their utility as surrogates for other species, including those listed as endangered, are less clear. Traditionally, conservation policies are evaluated based on model organism responses but are intended to protect all species in an environment. We tested the hypothesis that the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is more vulnerable to endocrine disruption—as assessed through its larval predator-escape performance, survival, juvenile sex ratios, and whole-body vitellogenin concentration—than the commonly used toxicological model species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Fish were exposed concurrently for 21 days to the model endocrine active compound (EAC) 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 10 ng E2/L and 30 ng E2/L in a flow-through system using reconstituted water that simulated the physicochemical conditions of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, USA. No significant differences were observed between the fathead and silvery minnow in larval predator-escape response or juvenile sex ratio. Rio Grande silvery minnow survival decreased significantly at day 14 compared with the other two species; by day 21, both cyprinid species (silvery minnow and fathead minnow) exhibited a significant decrease in survival compared with bluegill sunfish, a member of the family Centrarchidae. Male Rio Grande silvery minnow showed a significant increase in whole-body vitellogenin concentration in the 10 ng/L treatment, whereas fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish showed no significant increases in vitellogenin concentrations across treatments. Our study showed response differences to estrogen exposures between the two cyprinid species and further divergence in responses between the families Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae. These results suggest that commonly used laboratory model organisms may be less sensitive to EACs than the endangered

  20. Do laboratory species protect endangered species? Interspecies variation in responses to 17β-estradiol, a model endocrine active compound.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Z G; Buhl, K; Bartell, S E; Schoenfuss, H L

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of estrogens on model laboratory species are well documented, their utility as surrogates for other species, including those listed as endangered, are less clear. Traditionally, conservation policies are evaluated based on model organism responses but are intended to protect all species in an environment. We tested the hypothesis that the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) is more vulnerable to endocrine disruption-as assessed through its larval predator-escape performance, survival, juvenile sex ratios, and whole-body vitellogenin concentration-than the commonly used toxicological model species fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Fish were exposed concurrently for 21 days to the model endocrine active compound (EAC) 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 10 ng E2/L and 30 ng E2/L in a flow-through system using reconstituted water that simulated the physicochemical conditions of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, USA. No significant differences were observed between the fathead and silvery minnow in larval predator-escape response or juvenile sex ratio. Rio Grande silvery minnow survival decreased significantly at day 14 compared with the other two species; by day 21, both cyprinid species (silvery minnow and fathead minnow) exhibited a significant decrease in survival compared with bluegill sunfish, a member of the family Centrarchidae. Male Rio Grande silvery minnow showed a significant increase in whole-body vitellogenin concentration in the 10 ng/L treatment, whereas fathead minnow and bluegill sunfish showed no significant increases in vitellogenin concentrations across treatments. Our study showed response differences to estrogen exposures between the two cyprinid species and further divergence in responses between the families Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae. These results suggest that commonly used laboratory model organisms may be less sensitive to EACs than the endangered Rio

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of an extremely endangered species: the world's largest Rhododendron

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fu Qin; Shen, Shi Kang; Zhang, Xin Jun; Wang, Yue Hua; Sun, Wei Bang

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive studies on the genetic diversity and structure of endangered species are urgently needed to promote effective conservation and management activities. The big tree rhododendron, Rhododendron protistum var. giganteum, is a highly endangered species with only two known endemic populations in a small area in the southern part of Yunnan Province in China. Unfortunately, limited information is available regarding the population genetics of this species. Therefore, we conducted amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis to characterize the genetic diversity and variation of this species within and between remaining populations. Twelve primer combinations of AFLP produced 447 unambiguous and repetitious bands. Among these bands, 298 (66.67 %) were polymorphic. We found high genetic diversity at the species level (percentage of polymorphic loci = 66.67 %, h = 0.240, I = 0.358) and low genetic differentiation (Gst = 0.110) between the two populations. Gene flow between populations (Nm) was relatively high at 4.065. Analysis of molecular variance results revealed that 22 % of the genetic variation was partitioned between populations and 78 % of the genetic variation was within populations. The presence of moderate to high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation in the two populations can be explained by life history traits, pollen dispersal and high gene flow (Nm = 4.065). Bayesian structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that 56 sampled trees were clustered into two groups. Our results suggest that some rare and endangered species are able to maintain high levels of genetic diversity even at small population sizes. These results will assist with the design of conservation and management programmes, such as in situ and ex situ conservation, seed collection for germplasm conservation and reintroduction. PMID:25477251

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of an extremely endangered species: the world's largest Rhododendron.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu Qin; Shen, Shi Kang; Zhang, Xin Jun; Wang, Yue Hua; Sun, Wei Bang

    2014-12-04

    Comprehensive studies on the genetic diversity and structure of endangered species are urgently needed to promote effective conservation and management activities. The big tree rhododendron, Rhododendron protistum var. giganteum, is a highly endangered species with only two known endemic populations in a small area in the southern part of Yunnan Province in China. Unfortunately, limited information is available regarding the population genetics of this species. Therefore, we conducted amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis to characterize the genetic diversity and variation of this species within and between remaining populations. Twelve primer combinations of AFLP produced 447 unambiguous and repetitious bands. Among these bands, 298 (66.67 %) were polymorphic. We found high genetic diversity at the species level (percentage of polymorphic loci = 66.67 %, h = 0.240, I = 0.358) and low genetic differentiation (Gst = 0.110) between the two populations. Gene flow between populations (Nm) was relatively high at 4.065. Analysis of molecular variance results revealed that 22 % of the genetic variation was partitioned between populations and 78 % of the genetic variation was within populations. The presence of moderate to high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation in the two populations can be explained by life history traits, pollen dispersal and high gene flow (Nm = 4.065). Bayesian structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that 56 sampled trees were clustered into two groups. Our results suggest that some rare and endangered species are able to maintain high levels of genetic diversity even at small population sizes. These results will assist with the design of conservation and management programmes, such as in situ and ex situ conservation, seed collection for germplasm conservation and reintroduction.

  3. A decision-analytic approach to the optimal allocation of resources for endangered species consultation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Shelley, Kevin J.; Morey, Steve; Chan, Jeffrey; LaTier, Andrea; Scafidi, Carolyn; Crouse, Deborah T.; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The resources available to support conservation work, whether time or money, are limited. Decision makers need methods to help them identify the optimal allocation of limited resources to meet conservation goals, and decision analysis is uniquely suited to assist with the development of such methods. In recent years, a number of case studies have been described that examine optimal conservation decisions under fiscal constraints; here we develop methods to look at other types of constraints, including limited staff and regulatory deadlines. In the US, Section Seven consultation, an important component of protection under the federal Endangered Species Act, requires that federal agencies overseeing projects consult with federal biologists to avoid jeopardizing species. A benefit of consultation is negotiation of project modifications that lessen impacts on species, so staff time allocated to consultation supports conservation. However, some offices have experienced declining staff, potentially reducing the efficacy of consultation. This is true of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Washington Fish and Wildlife Office (WFWO) and its consultation work on federally-threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). To improve effectiveness, WFWO managers needed a tool to help allocate this work to maximize conservation benefits. We used a decision-analytic approach to score projects based on the value of staff time investment, and then identified an optimal decision rule for how scored projects would be allocated across bins, where projects in different bins received different time investments. We found that, given current staff, the optimal decision rule placed 80% of informal consultations (those where expected effects are beneficial, insignificant, or discountable) in a short bin where they would be completed without negotiating changes. The remaining 20% would be placed in a long bin, warranting an investment of seven days, including time for negotiation. For formal

  4. Risk assessment considerations with regard to the potential impacts of pesticides on endangered species.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Teed, R Scott; Bang, JiSu; Thorbek, Pernille; Perine, Jeff; Peranginangin, Natalia; Kim, Myoungwoo; Valenti, Ted; Chen, Wenlin; Breton, Roger L; Rodney, Sara I; Moore, Dwayne R J

    2015-01-01

    Simple, deterministic screening-level assessments that are highly conservative by design facilitate a rapid initial screening to determine whether a pesticide active ingredient has the potential to adversely affect threatened or endangered species. If a worst-case estimate of pesticide exposure is below a very conservative effects metric (e.g., the no observed effects concentration of the most sensitive tested surrogate species) then the potential risks are considered de minimis and unlikely to jeopardize the existence of a threatened or endangered species. Thus by design, such compounded layers of conservatism are intended to minimize potential Type II errors (failure to reject a false null hypothesis of de minimus risk), but correspondingly increase Type I errors (falsely reject a null hypothesis of de minimus risk). Because of the conservatism inherent in screening-level risk assessments, higher-tier scientific information and analyses that provide additional environmental realism can be applied in cases where a potential risk has been identified. This information includes community-level effects data, environmental fate and exposure data, monitoring data, geospatial location and proximity data, species biology data, and probabilistic exposure and population models. Given that the definition of "risk" includes likelihood and magnitude of effect, higher-tier risk assessments should use probabilistic techniques that more accurately and realistically characterize risk. Moreover, where possible and appropriate, risk assessments should focus on effects at the population and community levels of organization rather than the more traditional focus on the organism level. This document provides a review of some types of higher-tier data and assessment refinements available to more accurately and realistically evaluate potential risks of pesticide use to threatened and endangered species. PMID:25091316

  5. Risk assessment considerations with regard to the potential impacts of pesticides on endangered species.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Teed, R Scott; Bang, JiSu; Thorbek, Pernille; Perine, Jeff; Peranginangin, Natalia; Kim, Myoungwoo; Valenti, Ted; Chen, Wenlin; Breton, Roger L; Rodney, Sara I; Moore, Dwayne R J

    2015-01-01

    Simple, deterministic screening-level assessments that are highly conservative by design facilitate a rapid initial screening to determine whether a pesticide active ingredient has the potential to adversely affect threatened or endangered species. If a worst-case estimate of pesticide exposure is below a very conservative effects metric (e.g., the no observed effects concentration of the most sensitive tested surrogate species) then the potential risks are considered de minimis and unlikely to jeopardize the existence of a threatened or endangered species. Thus by design, such compounded layers of conservatism are intended to minimize potential Type II errors (failure to reject a false null hypothesis of de minimus risk), but correspondingly increase Type I errors (falsely reject a null hypothesis of de minimus risk). Because of the conservatism inherent in screening-level risk assessments, higher-tier scientific information and analyses that provide additional environmental realism can be applied in cases where a potential risk has been identified. This information includes community-level effects data, environmental fate and exposure data, monitoring data, geospatial location and proximity data, species biology data, and probabilistic exposure and population models. Given that the definition of "risk" includes likelihood and magnitude of effect, higher-tier risk assessments should use probabilistic techniques that more accurately and realistically characterize risk. Moreover, where possible and appropriate, risk assessments should focus on effects at the population and community levels of organization rather than the more traditional focus on the organism level. This document provides a review of some types of higher-tier data and assessment refinements available to more accurately and realistically evaluate potential risks of pesticide use to threatened and endangered species.

  6. A Critically Endangered new dragonfly species from Morocco: Onychogomphus boudoti sp. nov. (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sónia; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Brochard, Christophe; Vieira, Cristiana; Alves, Paulo Célio; Thompson, David J; Watts, Phillip C; Brito, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Both sexes of Onychogomphus boudoti sp. nov. Ferreira (Odonata: Anisoptera: Gomphidae) and exuviae are described and illustrated from a single locality in Morocco. This newly discovered species differs markedly from other Onychogomphus species by the morphology of the male epiproct and the female vulvar scale. It is genetically distinct in the mitochondrial DNA and the nuclear PRMT gene from all other Western Palaearctic Onychogomphus species. The known distribution of the new species is confined to a small stream with unusual habitat characteristics in the vicinity of Khenifra, in the Middle Atlas, where it experiences low population size and limited genetic diversity. We suggest listing this species both locally and globally as "Critically Endangered" [CR (B1, B2 + abiii)] following the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.  PMID:25284663

  7. New genetic approach to detecting individuals of rare and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Hayley A; Taylor, Graeme A; Crockett, David E; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

    2008-10-01

    Many rare and endangered species are difficult to locate, observe, and study. Consequently, many individuals, breeding pairs, and even populations of such species could remain undetected. Genetic markers can potentially be used to detect the existence of undiscovered individuals and populations, and we propose a method to do so that requires 3 conditions. First, sampling of the known population(s) of the target species must be comprehensive. Second, the species must display a reasonable level of philopatry and genetic structuring. Third, individuals must be able to be caught outside of breeding locations (e.g., at courtship or feeding areas, in flight), and the level of recapture must be reasonably high. We applied our method to the Chatham Island Taiko (Pterodroma magentae), one of the world's most endangered seabirds. We sequenced the Taiko mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and both copies of a fragment of the duplicated domain I of the control region. Twenty-one haplotypes were revealed, including 4 (19%) not found in birds at known burrows. These results suggest there are more burrow groups yet to be located. The species is a pelagic gadfly petrel that inhabits land only in the breeding season during which it is nocturnal and nests in burrows. Taiko burrows are situated in dense forest in a remote area of Chatham Island, and are consequently difficult to locate and study. It is important that all Taiko burrows be discovered to enable monitoring and protection of the birds from exotic predators. PMID:18717692

  8. New genetic approach to detecting individuals of rare and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Hayley A; Taylor, Graeme A; Crockett, David E; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

    2008-10-01

    Many rare and endangered species are difficult to locate, observe, and study. Consequently, many individuals, breeding pairs, and even populations of such species could remain undetected. Genetic markers can potentially be used to detect the existence of undiscovered individuals and populations, and we propose a method to do so that requires 3 conditions. First, sampling of the known population(s) of the target species must be comprehensive. Second, the species must display a reasonable level of philopatry and genetic structuring. Third, individuals must be able to be caught outside of breeding locations (e.g., at courtship or feeding areas, in flight), and the level of recapture must be reasonably high. We applied our method to the Chatham Island Taiko (Pterodroma magentae), one of the world's most endangered seabirds. We sequenced the Taiko mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and both copies of a fragment of the duplicated domain I of the control region. Twenty-one haplotypes were revealed, including 4 (19%) not found in birds at known burrows. These results suggest there are more burrow groups yet to be located. The species is a pelagic gadfly petrel that inhabits land only in the breeding season during which it is nocturnal and nests in burrows. Taiko burrows are situated in dense forest in a remote area of Chatham Island, and are consequently difficult to locate and study. It is important that all Taiko burrows be discovered to enable monitoring and protection of the birds from exotic predators.

  9. 78 FR 65248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... distinct population segment of the North American wolverine (78 FR 7864) under the Endangered Species Act... at http://www.fws.gov/mountain-prairie/science/peer_review.cfm and also at the Federal eRulemaking... Act directs that determinations as to whether any species is a threatened or endangered species...

  10. 78 FR 23948 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Black-Footed Ferret Draft Recovery Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... America wherever prairie dogs occurred. The species was listed as endangered in 1967 (32 FR 4001; March 11... Species Conservation Act of 1969 (35 FR 8491; June 2, 1970). On January 4, 1974, the black-footed ferret was listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (39 FR 1171). The ferret's close association...

  11. An overview of methods for developing bioenergetic and life history models for rare and endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fish species are at risk to some degree, and conservation efforts are planned or underway to preserve sensitive populations. For many imperiled species, models could serve as useful tools for researchers and managers as they seek to understand individual growth, quantify predator-prey dynamics, and identify critical sources of mortality. Development and application of models for rare species however, has been constrained by small population sizes, difficulty in obtaining sampling permits, limited opportunities for funding, and regulations on how endangered species can be used in laboratory studies. Bioenergetic and life history models should help with endangered species-recovery planning since these types of models have been used successfully in the last 25 years to address management problems for many commercially and recreationally important fish species. In this paper we discuss five approaches to developing models and parameters for rare species. Borrowing model functions and parameters from related species is simple, but uncorroborated results can be misleading. Directly estimating parameters with laboratory studies may be possible for rare species that have locally abundant populations. Monte Carlo filtering can be used to estimate several parameters by means of performing simple laboratory growth experiments to first determine test criteria. Pattern-oriented modeling (POM) is a new and developing field of research that uses field-observed patterns to build, test, and parameterize models. Models developed using the POM approach are closely linked to field data, produce testable hypotheses, and require a close working relationship between modelers and empiricists. Artificial evolution in individual-based models can be used to gain insight into adaptive behaviors for poorly understood species and thus can fill in knowledge gaps. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  12. 78 FR 69376 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 19 Species and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if... population growth, loss of coral reef habitat, overutilization by fisheries, disease, lack of adequate... focus on coral reef habitat loss when only one petitioned species was identified as found on coral...

  13. Convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. 1987 annual report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-15

    Five tables present all reported 1987 data on international trade, involving the United States, in wildlife and plant species listed on the appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Data on species, quantities, countries involved, purpose of trade, and description of products or specimens are provided.

  14. Ecology of Hawaiian marine mammals emphasizing the impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty-two marine mammal species including 2 baleen whales, 20 toothed whales, and one pinniped occur in Hawaiian waters. Among these are two endangered species, the migratory humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) around the main islands, and the non-migratory Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the extreme northwestern island chain. The endangered species are among those most commonly sighted, while spinner dolphins (Stenella spp.), bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops sp.), and false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are sighted less frequently. Most Hawaiian cetacean species are Odontoceti, or toothed whales, and feed on fish and squid. The Mysteceti or baleen whales feed on plankton, however the endangered humpback whale, which migrates to Hawaii to breed and calve, presumably does not feed there. The endangered monk seal feeds on cephalopods and fish. The impact of OTEC on endangered and non-endangered marine mammals results from several direct and indirect effects and is discussed in the text. Careful siting of OTEC plants away from humpback breeding areas and monk seal breeding and feeding areas will avoid adverse effects on these populations.

  15. Estimating effects of tidal power projects and climate change on threatened and endangered marine species and their food web.

    PubMed

    Busch, D Shallin; Greene, Correigh M; Good, Thomas P

    2013-12-01

    Marine hydrokinetic power projects will operate as marine environments change in response to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We considered how tidal power development and stressors resulting from climate change may affect Puget Sound species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their food web. We used risk tables to assess the singular and combined effects of tidal power development and climate change. Tidal power development and climate change posed risks to ESA-listed species, and risk increased with incorporation of the effects of these stressors on predators and prey of ESA-listed species. In contrast, results of a model of strikes on ESA-listed species from turbine blades suggested that few ESA-listed species are likely to be killed by a commercial-scale tidal turbine array. We applied scenarios to a food web model of Puget Sound to explore the effects of tidal power and climate change on ESA-listed species using more quantitative analytical techniques. To simulate development of tidal power, we applied results of the blade strike model. To simulate environmental changes over the next 50 years, we applied scenarios of change in primary production, plankton community structure, dissolved oxygen, ocean acidification, and freshwater flooding events. No effects of tidal power development on ESA-listed species were detected from the food web model output, but the effects of climate change on them and other members of the food web were large. Our analyses exemplify how natural resource managers might assess environmental effects of marine technologies in ways that explicitly incorporate climate change and consider multiple ESA-listed species in the context of their ecological community. Estimación de los Efectos de Proyectos de Energía de las Mareas y el Cambio Climático sobre Especies Marinas Amenazadas y en Peligro y su Red Alimentaria.

  16. Estimating effects of tidal power projects and climate change on threatened and endangered marine species and their food web.

    PubMed

    Busch, D Shallin; Greene, Correigh M; Good, Thomas P

    2013-12-01

    Marine hydrokinetic power projects will operate as marine environments change in response to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We considered how tidal power development and stressors resulting from climate change may affect Puget Sound species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their food web. We used risk tables to assess the singular and combined effects of tidal power development and climate change. Tidal power development and climate change posed risks to ESA-listed species, and risk increased with incorporation of the effects of these stressors on predators and prey of ESA-listed species. In contrast, results of a model of strikes on ESA-listed species from turbine blades suggested that few ESA-listed species are likely to be killed by a commercial-scale tidal turbine array. We applied scenarios to a food web model of Puget Sound to explore the effects of tidal power and climate change on ESA-listed species using more quantitative analytical techniques. To simulate development of tidal power, we applied results of the blade strike model. To simulate environmental changes over the next 50 years, we applied scenarios of change in primary production, plankton community structure, dissolved oxygen, ocean acidification, and freshwater flooding events. No effects of tidal power development on ESA-listed species were detected from the food web model output, but the effects of climate change on them and other members of the food web were large. Our analyses exemplify how natural resource managers might assess environmental effects of marine technologies in ways that explicitly incorporate climate change and consider multiple ESA-listed species in the context of their ecological community. Estimación de los Efectos de Proyectos de Energía de las Mareas y el Cambio Climático sobre Especies Marinas Amenazadas y en Peligro y su Red Alimentaria. PMID:24299085

  17. Population structure and genetic variation of the endangered species Elaeagnus mollis Diels (Elaeagnaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, J M; Zhang, F

    2015-06-01

    Elaeagnus mollis Diels is a group of shrubs and dwarf trees endemic to China and are endangered plants. However, the reason why these plants are endangered remains controversial. The current study aimed to explore the endangered status of E. mollis from a genetic perspective and to propose conservation strategies for this species. Using 16 polymorphic allozyme loci, the population genetic structure was investigated for three populations representing the taxa and variants. The variants exhibited relatively high levels of genetic variation compared to other woody shrubs with similar geographic distributions. The overall genetic diversity (HE = 0.352) was elevated compared to long-lived woody angiosperms. The average number of alleles per locus (A), percentage polymorphic loci (P), and observed heterozygosity (HO) were 2.0, 85.2, and 0.371, respectively. Furthermore, gene flow estimates within the population groups were also elevated. The life history and habitats of E. mollis play major roles in the levels of genetic diversity. The results of this study may help to device strategies for preserving the genetic diversity of E. mollis and for promoting planting.

  18. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R.; Collins, W.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  19. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  20. 75 FR 35746 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Honduran...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... on a Petition to List the Honduran Emerald Hummingbird as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), the Honduran emerald hummingbird... indicating that listing the Honduran emerald hummingbird may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication...