Science.gov

Sample records for act esa listed

  1. 78 FR 48943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...We, NMFS, have completed a comprehensive review of the status of river herring (alewife and blueback herring) in response to a petition submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) requesting that we list alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) throughout all or a significant portion of their range......

  2. Taxonomic considerations in listing subspecies under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Haig, S.M.; Chambers, Steven M.; Draheim, Hope M.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Dunham, Susie; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Fontaine, Joseph B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Knaus, Brian J.; Lopes, Iara F.; Loschl, Peter J.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Sheffield, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) allows listing of subspecies and other groupings below the rank of species. This provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service with a means to target the most critical unit in need of conservation. Although roughly one-quarter of listed taxa are subspecies, these management agencies are hindered by uncertainties about taxonomic standards during listing or delisting activities. In a review of taxonomic publications and societies, we found few subspecies lists and none that stated standardized criteria for determining subspecific taxa. Lack of criteria is attributed to a centuries-old debate over species and subspecies concepts. Nevertheless, the critical need to resolve this debate for ESA listings led us to propose that minimal biological criteria to define disjunct subspecies (legally or taxonomically) should include the discreteness and significance criteria of distinct population segments (as defined under the ESA). Our subspecies criteria are in stark contrast to that proposed by supporters of the phylogenetic species concept and provide a clear distinction between species and subspecies. Efforts to eliminate or reduce ambiguity associated with subspecies-level classifications will assist with ESA listing decisions. Thus, we urge professional taxonomic societies to publish and periodically update peer-reviewed species and subspecies lists. This effort must be paralleled throughout the world for efficient taxonomic conservation to take place.

  3. Taxonomic considerations in listing subspecies under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Haig, Susan M; Beever, Erik A; Chambers, Steven M; Draheim, Hope M; Dugger, Bruce D; Dunham, Susie; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Fontaine, Joseph B; Kesler, Dylan C; Knaus, Brian J; Lopes, Iara F; Loschl, Pete; Mullins, Thomas D; Sheffield, Lisa M

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) allows listing of subspecies and other groupings below the rank of species. This provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service with a means to target the most critical unit in need of conservation. Although roughly one-quarter of listed taxa are subspecies, these management agencies are hindered by uncertainties about taxonomic standards during listing or delisting activities. In a review of taxonomic publications and societies, we found few subspecies lists and none that stated standardized criteria for determining subspecific taxa. Lack of criteria is attributed to a centuries-old debate over species and subspecies concepts. Nevertheless, the critical need to resolve this debate for ESA listings led us to propose that minimal biological criteria to define disjunct subspecies (legally or taxonomically) should include the discreteness and significance criteria of distinct population segments (as defined under the ESA). Our subspecies criteria are in stark contrast to that proposed by supporters of the phylogenetic species concept and provide a clear distinction between species and subspecies. Efforts to eliminate or reduce ambiguity associated with subspecies-level classifications will assist with ESA listing decisions. Thus, we urge professional taxonomic societies to publish and periodically update peer-reviewed species and subspecies lists. This effort must be paralleled throughout the world for efficient taxonomic conservation to take place.

  4. 77 FR 30261 - Petition To List 83 Species of Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT12 Petition To List 83 Species of Coral as... 82 coral species in response to a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) to list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The purposes of...

  5. 77 FR 22749 - Petition To List 83 Species of Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Species of Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) AGENCY: National... for Biological Diversity (CBD) to list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the... of 82 coral species, while the draft Management Report describes existing regulatory mechanisms...

  6. 78 FR 27233 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires that...

  7. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water... technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water...

  8. 78 FR 45925 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... waterbodies were added by EPA because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for... 303(d) List can be obtained at EPA Region 6's Web site at...

  9. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean...

  10. Venus within ESA probe reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    Venus Express mission controllers at the ESA Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany are making intensive preparations for orbit insertion. This comprises a series of telecommands, engine burns and manoeuvres designed to slow the spacecraft down from a velocity of 29000 km per hour relative to Venus, just before the first burn, to an entry velocity some 15% slower, allowing the probe to be captured into orbit around the planet. The spacecraft will have to ignite its main engine for 50 minutes in order to achieve deceleration and place itself into a highly elliptical orbit around the planet. Most of its 570 kg of onboard propellant will be used for this manoeuvre. The spacecraft’s solar arrays will be positioned so as to reduce the possibility of excessive mechanical load during engine ignition. Over the subsequent days, a series of additional burns will be done to lower the orbit apocentre and to control the pericentre. The aim is to end up in a 24-hour orbit around Venus early in May. The Venus orbit injection operations can be followed live at ESA establishments, with ESOC acting as focal point of interest (see attached programme). In all establishments, ESA specialists will be on hand for interviews. ESA TV will cover this event live from ESOC in Darmstadt. The live transmission will be carried free-to-air. For broadcasters, complete details of the various satellite feeds are listed at http://television.esa.int. The event will be covered on the web at venus.esa.int. The website will feature regular updates, including video coverage of the press conference and podcast from the control room at ESA’s Operations Centre. Media representatives wishing to follow the event at one of the ESA establishments listed below are requested to fill in the attached registration form and fax it back to the place of their choice. For further information, please contact: ESA Media Relations Division Tel : +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Venus Express

  11. 78 FR 20912 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice and initial request for public input. SUMMARY: The Clean Water Act requires that States... existing technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State...

  12. Species listing under Canada's Species at Risk Act.

    PubMed

    Findlay, C Scott; Elgie, Stewart; Giles, Brian; Burr, Linda

    2009-12-01

    In a preliminary analysis of listing decisions under Canada's Species at Risk Act (SARA), Mooers et al. (2007)demonstrated an apparent bias against marine and northern species. As a follow-up, we expanded the set of potential explanatory variables, including information on jurisdictional and administrative elements of the listing process, and considered an additional 16 species recommended for listing by SARA's scientific advisory committee as of 15 August 2006. Logistic model selection based on Akaike differences suggested that species were less likely to be listed if they were harvested or had commercial or subsistence harvesting as an explicitly identified threat; had Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) as a responsible authority (RA); were located in Canada's north generally, and especially in Nunavut; or were found mostly or entirely within Canada. Subsequent model validation with an independent set of 50 species for which a listing decision was handed down in December 2007 showed an overall misclassification rate of <0.10, indicating reasonable predictive power. In light of these results, we recommend that RAs under SARA adopt a two-track listing approach to address problems of delays arising from extended consultations and the inconsistent use by the RAs of socioeconomic analysis; consider revising SARA so that socioeconomic analysis occurs during decisions about protecting species and their habitats rather than at the listing stage; and maintain an integrated database with information on species' biology, threats, and agency actions to enable future evaluation of SARA's impact.

  13. Testing decision rules for categorizing species' extinction risk to help develop quantitative listing criteria for the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Regan, Tracey J; Taylor, Barbara L; Thompson, Grant G; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Ralls, Katherine; Runge, Michael C; Merrick, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Lack of guidance for interpreting the definitions of endangered and threatened in the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) has resulted in case-by-case decision making leaving the process vulnerable to being considered arbitrary or capricious. Adopting quantitative decision rules would remedy this but requires the agency to specify the relative urgency concerning extinction events over time, cutoff risk values corresponding to different levels of protection, and the importance given to different types of listing errors. We tested the performance of 3 sets of decision rules that use alternative functions for weighting the relative urgency of future extinction events: a threshold rule set, which uses a decision rule of x% probability of extinction over y years; a concave rule set, where the relative importance of future extinction events declines exponentially over time; and a shoulder rule set that uses a sigmoid shape function, where relative importance declines slowly at first and then more rapidly. We obtained decision cutoffs by interviewing several biologists and then emulated the listing process with simulations that covered a range of extinction risks typical of ESA listing decisions. We evaluated performance of the decision rules under different data quantities and qualities on the basis of the relative importance of misclassification errors. Although there was little difference between the performance of alternative decision rules for correct listings, the distribution of misclassifications differed depending on the function used. Misclassifications for the threshold and concave listing criteria resulted in more overprotection errors, particularly as uncertainty increased, whereas errors for the shoulder listing criteria were more symmetrical. We developed and tested the framework for quantitative decision rules for listing species under the U.S. ESA. If policy values can be agreed on, use of this framework would improve the implementation of the ESA by

  14. The Endangered Species Act: Interfacing with Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides protective measures and a framework for establishing compliance criteria for actions that may affect species (and their habitat) listed under the Act. In many cases, the ESA can be effectively used under Section & of the Act, which provides procedures for c...

  15. 75 FR 55295 - List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...] List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Flexibility Act. The list is published to provide the public with notice that these rules are scheduled for...: The Regulatory Flexibility Act (``RFA''), codified at 5 U.S.C. 600-611, requires an agency to...

  16. 76 FR 79141 - List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...] List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Flexibility Act. The list is published to provide the public with notice that these rules are scheduled for...: The Regulatory Flexibility Act (``RFA''), codified at 5 U.S.C. 600-611, requires an agency to...

  17. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-103) - Install Fish Screens to Protect ESA Listed Steelhead and Bull Trout in the Walla Walla Basin – Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2003-06-11

    Proposed Action: Install Fish Screens to Protect ESA Listed Steelhead and Bull Trout in the Walla Walla Basin – Phase II Minor Diversion Screen Installations. BPA is proposing to provide cost share for a program that will protect ESA-listed salmonid species in the Walla Walla River Basin through the installation of state and federally approved fish screen on over 300 water diversions in the Walla Walla River Basin. This program will involve a wide variety of projects including the installation of screens for both pump and gravity fed surface water diversions. This project will be implemented in conjunction with the Walla Walla County Conservation District, Columbia County Conservation District, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Walla Walla Community College, Washington Department of Ecology, and local irrigators. ESA-listed steelhead and bull trout are presently at risk in the Walla Walla Basin as a result of a combination of factors that primarily involve insufficient flow, extensive habitat degradation, and mortality from surface water diversions. Unscreened or improperly screened diversions can damage fish scaling and induce stress, both of which can be lethal. They are also known to cause migration delays and increased predation; impinge fish against screen surfaces; or, in cases where screen mesh size is too large, allow juvenile fish to be drawn directly into functioning irrigation systems resulting in direct mortality. The goal of this project is to eliminate imminent mortality risks to ESA-listed fish arising from inadequate irrigation diversions in the Walla Walla Basin by upgrading screens to current state and federal juvenile fish screen standards.

  18. 77 FR 71743 - List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...] List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Commission is publishing a list of rules to be reviewed pursuant to Section 610 of the Regulatory Flexibility... INFORMATION: The Regulatory Flexibility Act (``RFA''), codified at 5 U.S.C. 600-611, requires an agency...

  19. 75 FR 52735 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... EPA's decision identifying 12 water quality limited waterbodies and associated pollutants in South Dakota to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests public...

  20. NOAA Lists 20 Coral Species as Threatened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    Twenty coral species have been listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 27 August. This is NOAA's largest ESA rule making. The coral species include 15 found in the Indo-Pacific region and 5 that are located in the Caribbean. They join two other Caribbean coral species that NOAA listed as threatened in 2006.

  1. 2 CFR 176.210 - Award term-Recovery Act transactions listed in Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Awards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS AWARD TERMS FOR ASSISTANCE AGREEMENTS THAT INCLUDE FUNDS UNDER THE AMERICAN... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Award term-Recovery Act transactions listed... Act Funds § 176.210 Award term—Recovery Act transactions listed in Schedule of Expenditures of...

  2. 2 CFR 176.210 - Award term-Recovery Act transactions listed in Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Awards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS AWARD TERMS FOR ASSISTANCE AGREEMENTS THAT INCLUDE FUNDS UNDER THE AMERICAN... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Award term-Recovery Act transactions listed... Act Funds § 176.210 Award term—Recovery Act transactions listed in Schedule of Expenditures of...

  3. Title III list of lists: Consolidated list of chemicals subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act, as amended. Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The consolidated chemical list includes chemicals subject to reporting requirements under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), and chemicals listed under section 112(r) of Title III the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. This consolidated list has been prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 313 of SARA Title III (EPCRA) and, for a specific chemical, what reports may need to be submitted. Separate lists are also provided of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) waste streams and unlisted hazardous wastes, and of radionuclides reportable under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). These lists should be used as reference tool, not as a definitive source of compliance information. The chemicals on the consolidated list are ordered by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) registry number. Categories of chemicals, which do not have CAS registry numbers, but which are cited under CERCLA, EPCRA section 313, and the CAA, are placed at the end of the list. More than one chemical name may be listed for one CAS number, because the same chemical may appear on different lists under different names.

  4. 76 FR 62061 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... added by EPA because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for dissolved....epa.gov/region6/water/npdes/tmdl/index.htm#303dlists , or by writing or calling Ms. Diane Smith...

  5. Title III list of lists: Consolidated list of chemicals subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act, as ammended. Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This consolidated list has been prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 313 of SARA Title III (EPCRA) and, for a specific chemical, what reports may need to be submitted. It will also help firms determine whether they will be subject to accident prevention regulations under CAA section 112(r). Separate lists are also provided of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) waste streams and unlisted hazardous wastes, and of radionuclides reportable under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). These lists should be used as a reference tool, not as a definitive source of compliance information.

  6. Genetic data and the listing of species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Sylvia M

    2007-10-01

    Genetic information is becoming an influential factor in determining whether species, subspecies, and distinct population segments qualify for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Nevertheless, there are currently no standards or guidelines that define how genetic information should be used by the federal agencies that administer the act. I examined listing decisions made over a 10-year period (February 1996-February 2006) that relied on genetic information. There was wide variation in the genetic data used to inform listing decisions in terms of which genomes (mitochondrial vs. nuclear) were sampled and the number of markers (or genetic techniques) and loci evaluated. In general, whether the federal agencies identified genetic distinctions between putative taxonomic units or populations depended on the type and amount of genetic data. Studies that relied on multiple genetic markers were more likely to detect distinctions, and those organisms were more likely to receive protection than studies that relied on a single genetic marker. Although the results may, in part, reflect the corresponding availability of genetic techniques over the given time frame, the variable use of genetic information for listing decisions has the potential to misguide conservation actions. Future management policy would benefit from guidelines for the critical evaluation of genetic information to list or delist organisms under the Endangered Species Act.

  7. 78 FR 41371 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Determination on Whether To List the Ribbon Seal as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ...We, NMFS, have completed a comprehensive status review of the ribbon seal (Histriophoca fasciata) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Based on the best scientific and commercial data available, including the Biological Review Team's (BRT's) status review report, we conclude that listing the ribbon seal as threatened or endangered under the ESA is not warranted at this time. We also......

  8. Title III List of Lists: Consolidated list of chemicals subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act, as amended. Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This consolidated chemical list includes chemicals subject to reporting requirements under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and chemicals listed under Section 112(r) of Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. This consolidated list has been prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 314 or SARA Title III (EPCRA) and, for a specific chemical, what reports may need to be submitted. It also will also help firms determine whether they will be subject to accident prevention regulations under CAA section 112(r).

  9. ESA Gaia and GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, Rene; Simon, Vojtech; Hudec, Lukas

    2008-05-22

    Albeit focusing on astrometry, the ESA Gaia space mission will also provide spectrophotometry for all objects down to mag 20 over 5 years operation period. Typically 50 to 200 measurements per object including optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources can be expected during this time interval. Also optical afterglows and optical transients of GRBs can be detected and investigated this way.

  10. ESA safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeman, L.

    1988-10-01

    The ESA safety policy, designed to protect human life, investments, and the environment is outlined. A risk assessment procedure which recognizes the lack of objective statistical data is discussed. It considers the consequences, frequency, and probability of an undesirable hazardous event. This risk assessment is applied as an iterative process during all project phases.

  11. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  12. Use of Artificial Propagation and Supplementation for Rebuilding Salmon Stocks Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 5 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Lichatowich, Jim; Watson, Bruce

    1993-06-01

    Conventional hatcheries, supplementation, and habitat protection are management activities located on a production continuum. At one end of the continuum is the conventional hatchery which attempts to separate artificially propagated fish from naturally reproducing populations. On the other end of the continuum is natural production. Supplementation which attempts to increase natural production through the use of artificial propagation lies somewhere between natural production and conventional hatcheries on the continuum. The use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species is controversial. Guidance on the use of artificial propagation in the recovery of listed species comes from three sources: The Endangered Species Act (ESA), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) policies and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) guidelines.

  13. ISA - An Accelerometer to Detect the Disturbing Accelerations Acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter of the BepiColombo ESA Cornerstone Mission to Mercury: on Ground Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Nozzoli, S.; Santoli, F.; Fois, M.; Persichini, M.

    2006-06-01

    To reach the ambitious goals of the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury, among which the planet structure and rotation and test Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) to an unprecedented accuracy, an accelerometer has been selected to fly on-board the MPO (Mercury Planetary Orbiter), the main spacecraft of the two to be placed around the innermost planet of our solar system around 2017. The key role of the on-board accelerometer is to remove from the list of unknowns the non-gravitational accelerations that disturbs the pure gravitational orbit of the MPO spacecraft in the strong radiation environment of Mercury. In this way the ``corrected'' orbit of the MPO may be regarded as a geodesic in the field of Mercury. Then, thanks to the very precise tracking from Earth, the possibility to study Mercury's center-of-mass around the Sun and estimate several parameters related to the planet structure and verify the theory of GR. The selected accelerometer named ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) is an high sensitive instrument with an intrinsic noise of 10-10 g⊕ / Hz (with g⊕ ≅ 9.8 m / s2) in the frequency band 3 . 10-5 -10-1 Hz. ISA is a three axis accelerometer with a characteristic configuration, in order to minimize the disturbing accelerations due to the gravity-gradients and the apparent forces on the Nadir pointing MPO spacecraft. Because of the complex and strong radiation environment of Mercury, the modelling of the non-gravitational acceleration is quite difficult, while, with the use of ISA accelerometer we are able to gain a factor 100 in accuracy. In this brief paper we will focus on the characteristics of the ISA accelerometer, on its positioning on-board the MPO and in particularly to the techniques for on ground calibration, avoiding the effects of the Earth gravity.

  14. ECOM - ESA's cost modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatelnig, Peter K.

    1996-01-01

    ESA, as an international procurement agency dealing with more than 1200 companies at the same time, must have the ability to assess the price for a product independently from other sources. Especially in the today's environment of flat or even declining budgets ESA has to ensure the value of the contributions coming from their member states. The paper presents a software tool developed by the Cost Analysis Division of ESTEC/ESA, which fits exactly the need for precise and retracable cost estimates for space business projects and components. As an introduction the driving needs and basic cost estimation techniques are presented. ECOM was conceived as a tool for independent price assessment and cost estimation. The gem within ECOM is the database, it contains historical data from ESA projects. The items are grouped in classes and the available data comprises the cost breakdown and the technical description, which are the main performance parameter, number of models, design status and beside the comments, also pictures are available. On the estimate part of ECOM it features all the well-known cost estimation techniques, like estimating using analogy, cost estimating relationship, parametric cost modelling, and includes links to commercial products (PCM, Price-H) as well. ECOM is capable of escalating for any given economical condition and any member state. To prepare reliable prize estimates, the cost analysts need the product tree, the work-package description, the technical description and the HW-matrix. The paper shows examples for the important steps of producing an estimate and is enhanced with authentical screen prints. ECOM is used by the Cost Analysis Division as an expert tool for professional cost estimation for space business projects.

  15. An analysis of candidates for addition to the Clean Air Act list of hazardous air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Lunder, Sonya; Woodruff, Tracey J; Axelrad, Daniel A

    2004-02-01

    There are 188 air toxics listed as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the Clean Air Act (CAA), based on their potential to adversely impact public health. This paper presents several analyses performed to screen potential candidates for addition to the HAPs list. We analyzed 1086 HAPs and potential HAPs, including chemicals regulated by the state of California or with emissions reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). HAPs and potential HAPs were ranked by their emissions to air, and by toxicity-weighted (tox-wtd) emissions for cancer and noncancer, using emissions information from the TRI and toxicity information from state and federal agencies. Separate consideration was given for persistent, bioaccumulative toxins (PBTs), reproductive or developmental toxins, and chemicals under evaluation for regulation as toxic air contaminants in California. Forty-four pollutants were identified as candidate HAPs based on three ranking analyses and whether they were a PBT or a reproductive or developmental toxin. Of these, nine qualified in two or three different rankings (ammonia [NH3], copper [Cu], Cu compounds, nitric acid [HNO3], N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, sulfuric acid [H2SO4], vanadium [V] compounds, zinc [Zn], and Zn compounds). This analysis suggests further evaluation of several pollutants for possible addition to the CAA list of HAPs.

  16. Designating Additions to the Current List of Tropical Diseases in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-08-20

    The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) authorizes the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) to award priority review vouchers (PRVs) to tropical disease product applicants when the applications meet certain criteria. The FD&C Act lists the diseases that are considered to be tropical diseases for purposes of obtaining PRVs, and also provides for Agency expansion of that list to include other diseases that satisfy the definition of ``tropical diseases'' as set forth in the FD&C Act. FDA has determined that Chagas disease and neurocysticercosis satisfy this definition, and therefore is adding them to the list of designated tropical diseases whose product applications may result in the award of PRVs. Sponsors submitting certain applications for the treatment of Chagas disease and neurocysticercosis may be eligible to receive a PRV if such applications are approved by FDA.

  17. 78 FR 18585 - FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of... pesticide registrations under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and associated... facilitate ESA pesticide consultations and coordination across these Federal agencies, and calls for...

  18. ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR ALACHLOR ESA AND OTHER ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, USEPA published a Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) of 50 chemicals and 10 microorganisms. "Alachlor ESA and other acetanilide herbicide degradation products" is listed on the the 1998 CCL. Acetanilide degradation products are generally more water soluble...

  19. Consolidated List of Lists

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of chemicals subject to reporting requirements under the Emergency Planning and Community Right- To-Know Act (EPCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act.

  20. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning.

  1. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  2. 75 FR 56028 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Sprague's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Sprague's pipit (Anthus spragueii) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Sprague's pipit as endangered or......

  3. 77 FR 19597 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Chinook Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...We, NMFS, announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Upper Klamath and Trinity Rivers Basin (UKTR) as threatened or endangered and designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We have reviewed the status of the UKTR Chinook salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) and considered the best scientific and......

  4. 78 FR 38872 - American Jobs Creation Act Modifications to Section 6708, Failure To Maintain List of Advisees...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BF39 American Jobs Creation Act Modifications to Section 6708, Failure To Maintain List of Advisees With Respect to Reportable Transactions;...

  5. 2 CFR 176.210 - Award term-Recovery Act transactions listed in Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Awards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Award term-Recovery Act transactions listed in Schedule of Expenditures of Federal Awards and Recipient Responsibilities for Informing...) as required by Congress and in accordance with 2 CFR 215.21 “Uniform Administrative Requirements...

  6. 76 FR 43699 - List of Additional Lands Affected by White Earth Reservation Land Settlement Act of 1985

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs List of Additional Lands Affected by White Earth Reservation Land Settlement Act... additional allotments or interest therein on the White Earth Chippewa Reservation in Minnesota which have been determined to fall within the scope of sections 4(a), 4(b), or 5(c) of the White Earth...

  7. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  8. ESA's Integral satellite ready for lift-off from Baikonur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    ESA's INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) satellite, will be launched by a Proton launcher from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on 17 October at 06:41 CEST (Central European Summer Time). The most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched, INTEGRAL is a truly international mission involving all ESA member states plus the USA and Russia. It carries four instruments from teams led by scientists in Italy, France, Germany, Denmark and Spain to gather and analyse gamma-rays, X-rays and visible light from celestial objects. INTEGRAL will give astronomers across the world their clearest views yet of the most extreme environments in the Universe. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and from processes that made the Universe inhabitable. Media representatives in Europe can follow the videotransmission of the launch at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy or ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) in Spain. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide video news releases and live coverage of the launch between 06:15-07:00 and 08:00-08:30 CEST. Details of the transmission schedule for the various Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/integrallaunch starting at 06:15 hrs.

  9. Laboratory validation of vost and semivost for halogenated hydrocarbons from the Clean Air Act amendments list. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.

    1993-04-29

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 compounds. EPA has used Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train (SemiVOST) sampling and analytical methods for the type of sampling of organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. In the study, the applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to Clean Air Act halogenated compounds has been evaluated under laboratory conditions. The methods were evaluated first to determine whether the compounds could be analyzed successfully.

  10. 75 FR 71431 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... decisions identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in California to be listed... are not stringent enough to attain or maintain state water quality standards and for which total... not to list several water quality limited segments as impaired and additional associated...

  11. Consolidated list of chemicals subject to reporting under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act: SARA (Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986) Section 302 Extremely Hazardous Substances, CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) Hazardous Substances and SARA Section 313 Toxic Chemicals (Title III. List of Lists) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, H.

    1990-01-01

    The data file is the disk-based version of the Office of Toxic Substances' consolidated list of chemicals subject to reporting under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and SARA Section 302 Extremely Hazardous Substances, as well as CERCLA Hazardous Substances. Title III is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act. The disks are designed to generate either a printout or a dBase III file from any IBM or IBM compatible system.

  12. Future ESA missions in biology.

    PubMed

    Bonting, S L

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the life sciences research program sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). This program rests on a number of facilities originated by ESA: Spacelab, Space sled, Biorack, Anthrorack, Eureca and its Botany - and Protein Crystallization facilities. They are all to be brought into space and returned by one of the NASA Space Shuttles. With these facilities a wide range of space biology research will be covered: cell biology, developmental biology, botany, human physiology, radiobiology, exobiology and biotechnology. Information is given on how to prepare, submit and execute an experiment proposal.

  13. Future ESA Missions in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1984-12-01

    A survey is given of the life sciences research program sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). This program rests on a number of facilities originated by ESA: Spacelab, Space sled, Biorack, Anthrorack, Eureca and its Botany — and Protein Crystallization facilities. They are all to be brough into space and returned by one of the NASA Space Shuttles. With these facilities a wide range of space biology research will be covered: cell biology, developmental biology, botany, human physiology, radio-biology, exobiology and biotechnology. Information is given on how to prepare, submit and execute an experiment proposal.

  14. Follow the Mars Express launch from one of ESA's establishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Europe’s first mission to the Red Planet will reach its target in December, after a six-month journey. Mars Express will help scientists answer questions about the Martian landscape, atmosphere and the origin of life that remain open, although a wealth of information is already available. Media representatives in Europe can follow the launch and initial orbital operations at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, or ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy and the Italian Space Agency, ASI, are organising a joint event at the University of Rome. ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) and the CDTI, the Spanish institution in charge of space issues, are organising a joint event in Spain at the Museo Principe Felipe de la Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias in Valencia. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide live televised coverage of the launch and initial orbital operations with English commentary, between 19:15 and 22:00 CEST. Satellite: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Reception frequency: 10832 MHz Polarisation: Horizontal Symbol rate: 22 Msymb/s FEC: 5/6 Service ID: 61950 Service name: ESA TXT: none Details of the transmission schedule and satellite details for the various pre-launch Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int. The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/marsexpresslaunch starting at 19:15 hrs. Here you can also find the launch diary, news, press releases, videos, images and more.

  15. ESA's SMART-1 satellite ready for lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    During the night of Saturday 27/Sunday 28 September, ESA’s SMART-1 satellite will be launched by an Ariane 5 rocket from Europe’s spaceport at Kourou at 20:02 hrs local time (01:02 hrs Central European Summer Time, 23:02 hrs GMT). SMART-1 is the first of a series of ‘Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology’ designed to test key technologies for future spacecraft. It is Europe’s first mission to the Moon. Among the new technologies to be tested is the solar-electric propulsion which will power the spacecraft to its target. SMART-1 will help solve such questions as how the Moon came into being and whether there is water there. Media representatives in Europe can follow the launch and initial orbital operations at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands or ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide live televised coverage of the launch and initial orbital operations with English commentary, between 00:40 and 02:00 CEST. Satellite: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Transponder 57, horizontal, MPEG-2, MCPC Reception frequency: 10832 MHz Polarisation: Horizontal Symbol rate: 22000 MS/sec FEC: 5/6 Service name: ESA Details of the transmission schedule and the various pre-launch Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int. On the ESA SMART-1 special website at: http://www.esa.int/smart1 you can also find news, press releases, videos, images and more about the mission.

  16. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Cecconi, Baptiste; Fraenz, Markus; Hagermann, Axel; Heather, David; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Svedhem, Hakan; Widemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug. The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa References: Heather, D., Barthelemy, M., Manaud, N., Martinez, S., Szumlas, M., Vazquez, J. L., Osuna, P. and the PSA Development Team (2013) ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status, Activities and Plans. EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626

  17. 77 FR 73219 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Listing Determinations for 82 Reef...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...We, NMFS, have completed comprehensive status reviews under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 82 reef-building coral species in response to a petition submitted by the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) to list the species as either threatened or endangered. We have determined, based on the best scientific and commercial data available and efforts being made to protect the species, that......

  18. 75 FR 3711 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat; 12-month...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Designated Critical Habitat for Elkhorn and Staghorn Corals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... staghorn (A. cervicornis) corals pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(D)(ii) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. Elkhorn and staghorn corals are listed as threatened throughout their ranges and...

  19. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  20. Environmental Politics and the Endangered Species Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahr, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the controversial issue of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) discussing the Act and the scope of the extinction problem. Reviews the arguments for and against the ESA, addresses the tactics that have been used in the political struggle over the ESA, and highlights the future of the ESA. Includes teaching activities. (CMK)

  1. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    Astrophysicist Freeman J. Dyson from the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton characterizes IUE as "A little half-meter mirror sitting in the sky, unnoticed by the public, pouring out results". By use of the IUE satellite, astronomers obtain access to the ultraviolet radiation of celestial bodies in unique ways not available by any other means, neither from the ground nor by any other spacecraft currently in orbit. IUE serves a wide community of astronomers all over Europe, the United States and many other parts of the world. It allows the acquisition of critical data for fundamental studies of comets and their evaporation when they approach the Sun, of the mechanisms driving the stellar winds which make many stars lose a significant fraction of their mass (before they die slowly as White Dwarfs or in sudden Supernova explosions), as well as in the search to understand the ways in which black holes possibly power the violent nuclei of Active galaxies. One year ago the project was threatened with termination and serious concern was expressed by astronomers about the potential loss of IUE's capabilities, as a result of NASA not continuing to operate the spacecraft. Under the leadership of ESA, the three Agencies involved in the operations of IUE (ESA, NASA and the United Kingdom's Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, PPARC), reviewed the operations agreements of the Project. A minor investment allowing the implementation of modern management and engineering techniques as well as a complete revision of the communication infrastructure of the project and continuous improvements in efficiency in the ESA management, also taking advantage of today's technologies, both in computing and communications, have made it possible to continue IUE operations within the financial means available, with ESA taking up most of NASA's share in the operations. According to Dr. Willem Wamsteker, ESA's Dutch IUE Project Scientist, "it was a extremely interesting

  2. 77 FR 27770 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... identifying certain water quality limited waterbodies, and the associated pollutant, in Utah to be listed... pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water quality standards and for... applicable water quality criterion for total dissolved solids (TDS) for these waters is being exceeded....

  3. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. P.; Cecconi, B.; Fraenz, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heather, D.; Rosenblatt, P.; Svedhem, H.; Widemann, T.

    2014-04-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa

  4. ESA extends solar observatory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) announced on 24 May that it would extend the life of its Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) from April 2007 to December 2009. Since it was launched in December 1995, SOHO has provided scientists with a view of the Sun's surface. ``This mission extension will allow SOHO to cement its position as the most important spacecraft in the history of solar physics,'' said SOHO project scientist Bernhard Fleck.

  5. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Pt. 36, Table I Table I to Part 36—Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act... National Wildlife Refuges established by the Alaska Lands Act....

  6. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Pt. 36, Table I Table I to Part 36—Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act... National Wildlife Refuges established by the Alaska Lands Act....

  7. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Pt. 36, Table I Table I to Part 36—Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act... National Wildlife Refuges established by the Alaska Lands Act....

  8. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Pt. 36, Table I Table I to Part 36—Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act... National Wildlife Refuges established by the Alaska Lands Act....

  9. Establishing a list of qualifying pathogens under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is issuing a regulation to establish a list of "qualifying pathogens'' that have the potential to pose a serious threat to public health. This final rule implements a provision of the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) title of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). GAIN is intended to encourage development of new antibacterial and antifungal drugs for the treatment of serious or life-threatening infections, and provides incentives such as eligibility for designation as a fast-track product and an additional 5 years of exclusivity to be added to certain exclusivity periods. Based on analyses conducted both in the proposed rule and in response to comments to the proposed rule, FDA has determined that the following pathogens comprise the list of ``qualifying pathogens:'' Acinetobacter species, Aspergillus species, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Campylobacter species, Candida species, Clostridium difficile, Coccidioides species, Cryptococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae), Enterococcus species, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Non-tuberculous mycobacteria species, Pseudomonas species, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and Vibrio cholerae. The preamble to the proposed rule described the factors the Agency considered and the methodology used to develop the list of qualifying pathogens. As described in the preamble of this final rule, FDA applied those factors and that methodology to additional pathogens suggested via comments on the proposed rule.

  10. Report: Leaking Underground Storage Tank Recovery Act Grants Contained Requirements but Priority Lists Need More Oversight

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #11-R-0018, November 22, 2010. While the Recovery Act grants we reviewed contained most of the requirements specified in Agency regulations and guidance, there were three management control deficiencies with these grants.

  11. 78 FR 69376 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 19 Species and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...We (NMFS) announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list 19 species and 3 subpopulations of sharks as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted for 9 species: Centrophorus harrissoni, Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus, Mustelus fasciatus,......

  12. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  13. Consolidated list of chemicals subject to reporting under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. (Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The consolidated chemical list includes chemicals subject to reporting requirements under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). It has been prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine whether they need to submit reports under sections 302, 304, or 313 of Title III and, for a specific chemical, what reports may need to be submitted. Separate lists are also provided of RCRA waste streams and unlisted hazardous wastes, and of radionuclides reportable under CERCLA. The lists should be used as a reference tool, not as a definitive source of compliance information. Compliance information is published in the Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR Parts 302, 355, and 372. The chemicals on the consolidated list are ordered by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) registry number. Categories of chemicals, which do not have CAS registry numbers, but which are cited under CERCLA and section 313, are placed at the end of the list. For reference purposes, the chemicals (with their CAS numbers) are ordered alphabetically following the CAS-order list. Long chemical names may have been truncated to facilitate printing of the list.

  14. ESA's SMART-1 Mission: Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, G.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project Team

    SMART-1 is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology as part of ESA science programme ``Cosmic Vision''. Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been launched on 27 sept. 2003, as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. SMART-1 orbit pericenter is now outside the inner radiation belt. The current status of SMART-1 will be given at the symposium. After a 15 month cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit.

  15. ESA announces its Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    The announcement will be made at ESA's Head Office, 8-10 rue Mario Nikis in Paris, during a press breakfast starting at 08:30. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached accreditation from and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Office - Paris. Note to editors The announcement will follow a two-day meeting of ESA's Space Science Committee (SPC), composed of Delegates from all ESA's Member States, in Paris on 11 and 12 October. The SPC will decide - on the basis of the Space Science Advisory Committee's (SSAC) recommendations formulated earlier in September - about the next Cornerstone (CS) and Flexi (F) Missions that will be implemented in the framework of ESA's Horizons 2000 Programme. Further information about the Future Mission candidates and the ESA Science Programme can be found at: http://sci.esa.int. In particular the SSAC recommendations to SPC can be found at: http://sci.esa.int/structure/content/index.cfm?aid=1&cid=2304 Further information on ESA at : http//www.esa.int

  16. Safety risk management for ESA space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. M.

    1991-08-01

    ESA's safety program as defined in ESA PSS-01-40, system safety requirements for ESA space systems, comprise the systematic identification and evaluation of space system hazardous characteristics and their associated risks, together with a process of safety optimization through hazard and risk reduction, and implementation verification. This safety optimization and verification process is termed safety risk management. The fundamental principles of safety risk management are discussed.

  17. ESA SnowLab project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  18. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  19. Golden legacy from ESA's observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    'milestone number' of 1000 scientific papers was reached. Even now ISO's data archive remains a valuable source of new results. For example, some of the latest papers describe the detection of water in 'protostars', which are stars in the process of being born, and studies of numerous nearby galaxies. "Of course we were confident ISO was going to do very well, but its actual productivity has been far beyond our expectations. The publication rate does not even seem to have peaked yet! We expect many more results," Salama says. Note for editors ISO's data archive contains scientific data from about 30 000 observations. Astronomers from all over the world have downloaded almost eight times the equivalent of the entire scientific archive. As much as 35% of all ISO observations have already been published at least once in prestigious scientific journals. ESA is now preparing to continue its infrared investigation of the Universe. The next generation of infrared space observatories is already in the pipeline. ISO is to be followed by the NASA SIRTF observatory to be launched later this year. Then, in 2007, ESA will follow up the pioneering work of ISO with the Herschel Space Observatory, which will become the largest imaging telescope ever put into space. ISO The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was launched in 1995 and operated from November that year to May 1998, when it ran out of the coolant needed to keep its detectors working. At the time it was the most sensitive infrared satellite ever launched and made particularly important studies of the dusty regions of the Universe, where visible light telescopes can see nothing. ESA will reopen its examination of the infrared Universe when Herschel is launched in 2007. Herschel Herschel will be the largest space telescope when, in 2007, it is launched on an Ariane-5 rocket, together with ESA’s cosmology mission, Planck. Herschel’s 3.5-metre diameter mirror will collect longwave infrared radiation from some of the coolest and most

  20. Actual and potential use of population viability analyses in recovery of plant species listed under the US endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Sara L; Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2013-12-01

    Use of population viability analyses (PVAs) in endangered species recovery planning has been met with both support and criticism. Previous reviews promote use of PVA for setting scientifically based, measurable, and objective recovery criteria and recommend improvements to increase the framework's utility. However, others have questioned the value of PVA models for setting recovery criteria and assert that PVAs are more appropriate for understanding relative trade-offs between alternative management actions. We reviewed 258 final recovery plans for 642 plants listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to determine the number of plans that used or recommended PVA in recovery planning. We also reviewed 223 publications that describe plant PVAs to assess how these models were designed and whether those designs reflected previous recommendations for improvement of PVAs. Twenty-four percent of listed species had recovery plans that used or recommended PVA. In publications, the typical model was a matrix population model parameterized with ≤5 years of demographic data that did not consider stochasticity, genetics, density dependence, seed banks, vegetative reproduction, dormancy, threats, or management strategies. Population growth rates for different populations of the same species or for the same population at different points in time were often statistically different or varied by >10%. Therefore, PVAs parameterized with underlying vital rates that vary to this degree may not accurately predict recovery objectives across a species' entire distribution or over longer time scales. We assert that PVA, although an important tool as part of an adaptive-management program, can help to determine quantitative recovery criteria only if more long-term data sets that capture spatiotemporal variability in vital rates become available. Lacking this, there is a strong need for viable and comprehensive methods for determining quantitative, science-based recovery criteria for

  1. ESA Fire CCI product assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Kaiser, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project is currently computing a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the full ENVISAT-MERIS archive (2002 to 2012). The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". A first, formally validated version has been released for the period 2006 to 2008. It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64, GFED4(s), GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). Output from the ongoing processing of the full MERIS timeseries will be incorporated into the study, as far as available. The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2006-2008 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to

  2. A bioeconomic perspective on the Endangered Species Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salau, K. R.; Fenichel, E. P.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat destruction threatens species existence and has recently accelerated due to population growth, urban sprawl, agricultural development and other profitable land conversions on public and private lands. To exacerbate this issue, the public good nature of species existence creates strong incentives for landowners to engage in free-riding behavior and forego conservation on managed lands. To reverse these negative effects, the United States Congress passed the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1973 to create a set of rules for planning government intervention to protect dwindling fish, wildlife, and plant populations and create a platform for recovery and conservation. The ESA is quite explicit about how to make tradeoffs when listing a species as threatened or endangered - only evaluation of biological risks faced are considered. But the act is unclear about what information can or should be used when determining delisting criteria for endangered species. The ESA mandates federal participation in conservation and, in many cases, agencies must curtail socially beneficial activities (e.g. grazing, renewable energy development, mining, military training) in order to meet species recovery objectives. As funding for conservation on federal lands is limited, this creates an implicit tradeoff between recovering species - to gain post-delisting managerial flexibility - and preventing extinction - to minimize management costs. In this respect, reconciliation of biological recovery goals amidst budget constraints and alternate land-use benefits should be supplemented by economic analysis. Economic tradeoffs are inherent in species recovery under the ESA, but the act does not discuss how agencies should structure a recovery plan in light of such factors. This study outlines a bioeconomic approach to framing the recovery problem under the ESA and provides a framework for simultaneously establishing measurable delisting criteria and a least-cost path to recovery. This

  3. 78 FR 14939 - American Jobs Creation Act Modifications to Section 6708, Failure To Maintain List of Advisees...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... advisor shows that it took immediate steps to correct any failure upon its discovery. A material advisor's... completion of the production of the list, state that to the best of the person's knowledge all information... discovery. The failure of a person to take immediate steps to correct a failure related to the list upon...

  4. ESA's Hipparcos finds rebels with a cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    third dimension, namely the speed with which stars approach us or recede from us. Because of the Doppler shift, the colour of a star appears to change when it travels towards us or away from us, becoming respectively bluer or redder and giving astronomers information about its motion. "By combining all these first-class data, we now have a comprehensive, three-dimensional view of how nearby stars move about us," said Famaey. Scientists now wonder how widespread are the streams discovered by Famaey's team and what role they could play in the evolution of our galaxy. "This result opens up exciting new prospects for our understanding of the dynamics of the Milky Way," said Dr Michael Perryman, ESA Hipparcos and Gaia project scientist. ESA's forthcoming mission Gaia, scheduled for launch in 2011, will make it possible to extend this investigation over a much wider region of our galaxy. Gaia will observe more than a thousand million stars and will measure their motion in all three dimensions simultaneously, thanks to the on-board spectrograph providing information on their Doppler shift. "This will give us the clearest view ever of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way," Perryman said. Notes for editors These results are the subject of a paper published this month in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. Besides Benoit Famaey, the list of authors includes Alain Jorissen, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium; Xavier Luri, University of Barcelona, Spain; Michel Mayor and Stéphane Udry, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Herwig Dejonghe, Ghent University, Belgium; Catherine Turon, Observatory of Paris-Meudon, France. The paper, entitled “Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters” can be found at this address: http://www.edpsciences.org/articles/aa/pdf/press-releases/PRAA200409.pdf More about Hipparcos ESA’s Hipparcos pinpointed the positions of more than one hundred thousand stars

  5. Christmas on Mars: be there with ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    The exciting event can be followed at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, on Thursday, 25 December, from 01:30 to 14:00, together with the mission managers, the operation teams, scientists and top ESA management, including ESA’s Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director of Science David Southwood and ESA’s Director of Technical and Operational Support Gaele Winters. The highlights of the night will be also webcast over the internet http://mars.esa.int. As well as live streaming of key events, the Mars Express site will have daily news, features, images, videos and more. The ESA TV Service will provide live coverage of operations, from the Operations Control Centre at ESOC. All transmission and satellite details are published online at http://television.esa.int All live transmissions are also carried free-to-air on Astra 2 C at 19 degrees East, transponder 57, horizontal, (DVB-MPEG-2), frequency 10832 MHz, Symbol Rate 22000 MS/sec, FEC 5/6. The service name is ESA Media wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Service: +33 (0)1 53 69 76 90.

  6. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The outcome of the ESA Council at Ministerial level held in Edinburgh in November 2001 was not as positive as expected for the Agency's Science Programme. It appeared that the money made available would not be sufficient to carry out the Long Term Programme approved by the Science Programme Committee in October 2000, based on financial assumptions approved by the same Committee in Bern in May 1999. The resources granted in Edinburgh taken at their face value meant the cancellation of a mission (e.g. GAIA). At the conclusion of the exercise, following extensive consultations with all its partners, the Executive could propose a revised plan, which not only maintained the missions approved in October 2000, but added the Eddington mission in addition. The new plan, strongly endorsed by the Science Programme Committee on the occasion of its 99th meeting, contains the following missions, listed by production groups: Astrophysics Group 1: XMM-Newton (1999), INTEGRAL (2002). X and Gamma Ray Observatories (studying the 'violent' universe) Group 2: Herschel, exploring the infrared and microwave universe; Planck, to study the cosmic microwave background; Eddington, searching for extra-solar planets and studying the stellar seismology. (The three missions will be launched in the 2007-2008 timeframe.) Group 3: GAIA, the ultimate galaxy mapper (to be launched no later than 2012). Missions will follow in the same group after 2012. Solar System Science: Group 1:Rosetta, a trip to a comet (2003); Mars Express, a Mars orbiter carrying the Beagle2 lander (2003); (Venus Express, a Venus orbiter, would have been in this group.) Group 2: SMART-1, which will demonstrate solar propulsion technology while on its way to the Moon (2003); BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, a mission to take a closer look at the Sun (missions to be launched in 2011-2012). Fundamental Physics missions: (one group only) STEP (2005) the 'equivalence principle' test, SMART2, a technology

  7. The Janus faces of ESAs: caveat Chimaera!

    PubMed

    Penny, Hugo; Leckström, Daniel; Goldsmith, David

    2013-06-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a Janus quality as they look back whence they came in developing CKD and, in some cases, also look forwards to a potential kidney transplant with the attendant promise of improvement in quality and often quantity of life. Making the most of this often unique opportunity is key-maximising the chance that the engraftment starts as a success, and then later, preserving good kidney transplant function for as long as possible. Two recently published, independently conceived and executed studies are relevant to both aspects of this quest and thus to all kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Both trials also simultaneously stoke and quench the continuing, heated debates over target haemoglobin (Hb) levels, and the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), in CKD patients. One study--of acute, high-dose ESA administration--adds to the plethora of adverse safety signals swirling around the use of ESAs while surprisingly also showing renal function benefits at 12 months. The other study features chronic lower-dose ESA use in stable KTRs with anaemia and impaired renal function and not only purports to show a salutary effect on 2-year renal function outcomes (and thus reducing "return to dialysis" rates), but also rebuts the now widely accepted current notion that by chronic use of ESAs to target full Hb correction/higher Hb values in anaemic CKD patients, we are potentially causing harm.

  8. ESA strategic planning for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, B.; Reiter, T.; Sourgens, E.

    2014-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is pursuing an independent strategic planning process for consolidating a destination driven (LEO, Moon, Mars) space exploration strategy. ESA's space exploration strategy is driven by the goals to maximise knowledge gain and to contribute to economic growth. International cooperation is a key pillar of ESA's strategy as it is considered both, an enabler for achieving common goals and a benefit, opening new perspective for addressing future challenges. The achievement of ESA's space exploration strategy is enabled through international partnerships. The interagency coordination process conducted within the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) plays an important role in laying the foundations for future partnerships. It has achieved so far the development of a common vision for space exploration, a common plan for implementing the vision in the form of the Global Exploration Roadmap, as well as a common approach for articulating the value of global space exploration. ESA has been a strong promoter and supporter of the interagency coordination process conducted within ISECG and thanks to its unique expertise in international cooperation the Agency has contributed to its success.

  9. ESA's Earth Observation in Support of Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation Programme and its contribution to Geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. A special focus will be put on the Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme and focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. In addition the operational Sentinel satellites have a huge potential for Geoscience. Earth Explorers' emphasis is also on learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The process of Earth Explorer mission selection has given the Earth science community an efficient tool for advancing the understanding of Earth as a system.

  10. The New ESA Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Grotheer, E.; Lim, T.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's planetary missions, making them accessible to the world-wide scientific community.With the advent of new ESA planetary missions, currently in development Bepi Colombo (Mercury) and ExoMars16 (Mars), and later on ExoMars18 (Mars Rover) and JUICE (Jupiter and moons), the PSA faces the need of supporting new functionalities and requirements.Within this scenario there is a need for a new concept of the PSA, supporting both the evolution of the PDS standard (PDS4), and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications toward a better science exploitation. We introduce the new PSA layout, conceived for better data discovery and retrieval, with special emphasis on GIS technology, interoperability and visualization capabilities.

  11. The Gravitational Universe - ESA's L3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Guido; Ando, Masaki; Binetruy, Pierre; Bouyer, Philippe; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Cruise, Mike; Favata, Fabio; Gehler, Martin; Genzel, Reinhard; Jennrich, Oliver; Kasevich, Mark; Klipstein, Bill; Perryman, Michael; Safa, Frederic; Schutz, Bernard; Stebbins, Robin; Vitale, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Following the advice of ESA's Senior Survey Committee (SSC) the Science Programme Committee (SPC) decided in November 2013 to select the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for their L3 mission. The Director of Science and Robotic Exploration (D/SRE) has established a Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team (GOAT) to advise on the scientific and technological approaches for a gravitational wave observatory with a planned launch date in 2034. Our team is comprised of scientists from Europe and the US as well as scientists and engineers from ESA and observers from NASA and JAXA. We meet about every ten weeks, evaluate the technical readiness of all necessary technologies, study the science impact of different mission designs, and will advise ESA on the required future technology development. We will report on our progress and plans forward to a future space-based gravitational-wave observatory. For JAXA.

  12. Science Operations For Esa's Smart-1 Mission To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

    The primary objective of the European Space Agency's SMART-1 mission to the Moon is to test and validate a new electric propulsion engine for potential use on other larger ESA Cornerstone missions. However, the SMART-1 spacecraft will also carry a number of scientific instruments and experiments for use en-route to and in orbit about the Moon. SMART-1's major operational constraint is that it will be only contacted twice per week. As a result, there will be a stronger emphasis on mid-term planning, and the spacecraft will be operated using a large list of telecommands sent during the communication windows. This approach leads to a higher probability of there being resource and/or instruments conflicts. To eliminate these, two software tools were developed: the Experiment Planning System (EPS), and the Project Test Bed (PTB). These tools will also allow us to predict the lunar coverage of the scien- tific instruments, and to simulate target selections.

  13. Aerothermodynamics in Europe: ESA Achievements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muylaert, J.-M.

    2005-02-01

    Europe is faced with challenging aerothermodynamic problems for several of ESA's human space flight and exploration, science, application and launcher programmes. The Aerothermodynamic section at ESA/ESTEC provided technical support to these programmes and implemented research and development programmes to improve industrial tools for design in a way to strengthen the co-operation between universities, research establishments and industry. The ESA programmes involving Aerothermodynamics are: • Human space flight and exploration: CARV, PARES, IRDT, EXPERT, EVD, ATV, COLUMBUS • Science programmes : Huygens, MARS, VEX • Launcher programmes: ARIANE, VEGA, Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). • Satellite telecommunication and earth observation programmes: MSG, EOLUS, CRYOSAT, GOCE • Technological Research programmes: improvements of the tools for design and analysis of space vehicles (ground-based facilities, flight test and measurement techniques and numerical/physical modelling validation activities) The paper will review past ESA aerothermodynamic activities by highlighting achievements obtained on the occasion of the past 4 Aerothermodynamics symposia. Critical aerothermodynamic issues for the design of reentry space vehicles and launchers will be addressed. A number of analysis and test results will be presented, the need for advanced numerical tools will be addressed and the importance of flight-testing will be identified for the validation of the methods and procedures for flight extrapolation of results obtained from ground-based facilities.

  14. The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkrad, H.; Beltrami, P.; Hauptmann, S.; Martin, C.; Sdunnus, H.; Stokes, H.; Walker, R.; Wilkinson, J.

    2004-01-01

    The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002 was jointly produced by an industrial consortium and ESA, under an ESA contract. The Handbook is a non-regulatory, self-standing document, providing technical information in support of European debris mitigation standards. The necessity of debris mitigation is illustrated in the context of historic launch activities and operational practices, which led to the current debris environment, with corresponding collision flux levels. Based on detailed population evolution models, this initial population is analyzed with respect to its growth and stability under different traffic assumptions. The implementation of debris mitigation measures, in particular the de-orbiting of spacecraft and upper stages, is shown to reduce the debris growth to an acceptable level within a few decades. The risk on ground due to re-entering space objects, its assessment, and its control is also analyzed. For on-orbit systems, collision risk reduction by avoidance manoeuvres, and passive protection by shielding is outlined. ESA's Handbook also compares recommended debris mitigation and risk reduction practices proposed by several other space agencies. The Handbook will be available at the begin of 2003.

  15. The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkrad, H.; Beltrami, P.; Hauptmann, S.; Martin, C.; Sdunnus, H.; Stokes, H.; Walker, R.; Wilkinson, J.

    The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002 was jointly produced by an industrial consortium and ESA, under an ESA contract. The Handbook is a non-regulatory, self-standing document, providing technical information in support of European debris mitigation standards. The necessity of debris mitigation is illustrated in the context of historic launch activities and operational practices, which led to the current debris environment, with corresponding collision flux levels. Based on detailed population evolution models, this initial population is analysed with respect to its growth and stability under different traffic assumptions. The implementation of debris mitigation measures, in particular the de-orbiting of spacecraft and upper stages, is shown to reduce the debris growth to an acceptable level within a few decades. The risk on ground due to re-entering space objects, its assessment, and its control is also analysed. For on-orbit systems, collision risk reduction by avoidance manoeuvres, and passive protection by shielding is outlined. ESA's Handbook also compares recommended debris mitigation and risk reduction practices proposed by several other space agencies. The Handbook will be available by the end of 2002.

  16. 78 FR 9678 - Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000; Revision to the List of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... the Bridgeport Brass facility in Adrian, Michigan, as an atomic weapons employer (AWE) facility... Adrian, Michigan, as an atomic weapons employer (AWE) facility. Previous lists or revisions were... emitted radiation and was used in the production of an atomic weapon, excluding uranium mining and...

  17. 76 FR 37632 - Addition of Certain Persons on the Entity List: Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding eight persons to the Entity List (Supplement No. 4 to part 744) on the basis of section 744.11 of the EAR. The persons who are added to the Entity... criteria set forth in certain sections of part 744 (Control Policy: End-User and End-Use Based) of the...

  18. 77 FR 23114 - Addition of Certain Persons on the Entity List: Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding three persons to the Entity List. The... of part 744 (Control Policy: End-User and End-Use Based) of the EAR. The ERC, composed of... foreign policy interests of the United States) of the EAR. The three entries added to the Entity...

  19. 76 FR 44259 - Addition of Certain Persons on the Entity List: Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by adding six persons to the Entity List (Supplement No. 4 to Part 744) on the basis of section 744.11 of the EAR. The persons who are added to the Entity... (Control Policy: End-User and End-Use Based) of the EAR. The End-User Review Committee (ERC), composed...

  20. Geography and recovery under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Carlos; Vucetich, John A; Nelson, Michael P; Rohlf, Daniel J; Phillips, Michael K

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) defines an endangered species as one "at risk of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range." The prevailing interpretation of this phrase, which focuses exclusively on the overall viability of listed species without regard to their geographic distribution, has led to development of listing and recovery criteria with fundamental conceptual, legal, and practical shortcomings. The ESA's concept of endangerment is broader than the biological concept of extinction risk in that the "esthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational, and scientific" values provided by species are not necessarily furthered by a species mere existence, but rather by a species presence across much of its former range. The concept of "significant portion of range" thus implies an additional geographic component to recovery that may enhance viability, but also offers independent benefits that Congress intended the act to achieve. Although the ESA differs from other major endangered-species protection laws because it acknowledges the distinct contribution of geography to recovery, it resembles the "representation, resiliency, and redundancy" conservation-planning framework commonly referenced in recovery plans. To address representation, listing and recovery standards should consider not only what proportion of its former range a species inhabits, but the types of habitats a species occupies and the ecological role it plays there. Recovery planning for formerly widely distributed species (e.g., the gray wolf [Canis lupus]) exemplifies how the geographic component implicit in the ESA's definition of endangerment should be considered in determining recovery goals through identification of ecologically significant types or niche variation within the extent of listed species, subspecies, or "distinct population segments." By linking listing and recovery standards to niche and ecosystem concepts, the concept of ecologically

  1. 77 FR 27831 - List of Participating Countries and Entities Under the Clean Diamond Trade Act of 2003

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Participating Countries and Entities Under the Clean Diamond Trade Act of 2003 AGENCY: Department of State... Entities eligible for trade in rough diamonds under the Clean Diamond Trade Act of 2003, and their... Diamonds, Bureau of Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs, Department of State (202)...

  2. Laboratory validation of vost and semivost for halogenated hydrocarbons from the Clean Air Act amendments list. Volume 1. Final report, 1 January 1991-1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.; Jackson, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 compounds. EPA has used Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train (SemiVOST) sampling and analytical methods for the type of sampling of organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. In the study, the applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to Clean Air Act halogenated compounds has been evaluated under laboratory conditions. The methods were evaluated first to determine whether the compounds could be analyzed successfully. The report presents the results of the laboratory experiments.

  3. Cost considerations in database selection - A comparison of DIALOG and ESA/IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there are many factors which affect the decision-making process in determining which databases should be selected for conducting the online search on a given topic. In many cases, however, the major consideration will be related to cost. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the costs involved in making use of DIALOG and the European Space Agency's Information Retrieval Service (ESA/IRS). The two services are very comparable in many respects. Attention is given to pricing structure, telecommunications, the number of databases, prints, time requirements, a table listing online costs for DIALOG and ESA/IRS, and differences in mounting databases. It is found that ESA/IRS is competitively priced when compared to DIALOG, and, despite occasionally higher telecommunications costs, may be even more economical to use in some cases.

  4. PROFILE: Impending Recovery of Kirtland's Warbler: Case Study in the Effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act

    PubMed

    Solomon

    1998-01-01

    / The Endangered Species Act (ESA) has received a large amount of criticism in recent years by conservative landowners and others who believe that it has infringed on property rights. It also has been criticized by those who think it has been costly and ineffective in reaching its goal of preventing extinction and recovering species. Recent evidence, however, shows that the ESA has stabilized or increased the populations of over a third of the listed species. In addition, its chief administrator, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, has been increasingly flexible in implementing the ESA. After reviewing the administrative machinery of the ESA, this paper provides a case study of one endangered species, the Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii). This particular recovery program actually began before passage of the federal ESA, when biologists alerted the Michigan Department of Natural Resources of the perilously low population of this bird, which only breeds under jack pine (Pinus banksiana) trees in Michigan. By the time an ESA Recovery Team was formed for this bird in 1975 (the first such team created under the ESA), a legacy of consensus and interagency cooperation was well established. This has led to successful efforts at habitat management and control of its nest parasite, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). While the Kirtland's warbler is not yet recovered, its population is near an all-time high, and its recovery is possible within the next decade. When (and if) this happens, it will be clearly attributable to this successful model of federalism for natural resources management.KEY WORDS: Endangered species; Kirtland's warbler; Brown-headed cowbird; Jack pine; Endangered Species Act

  5. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  6. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the Russian led science payload, focusing on developing an characterising the resource opportunities offered at the lunar surface. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. In the frame of a broader future international programme under discussion through the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) future missions are under investigation that would provide access to the lunar surface through international cooperation and human-robotic partnerships.

  7. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the exploration missions of the future.

  8. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Foing, Bernard H.; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernado; Schiemann, Jens

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the abundance, composition and isotopes of lunar volatiles in polar regions, and their associated chemistry. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterise and utilise polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the

  9. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Espinasse, S.; Hufenbach, B.

    2013-09-01

    Lunar exploration continues to be a priority for the European Space Agency (ESA) and is recognized as the next step for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Moon is also recognized as an important scientific target providing vital information on the history of the inner solar system; Earth and the emergence of life, and fundamental information on the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets. The Moon also provides a platform that can be utilized for fundamental science and to prepare the way for exploration deeper into space and towards a human Mars mission, the ultimate exploration goal. Lunar missions can also provide a means of preparing for a Mars sample return mission, which is an important long term robotic milestone. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. These include activities on the ISS and participation with US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017. Future activities planned activities also include participation in international robotic missions. These activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future. We present ESA's plans for Lunar exploration and the current status of activities. In particular we will show that this programme gives rise to unique scientific opportunities and prepares scientifically and technologically for future exploratory steps.

  10. ESA Technologies for Space Debris Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormnes, K.; Le Letty, R.; Summerer, L.; Schonenborg, R.; Dubois-Matra, O.; Luraschi, E.; Cropp, A.; Krag, H.; Delaval, J.

    2013-08-01

    Space debris is an existing and growing problem for space operations. Studies show that for a continued use of LEO, 5 - 10 large and strategically chosen debris need to be removed every year. The European Space Agency (ESA) is actively pursuing technologies and systems for space debris removal under its Clean Space initiative. This overview paper describes the activities that are currently ongoing at ESA and that have already been completed. Additionally it outlines the plan for the near future. The technologies under study fall in two main categories corresponding to whether a pushing or a pulling manoeuvre is required for the de-orbitation. ESA is studying the option of using a tethered capture system for controlled de-orbitation through pulling where the capture is performed using throw-nets or alternatively a harpoon. The Agency is also studying rigid capture systems with a particular emphasis on tentacles (potentially combined with a robotic arm). Here the de-orbitation is achieved through a push-manoeuvre. Additionally, a number of activities will be discussed that are ongoing to develop supporting technologies for these scenarios, or to develop systems for de-orbiting debris that can be allowed to re-enter in an uncontrolled manner. The short term goal and main driver for the current technology developments is to achieve sufficient TRL on required technologies to support a potential de-orbitation mission to remove a large and strategically chosen piece of debris.

  11. NEO follow-up, recovery and precovery campaigns at the ESA NEO Coordination Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Marco; Koschny, Detlef; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Perozzi, Ettore; Borgia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) has been established within the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Among its tasks are the coordination of observational activities and the distribution of up-to-date information on NEOs through its web portal. The Centre is directly involved in observational campaigns with various telescopes, including ESO's VLT and ESA's OGS telescope. We are also developing a network of collaborating observatories, with a variety of capabilities, which are alerted when an important observational opportunity arises. From a service perspective, the system hosted at the NEOCC collects information on NEOs produced by European services and makes it available to users, with a focus on objects with possible collisions with the Earth. Among the tools provided via our portal are the Risk List of all known NEOs with impact solutions, and the Priority List, which allows observers to identify NEOs in most urgent need of observations.

  12. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  13. The ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  14. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  15. Lunar Exploration and Science Opportunities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Schiemann, J.; Patti, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavour. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  16. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Patti, B.; Schiemann, J.; Hufenbach, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  17. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    , will act as the main European press centre. The Huygens Principal Investigators, the ESA Huygens Mission Manager and Project Scientist will be at ESA/ESOC and available for interviews. If you wish to attend the media activities at ESOC, please return the attached accreditation form. Press Contacts: Jocelyne Landeau-Constantin jocelyne.landeau-constantin@esa.int (+49(0)6151.90.2696) Bernhard von Weyhe Bernhard.von.Weyhe@esa.int (+49(0)6151.90.2516). 17:00-17:30 CET - Press briefing at ESA/ESOC Control Centre. Televised on ESA TV - This event can also be followed remotely by phone : +49(0)69.4035.9681. Friday 14 January Media briefings originated at ESA/ESOC will also be retransmitted to several ESA establishments and across Europe: Cité des Sciences/ La Villette in Paris (F), (event hosted in coordination with ESA and CNES), ESA/ESTEC in Noordwijk (NL), ESA/ESRIN Frascati (I), ESA/ESAC in Villafranca (E), Central London (event hosted by PPARC). ESA specialists will be on hand at the various locations for interviews. If you wish to attend the briefings at one of these venues, please contact the local Communication services directly. ESA for Cité des Sciences, Paris (F): Anne-Marie Rémondin (Anne-Marie.Remondin@esa.int), + 33(0)1.5369.7155 or Brigitte Kolmsee (Brigitte.Kolmsee@esa.int), + 33(0)1.5369.7299 ESA/ESTEC,Noorwijk Space Expo (NL): + 31(0)71.565.3006- Wil Spangenberg (Wil.Spangenberg@esa.int) ESA/ESRIN, Frascati (I): + 39 06 9418 0951- Franca Morgia (Franca.Morgia@esa.int) ESA/ESAC, Villafranca (E): + 34 91 813 11 00- Monica Oerke (Monica.Oerke@esa.int) PPARC, London (UK) : Peter Barratt + 44 (0)1793 44 20 25 (Peter.Barratt@pparc.ac.uk) ESA TV Broadcast schedule for 14 January 2005 09:00-09:30 CET - ESA TV broadcast - Cassini turns to Huygens - Feeds from ESA/ESOC main Control Room 11:00-12:15 CET - ESA TV Broadcast - Probe activation to parachute deployment and status of tracking by radio-telescope 13:30-14:00 CET - Press briefing at ESA/ESOC: Huygens descent

  18. ESA situational awareness of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Keil, Ralf; Kraft, Stefan; Lupi, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    ESA SSA Period 2 started at the beginning of 2013 and will last until the end of 2016. For the Space Weather Segment, transition to Period 2 introduced an increasing amount of development of new space weather service capability in addition to networking existing European assets. This transition was started already towards the end of SSA Period 1 with the initiation of the SSA Space Weather Segment architecture definition studies and activities enhancing existing space weather assets. The objective of Period 2 has been to initiate SWE space segment developments in the form of hosted payload missions and further expand the federated service network. A strong focus has been placed on demonstration and testing of European capabilities in the range of SWE service domains with a view to establishing core products which can form the basis of SWE service provision during SSA Period 3. This focus has been particularly addressed in the SSA Expert Service Centre (ESC) Definition and Development activity that was started in September 2015. This presentation will cover the current status of the SSA SWE Segment and the achievements during SSA Programme Periods 1 and 2. Particular attention is given to the federated approach that allow building the end user services on the best European expertise. The presentation will also outline the plans for the Space Weather capability development in the framework of the ESA SSA Programme in 2017-2020.

  19. The ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, A.; Hilgers, A.; Daly, E.

    Following the completion in 2001 of two parallel studies to consider the feasibility of a European Space Weather Programme ESA embarked upon a space weather pilot study with the goal of prototyping European space weather services and assessing the overall market for such within Europe This pilot project centred on a number of targeted service development activities supported by a common infrastructure and making use of only existing space weather assets Each service activity included clear participation from at least one identified service user who was requested to provide initial requirements and regular feedback during the operational phase of the service These service activities are now reaching the end of their 2-year development and testing phase and are now accessible each with an element of the service in the public domain see http www esa-spaceweathet net swenet An additional crucial element of the study was the inclusion of a comprehensive and independent analysis of the benefits both economic and strategic of embarking on a programme which would include the deployment of an infrastructure with space-based elements The results of this study will be reported together with their implication for future coordinated European activities in this field

  20. ATLID, ESA Atmospheric LIDAR Developement Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira do Carmo, João; Hélière, Arnaud; Le Hors, L.; Toulemont, Y.; Lefebvre, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ATmospheric LIDAR ATLID[1] is part of the payload of the Earth Cloud and Aerosol Explorer[2] (EarthCARE) satellite mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Living Planet Programme. EarthCARE is a joint collaborative satellite mission conducted between ESA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (JAXA) that delivers the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) instrument. The payload consists of four instruments on the same platform with the common goal to provide a picture of the 3D-dimensional spatial and the temporal structure of the radiative flux field at the top of atmosphere, within the atmosphere and at the Earth's surface. This paper is presenting an updated status of the development of the ATLID instrument and its subsystem design. The instrument has recently completed its detailed design, and most of its subsystems are already under manufacturing of their Flight Model (FM) parts and running specific qualification activities. Clouds and aerosols are currently one of the biggest uncertainties in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions that drive the climate system. A better modelling of the relationship between clouds, aerosols and radiation is therefore amongst the highest priorities in climate research and weather prediction.

  1. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the Moon and various recent and coming orbital missions including Smart-1, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are advancing our understanding. In 2004 the US announced a new Vision for Space Exploration [1], whose objectives are focused towards human missions to the Moon and Mars. The European Space Agency has established similar objectives for Europe, described in [2] and approved at the ESA ministerial council (2009). There is considerable potential for international cooperation in these activities, as formulated in the recently agreed Global Exploration Strategy [3]. Present lunar exploration activities at ESA emphasise the development of European technologies and capabilities, to enable European participation in future international human exploration of the Moon. A major element in this contribution has been identified as a large lunar cargo lander, which would fulfill an ATV-like function, providing logistical support to human activities on the Moon, extending the duration of sorties and the capabilities of human explorers. To meet this ultimate goal, ESA is currently considering various possible development approaches, involving lunar landers of different sizes. Lunar Lander Mission Options A high capacity cargo lander able to deliver consumables, equipment and small infrastructure, in both sortie and outpost mission scenarios, would use a full Ariane 5 launch and is foreseen in the 2020-2025 timeframe. ESA is also considering an intermediate, smaller-scale mission beforehand, to mature the necessary landing technologies, to demonstrate human-related capabilities in preparation of human presence on the Moon and in general to gain experience in landing and operating on the lunar surface. Within this frame, ESA is currently leading several feasibility studies of a small lunar lander mission, also called "MoonNEXT". This mission is foreseen to be to be launched from Kourou with a

  2. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  3. Integrating Salmon Recovery, Clean Water Act Compliance ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    "The South Fork Nooksack River (SFNR) is an important tributary to the Nooksack River, Bellingham Bay, and the Salish Sea. The South Fork Nooksack River comprises one of the 22 independent populations of spring Chinook in the Puget Sound Chinook Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), which are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The population is considered essential for recovery of the ESU. The SFNR has suffered from legacy impacts, temperature exceedances and fine sediment, due to forestry, agriculture, flood control, and transportation facilities. The temperature exceedances threaten spring Chinook salmon survival and as such under the Clean Water Act, this pollution must be addressed through a total maximum daily load (TMDL) regulatory program. Further, climate change is projected to cumulatively add to the existing legacy impacts. Millions of dollars are spent on salmon habitat restoration in the SFNR that primarily addresses these legacy impacts, but few if any restoration actions take climate change into direct consideration. The Nooksack Indian Tribe and USEPA-ORD jointly completed a climate change pilot research project that addresses legacy impacts, ESA recovery actions, CWA regulatory compliance, and salmon habitat restoration in one comprehensive project. The project evaluates how land use impacts, including altered hydrology, stream temperature, sediment dynamics, and flooding of adjacent river floodplains, combined with pr

  4. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  5. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Manaud, Nicolas; Martinez, Santa; Szumlas, Marek; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; PSA Development Team

    2013-04-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. The PSA currently holds data from Mars Express, Venus Express, SMART-1, Huygens, Rosetta and Giotto, as well as several ground-based cometary observations. It will be used for archiving on ExoMars, BepiColombo and for the European contributions to Chandrayaan-1. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Advanced Search Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. - The Map-based Interface is currently operational only for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA data. This interface allows an end-user to specify a region-of-interest by dragging a box onto a base map of Mars. From this interface, it is possible to directly visualize query results. The Map-based and Advanced interfaces are linked and cross-compatible. If a user defines a region-of-interest in the Map-based interface, the results can be refined by entering more detailed search parameters in the Advanced interface. - The FTP Browser Interface is designed for more experienced users, and allows for direct browsing and access of the data set content through ftp-tree search. Each dataset contains documentation and calibration information in addition to the scientific or engineering data. All PSA data are prepared by the corresponding instrument teams, and are made to comply with the internationally recognized PDS standards. PSA supports the instrument teams in the full archiving process, from the definition of the data products, meta-data and product labels through to

  6. Aspects of ESA s public outreach programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maree, H.

    The Science Programme Communication Service is currently implementing a new policy to increase the overall public interest in ESA Science Programme by adopting new ways of promoting its activities, accordingly to the simple principle that "different target audiences have different needs". It is clear that the general public (i.e. "the man in the street" / "the average tax- payer") rarely has the knowledge and the background to understand what exactly a space mission is, what it does and why it does it ("Mission oriented approach"). The experience has shown that a space mission becomes "popular" amongst this target audience when the relevant communication is done by passing generic/bas ic/simple messages ("Thematic oriented approach"). The careful selection of adequate supports together with efficient distribution and promotion networks are also key parameters for success of the latter approach. One should also note that the overall objective of this new policy, is to raise people's interest in space in general. By presenting the information under the ESA brand, the public will start more and more to associate this brand and Europe to space exploration. Within the next twelve months, four scientific missions will be launched. Interestingly, tree of them (SMART-1, ROSETTA and MARS EXPRESS) offer a unique opportunity to implement the new communication policy under the single thematic : Europe is exploring the Solar System. Nevertheless, the study of the various mission profiles and their potential communication impact lead us to choose to reach out the general public primarily via the sub-thematic : Europe goes to Mars.

  7. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) selected gravitational-wave astrophysics as the science theme for its third large mission opportunity, known as `L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is: (1) participating in ESA's early mission activities, (2) developing potential US technology contributions, (3) participating in ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission, (4) and conducting a study of how NASA might participate. This talk will survey the status of these activities.

  8. Critical laser technology developments and ESA space qualification approach in support of ESA's Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahir, Mustapha; Durand, Yannig

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, ESA's approach to lasers and detectors space evaluation and qualification will be explored. ESA has its own international qualification system, the ESCC system. This system guarantees reliability, assurance and quality of components, and hence a successful space mission. An overview of the ESCC (European Space Component Coordination) system, as well as the relevant ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standards) related standards addressing components and hybrid qualification will be given. These standards are being constantly updated, through well structured working groups, constantly coming up with new ways of qualifying space components. These components are themselves constantly changing in terms of material, technology, and manufacturing processes. The development of advanced Lidar systems for space applications and their evaluation by airborne or ground based test campaigns is an important strategic element of the ESA Earth Observation Programme. These systems depend on robust and reliable lasers and detector at their core function. Since the early eighties, ESA has been supporting the development of the critical subsystems of any Lidar, i.e. lasers and detectors. Several missions, involving different kinds of lidars, provide the requirements to be addressed in the Lidar risk mitigation activities. They also present a challenge concerning their space qualification and reliability assurance. These missions are: ADM-Aeolus flying ALADIN a Doppler Wind Lidar; EarthCARE embarking ATLID an Atmospheric Backscatter Lidar; three missions studied for their feasibilities: WALES, A-SCOPE and ACCURATE, all using Differential Absorption Lidar in different ways to measure respectively profiles of water vapour, total column of CO2 and greenhouse gases in an occultation geometry.

  9. ESA's Living Planet Programme: The Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA's) Living Planet Programme marks the beginning of a new chapter in European led Earth Observation, based on focussed science user-driven missions. The Earth Explorer missions seek to advance the understanding of complex Earth system processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Each of the Explorer missions is adapted to address a specific scientific problem whilst at the same time building on the heritage of, and the experience gained from a decade of successful continuous scientific obervations made by the larger ERS-1, and -2 and Envisat missions. The Living Planet Programme's Explorer line of smaller and focused missions is also complemented by a parallel line of applications-driven Earth Watch missions address mature operational applications and the provision of services. Specifically, the science-driven Explorer missions are designed to further the demonstration of new satellite-based observing techniques that will allow us to develop our knowledge of the Earth system. Four new missions are currently under development, that will soon begin a sequence of launches beginning in 2004 with CryoSat. Several new mission concepts are also undergoing detailed study, with subsequent consideration for approval. The existing approved missions seek to measure: climate-induced changes in polar terrestrial and sea ice masses; a high resolution Earth gravity field; vertical wind vector profiles; and soil moisture and ocean salinity. Mission concepts under study address a broad array of Earth processes from Earth's magnetic field through stratospheric chemistry to terrestrial vegetation. The Explorers employ a wide array of technologies such as lidars for the sensing of clouds, winds, water vapour and other atmospheric constituents; radars for ice and ocean topography, land and ocean monitoring, cloud profiling and rain monitoring; passive instruments covering the UV through far infrared, including

  10. ESA Sentinel-1 Mission and Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floury, Nicolas; Attema, Evert; Davidson, Malcolm; Levrini, Guido; Rommen, Björn; Rosich, Betlem; Snoeij, Paul

    The global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space component relies on existing and planned space assets by European States, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the European Space Agency (ESA), as well as new complementary developments by ESA. The new developments are implemented in terms of five families of satellites called Sentinels. The Sentinel-1 mission is an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission at C-band designed to supply all-weather day-and-night imagery to a number of operational Earth observation based services. Three priorities (fasttrack services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment, - surveillance of marine environment, - monitoring land surface motion risks, - mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture, - mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. Sentinel-1 has been designed to address medium resolution applications. It includes a main mode of operation that features a wide swath (250 km) and a medium resolution (5 m x 20 m). The two-satellite constellation offers six days exact repeat and the conflict-free operations based on the main operational mode allow exploiting every single data take. This paper describes the Sentinel-1 mission, provides an overview of the mission requirements, and presents some of the key user driven information products, the crucial requirements for operational sustainable services being continuity of data supply, frequent revisit, geographical coverage and timeliness. As data products from the Agency‘s successful ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services, Sentinel-1 data products need to maintain and in some ways to improve data quality levels of the Agency

  11. Radar sounder performances for ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquin, Y. P.; Kofman, W. W.; Heggy, E.; Hérique, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Jupiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) is the first Large-class mission chosen as part of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission will study Jovian icy moons Ganymede and Europa as potential habitats for life, addressing two key themes of Cosmic Vision namely the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, and the Solar System interactions. The radar sounder instrument on this mission will have great potential to address specific science questions such as the presence of subsurface liquid water and ice shell geophysical structures. One major constraint for radar sounding is the roughness of the planetary surface. The work presented will focus on the characterization of Ganymede's surface topography to better understand its surface properties from a radar point of view. These results should help to put constraints on the design of JUICE's radar sounder. We use topographic data derived from the Voyager and Galileo missions images to try to characterize the surface structure and to quantify its geometry (in terms of slopes and RMS heights mainly). This study will help us evaluating the radar budget in a statistical approach. In addition, deterministic simulations of surface radar echoes conducted on synthetic surfaces -extrapolated from Digital Elevation Models- will be presented to better assess radar sounding performances.

  12. Euclid - an ESA Medium Class Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, B.

    2016-10-01

    Euclid is an ESA Medium Class mission in the Cosmic Visions program to be launched in 2020. With its 1.2 m telescope, Euclid is going to survey 15,000 deg2 of extragalactic sky in a broad optical band with outstanding image quality fit for weak gravitational lensing measurements. It will also provide near-infrared slitless spectroscopy of more than 107 emission-line galaxies with the main goal of measuring galaxy clustering. Imaging in three near-infrared bands by Euclid will be complemented by ground-based follow-up in optical bands to supply high-quality photometric redshift estimates out to z=2. In combination, its primary cosmological science drivers, weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering, will yield unprecedented constraints on the properties of dark matter and dark energy, as well as the validity of Einstein gravity on large scales. Euclid's rich datasets will facilitate further cosmological probes such as statistics of galaxy clusters or the study of galactic dark matter haloes, and a vast array of legacy science. In the following a brief overview on the Euclid mission and its key science is provided.

  13. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms. PMID:27873868

  14. Electrical signature analysis (ESA) developments at the Oak Ridge Diagnostics Applied Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    Since 1985, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed and patented several novel signal conditioning and signature analysis methods that have exploited the intrinsic abilities of conventional electric motors and generators to act as transducers. By using simple nonintrusive sensors such as clamp-on current and voltage probes, these new diagnostic techniques provide an improved means of detecting small time-dependent load and speed variations generated anywhere within an electromechanical system and converting them into revealing signatures that can be used to detect equipment degradation and incipient failures. These developments have been grouped under the general name of electrical signature analysis (ESA) and together provide a breakthrough in the ability to detect, analyze, and correct unwanted changes in process conditions or the presence of abnormalities in electrical and electromechanical equipment. Typical diagnostic information provided by ESA is comparable to that provided by conventional vibration analysis in that both time waveform and frequency spectrum signatures may be produced. The primary benefit of ESA is that an extensive range of diagnostic information can be obtained from a single transducer that may be installed several hundred feet or more from the monitored device on its electrical lines supplying input power (e.g., to a motor) or carrying output power (e.g., from a generator); thus, ESA is truly remote and nonintrusive.

  15. ``The ESA XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre: Making Basic Space Science Available to the Whole Scientific World''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Guainazzi, Matteo; Metcalfe, Leo

    2006-12-01

    XMM-Newton is a major X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA). Its observing time is open to astronomers from the whole scientific community on a peer reviewed competitive basis. The Science Operations Centre, located at ESA’s premises in Villafranca del Castillo, Spain, is responsible for the instrument operations, as well as for all the tasks related to facilitating the scientific exploitation of the data which the mission has been producing since its launch in December 1999. Among them, one may list: List Mark="Bullet"> distribution of scientific data in different formats, from raw telemetry, up to processed and calibrated high-level science products, such as images, spectra, source lists, etc; development and distribution of dedicated science analysis software, as well as of continuously updated instrument calibration; regular organisation of training workshops (free of cost), for potential users of XMM-Newton data, where the procedures and techniques to successfully reduce and analyze XMM-Newton data are introduced; access to the data through state-of-the-art, in-house-developed archival facilities, either through the Internet or via CD-ROM; continuously updated documentation on all aspects of spacecraft and instrument operations, data reduction and analysis; maintenance of a comprehensive set of project web pages; a competent and responsive HelpDesk, providing dedicated support to individual XMM-Newton users. List> Everyone can be an XMM-Newton observer. So far, astronomers from 36 countries submitted observing programs. Public data can be accessed by every scientist in the world through the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA). Despite

  16. From ESAS to Ares: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout my career, I have observed many launch vehicle efforts come and go. Although it may appear on the surface that those were dead-end streets, the knowledge we gained through them actually informs the work in progress. Following the tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia's crew, the administration took the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's findings to heart and united the Agency behind the Vision for Space Exploration, with clear goals and objectives, including fielding a new generation of safe, reliable, and affordable space transportation. The genesis of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle activities now under way by a nationwide Government and industry team was the confirmation of the current NASA Administrator in April 2005. Shortly thereafter, he commissioned a team of aerospace experts to conduct the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which gave shape to launch vehicles that will empower America's resurgence in scientific discovery through human and robotic space exploration. In October 2005, I was asked to lead this effort, building the team and forming the partnerships that will, in turn, build America's next human-rated space transportation system. In November 2006, the Ares I team began conducting the System Requirements Review milestone, just 1 year after its formation. We are gaining momentum toward the first test flight of the integrated vehicle system in 2009, just a few short years away. The Agency is now poised to deliver on the commitment this nation has made to advance our interests in space. In its inaugural year, the Ares team has conducted the first human-rated launch vehicle major milestone in over 30 years. Using the Exploration Systems Architecture Study recommendations as a starting point, the vehicle designs have been evolved to best meet customer and stakeholder requirements to fulfill the strategic goals outlined in the Vision for Space Exploration.

  17. ARIEL: an ESA M4 mission candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, L.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Heske, A.; Escudero Sanz, I.; Crouzet, P.-E.

    2016-07-01

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) mission is an M-class mission candidate within the science program Cosmic Vision of the European Space Agency (ESA). It was selected in June 2015 as one of three candidates to enter an assessment phase (phase 0/A). This process involves the definition of science and mission requirements as well as a preliminary model payload, and an internal Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study providing the input to parallel industrial studies (in progress since 2016). After this process, the three candidates will be reviewed and in mid-2017 one of them will be selected as the M4 mission for launch in 2026. ARIEL is a survey-type mission dedicated to the characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres. Using the differential technique of transit spectroscopy, ARIEL will obtain transmission and/or emission spectra of the atmospheres of a large and diverse sample of known exoplanets (~500) covering a wide range of masses, densities, equilibrium temperatures, orbital properties and host-star characteristics. This will include hot Jupiters to warm Super-Earths, orbiting M5 to F0 stars. This paper describes critical requirements, and reports on the results of the Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study that was conducted in June / July 2015, providing a description of the resulting spacecraft design. It will employ a 0.7 m x 1.1 m off-axis three mirror telescope, feeding four photometric channels in the VNIR range (0.5-1.95 μm) and an IR spectrometer covering 1.95-7.8 μm.

  18. ESA unveils its big XMM spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-02-01

    have to imagine the big tube of XMM filled with focused X-rays en route to the detectors », says Robert Lainé, ESA's project manager for XMM. « That is the whole purpose of the mission, and our chief preoccupation has been with the three multi-mirror modules that accomplish it. Critics thought we were too ambitious, trying to nest 58 precisely formed mirrors together in each module. No one had ever attempted such a feat before. It was not easy, but thanks to excellent innovative work by European industry, XMM's telescopes are even better than we hoped ». X-rays are focused by glancing them off a carefully shaped mirror, like a bucket without a bottom. In a single-mirror telescope, most of the incoming X-rays miss the mirror. To catch more of them, designers nest multiple mirrors inside one another. Before XMM, astronomers had to choose between many mirrors with relatively poor focusing, or a very few mirrors with a sharp focus. With 58 precision-made mirrors in each of its three X-ray telescopes, XMM combines enormous gathering power with accurate focusing. Carl Zeiss in Germany made shaped and polished mandrels (moulds) for mirrors of 58 different diameters, up to 70 cm for the widest. Media Lario in Italy made the mirrors by electrodeposition of nickel on the mandrels, coated their inner surfaces with gold, and carefully assembled them in their nested configuration, in a framework fabricated by APCO in Switzerland. The performance of each XMM mirror module has been verified in special facilities of the Centre Spatial de Liège in Belgium and the Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestriche Physik in Germany. The first flight model conformed with the specification, and the second and third were even better. Some facts about XMM The total surface area of the extremely thin mirror that gathers X-rays in XMM's three multi-mirror telescopes (taken together) is larger than 200 m2. Two of the three X-ray telescopes are fitted with reflection grating spectrometers for the

  19. ESA to launch six scientific satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    ship to Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Since then, all the satellite subsystems and scientific instruments have been thoroughly tested and found to be in order. ISO is now waiting its turn to be mated with the Ariane 44P launcher. The launch campaign will resume in early October for a launch on 3 November. Preparations for flight operations by ESA's space operation centre, ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany and the flight control centre at Villafranca, near Madrid, Spain are also in the final stages. Most of the work in the last two months before a launch involves training and performing simulations to prove flight readiness. The scientific community is eagerly awaiting the preliminary results of ISO's first look into space in November. SOHO SOHO arrived at Kennedy Space Centre on 1 August. It was given a welcome by hurricane ERIN, which forced an immediate transfer to its reserved NASA facility just after its transport plane had safely landed. Spacecraft preparation for launch has started with a thorough check of all the systems and instruments onboard SOHO and will proceed with an end-to-end test with the NASA control station at Goddard Spaceflight Centre. Parallel activities are proceeding in Europe on the final testing and inspection of the four reaction wheels which the spacecraft control system uses to keep all its instruments pointed very precisely at the sun. At the end of its preparation, the spacecraft will be mated to its Atlas IIAS launcher, which is due to lift off in the first week of December. CLUSTER All four Cluster spacecraft, together with all ancillary equipment, have now arrived at Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The spacecraft have been set up for final electrical testing in the Final Assembly Building , a new Ariane 5 facility. Major milestones in the campaign are the start of spacecraft fuelling operations at the beginning of November and the start of integration of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle in mid- December. The

  20. mkESA: enhanced suffix array construction tool.

    PubMed

    Homann, Robert; Fleer, David; Giegerich, Robert; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2009-04-15

    We introduce the tool mkESA, an open source program for constructing enhanced suffix arrays (ESAs), striving for low memory consumption, yet high practical speed. mkESA is a user-friendly program written in portable C99, based on a parallelized version of the Deep-Shallow suffix array construction algorithm, which is known for its high speed and small memory usage. The tool handles large FASTA files with multiple sequences, and computes suffix arrays and various additional tables, such as the LCP table (longest common prefix) or the inverse suffix array, from given sequence data.

  1. ESA/ESO collaboration to track potentially threatening near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O.; Koschny, D.; Micheli, M.

    2014-07-01

    A collaboration has been set up between ESA and ESO, within the global effort by the United Nations and its Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS). The UN-COPUOS Action Team 14 put forward recommendations for an international response to the near-Earth-object (NEO) impact threat to form an International Asteroid Warning Network, which the UN General Assembly approved in October 2013. The NEO Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) aims to coordinate and combine information from different sources, and analyse them to predict possible impacts with the Earth, and assess danger, and analyse possible mitigations, including the deflection of a menacing asteroid. With the VLT, ESO's capabilities to observe very faint (but still threatening) NEOs complement ESA's efforts to discover and track these objects. The ESA/ESO campaign focuses on faint objects, with a high value on the Palermo scale, which cannot be observed with smaller telescopes, and on recently discovered NEOs, which are rapidly fading below the detection threshold for smaller telescopes before their orbit can be secured. Technically, the campaign is implemented as a 'Target of Opportunity'' program, in which observations can be queued on VLT's UT1 with FORS at short notice. The first observations targeted 2009 FD, which had been ranked among the top five objects on the NEODyS Risk List. The VLT observations, processed by the European NEODyS system and the JPL-based Sentry system, decreased its Palermo index from -1.8 to -2.6. The campaign currently has a telescope time credit corresponding to 15--20 recoveries per year.

  2. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  3. Operation IceBridge/ESA Collaboration Benefits All

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the second straight year, NASA's Operation IceBridge is collaborating with the European Space Agency's CryoVEx program, flying aircraft low over Arctic sea ice while ESA's CryoSat satellite orb...

  4. ESA Experiments with the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillouet, Claude; Briganti, Luca; Schwarzwalder, Achim

    2008-06-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an ESA developed facility dedicated to gravitational biology and especially to plant research. However, experiments using small animals, like insects and small invertebrates are also possible. EMCS is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006 and four experiments, including two from ESA, have been already performed. Several others are in their final development phase and shall be flown within the next following years.

  5. NEPA and the Endangered Species Act: Complementary approaches or regulatory excess

    SciTech Connect

    Salk, M.S.; McCold, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, provides a broad mandate requiring protection of human health and the natural environmental, while the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, has a much narrower mandate. NEPA's purpose is to prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere{hor ellipsis},'' while the ESA's is to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved'' and a a program for the conservation of such endangered species and threatened species{hor ellipsis}'' NEPA's current role in improving the quality of decision making by federal agencies with respect to environmental matters is a matter of some debate. This paper discusses several ways in which NEPA provides protection for rare species beyond that provided by the ESA including public involvement, consideration of rare plant species, consideration of species which are not federally listed, consideration of incremental actions of federal agencies, and discussion of alternative means to accomplish the goal of a projected action. 3 refs.

  6. 3 CFR - The Endangered Species Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Endangered Species Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 3, 2009 The Endangered Species Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531 et...

  7. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  8. ESA's Drop Tower Utilisation Activities 2000 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, Ewald; Blum, J.; Callens, N.; Eigenbrod, Ch.; Koudelka, O.; Orr, A.; Rosa, C. C.; Vedernikov, A.; Will, S.; Reimann, J.; Wurm, G.

    2011-11-01

    The European Space Research and Technology Center ESTEC, ESA's premises in Noordwijk, The Netherlands, has a long lasting cooperation with the ZARM-FAB (Centre of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity—Drop Tower Operation and Service Company) in Bremen on the utilization of the Drop Tower for ground-based microgravity research and space hardware development studies. During the period January 2000 to December 2011 ESA will have procured in total some 840 drops addressing a variety of scientific and technological disciplines. The experiments are usually carried out in campaigns of 15 to 20 drops each, with an annual average of about 5 campaigns. The cooperation agreement between ESA and the ZARM-FAB includes experiment preparation advice by ZARM's experts, the integration of the hardware into the drop capsule, dedicated safety reviews, the execution of the drop or catapult experiments, the post-flight payload de-integration as well as the handover of acquired data to the experimenters. The experiment hardware itself is provided by the scientists or has to be procured from sources outside of ESA's drop tower utilization contract. ESA appreciates the cooperation of the ZARM-FAB in Bremen whose drop- and catapult facility provides excellent microgravity quality, is operated by a highly competent, flexible and extremely supportive expert team, allows campaign integration at relatively short notice throughout the entire year, offers real-time experiment operations and immediately after each drop delivers experiment results and provides on-site hardware modification possibilities.

  9. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Summary Listing the National Wildlife... Part 36 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Pt. 36, Table I Table I...

  10. ESA is now a major player in global space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    * Results from the star-fixing satellite Hipparcos, released this summer to the world's astronomers, give the positions and motions of 118,000 stars a hundred times more accurately than ever before. * Every day the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, examines 45 cosmic objects on average at many different wavelengths never observable before, giving fresh insights into cosmic history and chemistry. * Invaluable new knowledge of the Sun comes from SOHO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which is the first spacecraft able to observe the Sun's deep interior as well as its stormy surface and atmosphere. Besides these missions making present headlines, several other spacecraft are helping to fulfil ESA's scientific objectives. * 2 - * The launch in October 1997 of ESA's probe Huygens, aboard the Cassini spacecraft bound for Saturn, foreshadows a breakthrough in planetary science in 2004. That is when Huygens will carry its scientific instruments into the unique and puzzling atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. * Ulysses, also built in Europe, is exploring hitherto unknown regions of space, after making the first-ever visit to the Sun's polar regions in 1994-95. It will return to the Sun in 2000-2001, to observe the effects of the climax of solar activity due at that time. * The Cluster 2 mission, announced in April 1997 and to be launched in 2000, will explore the Earth's space environment far more throughly than ever before. ESA's decision to replace the four Cluster satellites lost in a launch accident in 1996 ensures that Europe will continue as the leader in solar-terrestrial research in space. * An example of the three unique 58-mirror X-ray telescopes for the XMM mission was unveiled for the press in May 1997. When it goes into orbit in 1999 XMM will make, in seconds, observations of cosmic objects that took hours with previous X-ray astronomy missions. * The Hubble Space Telescope, in which ESA is a partner, continues to deliver the sharpest pictures of the

  11. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  12. ESA on RAINEWS24: A Case Study of Television Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    2005-12-01

    In May 2000, ESRIN, the Italian establishment of the European Space Agency (ESA), started a collaboration with the television channel Rainews24. Rainews24 is the "allnews" channel of Italian public television (RAI) and is now about 10 years old. It transmits 24 hours a day and is the most watched all-news satellite channel in Italy. Each Thursday an ESA representative (Stefano Sandrelli) is interviewed by a professional RAI journalist in a 5-6 minute long slot that follows the 5 pm news bulletin. The broadcast is repeated late at night or in the early hours of Thursday and Friday. Interviews are strictly linked to the weekly news and are prepared on the morning of the same day by the ESA representative in collaboration with a RAI journalist. The subject is chosen from the most topical news items of the week: video, images and animations are provided by the ESA television service and by press agencies (Reuters etc.). The interviews are largely informal and resemble a dialogue rather than an academic discussion "from space". Even though they focus on ESA activities, they are not advertisements: space science and research is dealt with as a human activity, so both the positive and negative aspects of space exploration and exploitation may emerge. Although this outreach activity began as an experiment, the ESA interviews have become a fixed feature. As a result of five years of uninterrupted collaboration, over 200 interviews have been recorded, with about 30% of the interviews dedicated to pure astronomy. A welcome positive feature is that the interviews are seen by Rainews24 as an open source of daily news.

  13. Technology validation of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Lemmel, Frederic; Smit, Hans; Blommaert, Sander; Oosterbroek, Tim; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Visser, Ivo; Heijnen, Jerko; Butler, Bart

    2016-07-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz. The manufacture of such large device in large quantity constitutes an unprecedented effort. To de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation team is characterizing the electro-optical performance of a number of PLATO devices before and after proton irradiation.

  14. ESA-SSA Review of Space Weather Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space. The first phase of the ESA SSA system development will be finished in 2012 and the next phase is foreseen to be started after the ESA Ministerial Council meeting in November 2012. The definition of measurement requirements for the Space Weather Segment (SWE) of the ESA SSA system has been based on the space weather service requirements defined the by expected users of the system. This document, SSA SWE Customer Requirements Document (CRD), has been defined in a iterative process together with the members of the SSA User Representative Group (URG) and the delegates representing the European states participating the programme. Based on the SWE CRD, ESA with the support of the European industry has produced two documents: SSA SWE System Requirements Document (SRD) and SSA SWE Product Specification (PS). SWE PS contains the requirements for the measurements data required by the SSA SWE system. The SWE PS document has been recently rigorously reviewed by the SSA URG in the framework of the SSA System Requirements Review (SRR). The support provided by the Steering Board of the ESA Space Weather Working Team (SWWT) in this review was extremely useful. The members of the SWWT SB representing the scientific community and the provisional service providers were able to give very detailed comments regarding the measurement requirements for accuracy, cadence, timeliness, etc. As these parameters will be provisional design and cost drivers for the ESA SSA system, definition of the appropriate values at this point in the programme is crucial. This paper provides an overview of the measurement requirements for the SWE Segment of the ESA SSA Programme. The paper discusses the requirement definition process, the customer and service provider inputs, and the critical requirements as they have

  15. ESA's CCD test bench for the PLATO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Bloemmaert, Sander; Lemmel, Frederic; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Smit, Hans; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz and at -70 C. To de-risk the PLATO CCD qualification programme initiated in 2014 and support the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section from the Future Missions Office has developed a dedicated test bench.

  16. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, the European Space Agency (ESA) selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as 'L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is supporting: (1) US participation in early mission studies, (2) US technology development, (3) pre-decadal preparations, (4) ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission and (5) the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System project. This talk summarizes NASA's preparations for a future gravitational-wave mission.

  17. ESA's Cluster solved an auroral puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    These aurorae - seen as bright spots in Earth’s atmosphere and called ‘dayside proton auroral spots’ - occur when fractures appear in the Earth’s magnetic field, allowing particles given out from the Sun to squirt through and collide with the molecules in our atmosphere. This is the first time that a precise and direct connection between the two events has been made. The Earth’s magnetic field acts like a shield, protecting Earth from the constant stream of tiny particles ejected by the Sun and known as the ‘solar wind’. The solar wind itself is made of hydrogen atoms, broken into their constituent pieces: protons and electrons. When electrons find routes into our atmosphere, they collide with and excite the atoms in the air. When these excited atoms release their energy, it is given out as light, creating the glowing ‘curtains’ we see as the aurora borealis (or the aurora australis in the southern hemisphere). Dayside proton auroral spots are caused by protons ‘stealing’ electrons from the atoms in our atmosphere. On 18 March last year, a jet of energetic solar protons collided with the Earth’s atmosphere and created a bright ‘spot’ seen by NASA’s IMAGE spacecraft, just as Cluster passed overhead and straight through the region where the proton jet was emanating. An extensive analysis of the Cluster results has now shown that the region was experiencing a turbulent event known as ‘magnetic reconnection’. Such a phenomenon takes place when the Earth’s usually impenetrable magnetic field fractures and has to find a new stable configuration. Until the field mends itself, solar protons leak through the gap and jet into Earth’s atmosphere creating the dayside proton aurora. Philippe Escoubet, ESA’s Cluster Project Scientist, comments, “Thanks to Cluster’s observations scientists can directly and firmly link for the first time a dayside proton auroral spot and a magnetic reconnection event.” Tai Phan, leading the

  18. Bioeconomic analysis supports the endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Salau, Kehinde R; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-10-01

    The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted to protect and restore declining fish, wildlife, and plant populations. The ESA mandates endangered species protection irrespective of costs. This translates to the restriction of activities that harm endangered populations. We discuss criticisms of the ESA in the context of public land management and examine under what circumstance banning non-conservation activity on multiple use federal lands can be socially optimal. We develop a bioeconomic model to frame the species management problem under the ESA and identify scenarios where ESA-imposed regulations emerge as optimal strategies. Results suggest that banning harmful activities is a preferred strategy when valued endangered species are in decline or exposed to poor habitat quality. However, it is not optimal to sustain such a strategy in perpetuity. An optimal plan involves a switch to land-use practices characteristic of habitat conservation plans.

  19. Development of SCIAMACHY operational ESA level 2 version 5 products and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Bovensmann, H.; Noül, S.; Richter, A.; Buchwitz, M.; von Savigny, C.; Rozanov, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Lichtenberg, G.; Doicu, A.; Schreier, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; Kretschel, K.; Meringer, M.; Hess, M.; Gottwald, M.; Gimeno-Garcia, S.; van Gijsel, J. A. E.; Tilstra, L. G.; Snel, R.; Lerot, C.; van Roozendael, M.; Dehn, A.; Fehr, T.

    Since the foundation of the SCIAMACHY Quality Working Group (SQWG) in a joint inter-agency effort in late 2006 the ESA operational Level 2 processor was significantly improved with respect to data quality and product range. During the last two years the product list was sub-stantially enhanced by new (total columns of SO2, BrO, OClO, H2O, and CO; profiles of BrO, and Limb cloud flags) and improved products (total columns of O3, NO2, Absorbing Aerosol Index; Limb O3 and NO2 profiles). For example, important improvements were achieved in the O3 and NO2 profile retrieval by implementing an upgraded retrieval scheme and now using Level 1 data with appropriate pointing information. Nadir products of total column O3 and the Absorbing Aerosol Index were improved by applying a radiometric degradation correction in the Level 1 to 2 processing step. This paper will summarize on the new Level 2 version 5 ESA products as released in February 2010 and the expected data quality. An outlook on the next product version 6 currently under preparation within the SQWG will also be presented.

  20. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    X-ray brightness map hi-res Size hi-res: 38 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. X-ray brightness map This map shows "surface brightness" or how luminous the region is. The larger of the two galaxy clusters is brighter, shown here as a white and red spot. A second cluster resides about "2 o'clock" from this, shown by a batch of yellow surrounded by green. Luminosity is related to density, so the densest regions (cluster cores) are the brightest regions. The white color corresponds to regions of the highest surface brightness, followed by red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. High resolution version (JPG format) 38 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 525 Kb Temperature map Credits: NASA Artist’s impression of cosmic head on collision The event details what the scientists are calling the perfect cosmic storm: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions, tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. The tiny dots in this artist's concept are galaxies containing thousand million of stars. Animated GIF version Temperature map hi-res Size hi-res: 57 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. Temperature map This image shows the temperature of gas in and around the two merging galaxy clusters, based directly on X-ray data. The galaxies themselves are difficult to identify; the image highlights the hot ‘invisible’ gas between the clusters heated by shock waves. The white colour corresponds to regions of the highest temperature - million of degrees, hotter than the surface of the Sun - followed by red, orange, yellow and blue. High resolution version (JPG format) 57 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 819 Kb The event details what the scientists are calling the ‘perfect cosmic storm’: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions

  1. A Comparison of ESA and NASA Space Debris Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, S.

    1996-12-01

    NASA recently developed a new orbital debris environment model for spacecraft design and observations in low earth orbit. This model has been implemented at ESA/ESTEC in an application which is able to assess debris flux distributions according to target and impactor orbital parameters as well as the directional dependencies of the impactor fluxes. In this paper, the following three models are compared: the above mentioned NASA model, the ESA MASTER Analyst Application, developed under ESA/ESOC contract in 1995 and the current NASA space debris reference model, which was developed in 1989. The conceptual designs of the three models are discussed and their quantitative predictions are compared for various target orbit characteristics, including more detailed analysis of the orbits of ERS-1, LDEF and ISSA (International Space Station Alpha). It is shown in particular that considerable discrepancies of more than one order of magnitude exist between the predictions of the different models in the region of sub-mm sized particles as well as for diameters greater than 1cm. Refined predictions of the debris flux given by the different models taking into account the orientation of the surface are investigated in the case of LDEF and ISSA. For further information on ESA and NASA space debris modelling activities have a look at the following sites:

    • Space Debris Activities at ESOC
    • Modelling the Space Environment at ESTEC
    • UNO Office of Outer Space Affairs
    • NASA-JSC Space Science Branch

  2. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_11_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    surface of the moon and, most importantly, the presence of layers of dark material at the top of crater walls. "The imaging team is in hot debate at the moment on the interpretations of our findings," said Dr Carolyn Porco, Cassini imaging team leader at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, USA. "Based on our images, some of us are leaning towards the view that has been promoted recently, that Phoebe is probably ice-rich and may be an object originating in the outer solar system, more related to comets and Kuiper Belt objects than to asteroids." The high-resolution images of Phoebe show a world of dramatic landforms, with landslides and linear structures such as grooves, ridges and chains of pits. Craters are ubiquitous, with many smaller than one kilometre. "This means, besides the big ones, lots of projectiles smaller than 100 metres must have hit Phoebe," said Prof. Gerhard Neukum, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany, and a member of the imaging team. Whether these projectiles came from outside or within the Saturn system is debatable. There is a suspicion that Phoebe, the largest of Saturn's outer moons, might be parent to the other, much smaller retrograde outer moons that orbit Saturn. They could have resulted from the impact ejecta that formed the many craters on Phoebe. Besides these stunning images, the instruments on board Cassini collected a wealth of other data, which will allow scientists to study the surface structures, determine the mass and composition of Phoebe and create a global map of it. "If these additional data confirm that Phoebe is mostly ice, covered by layers of dust, this may well mean that we are looking at a 'leftover' from the formation of the Solar System about 4600 million years ago," said Dr Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist. Phoebe might indeed be an icy wanderer from the distant outer reaches of the Solar System, which, like a comet, was dislodged from the Kuiper Belt and captured by Saturn when the planet was

  3. Demonstrating xLuna on ESA EXOMADER Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present xLuna [1] and its successful demonstration on the ESA EXOMArs DEmonstration Rover (EXOMADER) [2]. xLuna is a Linux-specific hypervisor extension for RTEMS, a Real-time Executive already used on ESA missions. On xLuna, RTEMS runs natively and directly on top of the hardware providing all its native services to real- time control applications. On top of the hypervisor runs a Linux kernel para-virtualised specifically for the system that provides all the well known POSIX based services and an endless set of software libraries to payload applications. On the demonstration, the complete navigation software of the rover (with stereo image processing and path processing) that was being tested ran on xLuna's Linux subsystem, while the RTEMS components were running control tasks. Due to impossibilities of integration, the RTEMS tasks running were simulated. The control was performed by existing HW.

  4. Joint NASA-ESA Outer Planet Mission study overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.-P.; Niebur, C.; Cutts, J.; Falkner, P.; Greeley, R.; Lunine, J.; Blanc, M.; Coustenis, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Matson, D.; Clark, K.; Reh, K.; Stankov, A.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, ESA and NASA performed joint studies of two highly capable scientific missions to the outer planets: the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) and the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM). Joint Science Definition Teams (JSDTs) were formed with U.S. and European membership to guide study activities that were conducted collaboratively by engineering teams working on both sides of the Atlantic. EJSM comprises the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) that would be provided by NASA and the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) that would be provided by ESA. Both spacecraft would be launched independently in 2020, and arrive 6 years later for a 3-4 year mission within the Jupiter System. Both orbiters would explore Jupiter's system on trajectories that include flybys of Io (JEO only), Europa (JEO only), Ganymede and Callisto. The operation of JEO would culminate in orbit around Europa while that of JGO would culminate in orbit around Ganymede. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) comprises a Titan Orbiter provided by NASA that would carry two Titan in situ elements provided by ESA: the montgolfière and the lake lander. The mission would launch in 2020 and arrive 9 years later for a 4-year duration in the Saturn system. Following delivery of the ESA in situ elements to Titan, the Titan Orbiter would explore the Saturn system via a 2-year tour that includes Enceladus and Titan flybys. The montgolfière would last at least 6-12 months at Titan and the lake lander 8-10 hours. Following the Saturn system tour, the Titan Orbiter would culminate in a ~2-year orbit around Titan. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned between the orbiter and in situ elements. The ESA contribution to this joint endeavor will be implemented as the first Cosmic Vision Large-class (L1) mission; the NASA contribution will be implemented as the Outer Planet Flagship Mission. The contribution to each mission is being reviewed and

  5. ESA's X-ray space observatory XMM takes first pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    Under the aegis of Prof. Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, the mission's Principal Investigators will be presenting these spectacular first images at a press conference to be held on 9 February at the ESA Vilspa facility at Villafranca/Madrid in Spain, where the XMM Science Operations Centre is located. The event will also be the occasion for several major announcements concerning the XMM mission. In particular Professor Bonnet will launch the third XMM competition "Stargazing" - previously announced in September 1999. This will address European youngsters, 16 to 18 years old, who will be offered the unique opportunity of winning observing time using the X-ray telescope. Commissioning phase starts After a successful launch from Kourou on Ariane 504 on 10 December 1999, XMM was brought to its final operational orbit in the following week. The telescope doors on the X-ray Mirror Modules and on the Optical Monitor telescope were opened on 17/18 December. The Radiation Monitor was activated on 19 December and the spacecraft was put into a quiet mode over the Christmas and New Year period. The mission's scientific data is being received, processed and dispatched to astronomers by the XMM Science Operations Centre in Villafranca. Operations with the spacecraft restarted there on 4 January when, as part of the commissioning phase, all the science payloads were switched on one after the other for initial verifications. By the week of 17 January functional tests had begun on the Optical Monitor, the EPIC pn, the two EPIC MOS and the two RGS instruments. The internal doors of the EPIC cameras were opened whilst keeping the camera filter wheels closed. Astounding first images After a series of engineering exposures, all three EPIC cameras were used in turn, between 19-24 January, to take several views of two different extragalactic regions of the Universe. These views, featuring a variety of extended and X-ray point sources, were chosen to demonstrate the full

  6. 76 FR 34910 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... confusion during their fishing activities in the primary sablefish fishery. Additional movement of vessels... Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of green sturgeon was listed as threatened under the ESA (71 FR 17757... the ESA (75 FR 13012). NMFS has reinitiated consultation on the fishery, including impacts on...

  7. ESA space spin-offs benefits for the health sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Bianca; Detsis, Emmanouil; Peeters, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Humanity will be faced with an important number of future challenges, including an expansion of the lifespan, a considerable increase of the population (estimated 9 billion by 2050) and a depletion of resources. These factors could trigger an increase of chronic diseases and various other health concerns that would bear a heavy weight on finances worldwide. Scientific advances can play an important role in solving a number of these problems, space technology; in general, can propose a panoply of possible solutions and applications that can make life on Earth easier and better for everyone. Satellites, Earth Observation, the International Space Station (ISS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) may not be the first tools that come to mind when thinking of improving health, yet there are many ways in which ESA and its programmes contribute to the health care arena. The research focuses on quantifying two ESA spin-offs to provide an initial view on how space can contribute to worldwide health. This quantification is part of the present strategy not only to show macroeconomic return factors for space in general, but also to identify and describe samples of 'best practice' type of examples close to the general public's interest. For each of the 'best practices' the methodology takes into account the cost of the space hardware/software, a number of tangible and intangible benefits, as well as some logical assumptions in order to determine the potential overall returns. Some of the hindering factors for a precise quantification are also highlighted. In conclusion, the study recommends a way in which ESA's spin-offs can be taken into account early on in the development process of space programmes in order to generate higher awareness with the general public and also to provide measurable returns.

  8. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Androes, G. M.; Reeves, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    To test the validity of the ARC approach to Spacelab, several missions simulating aspects of Spacelab operations have been conducted as part of the ASSESS Program. Each mission was designed to evaluate potential Shuttle/Spacelab concepts in increasing detail. For this mission, emphasis was placed on development and exercise of management techniques planned for Spacelab using management participants from NASA and ESA who have responsibilities for Spacelab 1 which will be launched in 1980.

  9. Ozone profile retrievals from the ESA GOME instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Kerridge, Brian J.; Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The potential of the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to produce ozone profile information has been examined by carrying out two sample retrievals using simulated GOME data. The first retrieval examines the potential of the GOME instrument to produce stratospheric ozone profiles using the traditional back-scatter ultraviolet technique, while the second examines the possibility of obtaining tropospheric profile information, and improving the quality of the stratospheric profile retrievals, by exploiting the temperature dependence of the ozone Huggins bands.

  10. ESRO/ESA and Denmark. Participation by research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmandsen, Preben

    2003-09-01

    These notes are prepared to give an impression of considerations and activities in Denmark related to ESRO and ESA, roughly in the period 1964 to 1990. In a number of chapters we consider early space-related research in Denmark, the initial phase of the ESRO era and the following period, including the phase of transition from ESRO to ESA when Denmark seriously considered leaving the space co-operation. A chapter gives examples of activities in the ESA era within space science and astronomy, Earth Observation and microgravity, followed by a final one dealing with the national management of optional programmes and the involvement by industry. In drafting the notes we have taken advantage of the work carried out in the Introductory Studies carried out to secure and place in order the archives of the Danish Space Research Advisory Committee. In this connection excerpts of individual documents (mostly minutes of meetings, letters and reports) were taken. To a great extent they form the basis for many of the points made in the notes.

  11. SNAP (Sentinel Application Platform) and the ESA Sentinel 3 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Marco; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten; Peters, Marco; Veci, Luis; Malik, Julien; Regner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ESA is developing three new free open source Toolboxes for the scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The Toolboxes are based on a common software platform, namely the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). SNAP is an evolution of the proven ESA BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current BEAM and NEST functionality including multi-mission support for SAR and optical missions to support ESA and third party missions for years to come. The Sentinel-3 Toolbox includes generic function for visualisation and analysis of Sentinel-3 OLCI and SLSTR Level 1 and Level 2 data, as well as specific processing tools such as cloud screening, water constituent retrieval and SST retrieval. The Toolbox will put emphasis on access to remote in-situ databases such as Felyx or MERMAID, and exploitation of the data-uncertainty information which is included in the Sentinel-3 data products. New image classification, segmentation and filtering methods, as well as interoperability with the ORFEO Toolbox and the GDAL libraries will be additional new tools. New challenges stemming from Sentinel-3 sensors, such as raster data in different resolutions within a single dataset, will be supported gracefully. The development of SNAP and the Sentinel Toolboxes is funded through the “Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM)” programme, a new programme element of ESA’s fourth period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017).

  12. ESA and the arts: A programme in the making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, David

    2007-01-01

    Space exploration is arguably the greatest voyage of discovery ever undertaken and just as artists have traditionally accompanied the great ocean and land voyages of the past, so artists have been and are at the forefront of space voyages of the future. Increasingly, the European Space Agency (ESA) is being asked to support or participate in artistic and cultural events, largely as a result of its study into science fiction literature and artwork. The paper first gives an overview of the relationship between space and art by discussing art that has been sent into space, orbital sculptures, art on Earth seen from space, and performance art and dance in zero gravity. The paper then provides an update on ESA's involvement in some activities in this domain including the organization of science fiction and space art exhibitions, workshops and competitions, and a recently launched study into how ESA might use the European components of the International Space Station for artistic and cultural events to enable the public to better share the human experience of space missions and interact with the sights and sounds of space.

  13. The ESA/NASA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, O.; Allen, M.

    2011-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA), in close cooperation with NASA, has established the ExoMars Programme to investigate the Martian environment and habitability, and to demonstrate new technologies paving the way for a future sample return mission. Within this programme, the first proposed mission consists of an ESA spacecraft that will carry an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator. It will be launched in January 2016 with a NASA supplied Atlas V rocket. The scientific goals of the mission are to study Martian atmospheric trace gases, with a focus on chemical species that could reflect the existence of extant active processes (geological or biological). More specifically, the mission will detect the chemical compounds, characterise their spatial and temporal variability and localise their sources on the surface. Five instruments (see table) will be accommodated on the orbiter to achieve these objectives. Following an aerobraking phase, the scientific mission is expected to begin in spring 2017 for a period of at least one Martian year. The presentation will focus primarily on the description of the mission, responsibilities between ESA and NASA, payload, timelines and milestones.

  14. ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle. Independent Aerothermodynamic Characterization And Aerodatabase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufolo, Giuseppe C.; Di Benedetto, Sara; Walpot, Louis; Roncioni, Pietro; Marini, Marco

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project, the European Space Agency (ESA) is coordinating a series of technical assistance activities aimed at verifying and supporting the IXV industrial design and development process. The technical assistance is operated with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), by means of the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA), and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under the super visioning and coordination of ESA IXV team. One of the purposes of the activity is to develop an independent capability for the assessment and verification of the industrial results with respect to the aerothermodynamic characterization of the IXV vehicle. To this aim CIRA is developing and independent AeroThermodynamics DataBase (ATDB), intended as a tool generating in output the time histories of local quantities (heat flux, pressure, skin friction) for each point of the IXV vehicle and for each trajectory (in a pre-defined envelope), together with an uncertainties model. The reference Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions needed for the development of the tool have been provided by ESA-ESTEC (with the CFD code LORE) and CIRA (with the CFD code H3NS).

  15. Close encounters of asteroids before and during the ESA GAIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienga, A.; Bange, J.-F.; Bec-Borsenberger, A.; Thuillot, W.

    2003-08-01

    Observation of close encounters of asteroids is a powerful method to determine their masses. A systematic search of such close encounters of asteroids with diameters larger than 40 km has been made thanks to a procedure to select the most efficient phenomena by means of the observable gravitational deflection. This study allows us to give lists of such single (one encounter) and multiple (several encounters between two pairs of asteroids) phenomena that will be observable from ground based astrometric telescopes from 2003 to 2022. We also give lists of single and multiple phenomena spanning 2010-2022 and implying less sensitive deflections only accessible by space astrometry. These last encounters may be observed during the ESA GAIA space mission. Tables A.1-A.8 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/751 or http://www.imcce.fr

  16. ESA astronauts assigned to Tethered Satellite System mission - STS-75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    The TSS project is a joint NASA/ASI (Italian Space Agency) effort. On STS-75, the five-foot diameter (1.6 metre) Italia built satellite is scheduled to be deployed on the end of a 1 mile long (20 kilometre) conductive tether to study the electrodynamic effects of moving such a tether through the Earth's magnetic field. The experiment will also test techniques for managing the tethered spacecraft at great distances. Throughout the 13-day flight, additional experiments housed in the orbiter's payload bay will give scientists access to s for microgravity and fundamental science investigations. The USMP is designed to provide the foundation for advanced scientific investigations similar to those planned aboard the International Space Station. Claude Nicollier, who is Swiss, was selected by ESA in 1978 as one of three European payload specialists to train for the SPACELAB-1 mission. He was a mission specialist on STS- 46 (31 July-8 August 1992), during which the crew members deployed ESA's retrievable science platform (EURECA) and conducted the first TSS test flight. A few months after his return from this mission Claude Nicollier was selected as mission specialist for STS-61 (2-13 December 1993). He contributed considerably to the complete success of the Hubble Space Telescope repair and refurbishment mission and in particular the replacement of the ESA-provided solar arrays. Maurizio Cheli, an Italian, was selected by ESA in May 1992 along with five other young candidates to expand the corps of ESA astronauts. He has been in Houston since mid-1992 and has qualified as mission specialist at NASA's Johnson Space Center there. STS-75 will be his first Shuttle flight. Marine Corps Lt. Col. Andrew M. Allen will command Space Shuttle Columbia's STS-75 mission. Joining Allen are Air Force Major Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; payload commander Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Ph. D; Italian Space Agency (ASI) TSS payload specialist Umberto Guidoni, Ph.D; mission specialist Jeffrey A

  17. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  18. The Software Architecture of the Upgraded ESA DRAMA Software Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebschull, Christopher; Flegel, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Mockel, Marek; Braun, Vitali; Radtke, Jonas; Wiedemann, Carsten; Vorsmann, Peter; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Krag, Holger

    2013-08-01

    In the beginnings of man's space flight activities there was the belief that space is so big that everybody could use it without any repercussions. However during the last six decades the increasing use of Earth's orbits has lead to a rapid growth in the space debris environment, which has a big influence on current and future space missions. For this reason ESA issued the "Requirements on Space Debris Mitigation for ESA Projects" [1] in 2008, which apply to all ESA missions henceforth. The DRAMA (Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis) software suite had been developed to support the planning of space missions to comply with these requirements. During the last year the DRAMA software suite has been upgraded under ESA contract by TUBS and DEIMOS to include additional tools and increase the performance of existing ones. This paper describes the overall software architecture of the ESA DRAMA software suite. Specifically the new graphical user interface, which manages the five main tools ARES (Assessment of Risk Event Statistics), MIDAS (MASTER-based Impact Flux and Damage Assessment Software), OSCAR (Orbital Spacecraft Active Removal), CROC (Cross Section of Complex Bodies) and SARA (Re-entry Survival and Risk Analysis) is being discussed. The advancements are highlighted as well as the challenges that arise from the integration of the five tool interfaces. A framework had been developed at the ILR and was used for MASTER-2009 and PROOF-2009. The Java based GUI framework, enables the cross-platform deployment, and its underlying model-view-presenter (MVP) software pattern, meet strict design requirements necessary to ensure a robust and reliable method of operation in an environment where the GUI is separated from the processing back-end. While the GUI framework evolved with each project, allowing an increasing degree of integration of services like validators for input fields, it has also increased in complexity. The paper will conclude with an outlook on

  19. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  20. EPCRA/CERCLA/CAA §112(r) Consolidated List of Lists – March 2015 Version

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of Lists was prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine, for a specific chemical, whether they may be subject to the following reporting requirements under Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know, CERCLA, and Clean Air Act.

  1. EsaD, a secretion factor for the Ess pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Butler, Emily K; Missiakas, Dominique M

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encodes the Sec-independent Ess secretion pathway, an ortholog of mycobacterial T7 secretion systems which is required for the virulence of this Gram-positive microbe. The Ess (ESX secretion) pathway was previously defined as a genomic cluster of eight genes, esxA, esaA, essA, essB, esaB, essC, esaC, and esxB. essABC encode membrane proteins involved in the stable expression of esxA, esxB, and esaC, genes specifying three secreted polypeptide substrates. esaB, which encodes a small cytoplasmic protein, represses the synthesis of EsaC but not that of EsxA and EsxB. Here we investigated a hitherto uncharacterized gene, esaD, located downstream of esxB. Expression of esaD is activated by mutations in esaB and essB. EsaD, the 617-amino-acid product of esaD, is positioned in the membrane and is also accessible to EsaD-specific antibodies on the bacterial surface. S. aureus mutants lacking esaD are defective in the secretion of EsxA. Following intravenous inoculation of mice, S. aureus esaD mutants generate fewer abscesses with a reduced bacterial load compared to wild-type parent strain Newman. The chromosomes of Listeria and Bacillus species with Ess pathways also harbor esaD homologues downstream of esxB, suggesting that the contributory role of EsaD in Ess secretion may be shared among Gram-positive pathogens.

  2. ESA airborne campaigns in support of Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tania; Davidson, Malcolm; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Perrera, Andrea; Bianchi, Remo

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. ESA campaigns address all phases of a spaceborne missions, from the very beginning of the design phase during which exploratory or proof-of-concept campaigns are carried out to the post-launch exploitation phase for calibration and validation. We present four recent campaigns illustrating the objectives and implementation of such campaigns. Wavemill Proof Of Concept, an exploratory campaign to demonstrate feasibility of a future Earth Explorer (EE) mission, took place in October 2011 in the Liverpool Bay area in the UK. The main objectives, successfully achieved, were to test Astrium UKs new airborne X-band SAR instrument capability to obtain high resolution ocean current and topology retrievals. Results showed that new airborne instrument is able to retrieve ocean currents to an accuracy of ± 10 cms-1. The IceSAR2012 campaign was set up to support of ESA's EE Candidate 7,BIOMASS. Its main objective was to document P-band radiometric signatures over ice-sheets, by upgrading ESA's airborne POLARIS P-band radar ice sounder with SAR capability. Campaign

  3. ESA research and development activity on SSA-NEO preliminary definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.

    2010-10-01

    The paper gives an account of goals, prospects, and planning of the first ESA research associated with definition of the SSA-NEO segment and puts it in the context of ESA system engineering practices of ESA (as defined in ESA’s ECSS standards).

  4. Hybridization, agency discretion, and implementation of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Lind-Riehl, Jennifer F; Mayer, Audrey L; Wellstead, Adam M; Gailing, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires that the "best available scientific and commercial data" be used to protect imperiled species from extinction and preserve biodiversity. However, it does not provide specific guidance on how to apply this mandate. Scientific data can be uncertain and controversial, particularly regarding species delineation and hybridization issues. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) had an evolving hybrid policy to guide protection decisions for individuals of hybrid origin. Currently, this policy is in limbo because it resulted in several controversial conservation decisions in the past. Biologists from FWS must interpret and apply the best available science to their recommendations and likely use considerable discretion in making recommendations for what species to list, how to define those species, and how to recover them. We used semistructured interviews to collect data on FWS biologists' use of discretion to make recommendations for listed species with hybridization issues. These biologists had a large amount of discretion to determine the best available science and how to interpret it but generally deferred to the scientific consensus on the taxonomic status of an organism. Respondents viewed hybridization primarily as a problem in the context of the ESA, although biologists who had experience with hybridization issues were more likely to describe it in more nuanced terms. Many interviewees expressed a desire to continue the current case-by-case approach for handling hybridization issues, but some wanted more guidance on procedures (i.e., a "flexible" hybrid policy). Field-level information can provide critical insight into which policies are working (or not working) and why. The FWS biologists' we interviewed had a high level of discretion, which greatly influenced ESA implementation, particularly in the context of hybridization.

  5. Green light for deployment of ESA's Mars Express radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    ESA's decision to deploy MARSIS follows eight months of intensive computer simulations and technical investigations on both sides of the Atlantic. These were to assess possible harmful boom configurations during deployment and to determine any effects on the spacecraft and its scientific instruments. The three radar booms of MARSIS were initially to have been deployed in April 2004, towards the end of the Mars Express instrument commissioning phase. They consist of a pair of 20-metre hollow cylinders, each 2.5 centimetres in diameter, and a 7-metre boom. No satisfactory ground test of deployment in flight conditions was possible, so that verification of the booms' performance had to rely on computer simulation. Just prior to their scheduled release, improved computer simulations carried out by the manufacturer, Astro Aerospace (California), revealed the possibility of a whiplash effect before they locked in their final outstretched positions, so that they might hit the spacecraft. Following advice from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which contributed the boom system to the Italian-led MARSIS radar instrument, and the Mars Express science team, ESA put an immediate hold on deployment until a complete understanding of the dynamics was obtained. JPL led a comprehensive investigation, including simulations, theoretical studies and tests on representative booms, the latter to assess potential aging of the boom material. European experts, from ESA and the former spacecraft prime contractor, Astrium SAS, France, worked closely with JPL throughout the entire investigation. An independent engineering review board, composed of ESA and industry experts, met in January to evaluate the findings and advise on ‘if and when’ to proceed with deployment. The ESA review board, at its final meeting on 25 January, recommended deployment of the MARSIS booms. The rationale for the decision was based on the results of the analyses, which showed the possible impact scenarios

  6. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  7. ESA SSA Space Weather Services Supporting Space Surveillance and Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain; Fletcher, Emmet

    2012-07-01

    ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space research or services. This will be performed through providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge regarding the environment, the threats and the sustainable exploitation of the outer space surrounding the planet Earth. SSA serves the implementation of the strategic missions of the European Space Policy based on the peaceful uses of the outer space by all states, by supporting the autonomous capacity to securely and safely operate the critical European space infrastructures. The Space Weather (SWE) Segment of the SSA will provide user services related to the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. These services will include near real time information and forecasts about the characteristics of the space environment and predictions of space weather impacts on sensitive spaceborne and ground based infrastructure. The SSA SWE system will also include establishment of a permanent database for analysis, model development and scientific research. These services are will support a wide variety of user domains including spacecraft designers, spacecraft operators, human space flights, users and operators of transionospheric radio links, and space weather research community. The precursor SWE services to be established starting in 2010. This presentation provides an overview of the ESA SSA SWE services focused on supporting the Space Surveillance and Tracking users. This services include estimates of the atmospheric drag and archive and forecasts of the geomagnetic and solar indices. In addition, the SSA SWE system will provide nowcasts of the ionospheric group delay to support mitigation of the ionospheric impact on radar signals. The paper will discuss the user requirements for the services, the data

  8. Happy families - cutting the cost of ESA Mission Ground Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merri, Mario; Ercolani, Alessandro; Guerrucci, Damiano; Reggestad, Vemund; Verrier, David; Emanuelli, Pier Paolo; Ferri, Paolo

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, ESA has adopted a new approach to reduce cost and risk in the development and operation of ground software. The "mission family" concept is the basis for cost-effective mission control systems for monitoring and controlling spacecraft, and operational simulators for testing and training. This concept is complemented by exploiting reusable software using a "delta" approach. Since families of missions have lifetimes much longer than the individual projects, the challenges of evolving ground software and hardware platforms over ten or more years must be met.

  9. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Engdahl, Marcus; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Arino, Olivier; Bojkov, Bojan; Ferran, Gaston; Donlon, Craig; Kern, Michael; Scipal, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The prime objective of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 20 years. It aims to further strengthen the international leadership of European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit observations from future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address many new avenues of scientific research that will be opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 covering Sentinel 1 (FRINGE /SEASAR ), Sentinel 2 ( S2 symposium), Sentinel 3 (COAST-ALT workshop , 20 Years Progress in Radar Altimetry, Sentinel 3 OLCI/SLSTR 2012 workshop) and Sentinel 4-5 (Atmospheric Science Confrence). The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the work plan 2013 for the SEOM element. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing, validating and maintaining open-source, multi-mission, scientific software toolboxes capable to handle the Sentinels data products 2. Stimulating the development and validation of advanced EO methods and observation strategies in particular the new TOpS mode on Sentinel 1, the new band settings on Sentinel 2, the new geometry/bands of Sentinel 3 OLCI ,SLSTR intruments and the advanced delay-doppler (SAR) altimeter exploitation. 3. Continuing to federate, support and expand the multi-disciplinary expert EO research communities by organizing thematic workshops and ensuring high-quality scientific publications linked to these research domains. Promoting widespread scientific use of data. 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinel s data

  10. Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambeck, K.

    In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.

  11. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  12. "Europe lands on Mars" - Media event at ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz operated by Starsem, the European probe - built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet's structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On board Mars Express tests have been run to check that the instruments are functioning correctly. Mars Express has successfully come through its first power test on the whole spacecraft after the gigantic solar flare on 28 October. Since 17 November the onboard software has been 'frozen' after several updates and the spacecraft is now quietly proceeding to its destination. Before even entering into Martian orbit to perform its mission, Mars Express has to face another challenge: safely delivering the Beagle 2 lander to its destination. This task, starting on 19 December, will not be without risk. First of all, to deliver the lander where planned, Mars Express has been put on a collision course with Mars, since Beagle 2 does not have a propulsion system of its own and must therefore be 'carried' precisely to its destination. This means that after separation, Mars Express has to veer away quickly to avoid crashing onto the planet. During the cruise Beagle 2 will take its power from the mother spacecraft, Mars Express. After separation and until its solar arrays are fully deployed on the surface, Beagle 2 must rely on its own battery, which cannot last beyond 6 days. So, like a caring parent, Mars Express must release Beagle 2 at the last possible moment to ensure that the lander has enough power for the rest of its journey to the surface. Only then can Mars Express change its orientation and rapidly fire the thrusters to get away

  13. Mission to the Moon: An ESA study on future exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing worldwide interest in the continuation of lunar exploration has convinced ESA to carry out an investigation of the motivations to return to the Moon to establish a permanent or a semi-permanent manned lunar base. This study also considers the possible role Europe could play in the future exploration and possible utilization of the Moon. The study concentrated in this first phase mainly on scientific questions, leaving technological issues such as transportation, the role of humans, infrastructure, and policy matters to a later phase. It only partially considered questions relating to the exploitation of lunar resources and the impact of human activities on science.

  14. Antenna pointing mechanism for ESA ENVISAT polar platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrano, J.; SanMillan, J.; Santiago, R.

    1996-01-01

    INTA is currently developing a two-degree-of-freedom antenna pointing mechanism (APM) as part of the ESA ENVISAT POLAR PLATFORM (PPF) program. This mechanism will drive a Ka-band antenna within the Data-Relay Satellite System (DRS) on board the Polar Platform satellite. The first mission using PPF is ENVISAT, which is expected to be flown in 1998. This paper describes the main requirements, design, and test results of this pointing system, as well as the main technical problems from customer requirements and how those have been faced to achieve a final design.

  15. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Cost effective techniques for addressing management and operational activities on Spacelab were identified and analyzed during a ten day NASA-ESA cooperative mission with payload and flight responsibilities handled by the organization assigned for early Spacelabs. Topics discussed include: (1) management concepts and interface relationships; (2) experiment selection; (3) hardware development; (4) payload integration and checkout; (5) selection and training of mission specialists and payload specialists; (6) mission control center/payload operations control center interactions with ground and flight problems; (7) real time interaction during flight between principal investigators and the mission specialist/payload specialist flight crew; and (8) retrieval of scientific data and its analysis.

  16. FCC and the Sunshine Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Kenneth

    The Sunshine Act, designed to encourage open meetings to increase public understanding of the governmental decision-making process, went into effect in March 1977. A total of 50 agencies, including the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), are subject to the provisions of the Sunshine Act. The act lists 10 exemptions, any of which can result in…

  17. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  18. ESA's planning and coordination of the OLYMPUS propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbesser-Rastburg, B.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the organization of the OLYMPUS propagation experimenters group (OPEX) is given. Preparations, participation, and experiments are described. Some examples for first statistical results are also reported. OLYMPUS, a 3-axis stabilized communications satellite was launched in 1989 for providing experimental telecommunications payloads and a propagation beacon payload at 12, 20, and 30 GHz to the European Space Agency. From previous experience (OTS), the Agency undertook to carry out extensive preparations with an eye on obtaining the statistical results needed within the limited available lifetime of the spacecraft. The OLYMPUS propagation experiment was conceived as part of ESA's space telecommunications applications program (ESA/IPC/(79)83) with the emphasis on exploring the possibilities and limitations of Ka-band satellite communications. The objectives of the OLYMPUS propagation campaign were: (1) characterization of the slant-path propagation conditions at 20/30 GHz in the various climatic regions of Europe; (2) improvement of the understanding of the link between atmospheric observable (rain rate, cloud thickness, etc.) to propagation impairments such as attenuation, depolarization, scintillation, etc.; and (3) arrive at improved propagation prediction methods.

  19. The ESA-ESTEC New Large EMC Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchail, J.; de Groot, H.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the new ESA -ESTEC large EMC facility, called Maxwell. The net dimensions between the absorber tips of this EMC chamber (14.5m x 10.7m x 11m) make it compatible with Ariane-5 single passenger launch configuration satellites, in line with the other Environmental Test Facilities already existing at ESA - ESTEC, complementing the mechanical vibration (HYDRA), acoustic (LEAF), thermal vacuum (LSS) and antenna/payload radio-frequency test facilities (CPTR). Access for the specimen to the EMC chamber is made possible through a large dimension door (6m wide x 11m high), using a non-conductive 5m x 5m air cushion pallet sliding on an anti-static epoxy coated floor. A specially designed air cooled high power dissipation wall provides the possibility of testing high power telecommunication satellites with a dissipation capability for RF spots up to densities of 3W/cm2. High cleanliness absorbers lining the ceiling, the floor and the man doors have been installed as well as state of the art fire detection and suppression systems in order to ensure a safe testing of Flight Model satellites.

  20. Status of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, N.; Martin, D.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Bavdaz, M.; Fransen, S.; Linder, M.; Peyrou-Lauga, R.; Voirin, T.; Braghin, M.; Mangunsong, S.; van Pelt, M.; Wille, E.

    2012-09-01

    ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) was an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2022. ATHENA was conceived as an ESA-led project, open to the possibility of focused contributions from JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 10 keV, it would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The main scientific objectives of ATHENA include the study of large scale structures, the evolution of black holes, strong gravity effects, neutron star structure as well as investigations into dark matter. The ATHENA mission concept would be based on focal length of 12m achieved via a rigid metering tube and a twoaperture, x-ray telescope. Two identical x-ray mirrors would illuminate fixed focal plane instruments: a cryogenic imaging spectrometer (XMS) and a wide field imager (WFI). The S/C is designed to be fully compatible with Ariane 5 ECA. The observatory would operate at SE-L2, with a nominal lifetime of 5 yr. This paper provides a summary of the reformulation activities, completed in December 2011. An overview of the spacecraft design and of the payload is provided, including both telescope and instruments. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  1. The ESA TTP and Recent Spin-off Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, D.; Brisson, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of its research and development activities, the European Space Agency (ESA) spends some 250m each year and, recognizing the enormous potential of the know-how developed within its R&D activities, set up a Technology Transfer Programme (TTP) some twelve years ago. Over the years, the Programme has achieved some remarkable results with 120 successful transfers of space technologies to the non-space sector; over 120m received by companies making the technologies available; some 15 new companies established as a direct result of exploiting technologies; nearly 2500 jobs created or saved in Europe; and a portfolio of some 300 (out of over 600) active space technologies available for transfer and licencing. Some of the more recent technologies which have been successfully transferred to the non-space sector include the Mamagoose baby safety pyjamas; a spectrographic system being used to compare colours in fabrics and textiles; Earth observation technology employed to assess remotely how much agrochemicals are being used by farmers; and the Dutch solar car, Nuna, which, using European space technologies, finished first in the 2001 World Solar Challenge breaking all records. The paper will give a brief overview of the ESA Technology Transfer Programme and describe some of its recent successful technology transfers.

  2. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  3. 29 CFR 6.35 - Ineligible lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Davis-Bacon Act and Related Prevailing Wage Statutes, the Copeland Act, and the Contract Work Hours and..., regarding violations of any statute listed in § 5.1 of part 5 of this title other than the Davis-Bacon Act..., as appropriate, regarding violations of the Davis-Bacon Act, the Administrator promptly shall...

  4. 29 CFR 6.35 - Ineligible lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Davis-Bacon Act and Related Prevailing Wage Statutes, the Copeland Act, and the Contract Work Hours and..., regarding violations of any statute listed in § 5.1 of part 5 of this title other than the Davis-Bacon Act..., as appropriate, regarding violations of the Davis-Bacon Act, the Administrator promptly shall...

  5. 29 CFR 6.35 - Ineligible lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Davis-Bacon Act and Related Prevailing Wage Statutes, the Copeland Act, and the Contract Work Hours and..., regarding violations of any statute listed in § 5.1 of part 5 of this title other than the Davis-Bacon Act..., as appropriate, regarding violations of the Davis-Bacon Act, the Administrator promptly shall...

  6. 29 CFR 6.35 - Ineligible lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Davis-Bacon Act and Related Prevailing Wage Statutes, the Copeland Act, and the Contract Work Hours and..., regarding violations of any statute listed in § 5.1 of part 5 of this title other than the Davis-Bacon Act..., as appropriate, regarding violations of the Davis-Bacon Act, the Administrator promptly shall...

  7. 29 CFR 6.35 - Ineligible lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Davis-Bacon Act and Related Prevailing Wage Statutes, the Copeland Act, and the Contract Work Hours and..., regarding violations of any statute listed in § 5.1 of part 5 of this title other than the Davis-Bacon Act..., as appropriate, regarding violations of the Davis-Bacon Act, the Administrator promptly shall...

  8. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Almost one year has passed since ESA’s Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Today, a set of new wide-ranging results from the probe’s two-and-a-half hour descent and landing, part of the extraordinary NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, is ready for release. At the same time, ESA’s Mars Express mission is continuing its investigations of Mars, painting a new picture of the 'red planet'. This includes the first ever probing below the surface of Mars, new geological clues with implications for the climate, newly-discovered surface and atmospheric features and, above all, traces of the presence of water on this world. These and other exciting findings from just one year of observations and data analysis - in the context of ESA’s overall scientific achievements - will be the focus of a press conference to be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris at 16:00 on 30 November 2005. Media interested in attending are invited to complete the following registration form. Press conference programme Space Science Highlights 2005 From Huygens to Mars Express 30 November 2005, 16:00 hrs Room 137, European Space Agency Headquarters 8-10 Rue Mario-Nikis, F-75738 Paris Cedex, France 15:30 - Registration 16:00 - A Year of European Space Science Successes Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 16:10 - Highlights of the Huygens Mission Results Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist 16:15 - Robin Duttaroy, Co-Investigator, Doppler Wind Experiment, University of Bonn, Germany 16:20 - Marcello Fulchignoni , Principal Investigator, Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, Université de Paris 7, France 16:25 - John Zarnecki, Principal Investigator, Surface Science Package, Open University, UK 16:30 - François Raulin, Co-Investigator, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer, Université de Paris 12 - Créteil, France 16:35 - Guy Israel, Principal Investigator, Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, Service d

  9. Minimizing effects of over-water docks on federally listed fish stocks in McNary Reservoir: A literature review for criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Rutz, Gary L.; Charrier, Jodi C.

    2010-01-01

    McNary Lock and Dam were completed in 1953, creating McNary Reservoir, or Lake Wallula. The shoreline of the reservoir is federally owned and as a result the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has certain land and fish habitat management responsibilities to balance with other multipurpose benefits. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing of Columbia and Snake River salmon stocks has changed the management of salmon harvest, hydropower operations, hatchery practices, and habitat management in recent years. There are 12 salmon Oncorhynchus spp., steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss, and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus evolutionarily significant units (ESU‘s) that use this reach of the Columbia River at one or more stages in their life history. Of those 12, 8 are listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. The entire portion of the Columbia River in the Hanford Reach and McNary Reservoir is designated critical habitat for seven ESA-listed salmon species. The USACE is in the process of updating the 1983 McNary Lakeshore Management Plan. The updated Shoreline Plan provides criteria for private use of the federal shoreline of McNary Reservoir, specifically the permitting of private docks, over-water structures, and modifications to shoreline vegetation by adjacent land owners. The previous Shoreline Plan was written prior to the federal listing of salmon species. At the request of the USACE, the purpose of this report is to review information from the literature and determine the extent to which the criteria proposed by USACE for the docks and over-water structures are supported by the current body of scientific knowledge.

  10. Bold ideas shortlisted for future ESA science projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    ESA's science programme introduced flexi-missions in 1997, to achieve greater flexibility. They replace the medium-scale projects, of which Huygens (Titan lander) and Integral (gamma-ray astronomy) are current examples. The aim is to have two flexi-missions for the price of one medium mission. Mars Express, already under construction for launch in 2003, is the first flexi-mission, or F1. Now under consideration are F2 and F3, each with a cost to ESA of no more than 176 million euros at 1999 prices. The frontrunner in the astronomy field for one of these slots is European participation with NASA in the Next Generation Space Telescope, successor to the NASA-ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Although a formal decision will not be taken until later this year, much European effort has already gone into preparing for this NGST project, due for launch in 2008. That intensifies the competition for the other slot. An embarrassment of riches - of ideas Multinational teams of scientists from Europe's universities and research institutes are backing each of the proposals selected for assessment, half of which concern the Solar System and the Earth's space environment. STORMS is a scheme to use three spacecraft to investigate a source of big trouble for technological systems, after solar eruptions. The "ring current" of energetic charged particles circulates around the equator at altitudes of several times the Earth's radius, and when its intensity varies during solar storms it causes magnetic perturbations at the Earth's surface. Three identical spacecraft, orbiting out to 50,000 kilometres and equally spaced around the equator, could clear up several remaining mysteries of the ring current -- and also provide real-time monitoring of magnetic storms. SOLAR ORBITER would fly on an extended orbit taking it at intervals to within about 30 million kilometres of the Sun -- much closer than the innermost planet, Mercury. At its closest approach the spacecraft would round the Sun at

  11. Optical and dark characterization of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeve, Peter; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Oosterbroek, Tim; Duvet, Ludovic; Beaufort, Thierry; Blommaert, Sander; Butler, Bart; Heijnen, Jerko; Lemmel, Frederic; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Smit, Hans; Visser, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    PLATO - PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars - is the third medium-class mission (M3) to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. It is due for launch in 2025 with the main objective to find and study terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around solar-like stars. The payload consists of >20 cameras; with each camera comprising 4 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), a large number of flight model devices procured by ESA shall ultimately be integrated on the spacecraft. The CCD270 - specially designed and manufactured by e2v for the PLATO mission - is a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) back-illuminated device operating at 4 MHz pixel rate and coming in two variants: full frame and frame transfer. In order to de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section is currently validating the PLATO CCD270. This validation consists in demonstrating that the device achieves its specified electrooptical performance in the relevant environment: operated at 4 MHz, at cold and before and after proton irradiation. As part of this validation, CCD270 devices have been characterized in the dark as well as optically with respect to performance parameters directly relevant for the photometric application of the CCDs. Dark tests comprise the measurement of gain sensitivity to bias voltages, charge injection tests, and measurement of hot and variable pixels after irradiation. In addition, the results of measurements of Quantum Efficiency for a range of angles of incidence, intra- pixel response (non-)uniformity, and response to spot illumination, before and after proton irradiation. In particular, the effect of radiation induced degradation of the charge transfer efficiency on the measured charge in a star-like spot has been studied as a function of signal level and of position on the pixel grid, Also, the effect of various levels of background light on the

  12. Analysis and Optimization of the Recovered ESA Huygens Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeminejad, Bobby

    2002-06-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini - Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. A recently discovered design flaw in the Huygens radio receiver onboard Cassini led to a significantly different mission geometry, redesigned and implemented by both the ESA Huygens and NASA Cassini project teams. A numerical integration of the Orbiter trajectory and the Huygens descent profile with simplified assumptions for Probe attitude and correlated aerodynamic aspects offered the opportunity to re-calculate key mission parameters, which depend on the relative geometry and motion of the bodies. This was a crucial step to assess whether science-imposed constraints were not violated. A review of existing Titan wind and atmosphere models and their physical background led to a subsequent parametric study of their impact on the supersonic entry phase, the parachute descent and finally the bodyfixed landing coordinates of the Probe. In addition to the deterministic (nominal) Probe trajectory, it is important to quantify the influence of various uncertainties that enter into the equations of motion on the results (e.g., state vectors, physical parameters of the environment and the Probe itself). This was done by propagating the system covariance matrix together with the nominal state vectors. A sophisticated Monte Carlo technique developed to save up computation time was then used to determine statistical percentiles of the key parameters. The Probe Orbiter link geometry was characterized by evaluating the link budget and received frequency at receiver level. In this calculation the spin of the Probe and the asymmetric gain pattern of the transmitting antennas was taken into account. The results were then used in a mathematical model that describes the tracking capability of the receiver symbol synchronizer. This allowed the loss of data during the mission to be quantified. A subsequent parametric study of different sets of mission parameters with the

  13. ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tempting to think that we can simply extrapolate our results to the entire Galaxy. However, we have only looked towards its centre and that is a peculiar place compared to the rest." Next on Integral's list of things to do is to extend this work to the rest of the Galaxy. Christoph Winkler, ESA's Integral Project Scientist, says, "We now have to work on the whole disc region of the Galaxy. This will be a tough and long job for Integral. But at the end, the reward will be an exhaustive inventory of the most energetic celestial objects in the Galaxy." Note to editors The paper explaining these results will appear on the 18 March 2004 issue of "Nature". The author list includes F. Lebrun, R. Terrier, A. Bazzano, G. Belanger, A. Bird, L. Bouchet, A. Dean, M. Del Santo, A. Goldwurm, N. Lund, H. Morand, A. Parmar, J. Paul, J.-P. Roques, V. Schoenfelder, A. Strong, P. Ubertini, R. Walter and C. Winkler. For information about the related INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton discovery of IGRJ16318-4848, see: http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2003_s_en.html Integral The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (Integral) is the first space observatory that can simultaneously observe celestial objects in gamma rays, X-rays and visible light. Integral was launched on a Russian Proton rocket on 17 October 2002 into a highly elliptical orbit around Earth. Its principal targets include regions of the galaxy where chemical elements are being produced and compact objects, such as black holes. IBIS, Imager on Board the Integral Satellite - IBIS provides sharper gamma-ray images than any previous gamma-ray instrument. It can locate sources to a precision of 30 arcseconds, the equivalent of measuring the height of a person standing in a crowd, 1.3 kilometres away. The Principal Investigators that built the instrument are P. Ubertini (IAS/CNR, Rome, Italy), F. Lebrun (CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France), G. Di Cocco (ITESRE, Bologna, Italy). IBIS is equipped with the first un-cooled semiconductor gamma

  14. The ESA Meteoroid Model 2010: Enhanced Physical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikarev, Valeri; Mints, Alexey; Drolshagen, Gerhard

    The orbital distributions of meteoroids in interplanetary space are revised in the ESA meteoroid model. In the present update, the chemical composition of the meteoroids is simulated in more detail than in the previous meteoroid models. Silicate and carbonaceous fractions are introduced for all meteoroid populations, and in addition to asteroids and Jupiter-crossing comets, comet 2P/Encke is added as a source. The orbital evolution under planetary gravity, Poynting-Robertson effect and mutual collisions is simulated using analytical approximations. Infrared observations of the zodiacal cloud by the COBE DIRBE instrument, in situ flux measurements by the dust detectors on board Galileo, Ulysses, Pioneer 11 and Helios-1 spacecraft, and the crater size distributions on lunar rock samples retrieved by the Apollo missions are incorporated in the model.

  15. THOR - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaivads, Andris

    2015-04-01

    We present a mission concept THOR (http://thor.irfu.se) that was proposed in the response to the ESA M4 Call. The scientific theme of the THOR mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The THOR mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the THOR mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the THOR mission, THOR's payload and the major science questions to be addressed.

  16. Reference payload of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Didier; Rando, Nicola; Lumb, David; Verhoeve, Peter; Oosterbroek, Tim; Bavdaz, Marcos

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) is one of the three candidates that competed for the first large-class mission (L1) in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme, with a launch planned by 2022 and is the result of the IXO reformulation activities. ATHENA is an ESA-led project and is conceived as the next generation X-ray observatory. It is meant to address fundamental questions about accretion around black-holes, reveal the physics underpinning cosmic feedback, trace the large scale structure of baryons in galaxy clusters and the cosmic as well as a large number of astrophysics and fundamental physics phenomena. The observatory consists of two identical mirrors each illuminating a fixed focal plane instrument, providing collectively 1 m2 effective area at 1 keV. The reference payload consists of a medium resolution wide field imager (WFI) and a high resolution X-ray micro-calorimeter spectrometer (XMS). The WFI is based on a monolithic Si DepFET array providing imaging over a 24 × 24 arcmin2 field of view and a good PSF oversampling. The sensor will measure X-rays in the range 0.1-15 keV and provides near Fano limited energy resolution (150eV at 6keV). The XMS is based on a micro-calorimeter array operating at its transition temperature of ~100mK and provides <3eV resolution. The detector array consists of 32 × 32 pixels covering a 2.3 × 2.3 arcmin2 field of view, co-aligned with the WFI. This paper summarizes the results of the reformulation exercise and provides details on the payload complement and its accommodation on the spacecraft. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  17. SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

  18. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false List of Migratory Birds. 10.13 Section 10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 10.13 List of Migratory Birds. (a) Legal authority for this list. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) in 16 U.S.C. 703-711, the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978, 16...

  19. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false List of Migratory Birds. 10.13 Section 10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 10.13 List of Migratory Birds. (a) Legal authority for this list. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) in 16 U.S.C. 703-711, the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978, 16...

  20. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false List of Migratory Birds. 10.13 Section 10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 10.13 List of Migratory Birds. (a) Legal authority for this list. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) in 16 U.S.C. 703-711, the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978, 16...

  1. ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    The newly refurbished antenna, which is located at the Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station site (VILSPA) near Madrid, has been selected as the prime communication link with the Cluster II spacecraft. The VIL-1 antenna will play a vital role in ESA's Cluster mission by monitoring and controlling the four spacecraft and by receiving the vast amounts of data that will be returned to Earth during two years of operations. Scheduled for launch in summer 2000, the Cluster quartet will complete the most detailed investigation ever made into the interaction between our pl0anet's magnetosphere - the region of space dominated by Earth's magnetic field - and the continuous stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun - the solar wind. This exciting venture is now well under way, following completion of the satellite assembly and test programme and two successful verification flights by the newly developed Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle. The ESA Flight Acceptance Review Board has accordingly given the go-ahead for final launch preparations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. VILSPA, ESA and Cluster II Built in 1975, after an international agreement between the European Space Agency and the Spanish government, VILSPA is part of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Tracking Station Network (ESTRACK). In the last 25 years, VILSPA has supported many ESA and international satellite programmes, including the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), EXOSAT and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to supporting the Cluster II mission, it has been designated as the Science Operations Centre for ESA's XMM Newton mission and for the Far-Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), which is due to launch in 2007. There are now more than half a dozen large dish antennae installed at VILSPA. One of these is the VIL-1 antenna, a 15 metre diameter dish which operates in the S-band radio frequency (1.8 - 2.7 GHz). This antenna has been modernised recently in order

  2. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: International collaborations towards transparent data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for science data returned by all ESA planetary missions. Current holdings include data from Giotto, SMART-1, Cassini-Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta. In addition to the basic management and distribution of these data to the community through our own interfaces, ESA has been working very closely with international partners to globalize the archiving standards used and the access to our data. Part of this ongoing effort is channelled through our participation in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), whose focus is on allowing transparent and interoperable access to data holdings from participating Agencies around the globe. One major focus of this work has been the development of the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) that will allow for the interoperability of archives and sharing of data. This is already used for transparent access to data from Venus Express, and ESA are currently working with ISRO and NASA to provide interoperable access to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 data through our systems using this protocol. Close interactions are ongoing with NASA's Planetary Data System as the standards used for planetary data archiving evolve, and two of our upcoming missions are to be the first to implement the new 'PDS4' standards in ESA: BepiColombo and ExoMars. Projects have been established within the IPDA framework to guide these implementations to try and ensure interoperability and maximise the usability of the data by the community. BepiColombo and ExoMars are both international missions, in collaboration with JAXA and IKI respectively, and a strong focus has been placed on close interaction and collaboration throughout the development of each archive. For both of these missions there is a requirement to share data between the Agencies prior to public access, as well as providing complete open access globally once the proprietary periods have

  3. The List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Some days it is difficult to remember why we love being teachers. For those difficult days, high school teacher Tim Gillespie maintains a list of fifteen reasons to keep teaching. He shares his list to remind us of the "greatest pleasures and highest callings" that we can experience as English teachers, believing that we can sustain ourselves and…

  4. TIP list

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, M E

    2006-06-22

    Subcontractors and vendors providing services, including the installation of purchased goods, are required to complete a TIP List. This list does not include every Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related concern at LLNL. It is intended to highlight major concerns common to most on-site service activities.

  5. ESA joins forces with Japan on new infrared sky surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    analysis. This second phase will end with the depletion of the liquid helium needed to cool down the spacecraft telescope and its instruments to only a few degrees above absolute zero. ASTRO-F will then start its third operations phase and continue to make observations of selected celestial targets with its infrared camera only, in a few specific infrared wavelengths. ESA’s involvement: Only two decades have passed since the birth of space-based infrared astronomy; since then, each decade has been marked by the launch of innovative infrared satellites that have revolutionised our very perception of the cosmos. In fact, infrared satellites make possible the detection of cool objects, including planetary systems, interstellar dust and gas, or distant galaxies, all of which are most difficult to study in the visible part of the light spectrum. With infrared astronomy, it is also possible to study the birth of stars and galaxies, the ‘creation’ energy of which peaks in the infrared range. The European Space Agency and Europe have a strong tradition in infrared astronomy, which is now being continued by the participation of the UK, the Netherlands and ESA in ASTRO-F. ESA is providing network support through its ground station in Kiruna (Sweden) for a few passes per day. ESA is also providing expertise and support for the sky-survey data processing. This includes ‘pointing reconstruction’ - which means measuring exactly where the observed objects are in the sky, to help accelerate the production of sky catalogues and ultimately produce a census of the infrared universe. In return, ESA has obtained ten percent of the observing opportunities during the second and third operational phases of the ASTRO-F mission, which is being allocated to European astronomers to perform their proposed observations. “The cooperation offered to ESA by Japan in ASTRO-F will help keep up momentum for European astronomers as they build on their past work with ISO, and look forward to the

  6. ESA and iron therapy in chronic kidney disease: a balance between patient safety and hemoglobin target.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-10-01

    Optimal treatment algorithms for erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and iron therapy in anemic CKD patients are lacking. Kuragano et al. evaluated hemodialysis patients over two years and report increased mortality risk and/or adverse events in those with high serum ferritin levels and high ferritin fluctuations, and an increase in adverse events in iron users. Clinical practice should avoid disproportionately high ESA or iron doses to achieve hemoglobin targets, particularly in those with significant comorbidity or ESA resistance.

  7. Hubble gets new ESA-supplied solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    Derek Eaton, ESA project manager, was overjoyed with the success of the day's spacewalk. "To build two such massive arrays some years apart to such tight tolerances and have one replace the other with so few problems is a tribute to the design and manufacturing skills of ESA and British Aerospace, the prime contractor for the arrays", he said. "The skill of Kathy and Tom contributed greatly to this success". The astronauts began their spacewalk at 09h30 p.m. CST (04h30 a.m. CET, Monday). Their first task was to jettison the troublesome solar array that failed to retract yesterday. Perched on the end of the shuttle's robot arm, 7.5 metres above the cargo bay, Thornton carefully released the array. ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier then pulled the arm away from the free-floating panel and mission commander Dick Covey fired the shuttle's thrusters to back away. Endeavour and the discarded array are moving apart at a rate of 18.5 kilometres each 90-minute orbit of the Earth. The array is expected to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere harmlessly within a year or so. The astronauts had no problems installing the new arrays and stowing the left-hand wing in the cargo bay for the return to Earth. The new arrays will remain rolled-up against the side of the telescope until the fifth spacewalk on Wednesday/Thursday. The telescope itself will be deployed on Saturday. The telescope's first set of arrays flexed in orbit because of the sudden swing in temperature as the craft moved in and out of sunlight. The movement, or "jitter", affected the telescope's pointing system and disrupted observations at times. The Space Telescope Operations Control Centre largely compensated for the problem with special software but this occupied a large amount of computer memory. The new arrays incorporate three major changes to eliminate the problem. The metal bi-stem booms, which support the solar blankets, is protected from extreme temperature changes by a concertina-style sleeve made up of one

  8. Earth Observation Training and Education with ESA LearnEO!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, Valborg; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Dobson, Malcolm; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Del Frate, Fabio; Banks, Chris; Picchiani, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    For society to benefit fully from its investment in Earth observation, EO data must be accessible and familiar to a global community of users who have the skills, knowledge and understanding to use the observations appropriately in their work. Achieving this requires considerable education effort. LearnEO! (www.learn-eo.org) is a new ESA education project that contributes towards making this a reality. LearnEO! has two main aims: to develop new training resources that use data from sensors on ESA satellites to explore a variety of environmental topics, and to stimulate and support members of the EO and education communities who may be willing to develop and share new education resources in the future. The project builds on the UNESCO Bilko project, which currently supplies free software, tutorials, and example data to users in 175 countries. Most of these users are in academic education or research, but the training resources are also of interest to a growing number of professionals in government, NGOs and private enterprise. Typical users are not remote sensing experts, but see satellite data as one of many observational tools. They want an easy, low-cost means to process, display and analyse data from different satellite sensors as part of their work in environmental research, monitoring and policy development. Many of the software improvements and training materials developed in LearnEO! are in response to requests from this user community. The LearnEO! tutorial and peer-reviewed lessons are designed to teach satellite data processing and analysis skills at different levels, from beginner to advanced - where advanced lessons requires some previous experience with Earth observation techniques. The materials are aimed at students and professionals in various branches of Earth sciences who have not yet specialised in specific EO technologies. The lessons are suitable for self-study, university courses at undergraduate to MSc level, or for continued professional

  9. In-situ Observations of Space Debris at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, G.

    Information on the small size (millimetre or smaller) space debris and meteoroid population in space can only be obtained by in-situ detectors or the analysis of retrieved hardware. Past, ongoing and planned ESA activities in this field are presented. In 1996 the GORID impact detector was launched into a geostationary orbit on-board the Russian Express-2 telecommunication satellite. This impact ionisation detector had a sensor surface of 0.1 m2. Until July 2002 when the spacecraft was shut down it recorded more than 3000 impacts in the micrometre size range. Inter alia, GORID measured numerous clusters of events, believed to result from debris clouds, and indicated that debris fluxes in GEO are larger than predicted by present models. Another in-situ detector, DEBIE-1, was launched in October 2001 and is operating on-board the small technology satellite PROBA in a low polar orbit. It has two sensors, each of 0.01m2 size, pointing in different directions. A second detector of this type, DEBIE-2 with 3 sensors, is ready for flight on the EuTEF carrier (external payload to ISS). The data from GORID and DEBIE-1 are stored on-line in EDID (European Detector Impact Database). Post-flight impact analyses of retrieved hardware provide detailed information on the encountered meteoroid and debris fluxes over a large range of sizes. ESA initiated several analyses in the past ((EURECA, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays). The most recent impact analysis was performed for the HST solar arrays retrieved in March 2002. Measured crater sizes in solar cells ranged from about 1 micron to 7 mm. A total of 175 complete penetrations of the 0.7 mm thick arrays were observed. A chemical analysis of impact residues allowed the distinction between space debris and natural meteoroids. Space debris was found to dominate for sizes smaller than 10 microns and larger than about 1 mm. For intermediate sizes impacts are mainly from meteoroids. Results of the analysis and comparisons with

  10. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  11. THE JOINT ESA-NASA EUROPA JUPITER SYSTEM MISSION (EJSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Bunce, E. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Erd, C.; Grasset, O.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, T. V.; Clark, K. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The joint "Europa Jupiter System Mission" (EJSM) is an international mission under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. Its goal is to study Jupiter and its magnetosphere, the diversity of the Galilean satellites, the physical characteristics, composition and geology of their surfaces. Europa and Ganymede are two primary targets of the mission. The reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The two primary goals of the mission are i) to determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and ii) to characterize the processes within the Jupiter system. The science objectives addressing the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressing the second goal are to: i) understand the Jovian satellite system, especially as context for Europa and Ganymede; ii) evaluate the structure and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere; iii) characterize processes of the Jovian magnetodisk/magnetosphere; iv) determine the interactions occurring in the Jovian system; and v) constrain models for the origin of the Jupiter system. Both spacecraft would carry a complement of 11-12 instruments launch separately in 2020 and use a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA

  12. Status of the ESA Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H. R.; Schumann, W.

    2004-11-01

    Following on from the first generation of Meteosat, the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) programme promises to provide advanced and more frequent data for short-range and medium-range weather forecasting and climate monitoring for at least the next 12 years. The MSG programme is a cooperation between ESA and EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites organisation. ESA has been responsible for designing and developing the first of the four satellites in the MSG programme, whilst EUMETSAT has overall responsibility for defining the end-user requirements, developing the ground segment and operating the system. The first MSG satellite, called MSG-1 (METEOSAT 8), was successfully launched on 28August 2002 by an Ariane 5 launcher together with its co-passenger Atlantic Bird. ESOC took over control of the satellite after separation and placed the satellite from the Ariane injection orbit to a quasi-geostationary orbit drifting slowly towards the commissioning longitude at 10.5 deg West. Subsequently EUMETSAT started the satellite commissioning testing. Except the in-orbit failure of an on-board amplifier, with its consequences for the dissemination service, the achieved results show a high degree of compliance with respect to the satellite specification and show very good overall performance of the satellite, in particular for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument to be outstanding. METEOSAT-8 entered routine operations on 29 January 2004. In parallel with the MSG-1 commissioning activities, the integration and test phases on the other MSG satellites has well progressed. Begin March 2004, EUMETSAT took the decision to take the MSG-2 satellite out of storage, resuming testing and work on it towards its final preparation for launch with a launch period now defined between February and April 2005. MSG-3 is entered into storage in summer this year. It is an intermediate storage configuration, after the

  13. Status of ESA's EarthCARE mission, passive instruments payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Hélière, Arnaud; Lefebvre, Alain; Eisinger, Michael; Wehr, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    EarthCARE is ESA's third Earth Explorer Core Mission, with JAXA providing one instrument. The mission allows unique data product synergies to improve understanding of atmospheric cloud-aerosol interactions and Earth's radiation balance. Retrieved data will be used to improve climate and numerical weather prediction models. EarthCARE accommodates two active instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID) and a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and two passive instruments: a Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) and a BroadBand Radiometer (BBR). The instruments will provide simultaneous, collocated imagery, allowing both individual and common data products. The active instruments provide data on microscopic levels, measured through the atmospheric depth. 3-D models of the atmospheric interactions are constructed from the data, which can be used to calculate radiation balance. The large footprint of the MSI provides contextual information for the smaller footprints of the active instruments. Data from the BBR allows the loop to be closed by providing a macroscopic measurement of the radiation balance. This paper will describe the passive instruments development status. MSI is a compact instrument with a 150 km swath providing 500 m pixel data in seven channels, whose retrieved data will give context to the active instrument measurements, as well as providing cloud and aerosol information. BBR measures reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the scene. To reduce uncertainty in the radiance to flux conversion, three independent view angles are observed for each scene. The combined data allows more accurate flux calculations, which can be further improved using MSI data.

  14. M⁴ - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retino, A.; Vaivads, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a mission concept that will be proposed in the response to the upcoming ESA M4 Call. The working name of the mission is M⁴. The scientific theme of the M⁴ mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The M⁴ mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the M⁴ mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the M⁴ mission and its payload as well as illustrate how it will help to address the science questions posed.

  15. The Dark UNiverse Explorer (DUNE): proposal to ESA's cosmic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refregier, A.

    2009-03-01

    The Dark UNiverse Explorer (DUNE) is a wide-field space imager whose primary goal is the study of dark energy and dark matter with unprecedented precision. For this purpose, DUNE is optimised for the measurement of weak gravitational lensing but will also provide complementary measurements of baryonic accoustic oscillations, cluster counts and the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect. Immediate auxiliary goals concern the evolution of galaxies, to be studied with unequalled statistical power, the detailed structure of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and the demographics of Earth-mass planets. DUNE is an Medium-class mission which makes use of readily available components, heritage from other missions, and synergy with ground based facilities to minimise cost and risks. The payload consists of a 1.2 m telescope with a combined visible/NIR field-of-view of 1 deg2. DUNE will carry out an all-sky survey, ranging from 550 to 1600 nm, in one visible and three NIR bands which will form a unique legacy for astronomy. DUNE will yield major advances in a broad range of fields in astrophysics including fundamental cosmology, galaxy evolution, and extrasolar planet search. DUNE was recently selected by ESA as one of the mission concepts to be studied in its Cosmic Vision programme.

  16. Research recommendations of the ESA Topical Team on Artificial Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angie

    Many experts believe that artificial gravity will be required for an interplanetary mission. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for simplifying operational activities, much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before artificial gravity can be successfully implemented. The European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team on Artificial Gravity recommended a comprehensive program to determine the gravity threshold required to reverse or prevent the detrimental effects of microgravity and to evaluate the effects of centrifugation on various physiological functions. Part of the required research can be accomplished using animal models on a dedicated centrifuge in low Earth orbit. Studies of human responses to centrifugation could be performed during ambulatory, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight studies. Artificial-gravity scenarios should not be a priori discarded in Moon and Mars mission designs. One major step is to determine the relationship between the artificial gravity dose level, duration, and frequency and the physiological responses of the major body functions affected by spaceflight. Once its regime characteristics are defined and a dose-response curve is established, artificial gravity should serve as the standard against which all other countermeasure candidates are evaluated, first on Earth and then in space.

  17. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  18. ESA's new European Hubble Science Archive at ESAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) has recently launched a new version of the European Hubble Space Telescope science archive. The new and enhanced archive offers several new features, some of which are not available anywhere else. The new web-based archive has been completely re-engineered and is now faster, more accurate and more robust than ever. Several of its unique features will be presented: the possibility of seeing the exact footprint of each observations on top of an optical all-sky image, the online visualization and inspection of FITS headers, imaging and spectral observation previews without downloading files or the possibility to search for data that has not yet been published in refereed journals. This state-of-the-art science data archive will be the new main access point to HST data for the European astronomical community and will be enhanced in the near-future to include the Hubble Source Catalogue or other high-level data products as required.

  19. ESA hardware for plant research on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.

    The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform on which long-term and shorter experiments with plants will be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for in-flight 1 g controls and for studies with acceleration levels from 0.001 g to 2.0 g. Several experiments are in preparation investigating gravity relating to gene expression, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana and lentil roots. The experiment-specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants and is connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides in-flight video observation, the experiments will be evaluated post-flight by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. About two years after the EMCS launch, ESA's Biolab will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, Biolab will accommodate experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments are presented in this communication.

  20. SAR Altimetry Processing On Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Dinardo, S.

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line, on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor makes use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products and interfaces with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive. The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format, and they are compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processing service is now available to be used by the SAR Altimetry Community worldwide for R&D experiments, on site demonstrations/training in training courses, cross-comparison against third party products, preparation for the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. Initially, the processing was designed and optimized for open ocean studies solely, based on the SAMOSA model developed for Sentinel-3 Ground Segment using CryoSat data, but since June 2015, a new retracker (SAMOSA+) is offered in the service as dedicated retracker for coastal zone, inland water and sea-ice/ice-sheet. In the view of the Sentinel-3 launch, a new flavor of the service

  1. ESA sees stardust storms heading for Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    The Sun's galactic environment Credits: P.C. Frisch, University of Chicago The Sun's galactic environment The Sun and the nearest stars move through filaments of galactic clouds. Ulysses and the heliosphere hi-res Size hi-res: 1337 kb Credits: ESA (image by D. Hardy) Ulysses and the heliosphere Over more than 17 years of observations above and below the poles of the Sun, the ESA/NASA Ulysses mission has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the Sun itself, its sphere of influence (the heliosphere), and our local interstellar neighbourhood. The mission provided the first-ever map of the heliosphere in the four dimensions of space and time. Ulysses was launched by Space Shuttle Discovery in October 1990. It headed out to Jupiter, arriving in February 1992 for the gravity-assist manoeuvre that swung the craft into its unique solar orbit. It orbited the Sun three times and performed six polar passes. The mission concludes on 1 July 2008. Since its launch in 1990, Ulysses has constantly monitored how much stardust enters the Solar System from the interstellar space around it. Using an on-board instrument called DUST, scientists have discovered that stardust can actually approach the Earth and other planets, but its flow is governed by the Sun's magnetic field, which behaves as a powerful gate-keeper bouncing most of it back. However, during solar maximum - a phase of intense activity inside the Sun that marks the end of each 11-year solar cycle - the magnetic field becomes disordered as its polarity reverses. As a result, the Sun's shielding power weakens and more stardust can sneak in. What is surprising in this new Ulysses discovery is that the amount of stardust has continued to increase even after the solar activity calmed down and the magnetic field resumed its ordered shape in 2001. Scientists believe that this is due to the way in which the polarity changed during solar maximum. Instead of reversing completely, flipping north to south, the Sun

  2. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  3. ESA scientist discovers a way to shortlist stars that might have planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    Traces of the disc surrounding our Solar System Credits: Michael Hauser (Space Telescope Science Institute), the COBE/DIRBE Science Team, and NASA Traces of the disc surrounding our Solar System Traces of the disc surrounding our Solar System. The blue band curving across this image is created by the dust disc surrounding our Solar System. Viewed from afar this would show up as a bright ring surrounding the Sun. The bright band running across the centre of the image is from dust in our Galaxy. This image, taken by the COBE satellite, is a composite of three far-infrared wavelengths (60, 100, and 240 microns). (Photo: Michael Hauser (Space Telescope Science Institute), the COBE/DIRBE Science Team, and NASA) Disc surrounding the Sun Credits: Brad Smith (University of Hawaii), Glenn Schneider (University of Arizona), and NASA Viewed from afar our Solar System would have a bright disc surrounding the Sun Viewed from afar our Solar System would have a bright dust disc surrounding the Sun similar to the disc surrounding this star. This image, taken with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), shows a dust ring around a star called HR 4796A. The image was taken on March 15, 1998. (Photo: Brad Smith (University of Hawaii), Glenn Schneider (University of Arizona), and NASA) Ulysses in flight configuration hi-res Size hi-res: 117 Kb Credits: ESA/Dave Hardy Ulysses at Jupiter encounter Ulysses in flight configuration passing by Jupiter. Remarkably, their discovery gives astronomers a way to determine which other stars in the Galaxy are most likely to harbour planets and allows mission planners to draw up a 'short-list' of stars to be observed by ESA's future planet-search missions, Eddington and Darwin. The discovery of the Solar System's dust ring strengthens the idea that such features around mature stars are signposts to planetary systems. The reason for this is that planetary systems are thought to condense from a cloud of gas and dust

  4. Farewell to a legendary mission : ESA to hand over the IUE archive to the world scientific community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    , and has made it to last. INES is easy to use and easy to upgrade, and LAEFF in Spain is proud to serve as the hub for the whole world". The INES Principal Centre is at the LAEFF, owned by INTA, the Spanish National Institute for Aerospace Technology. This centre, with a data mirror at the CADC in Victoria (Canada), holds the complete database and provides information not available from national hosts. So far 17 national hosts (listed below) have come online. Together they form with the Principal Centre an efficient and highly reliable distribution system for the community. The whole process of data retrieval is fully automated and totally transparent to the end user. This distributed structure avoids localised connectivity problems and guarantees availability of data. The release of INES will be celebrated on 21 March with a ceremony at the ESA/VILSPA Satellite Tracking Station in Villafranca near Madrid (see attached agenda and accreditation form). At various other national hosts the release of the INES system will also be celebrated by local academic and demonstration events on different dates. FOOTNOTE ON IUE SATELLITE The ESA/NASA/UK IUE spacecraft, launched in January 1978, became the first space observatory facility available to the whole astronomical community. It marked the beginning of UV astronomy, a field for which space telescopes are essential because UV light does not reach the Earth's surface. By the time IUE was switched off, in September 1996 --14 years later than originally planned -- IUE had changed the view astronomers had of the universe. Among many other findings, IUE discovered the auroras in Jupiter; detected for the first time the halo in our galaxy --a large amount of very hot matter in the outskirts of the Milky Way (the halo); and measured the size of a black hole in the core of an active galaxy.

  5. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this presentation is to feature the G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 and Sentniel-3 data, which was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (210'000 SAR passes and 120'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the multi-mission Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing, according to their specific requirements, by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the development contracts awarded by confronting the deliverables to ESA's computations, has been made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for hands-on demonstrations/training in

  6. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-Pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (155'000 SAR passes and 41'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing according to their specific requirements by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing, which can be lengthy due to the required intense number-crunching inherent to SAR processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the awarded development contracts by confronting the deliverables to ESA's prototype, is now made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for on-site demonstrations/training in

  7. N° 15-2000: ESA, CERN and ESO launch "Physics on Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments [1] are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries [2]. In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular

  8. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  9. CarbonSat: ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.

    2012-04-01

    The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will

  10. ESA chairs the International Living With a Star programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    The Sun is a variable star. The amount of radiation it releases changes constantly, especially at wavelengths that we cannot see, such as ultraviolet. It also releases a stormy ‘wind’ of particles known as the solar wind that buffets the Earth’s magnetic field. Sudden changes in the solar wind can disable communications satellites, disrupt power stations on Earth, and affect passengers in high-flying aircraft. Slow variation in the solar output and even in the solar wind could contribute to climatic changes. Knowing more about these phenomena is therefore very important in different and sometimes unexpected ways. There will be various ILWS mission launches over an approximately ten-year period, starting in 2003. Pooling the resources of the largest fleet of spacecraft in history, the ILWS programme will provide a first global view of the Sun-Earth interaction and lead to a real understanding of it. It will look at the Sun’s effects on other planets also. ESA’s missions form a vital part of ILWS. SOHO and Cluster are leading the way. In 2003, in collaboration with China, a space mission called Double Star will be launched to complement Cluster. In a decade’s time, ESA’s Solar Orbiter will be the centre of interest. It will go closer to the Sun than any solar mission ever before. In between, ESA will assist in exploiting other agency’s missions to the full; it is also currently negotiating to provide ground stations for Japan’s Solar-B mission (launch 2005), and is considering the part it may play in NASA’s STEREO (launch 2005) and Solar Dynamics Orbiter (launch 2007) missions. In addition, ESA’s missions to the other terrestrial planets, Mars Express (launching 2003), Venus Express (launching 2005), and the mission to Mercury, BepiColombo (launching 2011/2012), will carry experiments that look at solar-wind interactions with their respective planets. Hermann Opgenoorth, ESA’s newly appointed Head of Solar and Solar-Terrestrial Missions, is

  11. The 2009 ESA/Danish Mars Simulation Wind Tunnel Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, P.; Merrison, J. P.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.

    2009-04-01

    Simulation of the dynamic environment in immediate proximity to the surface of Mars requires access to simulation facilities which can reproduce the atmospheric properties (pressure, temperature, gas composition, UV-VIS light conditions, wind flow etc.). It also requires access to analogue Martian surface material (soil and dust). Simulations can be carried out in a wind tunnel placed in a tank which can be pumped out, like the 400 mm Ø, 1500 mm long wind tunnel that has operated in the Mars Simulation Laboratory at University of Aarhus, Denmark since 2000 (1). A wide range of applications have taken place, from development, test and calibration of instruments, over tests of solar panels, and aerodynamic studies of granular transport to studies of physical properties of dust materials such as grain electrification, aggregation and magnetic properties (2,3). The Salten Skov I analogue (4) and other Martian regolits and dust analogues have been used in the wind tunnel experiments. With the view to future instrument development, solar panel optimization and future research on Martian surface processes a new ESA supported wind tunnel has been constructed at University of Aarhus, Denmark and is now under building. This wind tunnel will have a cross section of close to 1 x 2 m and be able to reach a wind speed of close to 30 m/s under Martian pressure conditions and with samples cooled down to Martian temperatures. The facility is planned to be finally tested and ready for use in July 2009. ESA, ExoMars use of this facility will have priority. However, research projects in collaboration with external users will also be welcome in the future. Later this year information on access possibilities will be announced at the Mars Simulation Laboratory home page: www.marslab.dk. References: (1) Merrison, J., Bertelsen, P., Frandsen, C., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Knudsen, J.M., Madsen, M.B., Mossin, L., Nielsen, J., Nørnberg, P., Rasmussen, K.R., Uggerhøj, E. and Weyer, G. 2002

  12. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Rosetta’s unique instruments, such as its ultraviolet light instrument ALICE, should be able to make critical contributions to the American mission. About Rosetta Rosetta is the first mission designed to both orbit and land on a comet, and consists of an orbiter and a lander. The spacecraft carries 11 scientific experiments and will be the first mission to undertake long-term exploration of a comet at close quarters. After entering orbit around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the spacecraft will release a small lander onto the icy nucleus. Rosetta will orbit the comet for about a year as it heads towards the Sun, remaining in orbit for another half-year past perihelion (closest approach to the Sun). Comets hold essential information about the origin of our Solar System because they are the most primitive objects in the Solar System and their chemical composition has changed little since their formation. By orbiting and landing on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta will help us reconstruct the history of our own neighbourhood in space. Note for broadcasters: The ESA TV Service will transmit a TV exchange with images of the fly-by, together with science results/images from observations as far as available on 11 March. For further details : http://television.esa.int

  13. Italian spring accelerometer (ISA) a high sensitive accelerometer for ``BepiColombo'' ESA CORNERSTONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.

    2001-12-01

    The targets of the ESA CORNERSTONE mission to Mercury "BepiColombo" are concerned with both planetary and magnetospheric physics and to test some aspects of the general relativity. A payload devoted to a set of experiments named radio science is located within one of the three proposed modules, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). In particular, a high sensitivity accelerometer ( a min<10 -9√g/ Hz in the range 10 -4- 10 -1 Hz) will measure the inertial acceleration acting on the MPO. Such data, together with tracking data are used to evaluate the purely gravitational trajectory of the MPO, transforming it to a virtual drag-free satellite system. The ISA accelerometer, considered for this mission, is a well-studied instrument developed at the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), with the financial support of the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A prototype of such an instrument was constructed, matching the requirements of the radio science experiment. Results of the study concerning the use of ISA in the BepiColombo mission are reported here, particular care being devoted to the description of the instrument and to its sensitivity and thermal stabilisation.

  14. The instrument control unit of the ESA-PLATO 2.0 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Cosentino, R.; Giusi, G.; Pancrazzi, M.; Noce, V.; Ottensamer, R.; Steller, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pace, E.; Plasson, P.; Peter, G.; Pagano, I.

    2016-07-01

    PLATO 2.0 has been selected by ESA as the third medium-class Mission (M3) of the Cosmic Vision Program. Its Payload is conceived for the discovery of new transiting exoplanets on the disk of their parent stars and for the study of planetary system formation and evolution as well as to answer fundamental questions concerning the existence of other planetary systems like our own, including the presence of potentially habitable new worlds. The PLATO Payload design is based on the adoption of four sets of short focal length telescopes having a large field of view in order to exploit a large sky coverage and to reach, at the same time, the needed photometry accuracy and signalto- noise ratio (S/N) within a few tens of seconds of exposure time. The large amount of data produced by the telescope is collected and processed by means of the Payload's Data Processing System (DPS) composed by many processing electronics units. This paper gives an overview of the PLATO 2.0 DPS, mainly focusing on the architecture and processing capabilities of its Instrument Control Unit (ICU), the electronic subsystem acting as the main interface between the Payload (P/L) and the Spacecraft (S/C).

  15. The ESA Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre - Phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poedts, Stefaan

    The ESA ITT project (AO/1-6738/11/NL/AT) to develop Phase 1 of a Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre has the following objectives and scope: 1. The construction of a long term (~10 yrs) plan for the future development of a European virtual space weather modelling centre consisting of a new ‘open’ and distributed framework for the coupling of physics based models for space weather phenomena; 2. The assessment of model capabilities and the amount of work required to make them operational by integrating them in this framework and the identification of computing and networking requirements to do so. 3. The design of a system to enable models and other components to be installed locally or geographically distributed and the creation of a validation plan including a system of metrics for testing results. The consortium that took up this challenge involves: 1)the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Prime Contractor, coordinator: Prof. S. Poedts); 2) the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB); 3) the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB); 4) the Von Karman Institute (VKI); 5) DH Consultancy (DHC); 6) Space Applications Services (SAS). The project started on May 14 2012, and will finish in May 2014. Thus, by the time of the meeting, both Phase 1A and Phase 1B (the development of the prototype) will be finished. The final report will be presented incl. the architecture decisions made, the framework, the current models integrated already as well as the model couplers installed. The prototype VSWMC will be demonstrated.

  16. Status of esa smart-1 mission to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; Marini, A.; SMART-1 Technology Working Team

    2003-04-01

    SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been readied for launch in spring 2003 as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 19 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin of the

  17. An ESA roadmap for geobiology in space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Claire R.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Geobiology, and in particular mineral-microbe interactions, has a significant role to play in current and future space exploration. This includes the search for biosignatures in extraterrestrial environments, and the human exploration of space. Microorganisms can be exploited to advance such exploration, such as through biomining, maintenance of life-support systems, and testing of life-detection instrumentation. In view of these potential applications, a European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team "Geobiology in Space Exploration" was developed to explore these applications, and identify research avenues to be investigated to support this endeavour. Through community workshops, a roadmap was produced, with which to define future research directions via a set of 15 recommendations spanning three key areas: Science, Technology, and Community. These roadmap recommendations identify the need for research into: (1) new terrestrial space-analogue environments; (2) community level microbial-mineral interactions; (3) response of biofilms to the space environment; (4) enzymatic and biochemical mineral interaction; (5) technical refinement of instrumentation for space-based microbiology experiments, including precursor flight tests; (6) integration of existing ground-based planetary simulation facilities; (7) integration of fieldsite biogeography with laboratory- and field-based research; (8) modification of existing planetary instruments for new geobiological investigations; (9) development of in situ sample preparation techniques; (10) miniaturisation of existing analytical methods, such as DNA sequencing technology; (11) new sensor technology to analyse chemical interaction in small volume samples; (12) development of reusable Lunar and Near Earth Object experimental platforms; (13) utility of Earth-based research to enable the realistic pursuit of extraterrestrial biosignatures; (14) terrestrial benefits and technological spin-off from existing and future space

  18. ESA' s novel gravitational modeling of irregular planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    A detailed understanding and modeling of the gravitational modeling is required for realistic investigation of the dynamics of orbits close to irregularly shaped bodies. Gravity field modelling up to a certain maximum spherical harmonic degree N involves N2 unkown spherical harmonic coefficients or complex harmonics. The corresponding number of matrix entries reaches till N4 . For missions like CHAMP, GRACE or GOCE, the maximum degree of resolution is 75, 150 and 300 respectively. Therefore, the number of unknowns for a satellite like GOCE will be around 100.000. Since these missions usually fly for a period of time of several years, the number of observations is huge. Hence, gravity field recovery from these missions is a high demanding task. The classical approaches like spherical expansion of the potential lead generally to a high number of coefficients, which reduce the software computational efficiency of the orbit propagation and which have mostly a limited physical meaning. One of the main targets of the activity is the modelling of asteroids, small moons, and cometary bodies. All celestial bodies are irregular by definition. However, the scope of the activity is broad enough as to be able to use the models and the software in quasy-regular bodies as well. Therefore the models and tools could be used for bodies such as the Moon, Mars, Venus, Deimos, Europa, Eros, Mathilda, and Churyumov-Gerasimenko, etc., being these applications relevant for scientific (Rosetta, Bepi Colombo), exploration (Exo-Mars), NEO mitigation (Don Quijote) and Earth observation (GOCE) missions of ESA.

  19. Aerosol Climate Time Series Evaluation In ESA Aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Pinnock, S.

    2015-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. By the end of 2015 full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which are also validated. The paper will summarize and discuss the results of major reprocessing and validation conducted in 2015. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family will be described and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products

  20. ESA's new view of the Milky Way - in gamma rays!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Integral's gamma-ray map of the galaxy hi-res Size hi-res: 430 kb Credits: ESA/SPI team A portion of Integral's gamma-ray map of the galaxy A portion of Integral's gamma-ray map of the galaxy. This false colour picture was taken by the spectrometer on board Integral (SPI) between December 2002 and March 2003. The yellow dots correspond to bright known gamma-rays sources, whilst blue areas indicate regions of low emission. Data similar to these, but in a higher energy range, have been used to study where aluminium and iron are produced in the Galaxy. Since its formation from a cloud of hydrogen and helium gas, around 12 000 million years ago, the Milky Way has gradually been enriched with heavier chemical elements. This has allowed planets and, indeed, life on Earth to form. Today, one of those heavier elements - radioactive aluminium - is spread throughout the Galaxy and, as it decays into magnesium, gives out gamma rays with a wavelength known as the '1809 keV line'. Integral has been mapping this emission with the aim of understanding exactly what is producing all this aluminium. In particular, Integral is looking at the aluminium 'hot spots' that dot the Galaxy to determine whether these are caused by individual celestial objects or the chance alignment of many objects. Astronomers believe that the most likely sources of the aluminium are supernovae (exploding high-mass stars) and, since the decay time of the aluminium is around one million years, Integral's map shows how many stars have died in recent celestial history. Other possible sources of the aluminium include 'red giant' stars or hot blue stars that give out the element naturally. To decide between these options, Integral is also mapping radioactive iron, which is only produced in supernovae. Theories suggest that, during a supernova blast, aluminium and iron should be produced together in the same region of the exploding star. Thus, if the iron's distribution coincides with that of the aluminium, it

  1. ESA NEOCC effort to eliminate high Palermo Scale virtual impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Hainaut, O.; Bernardi, F.

    2014-07-01

    At the moment of this writing about 4 % of the known near-Earth objects are known to have at least one future close approach scenario with a non-negligible collision probability within the next century, as routinely computed by the NEODyS and Sentry systems. The most straightforward way to improve the knowledge of the future dynamics of an NEO in order to exclude (or possibly confirm) some of these possible future impact is to obtain additional astrometric observations of the object as soon as it becomes observable again. In particular, since a large fraction (>98 %) of the known objects currently recognized as possible future impactors have been observed during a single opposition, this usually corresponds to obtaining a new set of observations during a second opposition, a so called ''recovery''. However, in some cases the future observability windows for the target after the discovery apparition may be very limited, either because the object is intrinsically small (and therefore requires a very close and consequently rare approach to become observable) or because its orbital dynamic prevents the observability from the ground for a long timespan (as in the case of quasi-resonant objects with a long synodic period). When this happens, the only short-term way to clarify an impact scenario is to look toward the past, and investigate the possibility that unrecognized detections of the object are already present in the databases of old astronomical images, which are often archived by professional telescopes and made available to the community a few months to years after they are exposed. We will here present an effort lead by the newly formed ESA NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) in Frascati to pursue both these avenues with the intent of improving the orbital knowledge of the highest-rated possible impactors, as defined by the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale (PS in the following). As an example of our ongoing observational activities, we will first present our

  2. 78 FR 6299 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Two Petitions To List White Marlin as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... petition to list white marlin from the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) on April 3, 2012. Copies of.... Chambers and CBD requesting us to list white marlin under the ESA. We have previously reviewed the status... between NMFS, CBD, and the Turtle Island Restoration Network, we revisited the status of the white...

  3. 78 FR 12702 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Rule To List 66 Reef-Building Coral Species; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Threatened Species; Proposed Rule To List 66 Reef- Building Coral Species; Proposed Reclassification of... listing determinations of 66 reef-building coral species and the proposed reclassifications of elkhorn (Acropora palmata) and staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) corals under the ESA until April 6, 2013,...

  4. 77 FR 25687 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Speckled Hind as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... misunderstanding or misrepresentation of landings data. The 1986 to 1995 time series data in Parker and Mays (1998.... At that time, a Candidate Species was defined as any species being considered by the Secretary of... Concern list at that time because they were not being considered for ESA listing and were better...

  5. Public Notice Distribution List for CAA Permits, Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clean Air Act public notice notification list - subscription form. Currently this is for EPA Region 4 states Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee

  6. EPA CIO Governance Board Membership List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In keeping with OMB guidance on implementing the Federal Information Technology Reform Act (FITARA), EPA is publishing its list of officials who perform the duties or responsibilities of a Bureau CIO.

  7. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  8. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  9. 4 CFR 200.16 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailing lists. 200.16 Section 200.16 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.16 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  10. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  11. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  12. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  13. Full load of ESA experiments on Maxus-2 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Maxus sounding rockets are built and commercialised by an industrial joint venture, a team comprising of the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and DASA of Germany. ESA is fully funding the scientific payload for this mission. The payload comprises 8 experiments spanning the fields of fluid physics, electrophoresis and cell biology. Scientists from Belgium, France, Germany and Switzerland designed these experiments and the hardware was built by Swedish, German and Italian firms. The experiments are accommodated in 5 autonomous experiment modules and account for an overall mass of about 500 kg out of a total payload of about 800 kg. The first module contains an experiment which aims to check the static and dynamic behaviour of liquids at corners and edges. The second contains a biological experiment on two unicellular organisms (loxodes and paramecium). In their natural habitat (lakes), these organisms make use of the gravity vector for their orientation. Their swimming behaviour in microgravity will be observed on Earth in real time. The third module houses two other biology experiments. One examines the effect of microgravity on particle ingestion of gold beads by human macrophage cells (a type of white blood cell). Macrophage cells digest foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, thereby performing an important function in our immune system. The other experiment investigates the influence of weightlessness on the structure of lymphocytes (white blood cells). The fourth module accommodates three different experiments all dealing with convection phenomena due to surface-tension instabilities (Marangoni convection). Surface tension is that property of liquids which makes raindrops nearly spherical and allows insects to move on water surfaces. These phenomena, which are masked by the effect of gravity on Earth, can be easily studied in microgravity conditions. The fifth module contains an experiment that deals with electrophoresis, i.e. a process which is used to

  14. Aerosol Climate Time Series in ESA Aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. Meanwhile, full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer, but also from ATSR instruments and the POLDER sensor), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which were also validated and improved in the reprocessing. For the three ATSR algorithms the use of an ensemble method was tested. The paper will summarize and discuss the status of dataset reprocessing and validation. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension

  15. ESA's high-energy observatories spot doughnut-shaped cloud with a black-hole filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    -energy X-rays seen by XMM-Newton appear to come from a diffuse emission, far away from the black hole, the higher-energy X-rays detected by Integral are directly related to the black hole activity. The team could infer the doughnut’s structure and its distance from the black hole by virtue of light that was either reflected or completely absorbed. The torus itself appears to be several hundred light years from the black hole, although the observation could not gauge its diameter, from inside to outside. The result marks the clearest observation of an obscured black hole in X-ray and gamma-ray `colours’, a span of energy nearly a million times wider than the window of visible light, from red to violet. Multi-wavelength studies are increasingly important to understanding black holes, as already demonstrated earlier this year. In May 2004, the European project known as the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, in which ESA plays a major role, found 30 supermassive black holes that had previously escaped detection behind masking dust clouds. Note for editors This result will appear on The Astrophysical Journal. Besides Volker Beckmann, the author list includes Neil Gehrels, Pascal Favre, Roland Walter, Thierry Courvoisier, Pierre-Olivier Petrucci and Julien Malzac. For more information about the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory programme and how it has allowed European scientists to discover a number of previously hidden black holes, see: http://www.spacetelescope.org/news/html/heic0409.html More about Integral The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (Integral) is the first space observatory that can simultaneously observe celestial objects in gamma rays, X-rays and visible light. Integral was launched on a Russian Proton rocket on 17 October 2002 into a highly elliptical orbit around Earth. Its principal targets include regions of the galaxy where chemical elements are being produced and compact objects, such as black holes. More information on Integral can be

  16. Program Listings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A complete listing of a projectile motion program for the Apple II microcomputer is provided. A discussion of this computer simulation and a table with variables used in the program (as well as their meanings) can be found in SE 533 596. (JN)

  17. Privacy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  18. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    advanced search function will allow users to query all the metadata present in the PSA database. Results will be displayed in 3 different ways: 1) A table listing all the corresponding data matching the criteria in the filter menu, 2) a projection of the products onto the surface of the object when applicable (i.e. planets, small bodies), and 3) a list of images for the relevant instruments to enjoy the beauty of our Solar System. These different ways of viewing the datasets will ensure that scientists and non-professionals alike will have access to the specific data they are looking for, regardless of their background. Conclusions: The new PSA will maintain the various interfaces and services it had in the past, and will include significant improvements designed to allow easier and more effective access to the scientific data and supporting materials. The new PSA is expected to be released by mid-2016. It will support the past, present and future missions, ancillary datasets, and will enhance the scientific output of ESA's missions. As such, the PSA will become a unique archive ensuring the long-term preservation and usage of scientific datasets together with user-friendly access.

  19. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    advanced search function will allow users to query all the metadata present in the PSA database. Results will be displayed in 3 different ways: 1) A table listing all the corresponding data matching the criteria in the filter menu, 2) a projection of the products onto the surface of the object when applicable (i.e. planets, small bodies), and 3) a list of images for the relevant instruments to enjoy the beauty of our Solar System. These different ways of viewing the datasets will ensure that scientists and non-professionals alike will have access to the specific data they are looking for, regardless of their background. Conclusions: The new PSA will maintain the various interfaces and services it had in the past, and will include significant improvements designed to allow easier and more effective access to the scientific data and supporting materials. The new PSA is expected to be released by mid-2016. It will support the past, present and future missions, ancillary datasets, and will enhance the scientific output of ESA's missions. As such, the PSA will become a unique archive ensuring the long-term preservation and usage of scientific datasets together with user-friendly access.

  20. ESA's Hipparcos satellite revises the scale of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    Sun, called parallaxes, give the first direct measurements of the distances of large numbers of stars. With the overall calculations completed, the harvest of scientific discoveries has begun. Among those delighted with the immediate irruption into cosmology, from this spacecraft made in Europe, is ESA's director of science, Roger Bonnet. "When supporters of the Hipparcos project argued their case," Bonnet recalls, "they were competing with astrophysical missions with more obvious glamour. But they promised remarkable consequences for all branches of astronomy. And already we see that even the teams using the Hubble Space Telescope will benefit from a verdict from Hipparcos on the distance scale that underpins all their reckonings of the expansion of the Universe." The pulse-rates of the stars Cepheid stars alternately squeeze themselves and relax, like a beating heart. They wax and wane rhythmically in brightness, every few days or weeks, at a rate that depends on their luminosity. Henrietta Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory discovered in the early years of this century that bigger and more brilliant Cepheids vary with a longer period, according to a strict rule. It allows astronomers to gauge relative distances simply by taking the pulse-rates of the Cepheids and measuring their apparent brightnesses. Nearby Cepheids are typically 1000-2000 light-years away. They are too far for even Hipparcos to obtain very exact distance measurements, but by taking twenty-six examples and comparing them, Michael Feast and his colleague Robin Catchpole of RGO Cambridge arrive at consistent statistics. These define the relationship between the period and the luminosity, needed to judge the distances of Cepheids. The zero point is for an imaginary Cepheid pulsating once a day. This would be a star 300 times more luminous than the Sun, according to the Hipparcos data. The slowest Cepheid in the sample, l Carinae, has a period of 36 days and is equivalent to 18,000 suns

  1. Aerosol climate time series from ESA Aerosol_cci (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer-Popp, T.

    2013-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) the Aerosol_cci project (mid 2010 - mid 2013, phase 2 proposed 2014-2016) has conducted intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors AATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. Global datasets for 2008 were produced and validated versus independent ground-based data and other satellite data sets (MODIS, MISR). An additional 17-year dataset is currently generated using ATSR-2/AATSR data. During the three years of the project, intensive collaborative efforts were made to improve the retrieval algorithms focusing on the most critical modules. The team agreed on the use of a common definition for the aerosol optical properties. Cloud masking was evaluated, but a rigorous analysis with a pre-scribed cloud mask did not lead to improvement for all algorithms. Better results were obtained using a post-processing step in which sudden transitions, indicative of possible occurrence of cloud contamination, were removed. Surface parameterization, which is most critical for the nadir only algorithms (MERIS and synergetic AATSR / SCIAMACHY) was studied to a limited extent. The retrieval results for AOD, Ångström exponent (AE) and uncertainties were evaluated by comparison with data from AERONET (and a limited amount of MAN) sun photometer and with satellite data available from MODIS and MISR. Both level2 and level3 (gridded daily) datasets were validated. Several validation metrics were used (standard statistical quantities such as bias, rmse, Pearson correlation, linear regression, as well as scoring approaches to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal correlations against AERONET), and in some cases

  2. Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer-Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Griesfeller, J.; Martynenko, D.; Klüser, L.; Bevan, S.; Davies, W.; Ducos, F.; Deuzé, J. L.; Graigner, R. G.; Heckel, A.; von Hoyningen-Hüne, W.; Kolmonen, P.; Litvinov, P.; North, P.; Poulsen, C. A.; Ramon, D.; Siddans, R.; Sogacheva, L.; Tanre, D.; Thomas, G. E.; Vountas, M.; Descloitres, J.; Griesfeller, J.; Kinne, S.; Schulz, M.; Pinnock, S.

    2013-08-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project Aerosol_cci (2010-2013), algorithms for the production of long-term total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) datasets from European Earth Observation sensors are developed. Starting with eight existing pre-cursor algorithms three analysis steps are conducted to improve and qualify the algorithms: (1) a series of experiments applied to one month of global data to understand several major sensitivities to assumptions needed due to the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem, (2) a round robin exercise of "best" versions of each of these algorithms (defined using the step 1 outcome) applied to four months of global data to identify mature algorithms, and (3) a comprehensive validation exercise applied to one complete year of global data produced by the algorithms selected as mature based on the round robin exercise. The algorithms tested included four using AATSR, three using MERIS and one using PARASOL. This paper summarizes the first step. Three experiments were conducted to assess the potential impact of major assumptions in the various aerosol retrieval algorithms. In the first experiment a common set of four aerosol components was used to provide all algorithms with the same assumptions. The second experiment introduced an aerosol property climatology, derived from a combination of model and sun photometer observations, as a priori information in the retrievals on the occurrence of the common aerosol components. The third experiment assessed the impact of using a common nadir cloud mask for AATSR and MERIS algorithms in order to characterize the sensitivity to remaining cloud contamination in the retrievals against the baseline dataset versions. The impact of the algorithm changes was assessed for one month (September 2008) of data: qualitatively by inspection of monthly mean AOD maps and quantitatively by comparing daily gridded satellite data against daily averaged AERONET sun photometer

  3. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  4. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  5. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  6. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  7. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  8. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARIN Level-2 geophysical data products.. The Processor will make use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products. These output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) and other NetCDF tool. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARIN FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development experiments, to support the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training in training courses and workshops, cross-comparison against third party products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation for the Sentinel-3 Topographic mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal

  9. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  10. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Pretreatments Only Interim Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and ESA continue to search for an alternative to hexavalent chromium in coatings applications that meet their performance requirements in corrosion protection, cost, operability, and health and safety, while typically specifying that performance must be equal to or greater than existing systems. The overall objective of the collaborative effort between NASA TEERM and ESA is to test and evaluate coating systems (pretreatments, pretreatments with primer, and pretreatments with primer and topcoat) as replacements for hexavalent chrome coatings in aerospace applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing promising coatings identified from previous NASA, ESA, Department of Defense (DOD), and other project experience. Additionally, several new materials will be analyzed according to ESA-identified specifications.

  11. A simplified method to detect epididymal sperm aneuploidy (ESA) in mice using three-chromosome fish

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, X.; O`Hogan, S.; Wyrobek, A.

    1995-11-01

    We developed a new method (ESA) to detect aneuploidy and polyploidy in epididymal sperm of mice using three-chromosome FISH. In comparison to a previous method (TSA-testicular spermatid aneuploidy), which required late-step spermatids, the ESA method utilizes epididymal sperm, which are easier to collect than testicular cells. The ESA method also provides a homogenous population of cells, which significantly speeds up the scoring procedure. A total of 6 mice were investigated by the ESA method and results compared with those obtained by the TSA method: 2 mice each of Robertsonian (8.14) heterozygotes, Rb(8.14) homozygotes and B6C3F1. About 10,000 sperm were scored per mouse. For the ESA method, epididimides were cut into small pieces and filtered. Sperm were prepared for hybridization by sonication and a modification of the DTT/LIS method previously described. Sperm aneuploidy was detected by multi-color FISH using three DNA probes specific for mouse chromosomes X, Y and 8. The sex ratio of X8(49.7%) and Y8(49.6%) did not differ from the expected 1:1. The efficiency of ESA was very high; -0.3% of the cells showed no hybridization domain. Hyperhaploidy frequencies for chromosomes X, Y and 8 compared well between the ESA and TSA methods for Rb(8.14) heterozygous (p=0.79) and B6C3F1 mice (p>0.05). The data obtained from Rb(8.14) homozygotes were similar to those from B6C3F1, as predicted (p=0.3). This highly efficient ESA assay is therefore, recommended for future studies of the mechanism of induction of aneuploidy in male germ cells. It also lays a solid foundation for automated scoring.

  12. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  13. Foton 11: ESA investigates further the space environment and its impact on organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-10-01

    Scientific research conducted under space conditions can provide new insight into how processes occur on Earth and organisms function. The unmanned Foton spacecraft has been used since 1988 to conduct such investigations. Now on its 11th mission and the fifth in which ESA has taken part, Foton is carrying some 80 kg of ESA payload: two ESA research facilities (an incubator and an experiment holder on the outside of the spacecraft) are on board along with 12 scientific experiments. The French space agency (CNES) and the German space agency (DARA) also have payload on the spacecraft. ESA's space-qualified incubator, called Biobox, keeps organisms at predefined conditions. During this mission, the three Biobox experiments are looking at the reaction of bone cells in microgravity. The second ESA facility, a pan-shaped container called Biopan attached to the outside of Foton, is used to expose experiment samples directly to the space environment in order to study the impact of space's extreme temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation, and near-perfect vacuum. On this mission, the six Biopan experiments are concentrating on exobiology, radiation biology and material science. Biopan has a motor-driven, hinged lid and is equipped with devices and sensors that measure the various aspects of the environment to which the experiments are subjected. Once Foton is in orbit, a telecommand is sent from ground and the lid opens to expose the samples to the environment. At the end of the mission, another command is sent and the lid closes. Since Biopan is on the outside of Foton, it also has its own ablative heat shield to protect the facility and samples during the spacecraft's re-entry and landing. Other ESA experiments on board Foton are looking into the effects of weightlessness on bacteria, the biological clocks of beetles and the aging of fruitflies. The scientific investigators responsible for the ESA experiments are from research institutes and universities in Belgium

  14. ESA is hot on the trail of Geminga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XMM-Newton image of Geminga showing the discovery of the twi hi-res Size hi-res: 68 kb Credits: ESA XMM-Newton image of Geminga showing the discovery of the twin tails This image was captured by the EPIC camera on board the satellite. The motion of Geminga across the sky is indicated, showing that the tails are trailing the neutron star. The scale bar corresponds to a distance of 1.5 million million kilometres at the distance of Geminga. Computer models of the shock wave created by Geminga hi-res Size hi-res: 522 kb Credits: Patrizia Caraveo Computer models of the shockwave created by Geminga Computer models of the shockwave created by Geminga show that the best matches to the data occur if the neutron star is travelling virtually across our line of sight. These correspond to the inclinations of less than 30 degrees. A neutron star measures only 20-30 kilometres across and is the dense remnant of an exploded star. Geminga is one of the closest to Earth, at a distance of about 500 light-years. Most neutron stars emit radio emissions, appearing to pulsate like a lighthouse, but Geminga is 'radio-quiet'. It does, however, emit huge quantities of pulsating gamma rays making it one of the brightest gamma-ray sources in the sky. Geminga is the only example of a successfully identified gamma-ray source from which astronomers have gained significant knowledge. It is 350 000 years old and ploughs through space at 120 kilometres per second. Its route creates a shockwave that compresses the gas of the interstellar medium and its naturally embedded magnetic field by a factor of four. Patrizia Caraveo, Instituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Milano, Italy, and her colleagues (at CESR, France, ESO and MPE, Germany) have calculated that the tails are produced because highly energetic electrons become trapped in this enhanced magnetic field. As the electrons spiral inside the magnetic field, they emit the X-rays seen by XMM-Newton. The electrons themselves are created

  15. List based prefetch

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim,; Changhoan,; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2012-08-28

    A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.

  16. List based prefetch

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim, Changhoan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2014-08-12

    A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.

  17. Come to Noyon (France) and follow the solar eclipse with ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    ESA will feature a special exhibition stand where the public, amateurs and press can obtain information. During the partial eclipse phases, the latest images from ESA's solar observatory SOHO and from other European eclipse sites, coming via the Internet or traditional broadcast, will be shown on a large video screen. The magic of the total eclipse in Noyon will last 2 minutes and 11 seconds. ESA has set up a multi-site eclipse imaging campaign over Europe to capture a long eclipse sequence from the Atlantic, the UK, France (Noyon and Strasbourg), Germany, Austria/ Hungary (at an international camp of young astronomers) and Romania. High-definition still and video images of the eclipse will be available live on the Internet. Check our site http://sci.esa.int/eclipse99/ Noyon will also host a press briefing at the eclipse site Media Centre at 9h30-10h30, and again at 13h15-14h15, after the eclipse shadow has left Europe. Opportunities for interviews with ESA multi-language staff and other specialists will be possible after the eclipse. Over the week leading up to the eclipse, ESA representatives are also participating in press and public conferences. Daily press conferences are scheduled in Strasbourg at the France 3 Auditorium from 4 to 11 August at 16:00-18:00 hrs, in Paris at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle from 5 -12 August (except 11 August) at 10:00-12:00 hrs, and in Stuttgart at the Science Fair, where an ESA/Max Plank Institute stand has also been set up.

  18. ESA to test the smartest technique for detecting extrasolar planets from the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    . In nulling interferometry, however, the peaks are lined up with the troughs so they cancel out to nothing and the star disappears. Planets in orbit around the star show up, however, because they are offset from the central star and their light takes different paths through the telescope system. ESA and ESO will build a new instrument called GENIE (Ground-based European Nulling Interferometer Experiment) to perform nulling interferometry using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), a collection of four 8-metre telescopes in Chile. It will be the biggest investigation of nulling interferometry to date. "It's being tested in the lab in a number of places but we can do more," says Malcolm Fridlund, project scientist for the Darwin mission at the European Space Research and Technology Centre, the Netherlands. "We intend to use the world's largest telescope and the world's largest interferometer to get very high resolution." Using GENIE to perfect this technique will provide invaluable information for engineers about how to build the 'hub' spacecraft of the Darwin flotilla. Scheduled for launch in the middle of the next decade Darwin is a collection of six space telescopes and two other spacecraft, which will together search for Earth-like planets around nearby stars. The hub will combine the light from the telescopes. "If you see the way of getting to Darwin as being outlined by a number of technological milestones this is one of the most important ones," says Malcolm Fridlund. Once up and running, GENIE will also provide a training ground for astronomers who will later use Darwin. For example, it will allow them to perfect their methods of interpreting Darwin data because, as well as the engineering tests, GENIE will be capable of real science. One of its greatest tasks will be to develop the target list of stars for Darwin to study. As recently discovered by ESA's Ulysses spaceprobe, the signature of a planetary system is probably a ring of dust surrounding the central star

  19. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme.

  20. Transitioning research to application in the area of space weather at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgers, Alain; Glover, Alexi; Daly, Eamonn; Luntama, Juha-Pekka

    This presentation gives an overview of the past and current ESA space weather research ac-tivities and discusses the approaches used or foreseen for transitioning research products into application. Since its establishment ESA has supported and coordinated space weather re-search through its various programmes. The scientific programme has especially contributed to the investigation of key scientific aspects of space weather phenomena while the technology and research programmes targeted the effects of space environments on space systems. In 1998 ESA has started consultations among member states and performed studies to identify the requirements for a future European wide space weather application programme encompassing monitoring and forecasting services to support and protect the operation of space and ground based systems. As a by-product, structural developments were made including the establish-ment of a network of space weather service prototypes (SWENET). In 2008 the council of ESA decided to initiate a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme including space weather as one of the pillars together with space surveillance and near-Earth objects elements. Since the Space Weather element is planned to primarily rely on relevant existing assets it will provide a framework for transitioning several research assets of ESA and its member states to operational components of the overall system. Other paths will be considered for other assets which are not directly relevant to the SSA programme or which are still in a early research stage.

  1. 50 CFR 15.52 - Species included in the prohibited list. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Species included in the prohibited list... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT List of Prohibited Species Not Listed in the Appendices to the Convention § 15.52 Species included in the prohibited list....

  2. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  3. Large format array controller (aLFA-C): tests and characterisation at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmel, Frédéric; ter Haar, Jörg; van der Biezen, John; Duvet, Ludovic; Nelms, Nick; Blommaert, Sander; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Smit, Hans; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    For future near infrared astronomy missions, ESA is developing a complete detection and conversion chain (photon to SpaceWire chain system): Large Format Array (aLFA-N) based on MCT type detectors. aLFA-C (Astronomy Large Format Array Controller): a versatile cryogenic detector controller. An aLFA-C prototype was developed by Caeleste (Belgium) under ESA contract (400106260400). To validate independently the performances of the aLFA-C prototype and consolidate the definition of the follow-on activity, a dedicated test bench has been designed and developed in ESTEC/ESA within the Payload Technology Validation group. This paper presents the test setup and the performance validation of the first prototype of this controller at room and cryogenic temperature. Test setup and software needed to test the HAWAII-2RG and aLFA-N detectors with the aLFA-C prototype at cryogenic temperature will be also presented.

  4. A new ESA educational initiative: Euro Space Center class teachers in microgravity during parabolic flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Paulis, Pierre Emmanuel; Loosveldt, Edwin; Gering, Dominique; Body, Mireille; Schewijck, Robert

    2005-12-01

    Since 1984, the European Space Agency (ESA) has organized 30 aircraft parabolic flight campaigns in the frame of its Microgravity Programme to perform short duration scientific and technological experiments. On each campaign, ESA invites journalists to report to the general public on the research work conducted in weightlessness. A new initiative was launched in 2000 with the introduction of pedagogical experiments aiming at educating youngsters and the general public on weightlessness effects. In November 2000, four secondary school teachers detached to the Euro Space Center (ESC) participated in the 29th ESA campaign. The ESC in Belgium provides recreational and educational activities for the general public and organizes space classes targeted at primary and secondary school pupils. The four teachers performed simple experiments with gyroscopes, yo-yos, magnetic balls, pendulum and food to explain their different behaviour in weightlessness, to show characteristics and possibilities of the microgravity environment and the difficulties that astronauts encounter in their daily life in orbit.

  5. 29 CFR 24.102 - Obligations and prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prohibited acts. (a) No employer subject to the provisions of any of the statutes listed in § 24.100(a), or... cause to be commenced, a proceeding under one of the statutes listed in § 24.100(a) or a proceeding for... other statutes listed in § 24.100(a), it is a violation for any employer to intimidate,...

  6. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Media representatives are invited to INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September to learn about the mission and attend a ceremony at which a container filled with Ferrari's distinctive 'Rosso Corsa' red paint will be integrated with the spacecraft. Mr Antonio Rodotà (ESA Director General), Professor David Southwood (ESA Director of Science), senior representatives of the space industry and a representative from Ferrari will be giving presentations. Together with the ESA Mars Express project manager and project scientist, they will be available for interviews. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September are kindly requested to complete the accreditation form and fax it to: Franco Bonacina, Head of Media Relations ESA/HQ, Paris, France Tel. +33 (0) 1 53697155 Fax. +33 (0) 1 53697690 Notes for Editors: 1. On 18 September at INTESPACE, Toulouse, ESA will integrate a sample of Ferrari's 'Rosso Corsa' red paint with the Mars Express spacecraft. This event is part of a new ESA communication policy aimed mainly at the general public. Ferrari have much to celebrate: the outstanding success of the Scuderia Ferrari, winning their fourth consecutive Formula One constructors' championship and Michael Schumacher his fifth Formula One drivers' championship. Responding to an ESA proposal, Ferrari have agreed to send the symbol of their winning formula on the ESA mission to the Red Planet. When Mars Express blasts into orbit next summer at 10 800 kilometres per hour, it will be the fastest that Ferrari's distinctive red paint has ever travelled. Following successful completion of a series of rigorous tests, the Ferrari red paint sample will be officially certified 'space qualified' at a ceremony at INTESPACE. Housed in a specially constructed glass globe known as FRED, it will then be formally integrated with the Mars Express craft. 2. The main objective of the Mars Express mission is to detect the presence of water below the

  7. The europa initiative for esa's cosmic vision: a potential european contribution to nasa's Europa mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Michel; Jones, Geraint H.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the habitability of Jupiter's icy moons is considered of high priority in the roadmaps of the main space agencies, including the decadal survey and esa's cosmic vision plan. the voyager and galileo missions indicated that europa and ganymede may meet the requirements of habitability, including deep liquid aqueous reservoirs in their interiors. indeed, they constitute different end-terms of ocean worlds, which deserve further characterization in the next decade. esa and nasa are now both planning to explore these ice moons through exciting and ambitious missions. esa selected in 2012 the juice mission mainly focused on ganymede and the jupiter system, while nasa is currently studying and implementing the europa mission. in 2015, nasa invited esa to provide a junior spacecraft to be carried on board its europa mission, opening a collaboration scheme similar to the very successful cassini-huygens approach. in order to define the best contribution that can be made to nasa's europa mission, a europa initiative has emerged in europe. its objective is to elaborate a community-based strategy for the proposition of the best possible esa contribution(s) to nasa's europa mission, as a candidate for the upcoming selection of esa's 5th medium-class mission . the science returns of the different potential contributions are analysed by six international working groups covering complementary science themes: a) magnetospheric interactions; b) exosphere, including neutrals, dust and plumes; c) geochemistry; d) geology, including expressions of exchanges between layers; e) geophysics, including characterization of liquid water distribution; f) astrobiology. each group is considering different spacecraft options in the contexts of their main scientific merits and limitations, their technical feasibility, and of their interest for the development of esa-nasa collaborations. there are five options under consideration: (1) an augmented payload to the europa mission main

  8. Upgrade of DRAMA-ESA's Space Debris Mitigation Analysis Tool Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelhaus, Johannes; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Braun, Vitali; Kebschull, Christopher; de Oliveira, Joaquim Correia; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Raul; Wiedemann, Carsten; Krag, Holger; Vorsmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    One decade ago ESA started the dev elopment of the first version of the software tool called DRAMA (Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis) to enable ESA space programs to assess their compliance with the recommendations in the European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation. This tool was maintained, upgraded and extended during the last year and is now a combination of five individual tools, each addressing a different aspect of debris mitigation. This paper gives an overview of the new DRAMA software in general. Both, the main tools ARES, OSCAR, MIDAS, CROC and SARA will be discussed and the environment used by DRAMA will be explained shortly.

  9. Federal Acts Relating to Continuing Education and Public Service Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Center for Continuing Liberal Education.

    A listing is given, with brief descriptions, of Acts of Congress which relate to continuing education and public service activities. Forty-nine laws specifically authorize funds for continuing education and public service programs (Adult Education Act of 1966, Higher Education Act of 1965, Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, Older…

  10. ESA successfully conducts experiment in Advanced Space Robotics on Japanese satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    ETS-VII is the latest in NASDA's series of engineering test satellites. It is dedicated to the in-orbit assessment and demonstration of novel technologies in rendez-vous / docking and space robotics. ETS-VII is in fact a pair of satellites, a larger chaser and a smaller target satellite which can be released for the rendez-vous and docking experiments. The larger satellite carries a robot arm with a stretched length of about 2 m, and a set of experimentation equipment to test the robot's capabilities : a task board on which typical robot manipulation activities can be performed and measured, an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) to be removed and reinstalled, a truss structure to be erected, an antenna assembly mechanism to be actuated and an advanced robot hand. The ESA experiments concern advanced schemes for planning, commanding, controlling and monitoring the activities of a space robot arm system. One set of experiments tests an operational mode called "interactive autonomy", whereby the robot motions are split into typical "tasks" of medium complexity. Ground operators can interact with the tasks (parameterising, commanding, rescheduling, monitoring, interrupting them as needed), relying on the fact that each task will be autonomously executed using appropriate sensor-based control loops (it having been programmed and extensively verified in advance by simulation). This significantly reduces the amount of data traffic over the spacelink - in fact, ETS-VII offers only a few short communications windows per day. Data from ESA experiments will be used to assess the performance of tasks executed with "interactive autonomy" compared with the more traditional telemanipulation at lower control levels. The second group of experiments concerns vision-based robot control. Using the Japanese-provided on-board vision system (which includes one hand camera and one scene-overview camera), it has been demonstrated that reliable automatic object localisation and grasping can be

  11. 77 FR 56635 - List of Correspondence From January 1, 2012, Through March 31, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... list describes the Department's interpretations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act...-8339. Individuals with disabilities can obtain a copy of this list and the letters or other... All Children With Disabilities Section 612--State Eligibility Topic Addressed: Free Appropriate...

  12. Comprehensive genetic analyses reveal evolutionary distinction of a mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) proposed for delisting from the US Endangered Species Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Timothy L.; Switzer, John F.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Eackles, Michael S.; Young, Colleen C.; Lubinski, Barbara A.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2006-01-01

    Zapus hudsonius preblei, listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA), is one of 12 recognized subspecies of meadow jumping mice found in North America. Recent morphometric and phylogenetic comparisons among Z. h. preblei and neighbouring conspecifics questioned the taxonomic status of selected subspecies, resulting in a proposal to delist the Z. h. preblei from the ESA. We present additional analyses of the phylogeographic structure within Z. hudsonius that calls into question previously published data (and conclusions) and confirms the original taxonomic designations. A survey of 21 microsatellite DNA loci and 1380 base pairs from two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions (control region and cytochrome b) revealed that each Z. hudsonius subspecies is genetically distinct. These data do not support the null hypothesis of a homogeneous gene pool among the five subspecies found within the southwestern portion of the species' range. The magnitude of the observed differentiation was considerable and supported by significant findings for nearly every statistical comparison made, regardless of the genome or the taxa under consideration. Structuring of nuclear multilocus genotypes and subspecies-specific mtDNA haplotypes corresponded directly with the disjunct distributions of the subspecies investigated. Given the level of correspondence between the observed genetic population structure and previously proposed taxonomic classification of subspecies (based on the geographic separation and surveys of morphological variation), we conclude that the nominal subspecies surveyed in this study do not warrant synonymy, as has been proposed for Z. h. preblei, Z. h. campestris, and Z. h. intermedius. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  13. Comprehensive genetic analyses reveal evolutionary distinction of a mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) proposed for delisting from the US Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    King, Tim L; Switzer, John F; Morrison, Cheryl L; Eackles, Michael S; Young, Colleen C; Lubinski, Barbara A; Cryan, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Zapus hudsonius preblei, listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA), is one of 12 recognized subspecies of meadow jumping mice found in North America. Recent morphometric and phylogenetic comparisons among Z. h. preblei and neighbouring conspecifics questioned the taxonomic status of selected subspecies, resulting in a proposal to delist the Z. h. preblei from the ESA. We present additional analyses of the phylogeographic structure within Z. hudsonius that calls into question previously published data (and conclusions) and confirms the original taxonomic designations. A survey of 21 microsatellite DNA loci and 1380 base pairs from two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions (control region and cytochrome b) revealed that each Z. hudsonius subspecies is genetically distinct. These data do not support the null hypothesis of a homogeneous gene pool among the five subspecies found within the southwestern portion of the species' range. The magnitude of the observed differentiation was considerable and supported by significant findings for nearly every statistical comparison made, regardless of the genome or the taxa under consideration. Structuring of nuclear multilocus genotypes and subspecies-specific mtDNA haplotypes corresponded directly with the disjunct distributions of the subspecies investigated. Given the level of correspondence between the observed genetic population structure and previously proposed taxonomic classification of subspecies (based on the geographic separation and surveys of morphological variation), we conclude that the nominal subspecies surveyed in this study do not warrant synonymy, as has been proposed for Z. h. preblei, Z. h. campestris, and Z. h. intermedius.

  14. ESA MS Nicollier, assisted by technicians, dons EMU lower torso in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, seated and wearing a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG), pulls on the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) lower torso as a technician straightens the EMU leg. Nicollier is preparing for an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation and familiarization session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  15. The World Administrative Radio Conference 1992 and its impact on ESA's programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, G. F.; Fromm, H.-H.; Galligan, K. P.; Rogard, R.; Otter, M.

    1992-08-01

    The World Administrative Radio Conference 1992, known familiarly as WARC-92, was held in Malaga-Torremolinos between 3 February and 3 March this year. This WARC, attended by more than 1400 delegates from 127 Member Countries of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and numerous observer organizations such as ESA, may well have been the last of the large WARCs of recent decades.

  16. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  17. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia

    2016-07-01

    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  18. Korean Diaspora in the Age of Globalization: Early Study Abroad (ESA) College Students in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Young

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the unique experiences of international Korean college students in the Midwest who have gone through the early study abroad (ESA) period in the US during their formative secondary school education and the influence of the experiences into their college lives in the mega campus. Two overarching research questions are: 1) how do…

  19. Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA),

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA), set up an experiment at the glovebox on the Space Shuttle Columbias mid-deck. The two mission specialists joined three other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia.

  20. The ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator 3: Have your say on new features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L. H.; Christensen, L. L.; Hurt, R. L.; Nielsen, K.; Johansen, T.

    2008-06-01

    The popular, free ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator image processing software (a plugin for Adobe Photoshop) is about to get simpler, faster and more user-friendly! Here we would like to solicit inputs from the community of users.

  1. Exploring NASA and ESA Atmospheric Data Using GIOVANNI, the Online Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the NASA Goddard online visualization and analysis tool (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users explore various atmospheric phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using NASA MODIS (Terra and Aqua) and ESA MERIS (ENVISAT) aerosol data as an example, we demonstrate Giovanni usage for online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  2. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.

  3. 78 FR 26696 - Privacy Act of 1974

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    .... Alaska Department of Health & Social Services 4. Arizona Department of Economic Security 5. Arkansas... listed below: (i) A state program funded under part A of Title IV of the Social Security Act; (ii) Medical assistance provided under a state plan approved under Title XIX of the Social Security Act,...

  4. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  5. Assessment Of The Impact Of ESA CCI Land Cover Information For Global Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystova, Iryna G.; Loew, A.; Hangemann, S.; Defourny, P.; Brockmann, C.; Bontemps, S.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing the issues of climate change, the European Space Agency has recently initiated the Global Monitoring of an Essential Climate Variables program (ESA Climate Change Initiative). The main objective is to realize the full potential of the long-term global Earth Observation archives that ESA has established over the last thirty years. Due to well organized data access and transparency for the data quality, as well as long-term scientific and technical support, the provided datasets have become very attractive for the use in Earth System Modeling. The Max Plank Institute for Meteorology is contributing to the ESA CCI via the Climate Modeler User Group (CMUG) activities and is responsible for providing a modeler perspective on the Land Cover and Fire Essential Climate Variables. The new ESA land cover ECV has recently released a new global 300-m land cover dataset. This dataset is supported by an interactive tool which allows flexible horizontal re-scaling and conversion from currently accepted satellite specific land classes to the model- specific Plant Functional Types (PFT) categorization. Such a dataset is an ideal starting point for the generation of the land cover information for the initialization of model cover fractions. In this presentation, we show how the usage of this new dataset affects the model performance, comparing it to the standard model set-up, in terms of energy and water fluxes. To do so, we performed a number of offline land-system simulations with original standard JSBACH land cover information and with the new ESA CCI land cover product. We have analyzed the impact of land cover on a simulated surface albedo, temperature and energy fluxes as well as on the biomass load and fire carbon emissions.

  6. ESA's Support To Science Element (STSE): A New Opportunity for the Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, D.; Herland, E.-A.

    2009-04-01

    In 1998, the document ESA SP-1227: "The Science and Research Elements of ESA's Living Planet Programme", laid out the research objectives for the scientific component of the Living Planet Program. These were formulated around four themes: Earth Interior, Physical Climate, Geosphere/Biosphere and Atmosphere & Marine Environment: Anthropogenic Impact. These themes encompassed the full scope of Earth Science. Although no specific area of Earth Science was prioritised, the document emphasised the need to move towards an integrated Earth System Model, where the role of internationally coordinated scientific programmes and coordination with national programmes and other agencies and organisations were recognised as being a key aspect of the science strategy. In 2006, the EO Science Strategy was updated (ESA/PB-EO(2006)89) under the auspices of the ESA's Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) in wide consultation with the scientific community. The resulting document: "The Changing Earth - New Scientific Challenges for ESA's Living Planet Programme" (ESA/SP-1304) outlines the new scientific direction for the future progress of the ESA Living Planet Programme. In particular, the document set out the 25 major challenges for our understanding of the Earth System with especial focus on those areas of knowledge where satellite data may make a major contribution. Achieving those challenges will require a large international effort involving, novel observation, enhanced data sets, improved models and coordinated research. ESA is contributing to those efforts through its missions (e.g., the ERS1 and 2, ENVISAT, the Meteorological satellites and the coming Earth Explorers and Sentinel series) and exploitation programs. However, in order to further reinforce the ESA support to the scientific community, a dedicated element of the Envelop program was launched in 2008, the Support To Science Element (STSE). STSE aims at providing "scientific support for both future and on

  7. The Swarm Archiving Payload Data Facility, an Instance Configuration of the ESA Multi-Mission Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruin, B.; Martini, A.; Shanmugam, P.; Lopes, C.

    2015-04-01

    The Swarm mission consists of 3 satellites, each carrying an identical set of instruments. The scientific algorithms for processing are organized in 11 separate processing steps including automated product quality control. In total, the mission data consists of data products of several hundred distinct types from raw to level 2 product types and auxiliary data. The systematic production for Swarm within the ESA Archiving and Payload Data Facility (APDF) is performed up to level 2. The production up to L2 (CAT2-mature algorithm) is performed completely within the APDF. A separate systematic production chain from L1B to L2 (CAT1-evolving algorithm) is performed by an external facility (L2PS) with output files archived within the APDF as well. The APDF also performs re-processing exercises. Re-processing may start directly from the acquired data or from any other intermediate level resulting in the need for a refined product version and baseline management. Storage, dissemination and circulation functionality is configurable in the ESA generic multi-mission elements and does not require any software coding. The control of the production is more involved. While the interface towards the algorithmic entities is standardized due to the introduction of a generic IPF interface by ESA, the orchestration of the individual IPFs into the overall workflows is distinctly mission-specific and not as amenable to standardization. The ESA MMFI production management system provides extension points to integrate additional logical elements for the build-up of complex orchestrated workflows. These extension points have been used to inject the Swarm-specific production logic into the system. A noteworthy fact about the APDF is that the dissemination elements are hosted in a high bandwidth infrastructure procured as a managed service, thus affording users a considerable access bandwidth. This paper gives an overview of the Swarm APDF data flows. It describes the elements of the solution

  8. 75 FR 59690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Warsaw Grouper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...Earth Guardians to list warsaw grouper (Epinephelus nigritus) as threatened or endangered under the ESA... western Caribbean shelf may be due to the dearth of deep-water fishing in this area (Heemstra and Randall... history. Information on Extinction Risk The petition cites classifications made by NMFS, the...

  9. 78 FR 63941 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 23 Species of Corals as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... WildEarth Guardians to list 81 marine species as threatened or endangered under the ESA and to...). Species Description Most of the petitioned coral species are shallow water, reef- building anthozoan... offers no species-specific life history, abundance, or threat information (see discussion of...

  10. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  11. Proteomic Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Regulon in Pantoea stewartii and Identification of Direct Targets of EsaR

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Revathy

    2013-01-01

    The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized. PMID:23913428

  12. 12 CFR 618.8310 - Lists of borrowers and stockholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... extent such actions are prohibited by State laws adopted in accordance with the Food Security Act of 1985... purpose of protecting the security position of the institution, may provide lists of borrowers to...

  13. 12 CFR 618.8310 - Lists of borrowers and stockholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... extent such actions are prohibited by State laws adopted in accordance with the Food Security Act of 1985... purpose of protecting the security position of the institution, may provide lists of borrowers to...

  14. 12 CFR 618.8310 - Lists of borrowers and stockholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... extent such actions are prohibited by State laws adopted in accordance with the Food Security Act of 1985... purpose of protecting the security position of the institution, may provide lists of borrowers to...

  15. 12 CFR 618.8310 - Lists of borrowers and stockholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... extent such actions are prohibited by State laws adopted in accordance with the Food Security Act of 1985... purpose of protecting the security position of the institution, may provide lists of borrowers to...

  16. 75 FR 57720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Agave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12- month finding on a petition to list the plant Agave eggersiana (no common name) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing A. eggersiana is warranted. Currently, however, listing A. eggersiana is precluded by higher......

  17. 75 FR 13909 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings for Petitions to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce three 12-month findings on petitions to list three entities of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We find that listing the greater sage-grouse (rangewide) is warranted, but precluded by higher priority listing actions. We will......

  18. ESA activities in the use of microwaves for the remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccoll, D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of activities under way in the European Space Agency (ESA) directed towards Remote Sensing of the oceans and troposphere is discussed. The initial project is the launch of a satellite named ERS-1 with a primary payload of microwave values in theee C- and Ku-bands. This payload is discussed in depth. The secondary payload includes precision location experiments and an instrument to measure sea surface temperature, which are described. The important topic of calibration is extensively discussed, and a review of activities directed towards improvements to the instruments for future satellites is presented. Some discussion of the impact of the instrument payload on the spacecraft design follows and the commitment of ESA to the provision of a service of value to the ultimate user is emphasized.

  19. Benefits of the Nephros Dual Stage Ultrafilter in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Evidence for Improved ESA Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Anthony; Lee, Bobby; Duffy, John; Ferrer, Robin; Vilotta, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Installation of the Nephros Dual Stage Ultrafilter (DSU) added to a conventional hemodialysis unit to achieve ultrapure dialysate was tested in a group of 23 stable outpatients on chronic hemodialysis. Comparing the 6-month period prior to the installation of the filters (as baseline) to the 6-month period after the installation of the filters, we found a significant 40% reduction in the darbepoetin dose needed to maintain a stable hemoglobin level (p < 0.001). In addition, surrogate inflammatory markers, WBC count and serum albumin level, showed small but statistically significant improvements (p = 0.008 and p = 0.042, respectively). In conclusion, the use of the Nephros DSU to further reduce endotoxin exposure in chronic hemodialysis patients can result in improved erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) responsiveness and a lower ESA dose. PMID:26889475

  20. ESA's Toolboxes for Optical Earth Observation Data: BEAM, CHRIS-Box and the Glob-Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomferra, Norman; Peters, Marco; Quast, Ralf; Zuhlke, Marco; Danne, Olaf; Storm, Thomas; Brockmann, Carsten; Regner, Peter

    2010-12-01

    With the launch of ENVISAT in 2002 ESA started the development of the Basic AATSR and MERIS toolbox BEAM [1]. With the requirement to be an open platform for scientists and operational users as well as software developers, ESA laid the foundation for this sustainable and successful open source software development project. Today BEAM is a toolbox and development platform supporting a wide range of optical sensors for Earth Observation, including SMOS, CHRIS/Proba, Landsat/TM, AVNIR, PRISM, MODIS and AVHRR, and enables importing of generic formats such as Geo-TIFF and NetCDF. Widely known is the interactive Visualisation and Analysis Tool VISAT of the BEAM toolbox. On top of the various EO data sources, a wide range of tools and data processors have meanwhile been developed for BEAM.

  1. Use of Data Denial Experiments to Evaluate ESA Forecast Sensitivity Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Manobianco, J; Waight, K; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area shown in Figure 1 that includes Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. The Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) approach uses data generated by a set (ensemble) of perturbed numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations for a sample time period to statistically diagnose the sensitivity of a specified forecast variable (metric) for a target location to parameters at other locations and prior times referred to as the initial condition (IC) or state variables. The ESA approach was tested on the large-scale atmospheric prediction problem by Ancell and Hakim 2007 and Torn and Hakim 2008. ESA was adapted and applied at the mesoscale by Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) to the Tehachapi Pass, CA (warm and cools seasons) and Mid-Colombia Basin (warm season only) wind generation regions. In order to apply the ESA approach at the resolution needed at the mesoscale, Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) developed the Multiple Observation Optimization Algorithm (MOOA). MOOA uses a multivariate regression on a few select IC parameters at one location to determine the incremental improvement of measuring multiple variables (representative of the IC parameters) at various locations. MOOA also determines how much information from each IC parameter contributes to the change in the metric variable at the target location. The Zack et al. studies (2010a, b, and c), demonstrated that forecast sensitivity can be characterized by well-defined, localized patterns for a number of IC variables such as 80-m

  2. 15 K liquid hydrogen thermal Energy Storage Unit for future ESA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges de Sousa, P.; Martins, D.; Tomás, G.; Barreto, J.; Noite, J.; Linder, M.; Fruchart, D.; de Rango, P.; Haettel, R.; Catarino, I.; Bonfait, G.

    2015-12-01

    A thermal Energy Storage Unit (ESU) using liquid hydrogen has been developed as a solution for absorbing the heat peaks released by the recycling phase of a 300 mK cooler that is a part of the cryogenic chain of one of ESA's new satellites for science missions. This device is capable of storing 400 J of thermal energy between 15 and 16 K by taking advantage of the liquid-to-vapor latent heat of hydrogen in a closed system. This paper describes some results obtained with the development model of the ESU under different configurations and using two types of hydrogen storage: a large expansion volume for ground testing and a much more compact unit, suitable for space applications and that can comply with ESA's mass budget.

  3. System concepts and enabling technologies for an ESA low-cost mission to Jupiter / Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, P.; Koeck, C.; Kemble, Steve; Atzei, Alessandro; Falkner, Peter

    2004-11-01

    The European Space Agency is currently studying the Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME), as part of its Technology Reference Studies (TRS), used for its development plan of technologies enabling future scientific missions. The JME focuses on the exploration of the Jovian system and particularly of Europa. The Jupiter Minisat Orbiter (JMO) study concerns the first mission phase of JME that counts up to three missions using pairs of minisats. The scientific objectives are the investigation of Europa's global topography, the composition of its (sub)surface and the demonstration of existence of a subsurface ocean below its icy crust. The present paper describes the candidate JMO system concept, based on a Europa Orbiter (JEO) supported by a communications relay satellite (JRS), and its associated technology development plan. It summarizes an analysis performed in 2004 jointly by ESA and the EADS-Astrium Company in the frame of an industrial technical assistance to ESA.

  4. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Pretreatments Only Final Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or CR(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings.

  5. 50 CFR 229.8 - Publication of List of Fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 General Provisions § 229.8 Publication of List of Fisheries. (a) The... § 229.2; and (2) List the marine mammals that have been incidentally injured or killed by...

  6. 40 CFR 712.30 - Chemical lists and reporting periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical lists and reporting periods. 712.30 Section 712.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT CHEMICAL INFORMATION RULES Manufacturers Reporting-Preliminary Assessment Information § 712.30 Chemical lists and...

  7. 29 CFR 452.71 - Inspection of membership lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection of membership lists. 452.71 Section 452.71 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.71 Inspection of membership lists. (a) Each bona fide... are subject to a collective bargaining agreement requiring membership therein as a condition...

  8. 29 CFR 452.71 - Inspection of membership lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of membership lists. 452.71 Section 452.71 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.71 Inspection of membership lists. (a) Each bona fide... are subject to a collective bargaining agreement requiring membership therein as a condition...

  9. 29 CFR 452.71 - Inspection of membership lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection of membership lists. 452.71 Section 452.71 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.71 Inspection of membership lists. (a) Each bona fide... are subject to a collective bargaining agreement requiring membership therein as a condition...

  10. 7 CFR 205.607 - Amending the National List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances § 205.607 Amending the National List. (a) Any person may petition the National Organic Standard...

  11. 7 CFR 205.607 - Amending the National List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances § 205.607 Amending the National List. (a) Any person may petition the National Organic Standard...

  12. 7 CFR 205.607 - Amending the National List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances § 205.607 Amending the National List. (a) Any person may petition the National Organic Standard...

  13. 7 CFR 205.607 - Amending the National List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances § 205.607 Amending the National List. (a) Any person may petition the National Organic Standard...

  14. 7 CFR 205.607 - Amending the National List.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances § 205.607 Amending the National List. (a) Any person may petition the National Organic Standard...

  15. The ESA Polar Platform: A work-horse for future Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibaldi, G. G.; Cendral, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Long Term Plan, the Earth Observation Missions play a very important role in contributing to a better knowledge and monitoring of the Earth Environment. Within the range of future Earth Observation missions, the low altitude sun synchronous polar orbit is of special interest because it offers a repeated coverage of the complete surface of the Earth. For this type of mission, a large number of instruments having different technology and application objectives have been developed or are under development in Europe. To cope with those needs, ESA has initiated the development of the Polar Platform as part of its infrastructure to become the work-horse of future Earth Observation Missions in the Polar orbits. This spacecraft bus, through its design modularity, can cope with a wide range of payload complements and instrument requirements so that the future development emphasis in Europe can be placed on payload and observations rather than repeated satellite developments. The Polar Platform design makes maximum use of the SPOT and ERS programmes experience and design in order to reduce development risk and minimize costs. The modular design can cope with different payload accommodation, power and mass requirements as well as different orbit altitudes. The development is well advanced and is now well into the detailed design and development programme, with components and long lead hardware procurement already initiated. The development of the payload complement for the first mission has been initiated in parallel via the POEM-1 Programme. The Polar Platform will also make use of the other ESA's future infrastructure, such as the Ariane 5 Launcher as well as the Data Relay Satellite System in order to ensure global coverage of observations. The launch of the first ESA Polar Platform Mission carrying the POEM-1 Mission is planned for mid-1988. The performance requirements, design and status of development of the Polar Platform

  16. Space Environment Forecasting with Neutron Monitors: Establishing a novel service for the ESA SSA Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Souvatzoglou, George; Paschalis, Pavlos; Sarlanis, Christos; Dimitroulakos, John; Gerontidou, Maria

    2013-04-01

    High-energy particles released at the Sun during a solar flare or a very energetic coronal mass ejection, result to a significant intensity increase at neutron monitor measurements known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). Due to their space weather impact (i.e. risks and failures at communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations) it is crucial to establish a real-time operational system that would be in place to issue reliable and timely GLE Alerts. Currently, the Cosmic Ray group of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens is working towards the establishment of a Neutron Monitor Service that will be made available via the Space Weather Portal operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), under the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Program. To this end, a web interface providing data from multiple Neutron Monitor stations as well as an upgraded GLE Alert will be provided. Both services are now under testing and validation and they will probably enter to an operational phase next year. The core of this Neutron Monitor Service is the GLE Alert software, and therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to upgrade the existing GLE Alert software, to minimize the probability of a false alarm and to enhance the usability of the corresponding results. The ESA Neutron Monitor Service is building upon the infrastructure made available with the implementation of the High-Resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB). In this work the structure of the Neutron Monitor Service for ESA SSA Program and the impact of the novel GLE Alert Service that will be made available to future users via ESA SSA web portal will be presented and further discussed.

  17. ESA MS Nicollier, assisted by technicians, dons EMU upper torso in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, wearing liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) and extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) lower torso, crouches under EMU upper torso. Technicians extend the sleeves enabling Nicollier to insert his arms into the armholes. Once fully suited in the EMU, Nicollier will be lowered via the platform into JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool for an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation and familiarization session.

  18. ESA MS Nicollier extends mockup tetherline prior to JSC WETF simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, turning a crank, extends a tetherline from a reel mounted on a mockup of the forward payload bay (PLB) bulkhead. Nicollier familiarizes himself with the operation of the safety tether system prior to donning an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and participating in an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simu- lation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  19. ESA initiatives to improve mechanical design and verification methods for ceramic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Graham; Behar-Lafenetre, Stéphanie; Cornillon, Laurence; Rancurel, Michaël.; Denaux, David; Ballhause, Dirk; Lucarelli, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Current and future space missions demanding ever more stringent stability and precision requirements are driving the need for (ultra) stable and lightweight structures. Materials best suited to meeting these needs in a passive structural design, centre around ceramic materials or specifically tailored CFRP composite. Ceramic materials have essential properties (very low CTE, high stiffness), but also unfavorable properties (low fracture toughness). Ceramic structures feature in a number of current and planned ESA missions. These missions benefit from the superior stiffness and thermo-elastic stability properties of ceramics, but suffer the penalties inherent to the brittle nature of these materials. Current practice in designing and sizing ceramic structures is to treat ceramic materials in a deterministic manner similar to conventional materials but with larger safety factors and conservatively derived material strength properties. This approach is convenient, but can be penalising in mass and in practice does not arrive at an equivalent structural reliability compared to metallic components. There is also no standardised approach for the design and verification of ceramic structures in Europe. To improve this situation, ESA placed two parallel study contracts with Astrium and Thales Alenia Space with the objective to define design and verification methodology for ceramic structures, with the further goal to establish a common `handbook' for design and verification approach. This paper presents an overview of ceramic structures used in current and future ESA missions and summarises the activities to date in the frame of improving and standardising design and verification methods for ceramic structures.

  20. Opportunity for cooperation in space remote sensing technology between ESA and CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Shiju; Cui, Shaochun; Zhang, Bangning

    1998-12-01

    This paper details the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) position and recent development in space remote sensing activities nd gives the author's view of the accomplishment of European Space Agency (ESA) in this field. Space remote sensing technology is a useful scientific and technical means to realize sustainable development of the society of mankind now and future. Peace and development are the common desires of the people across the world and become the current of the present era. Nowadays, cooperation in scientific research and technical works among different countries has been the trend. 'Open the door to the outside world' policy adopted by the Chinese Government gives great warranty and strong motivation for cooperation and communication between China and the world. CAST as a leading space group of China has a strong willing to cooperate with ESA, NASA and other nation's space bodies. At the last part of this paper, author's view about the opportunity of cooperation in space remote sensing technology between ESA and CAST is put forth.

  1. Opto-mechanical modeling of the Herschel Space Telescope at ESA/ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransen, S.; Doyle, D.; Catanzaro, B.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper the opto-mechanical modeling of the Herschel infrared space telescope at ESA/ESTEC is presented. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of all modeling activities that took place between 2006 and 2010. In 2006 ESA commissioned a Tiger Team to review the discrepancy between the prediction and measurement of the change in telescope back focal length of the Herschel infrared space telescope. The understanding of the discrepancy was essential since the telescope did not have a refocusing mechanism and hence had to be shimmed to the focus position at cryogenic operational temperature. A team of 16 engineers and scientists collocated at ESA/ESTEC to review the finite element models, optical models and test data used for the prediction of the telescope back focal length. The methodology of prediction, the uncertainties and the obtained results were critically assessed. The team used various modeling techniques including paraxial optical models, first order linear thermal expansion models, full system and metrology ray tracing, deterministic and stochastic thermo-elastic finite element analyses. The opto-mechanical analysis techniques, assumptions and results are discussed. In addition the impact of new measurements of coefficients of thermal expansion, performed after shimming of the telescope flight model, are addressed.

  2. Benefits of ESA Gravity-Related Hands-on Programmes for University Students' Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Natacha; Ha, Lily; Galeone, Piero

    2016-10-01

    The Education Office of the European Space Agency (ESA) offers university students, from ESA Member and Cooperating States, the opportunity to perform investigations in physical sciences, life sciences, and technology, under different gravity conditions through three educational programmes. The "Fly Your Thesis!" (FYT) programme makes use of parabolic flights and the "Drop Your Thesis!" (DYT) programme utilizes a drop tower as microgravity carriers, while the "Spin Your Thesis!" (SYT) programme uses a large centrifuge to create hypergravity. To date, more than hundred university students had the chance to participate in the design, development, and performance of one or more experiments during dedicated campaigns. In the following paper, we examine demographics of past participants of the ESA Education Office gravity-related opportunities over the past seven years and evaluate the benefits of these educational programmes for the participants' studies and careers. Student teams that participated in one of the programmes between 2009 and 2013 were contacted to fill in a questionnaire. The feedback from the students demonstrate significant benefits extending far beyond the primary educational objectives of these programmes.

  3. ESA's Spaceborne Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus; Recent Achievements and Preparations for Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grete Straume, Anne; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; Culoma, Alain; Mondin, Linda; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Buscaglione, Fabio; Dehn, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Within ESA's Living Planet Programme, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) was chosen as the second Earth Explorer Core mission in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of high spectral resolution Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. ADM-Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. Recently the two ALADIN laser transmitters were successfully qualified and delivered for further instrument integration. The instrument delivery will follow later this year and the satellite qualification and launch readiness is scheduled for 2016. In February 2015, an Aeolus Science and Calibration and Validation (CAL/VAL) Workshop was held in ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, bringing industry, the user community and ESA together to prepare for the Aeolus Commissioning and Operational Phases. During the Workshop the science, instrument and product status, commissioning phase planning and the extensive number of proposals submitted in response to the Aeolus CAL/VAL call in 2014 were presented and discussed. A special session was dedicated to the Aeolus CAL/VAL Implementation Plan. In this paper, the Aeolus mission, status and launch preparation activities are described.

  4. 75 FR 21246 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    .... 46-48c and 41 CFR 51-2.4. Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification I certify that the following... added to the Procurement List: Products NSN: 8955-01-E10-1648--Beverage Base, Non-nutritive Sweetened, Lemonade. NSN: 8955-01-E10-1650--Beverage Base, Non-nutritive Sweetened, Raspberry Ice. NPA:...

  5. Acronym master list

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.

  6. ESA Science Media Day: Rosetta and Integral getting ready for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Media representatives are invited to ESTEC on Tuesday 18 June to learn about these two missions. Professor David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, ESA project managers and project scientists, together with industry representatives, will be giving presentations and be on hand for interviews. Visits to the spacecraft in their test environment will also be included. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at ESA/ESTEC on 18 June are kindly requested to complete the attached accreditation form and fax it to: Heidi Graf, Head of Corporate Communication Office - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands - (Tel. +31(0) 71.565.3006 - Fax. +31(0)71.565.5728). Note for editors: The mission goal for the Rosetta spacecraft is a rendezvous with Comet Wirtanen in 2011. Rosetta will be launched in January 2003 by an Ariane-5 from Kourou, French Guiana. On its eight-year journey to the Comet, the spacecraft will pass close to two asteroids, before studying the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen and its environment in great detail for a period of nearly two years (2011-2013). The spacecraft will also carry a lander to the nucleus and deploy it on the comet's surface. The lander science will focus on in situ study of the composition and structure of the nucleus material. The mission will make an unparalleled study of cometary material and reveal much about how the solar system formed. Integral will have the task of tracking gamma radiation across the entire sky. ESA's International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Integral, will gather gamma rays, the most energetic radiation that comes from space. The spacecraft is scheduled for launch on 17 October this year, from Baikonur, on board a Russian Proton launcher and will help solve some of the biggest mysteries in astronomy. Integral will be the most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and yet at the same time give evidence of the processes that

  7. CO2 Emissions from Air Travel by AGU and ESA Conference Attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B.; Plug, L. J.

    2003-12-01

    Air travel by scientists is one contributor to rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To assess the magnitude of this contribution in per-capita and overall terms, we calculated emissions derived from air travel for two major scientific conferences held in 2002: the western meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco and the Ecological Society of America meeting in Tucson (ESA). Round trip travel distance for sampled attendees is 7971 +/- 6968 km (1 sigma range given, n=337) for AGU and 5452 +/- 5664 km for ESA (n=263), conservatively assuming great circle routes were followed. Using accepted CO2 production rates for commercial aircraft, mean AGU emissions are 1.3 tonnes per attendee and 12351 tonnes total and for ESA 0.9 tonnes per attendee and 3140 tonnes total. Although small compared to total anthropogenic emissions (2.275 x 1010 tonnes y-1 in 1999), per attendee emissions are significant compared to annual per-capita emissions; CO2 emission per AGU and ESA attendee exceeds the per capita annual emission of 42% and 19% of Earth's population, respectively. Per attendee AGU emissions are ≈6% of U.S. and ≈14% of British and Japanese per capita annual emission. Relocation of AGU and ESA to cities which minimize travel distances, Denver and Omaha respectively, would result in modest emission reductions of 8% and 14% (assuming 2002 attendee composition). To form a preliminary estimate of annual CO2 emissions for scientists in academia, we surveyed Earth Science faculty at our home institution. Mean annual air travel distance for professional activities was 38064 km y-1 (7 respondents). The consequent release of 6.1 tonnes y-1 of CO2 is 30% of annual per capita emissions in North America, and exceeds global per capita average of 4 tonnes y-1 by 150%. Society and the environment often benefit from scientific enquiry which is facilitated by travel. These benefits, however, might be balanced against the

  8. ESA switches its infrared space telescope off and will clean its orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    Controllers at the ESA ground station at Villafranca (Madrid, Spain) witnessed the definitive end for the telescope but they didn't have to press any 'red button' or the like. The instructions for the switch off had already been introduced into ISO's computer earlier. ISO's last month of life was used to gather as much technical data as possible. Various software and hardware systems that, due to the superb performance of the spacecraft, did not have to be used during the operational phase were subjected to detailed tests. Results from these tests will benefit future ESA missions, such as XMM and Integral, which use some of the same components, such as the Star Trackers guiding the spacecraft. Also, ISO's farewell included a further last gift for the astronomers. A few of the detectors in the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), one of the four instruments on-board the satellite, could still be used after exhaustion of the liquid helium. In anticipation of this opportunity, a special scientific programme has been prepared and was interleaved with the technology tests. Some 150 extra hours were used to measure nearly 300 stars at wavelengths between 2.4 and 4 microns enabling astronomers to make a detailed spectral classification. In fact, ISO continued to give scientific surprises to the very sad end. ISO's 'last light' observation - taken with the SWS instrument just before midnight on May 10 - was of emission lined from hydrogen in hot supergiant star (eta Canis Majoris). The preliminary results show that this star, supposed to be ordinary, is probably surrounded by a disk of matter. Commenting on the satellite switch off, ESA's Director of Science, Roger Bonnet, said "ISO has allowed us to gain the first clear view of the universe at infrared wavelengths. A great amount of work still awaits us to interpret all ISO's exciting discoveries. We will miss ISO, of course - new answers always bring new questions and the wish for yet more knowledge; that is why ESA is

  9. Operational support to collision avoidance activities by ESA's space debris office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V.; Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Merz, K.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Funke, Q.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Space Debris Office provides a service to support operational collision avoidance activities. This support currently covers ESA's missions Cryosat-2, Sentinel-1A and -2A, the constellation of Swarm-A/B/C in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as missions of third-party customers. In this work, we describe the current collision avoidance process for ESA and third-party missions in LEO. We give an overview on the upgrades developed and implemented since the advent of conjunction summary messages (CSM)/conjunction data messages (CDM), addressing conjunction event detection, collision risk assessment, orbit determination, orbit and covariance propagation, process control, and data handling. We pay special attention to the effect of warning thresholds on the risk reduction and manoeuvre rates, as they are established through risk mitigation and analysis tools, such as ESA's Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis (DRAMA) software suite. To handle the large number of CDMs and the associated risk analyses, a database-centric approach has been developed. All CDMs and risk analysis results are stored in a database. In this way, a temporary local "mini-catalogue" of objects close to our target spacecraft is obtained, which can be used, e.g., for manoeuvre screening and to update the risk analysis whenever a new ephemeris becomes available from the flight dynamics team. The database is also used as the backbone for a Web-based tool, which consists of the visualization component and a collaboration tool that facilitates the status monitoring and task allocation within the support team as well as communication with the control team. The visualization component further supports the information sharing by displaying target and chaser motion over time along with the involved uncertainties. The Web-based solution optimally meets the needs for a concise and easy-to-use way to obtain a situation picture in a very short time, and the support for

  10. European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

  11. UK and ESA announce Beagle 2 inquiry - Investigation to learn lessons from Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Today, the UK Science Minister Lord Sainsbury and the European Space Agency (ESA) announced that an ESA/UK inquiry would be held into the failure the Beagle 2 lander. Lord Sainsbury, of the Department of Trade and Industry, said: "I believe such an inquiry will be very useful. The reasons identified by the Inquiry Board will allow the experience gained from Beagle 2 to be used for the benefit of future European planetary exploration missions." The ESA Director General, Jean-Jacques Dordain, said : "ESA is a partnership of its Member States and sharing the lessons learnt from good and bad experiences is fundamental in cooperation." The Inquiry Board is to be chaired by the ESA Inspector General, René Bonnefoy. The UK deputy chairman will be David Link MBE. The inquiry will investigate whether it can be established why Beagle 2 may have failed and set out any lessons which can be learnt for future missions. Such inquiries are routine in the event of unsuccessful space missions and this one will help inform future ESA robotic missions, to Mars and other bodies in the solar system. The Inquiry Board will be set up under normal ESA procedures by the Inspector General. Because the inquiry is into a British-built lander, it will report to Lord Sainsbury as well as to the Director General of ESA. Its terms of reference are as follows: 1. Technical Issues · Assess the available data/documentation pertaining to the in-orbit operations, environment and performance characterisation, and to the on-ground tests and analyses during development; · Identify possible issues and shortcomings in the above and in the approach adopted, which might have contributed to the loss of the mission; 2. Programmatics · Analyse the programmatic environment (i.e. decision-making processes, level of funding and resources, management and responsibilities, interactions between the various entities) throughout the development phase; · Identify possible issues and shortcomings which might have

  12. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view INTEGRAL will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 22 September. On show will be the full-size structural thermal model which is now beeing examined in ESA's test centre. Following introductions to the project, the INTEGRAL spacecraft can be seen, filmed and photographed in its special clean room environment.. Media representatives wishing to participate in the visit to ESA's test centre and the presentation of INTEGRAL are kindly requested to return by fax the attached registration form to ESA Public relations, Tel. +33 (0) 1.53.69.71.55 - Fax. +33 (0) 1.53.69.76.90. For details please see the attached programme Gamma-ray astronomy - why ? Gamma-rays cannot be detected from the ground since the earth's atmosphere shields us from high energetic radiation. Only space technology has made gamma-astronomy possible. To avoid background radiation effects INTEGRAL will spend most of its time in the orbit outside earth's radiation belts above an altitude of 40'000 km. Gamma-rays are the highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic phenomena occurring in nature and addresses some of the most fundamental problems in physics. We know for instance that most of the chemical elements in our bodies come from long-dead stars. But how were these elements formed? INTEGRAL will register gamma-ray evidence of element-making. Gamma-rays also appear when matter squirms in the intense gravity of collapsed stars or black holes. One of the most important scientific objectives of INTEGRAL is to study such compact objects as neutron stars or black holes. Besides stellar black holes there may exist much bigger specimens of these extremely dense objects. Most astronomers believe that in the heart of our Milky Way as in the centre of other galaxies there may lurk giant black holes. INTEGRAL will have to find evidence of these exotic objects. Even

  13. Habitat Conservation Plans Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: The Legal Perspective.

    PubMed

    MOSER

    2000-07-01

    Habitat Conservation Plans under the federal Endangered Species Act have become an increasingly popular tool for resolving conflicts between land development and species conservation. Their primary purpose, however, is legal and regulatory rather than biological. They are what landowners must prepare in order to obtain a permit to "take" animals listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Unfortunately, many professionals involved in the HCP process aren't sufficiently cognizant of the legal and regulatory functions and the purposes and limitations of HCPs. I provide an overview of the regulatory structure of the ESA, the role HCPs play in that structure, and the specific legal requirements associated with HCPs. I then discuss the practice of crafting an HCP and the most common issues that arise in the process. Finally, I assess several very fundamental current problems with the HCP program, problems that threaten to undermine the HCP program to such a degree as to end its utility to landowners and thereby end the tremendous conservation opportunities the HCP program represents.

  14. The McKinney Act: A Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interagency Council on the Homeless.

    This publication is a guide to programs created by the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. An opening section describes the McKinney Act itself and the agency that developed the guide. The bulk of the publication lists and describes 24 McKinney Act programs grouped under the following headings: (1) education and training programs;…

  15. 17 CFR 229.801 - Securities Act industry guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Securities Act industry guides... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.801 Securities Act industry guides. (a)-(b) (c) Guide 3. Statistical disclosure by bank holding companies. (d) Guide 4....

  16. 17 CFR 229.802 - Exchange Act industry guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Act industry guides... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.802 Exchange Act industry guides. (a)-(b) (c) Guide 3. Statistical disclosure by bank holding companies. (d) Guide 4....

  17. 17 CFR 229.801 - Securities Act industry guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Securities Act industry guides... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.801 Securities Act industry... and claim adjustment expenses of property-casualty insurance underwriters. (g) Guide 7. Description...

  18. 17 CFR 229.801 - Securities Act industry guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Securities Act industry guides... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.801 Securities Act industry... and claim adjustment expenses of property-casualty insurance underwriters. (g) Guide 7. Description...

  19. 17 CFR 229.801 - Securities Act industry guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Securities Act industry guides... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.801 Securities Act industry... and claim adjustment expenses of property-casualty insurance underwriters. (g) Guide 7. Description...

  20. 10 CFR 1008.6 - Procedures for Privacy Act requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pursuant to this section may be obtained from any DOE Privacy Act Officer at the locations listed at § 1008... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for Privacy Act requests. 1008.6 Section 1008.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT)...

  1. 10 CFR 1008.6 - Procedures for Privacy Act requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pursuant to this section may be obtained from any DOE Privacy Act Officer at the locations listed at § 1008... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for Privacy Act requests. 1008.6 Section 1008.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT)...

  2. 10 CFR 1008.6 - Procedures for Privacy Act requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pursuant to this section may be obtained from any DOE Privacy Act Officer at the locations listed at § 1008... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for Privacy Act requests. 1008.6 Section 1008.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT)...

  3. 10 CFR 1008.6 - Procedures for Privacy Act requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pursuant to this section may be obtained from any DOE Privacy Act Officer at the locations listed at § 1008... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for Privacy Act requests. 1008.6 Section 1008.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT)...

  4. List mode multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  5. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  6. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  7. Against Reading Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2012-01-01

    A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

  8. Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    For some administrators and planners, designing and building education facilities may sometimes seem like a circus act--trying to project a persona of competence and confidence while juggling dozens of issues. Meanwhile, the audience--students, staff members and taxpayers--watch and wait with anticipation in hopes of getting what they paid for and…

  9. 75 FR 69049 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listings for Two Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... hearings--one in Wilmington, NC and one in Atlanta, GA. The purpose of these hearings is to accept comments... Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. DATES: The hearings will be held on December 6, 2010, from 6 to 9 p.m. in...

  10. 77 FR 32909 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Designating Critical Habitat; 12-Month...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Petition To Revise Designated Critical Habitat for the Endangered Leatherback Sea Turtle AGENCY: National... for leatherback sea turtles pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. The... leatherback sea turtle by adding the coastline and offshore waters of the Northeast Ecological Corridor...

  11. 40 CFR 716.120 - Substances and listed mixtures to which this subpart applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substances and listed mixtures to which this subpart applies. 716.120 Section 716.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING Specific Chemical Listings § 716.120 Substances and listed mixtures...

  12. 42 CFR 136.304 - Publication of a list of allied health professions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of a list of allied health professions... of a list of allied health professions. The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall publish from time to time in the Federal Register a list of the allied health professions for consideration for...

  13. 40 CFR 716.120 - Substances and listed mixtures to which this subpart applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substances and listed mixtures to which this subpart applies. 716.120 Section 716.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING Specific Chemical Listings § 716.120 Substances and listed mixtures...

  14. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  15. ESA SMART-1 mission: results and lessons for future lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We review ESA’s SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. We discuss lessons for future lunar exploration and upcoming missions. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang’ E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to application geostationary missions and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of

  16. ESA Parabolic Flight, Drop Tower and Centrifuge Opportunities for University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Natacha; Ventura-Traveset, Javier; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Eduardo; Gomez-Calero, Carlos; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Pletser, Vladimir; Kufner, Ewald; Krause, Jutta; Lindner, Robert; Gai, Frederic; Eigenbrod, Christian

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Office was established in 1998 with the purpose of motivating young people to study science, engineering and technology subjects and to ensure a qualified workforce for ESA and the European space sector in the future. To this end the ESA Education Office is supporting several hands-on activities including small student satellites and student experiments on sounding rockets, high altitude balloons as well as microgravity and hypergravity platforms. This paper is intended to introduce three new ESA Education Office hands-on activities called "Fly Your Thesis!", "Drop Your Thesis!" and "Spin Your Thesis!". These activities give re-spectively access to aircraft parabolic flight, drop tower and centrifuge campaigns to European students. These educational programmes offer university students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually perform, in microgravity or hypergravity, a scientific or techno-logical experiment which is linked to their syllabus. During the "Fly Your Thesis!" campaigns, the students accompany their experiments onboard the A300 Zero-G aircraft, operated by the company Novespace, based in Bordeaux, France, for a series of three flights of 30 parabolas each, with each parabola providing about 20s of microgravity [1]. "Drop Your Thesis!" campaigns are held in the ZARM Drop Tower, in Bremen, Germany. The installation delivers 4.74s of microgravity in dropping mode and 9.3s in the catapulting mode [2]. Research topics such as fluid physics, fundamental physics, combustion, biology, material sciences, heat transfer, astrophysics, chemistry or biochemistry can greatly benefit from using microgravity platforms. "Spin Your Thesis!" campaigns take place in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) facility, at ESTEC, Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. This facility offers an acceleration from 1 to 20 times Earth's gravity [3]. The use of hypergravity allows completing the scientific picture of how gravity has an

  17. ESA's Mercury mission named BepiColombo in honour of a space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    The mission to Mercury, now named after Prof. Colombo, is one of ESA's science programme "cornerstones". In the course of the comprehensive Horizon 2000 Plus review of the programme five years ago, it was identified by Europe's space scientists as one of the most challenging long-term planetary projects. Mercury is the least known of the inner planets. Its orbit close to the Sun makes it difficult to observe from a distance and hard to reach by spaceflight. As a result, big questions raised by the Mariner 10 flybys of a quarter of a century ago remain unanswered. "I am very pleased we have given the name of BepiColombo to our Mercury cornerstone. Bepi was a great scientist, a great European and a great friend; we could do no better than name one of our most challenging and imaginative missions after him" said Roger Bonnet, Director of ESA Science Programme. Scientists cannot claim to fully understand the origin and history of the Earth itself until they can make sense of Mercury. Why is the planet surprisingly dense ? Where does its magnetic field come from ? What were the effects of massive collisions suffered by Mercury, apparent in shattered zones seen by Mariner 10 ? Is Mercury geologically active ? How does its close proximity to the Sun affect its surface, its tenuous atmosphere and the small magnetic bubble, or magnetosphere, which surrounds it ? BepiColombo will seek the answers to these and other questions with three separate sets of scientific instruments. According to preliminary studies completed in April 1999, a Planetary Orbiter will examine the planet from an orbit over the poles, using two cameras and half a dozen other remote-sensing instruments. Seven detectors in a smaller Magnetospheric Orbiter will observe Mercury's magnetic field and its interactions with the solar wind. A Surface Element dropped by BepiColombo will land near one of the poles of Mercury, where the temperature is milder. Here the instruments will include a camera, a seismometer

  18. Comparing NASA and ESA Cost Estimating Methods for Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Charles D.; vanPelt, Michel O.

    2004-01-01

    To compare working methodologies between the cost engineering functions in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ESA European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), as well as to set-up cost engineering capabilities for future manned Mars projects and other studies which involve similar subsystem technologies in MSFC and ESTEC, a demonstration cost estimate exercise was organized. This exercise was a direct way of enhancing not only cooperation between agencies but also both agencies commitment to credible cost analyses. Cost engineers in MSFC and ESTEC independently prepared life-cycle cost estimates for a reference human Mars project and subsequently compared the results and estimate methods in detail. As a non-sensitive, public domain reference case for human Mars projects, the Mars Direct concept was chosen. In this paper the results of the exercise are shown; the differences and similarities in estimate methodologies, philosophies, and databases between MSFC and ESTEC, as well as the estimate results for the Mars Direct concept. The most significant differences are explained and possible estimate improvements identified. In addition, the Mars Direct plan and the extensive cost breakdown structure jointly set-up by MSFC and ESTEC for this concept are presented. It was found that NASA applied estimate models mainly based on historic Apollo and Space Shuttle cost data, taking into account the changes in technology since then. ESA used models mostly based on European satellite and launcher cost data, taking into account the higher equipment and testing standards for human space flight. Most of NASA's and ESA s estimates for the Mars Direct case are comparable, but there are some important, consistent differences in the estimates for: 1) Large Structures and Thermal Control subsystems; 2) System Level Management, Engineering, Product Assurance and Assembly, Integration and Test/Verification activities; 3) Mission Control; 4) Space Agency Program Level

  19. ESA celebrates Sun-Earth Day on 27-28 April 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Our Sun plays a central role in daily life, by warming and lighting the world, and powering the growth of living plants. Since ancient times, mankind has been aware of its importance, although not always understanding how or why. Now in the space age, man-made satellites monitor and probe the environs of the Sun, observing subtler and sometimes damaging effects on Earth. Studying this “space weather”, the collective term used to describe effects originating from the Sun, is an increasingly important activity in our technology-dependent society. Solar storms are responsible for many dramatic events. A nine-hour power blackout in Canada, disabled satellites and corroded pipelines have all been blamed on the Sun. Even increased radiation risks to airline passengers and crews can result from high solar activity. Forecasting the space weather can alert us to upcoming storms and appropriate actions can be taken to minimise the impact of these events. The ability to forecast comes from our improved understanding of solar events which has been facilitated by solar physics research, including important contributions from six spacecraft built in Europe: SOHO stationed far out in space, the four Cluster satellites orbiting together around the Earth, and Ulysses, which flies over the poles of the Sun. ESA invites you to join in an international effort, to promote public awareness of the dynamics of our Sun and its influence on the Earth. On the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the ESA/NASA SOHO mission, this is an appropriate opportunity to highlight how solar physics research, both from space and from the ground, contributes valuable information which can impact on our daily life. Events in local languages, at more than 40 locations throughout Europe, will celebrate this international Sun-Earth day with the support of ESA.

  20. The new Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Besse, Sebastien; Heather, Dave; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime; ESDC (European Space Data Centre) Team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more specialised views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will be also up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's ExoMars and upcoming BepiColombo missions. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). This contribution will introduce the new PSA, its key features and access interfaces.

  1. 77 FR 25179 - Patient Safety Organizations: Expired Listing for Medkinetics, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Expired Listing... as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act) authorizes the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations...

  2. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  3. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  4. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  5. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  6. 16 CFR 301.6 - Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animals not listed in Fur Products Name... OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.6 Animals not listed in Fur Products Name Guide. (a) All furs are subject to the act and regulations regardless...

  7. 75 FR 14510 - Implementation of Device Registration and Listing Requirements Enacted in the Public Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...The Food and Drug Administration is proposing to amend its regulations governing medical device establishment registration and device listing. The proposed revisions would modify FDA's current regulations at part 807 (21 CFR part 807) to reflect recent statutory amendments to the device registration and listing provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). The Food and......

  8. 77 FR 73769 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Four Subspecies of Mazama Pocket Gopher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list four subspecies of Mazama pocket gopher (Olympia, Tenino, Yelm, and Roy Prairie) as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We additionally propose to designate critical habitat for these subspecies. We have determined that the Tacoma pocket gopher is extinct, and that the listing of three other......

  9. 28 CFR 55.4 - Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.4 Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions. (a) The minority language provisions of the Voting Rights Act were... to be covered under section 4(f)(4) or section 203(c) are listed, together with the language...

  10. 28 CFR 55.4 - Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.4 Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions. (a) The minority language provisions of the Voting Rights Act were... under section 4(f)(4) or section 203(c) are listed, together with the language minority group...

  11. 28 CFR 55.4 - Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.4 Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions. (a) The minority language provisions of the Voting Rights Act were... to be covered under section 4(f)(4) or section 203(c) are listed, together with the language...

  12. 28 CFR 55.4 - Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.4 Effective date; list of covered jurisdictions. (a) The minority language provisions of the Voting Rights Act were... under section 4(f)(4) or section 203(c) are listed, together with the language minority group...

  13. Effective methodology to derive strategic decisions from ESA exploration technology roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Top priorities in future international space exploration missions regard the achievement of the necessary maturation of enabling technologies, thereby allowing Europe to play a role commensurate with its industrial, operational and scientific capabilities. As part of the actions derived from this commitment, ESA Technology Roadmaps for Exploration represent a powerful tool to prioritise R&D activities in technologies for space exploration and support the preparation of a consistent procurement plan for space exploration technologies in Europe. The roadmaps illustrate not only the technology procurement (to TRL-8) paths for specific missions envisaged in the present timeframe, but also the achievement for Europe of technological milestones enabling operational capabilities and building blocks, essential for current and future Exploration missions. Coordination of requirements and funding sources among all European stakeholders (ESA, EU, National, and Industry) is one of the objectives of these roadmaps, that show also possible application of the technologies beyond space exploration, both at ESA and outside. The present paper describes the activity that supports the work on-going at ESA on the elaboration and update of these roadmaps and related tools, in order to criticise the followed approach and to suggest methodologies of assessment of the Roadmaps, and to derive strategic decision for the advancement of Space Exploration in Europe. After a review of Technology Areas, Missions/Programmes and related building blocks (architectures) and operational capabilities, technology applicability analyses are presented. The aim is to identify if a specific technology is required, applicable or potentially a demonstrator in the building blocks of the proposed mission concepts. In this way, for each technology it is possible to outline one or more specific plans to increase TRL up to the required level. In practice, this translates into two possible solutions: on the one

  14. The ESA astronaut sleep restraint--its development and use onboard Spacelab and MIR.

    PubMed

    Ockels, W; Stoewer, H

    1990-02-01

    The development of the ESA portable sleep restraint system is described. The system was developed to simulate certain earthbound sleep conditions in microgravity. The restraint is a bag made of two sheets of Nomex(R) cloth stretched over a tubular tension device and provides the astronaut with feedback pressure similar to bedding on Earth. The final prototype of the bag was tested on the German Spacelab-D1 mission and during a six-month mission aboard MIR. Positive feedback from astronauts suggests the need for further evaluation during space flight.

  15. ESAS-Derived Earth Departure Stage Design for Human Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaherty, Kevin; Grant, Michael; Korzun, Ashley; Malo-Molina, Faure; Steinfeldt, Bradley; Stahl, Benjamin; Wilhite, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has set the nation on a course to have humans on Mars as early as 2030. To reduce the cost and risk associated with human Mars exploration, NASA is planning for the Mars architecture to leverage the lunar architecture as fully as possible. This study takes the defined launch vehicles and system capabilities from ESAS and extends their application to DRM 3.0 to design an Earth Departure Stage suitable for the cargo and crew missions to Mars. The impact of a propellant depot in LEO was assessed and sLzed for use with the EDS. To quantitatively assess and compare the effectiveness of alternative designs, an initial baseline architecture was defined using the ESAS launch vehicles and DRM 3.0. The baseline architecture uses three NTR engines, LH2 propellant, no propellant depot in LEO, and launches on the Ares I and Ares V. The Mars transfer and surface elements from DRM 3.0 were considered to be fixed payloads in the design of the EDS. Feasible architecture alternatives were identified from previous architecture studies and anticipated capabilities and compiled in a morphological matrix. ESAS FOMs were used to determine the most critical design attributes for the effectiveness of the EDS. The ESAS-derived FOMs used in this study to assess alternative designs are effectiveness and performance, affordability, reliability, and risk. The individual FOMs were prioritized using the AHP, a method for pairwise comparison. All trades performed were evaluated with respect to the weighted FOMs, creating a Pareto frontier of equivalently ideal solutions. Additionally, each design on the frontier was evaluated based on its fulfillment of the weighted FOMs using TOPSIS, a quantitative method for ordinal ranking of the alternatives. The designs were assessed in an integrated environment using physics-based models for subsystem analysis where possible. However, for certain attributes such as engine type, historical, performance-based mass estimating

  16. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier and PLC Hoffman pose on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman pose in front of the onorbit station controls on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The overhead windows W7 and W8 appear above their heads and the aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 behind them. Hoffman and Nicollier have been training together for a dozen years at JSC. Hoffman was an astronaut candidate in 1978 and Nicollier accompanied a group of trainees in 1980. Note the partially devoured chocolate Space Shuttle floating near the two.

  17. Test data acquisition system for the ESTEC large solar simulator at ESA/ESTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buroni, G.; Zucconi, L.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype data acquisition system is described. The device characteristics, its performance and the system aspects connected to the integration of the data acquisition system into the space simulator instrumentation and environment are discussed. The data acquisition system has a modular architecture and manifold configuration capability. The input characteristics feature high resolution and accuracy/stability for the measurement of low level (thermocouple originated) analog signals, even in the presence of high common mode and S/N figures. The output is serial digital, compatible with ESA data handling standards. The device is designed to be installed in particularly hostile environments, such as that of a solar simulator.

  18. The Role of ESA TEC-QTE in the ISS Safety Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, M.; Rohr, T.; Stienstra, M. H.; Semprimoschnig, C.

    2013-09-01

    On the 17th of July 2000, the Materials and Processes Reciprocal Agreement was signed between NASA and ESA to define the process for selection and certification of materials used in the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Consecutively, on the 20th of June 2003 this agreement was extended to the Automated Transport Vehicle (ATV). It is therefore the responsibility of ESA TEC-QTE, the Materials Space Evaluation and Radiation Effects section, part of the Product Assurance and Safety Department, to ensure that all materials, parts and processes of each of the ISS payloads not only function as required but also do not pose a risk to the safety of the crew members. In this context, TEC-QTE provides qualified expertise to support the ESA Flight Safety Review and assesses safety aspects related to manned projects (materials properties, fluid system compatibility, fungus resistance). This is supported by the Materials Space Evaluation and Radiation Effects section's Materials and Electrical Components laboratory having at its disposition a range of facilities designed to perform environmental effects testing of which off-gassing tests according to ECSS-Q-ST-70-29C (equivalent to NASA STD 6001 test 7) and outgassing tests according to ECSS-Q-ST-70-02C (equivalent to ASTM-E-595). The ESA facility to perform flammability tests according to ECSS-Q-ST-70-21A (equivalent to NASA STD 6001 test1) was moved to Astrium Bremen.TEC-QTE is in charge of reviewing and approving, via RFA or MUA , all materials that do not meet safety requirements as well as COTS or CAM (black boxes) equipment.The safety process ends with the issue of the Materials Certification of the reviewed payload hardware that shows compliance with the relevant materials and processes requirements and standards.In addition to the safety related activities for the ISS, specialised TEC-QTE personnel provide measurements of the air quality inside the ATV and assess whether the toxicity index is within

  19. Present and future Solar System missions in the framework of the ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The Science Directorate is in charge of developing the "Science Mandatory Programme". Through the science programme, ESA implements scientific projects to achieve ambitious objectives. On this ground, science challenges and advancement in technologies work together in a synergistic endeavour. Both long-term science planning and mission calls are bottom-up processes, relying on broad community input and peer review. The Cosmic Vision program is since 2005 the implementation tool for the science mandatory programme. I will present an overview of the space missions in operation, under development and for study with particular emphasis on those visiting the Solar System.

  20. X-38 NASA/DLR/ESA-Dassault Aviation Integrated Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labbe, Steve G.; Perez, Leo F.; Fitzgerald, Steve; Longo, Jose; Rapuc, Marc; Molina, Rafael; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The characterization of the aeroshape selected for the X-38 [Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) demonstrator] is presently being performed as a cooperative endeavour between NASA, DLR (through its TETRA Program), and European Space Agency (ESA) with Dassault Aviation integrating the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic activities. The methodologies selected for characterizing the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic environment of the X-38 are presented. Also, the implications for related disciplines such as Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) with its corresponding Flight Control System (FCS), Structural, and Thermal Protection System (TPS) design are discussed. An attempt is made at defining the additional activities required to support the design of a derived operational CRV.

  1. Features and technologies of ERS-1 (ESA) and X-SAR antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuessler, R.; Wagner, R.

    1986-01-01

    Features and technologies of planar waveguide array antennas developed for spaceborne microwave sensors are described. Such antennas are made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) employing special manufacturing and metallization techniques to achieve satisfactory electrical properties. Mechanical design enables deployable antenna structures necessary for satellite applications (e.g., ESA ERS-1). The slotted waveguide concept provides high aperture efficiency, good beamshaping capabilities, and low losses. These CFRP waveguide antennas feature low mass, high accuracy and stiffness, and can be operated within wide temperature ranges.

  2. Hypergravity Facilities in the ESA Ground-Based Facility Program - Current Research Activities and Future Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frett, Timo; Petrat, Guido; W. A. van Loon, Jack J.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Anken, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Research on Artificial Gravity (AG) created by linear acceleration or centrifugation has a long history and could significantly contribute to realize long-term human spaceflight in the future. Employing centrifuges plays a prominent role in human physiology and gravitational biology. This article gives a short review about the background of Artificial Gravity with respect to hypergravity (including partial gravity) and provides information about actual ESA ground-based facilities for research on a variety of biosystems such as cells, plants, animals or, particularly, humans.

  3. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier conducts IFM on OV-104's waste collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, wearing goggles, face mask, and rubber gloves, reviews inflight maintenance (IFM) checklist procedures before starting waste collection system (WCS) fan separator repair. One of two fan separators used to transfer waster water from the waste management compartment (WMC) to the waste water tank has failed. The suspected accumulation of water in the separator was believed to have occurred during a test dumping of waste water at a lower than normal pressure to evaluate the performance of new nozzles. The WMC is located on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  4. 76 FR 76415 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... refugees, immigrants, migrants, international travelers, travel industry partners, healthcare providers... Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... providers, and educating public health departments and other federal partners. The information...

  5. 76 FR 17867 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) publishes a list of... Disease Registry (ATSDR), Office of Noncommunicable Diseases, Injury, and Environmental Health...

  6. 78 FR 60283 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... this notice. Proposed Project Monitoring and Reporting System for Chronic Disease Prevention...

  7. 75 FR 52953 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... nationally notifiable condition information. CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publishes incidence... System (NEDSS) and other surveillance data sources to the National Notifiable Diseases...

  8. Recovery Act Incentives for Wind Energy Equipment Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    This document lists some of the federal incentives available to manufacturers of wind energy equipment. These incentives were authorized by or expanded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  9. 78 FR 56695 - Proposed Listing of Additional Waters To Be Included on Indiana's 2010 List of Impaired Waters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... EPA's proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Indiana to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests public comment. For... Under the Clean Water Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Reopening of...

  10. The GHG-CCI Project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative: Data Products and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Alexe, M.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chevallier, F.; Crevoisier, C. D.; De Maziere, M.; De Wachter, E.; Detmers, R.; Dils, B.; Feng, L.; Frankenberg, C.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Hewson, W.; Heymann, J.; Houweling, S.; Kaminski, T.; Laeng, A.; Leeuwen, T. T. v.; Lichtenberg, G.; Marshall, J.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Palmer, P. I.; Parker, R.; Sundstrom, A.-M.; Scholze, M.; Stiller, G.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg- cci.org/) of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is to generate global atmospheric satellite-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) data sets as needed to improve our understanding of the regional sources and sinks of these important greenhouse gases (GHG). Here we present an overview about the latest data set called Climate Research Data Package No. 3 (CRDP3). We focus on the GHG-CCI project core data products, which are near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 (in ppm) and XCH4 (in ppb) retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT (2009-today) nadir mode radiance observations in the near- infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. The GHG- CCI products are primarily individual sensor Level 2 products. However, we also generate merged Level 2 products ("EMMA products"). Here we also present a first GHG-CCI Level 3 product, namely XCO2 and XCH4 in Obs4MIPs format (monthly, 5°x5°).

  11. Is there life out there ? - A new series for the ESA's Web TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clervoy, J. F.; Coliolo, F.

    2012-09-01

    The European Space Agency, ESA, is preparing a new outreach project: a series of short videos for the ESA's Web TV dedicated to the search for life in the Universe. The rationale behind this pilot project is to use stunning images to attract the attention together with a scientific content accessible to people of varying ages, education levels and cultural outlook. We intent to work with scientists across Europe in order to bring the public on a journey from the boundaries of the Cosmos to the core of the Earth looking for the ingredients necessary for life to form and evolve. Our main objectives are: to share discovery, curiosity and sense of adventure in order to make the public a player in the quest of knowledge about who we are, and where do we come from; to educate and engage different target audiences about European space science and exploration activities; encourage international partnerships. I will present you the first trailer that we have realised with two scientists: André Brack, Astrobiologist, Honorary Director of Research at the CNRS, Orleans, France and Gian Gabriele Ori, Research professor in Geology, and Director of the IRSPS, International Reaserch School of Planetary Science, Pescara, Italy. This first presentation gives an overview of the « exobiological » places beyond the Earth and highlights the importance of comparative planetology for better understand our planet. We would like to share with you ideas and advices in order to produce and diffuse this series in the most efficient way.

  12. ESA Sen3Exp Campaign: San Rossore Coastal Zone Monitoring by CHRIS/PROBA-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Magnani, Federico; Nardino, Vanni; Pippi, Ivan; Pieri, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Since 2001 CHRIS sensor on board of Proba-1 is acquiring images all over the World. San Rossore Natural Park was chosen as one of CHRIS test site in the framework of the Cat.1 LBR ESA-EOPI Project ID.2832 on "Assimilation of biophysical and biochemical variables in biochemical and hydrological models at landscape scale". During summer 2009 San Rossore test site was chosen as one of the four sites for the ESA Sen3Exp campaign. CHRIS multi-angle images have been acquired during the campaign giving a valuable contribution to the understanding of vegetation changes in coastal zone areas characterized by heavy anthropogenic activities. In this paper we summarize CHRIS/Proba-1 data processing methodology and Cal/Val activity during Sen3Exp campaign in San Rossore. The obtained results and their use for environmental investigations in order to better understand the complexity of the San Rossore ecosystem, representative of many Mediterranean costal zones, are presented and discussed.

  13. Coronal sounding with three ESA spacecraft during solar conjunction: Radial dependence of radio signal fluctuation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Anatoli; Lukinina, L. A.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Rudash, V. K.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, Michael; Paetzold, Martin

    Coronal radio sounding experiments were carried out using the coherent dual-frequency carrier signals of the three ESA spacecraft Mars Express (MEX), Venus Express (VEX) and Rosetta (ROS) during their solar conjunctions in 2004, 2006 and 2008/2009. The measurements ana-lyzed in this work are the signal frequency and amplitude recorded at both the NASA and ESA ground tracking stations (sample rate: 1 Hz). The solar activity was quite low during these measurement opportunities, particularly for the conjunction in 2008/2009 (average sunspot number = 2.3). Spectral analysis of the frequency records provides two quantities used to characterize coronal turbulence: the intensity of the differential frequency fluctuations σf and the spectral index of the temporal frequency fluctuation spectra αf . The mean frequency fluctuation can be described by a radial power-law σf ∝ R-a . The spectral index, roughly constant at αf ≈ 0.67 for heliocentric distances beyond a certain solar offset distance RKOL , decreases gradually toward smaller solar offset distances. An unexplained discrepancy is found between the observed difference in amplitude fluctuations from S-Band to X-Band and the difference expected from theory.

  14. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B.

    2014-12-01

    The scope of this work is to show the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data and upcoming Sentinel-3 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on demand CryoSat-2 SAR data, starting from L1a (FBR) data up to SAR Level-2 geophysical data products.The service is based on SARvatore Processor Prototype and it The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimety Toolbox) and its successor, the up-coming Sentinel-3 Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools.Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is possible to easily select the geographical area of interest along with the time of interest. As of August 2014 the service allows the user to select data for most of 2013 and part of 2014, no geographical restriction on this data. It is expected that before Fall 2014 all the mission (when available) will be at the disposal of the users.The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options..The processing service is meant to be used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross-comparison against third part products, preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc.So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces.

  15. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jerome; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data and upcoming Sentinel-3 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on demand CryoSat-2 SAR data, starting from L1a (FBR) data up to SAR Level-2 geophysical data products, with the possibility to build and download the stack data products (L1b-S). The service is based on SARvatore Processor Prototype and the output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimety Toolbox) and its successor, the up-coming Sentinel-3 Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is possible to easily select the geographical area of interest along with the time of interest. As of December 2014 the service allows the user to select all available mission data from 2010 to end of 2014, without any geographical restriction on this data. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options.. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross-comparison against third part products, preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces.

  16. Overview on calibration and validation activities for ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, S.; Bouzinac, C.; Delwart, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations will also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. The SMOS launch is foreseen for summer 2009. A major undertaking in any environmental science related satellite mission are the calibration and validation activities. Calibration is an important prerequisite to the performance verification, which demonstrates that the instrument meets its requirements. It is also important for the validation of geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The validation of the data will be handled through a combination of ESA led activities and national efforts. The SMOS Validation and Retrieval Team (SVRT) comprises the scientific contributions that will be made by the projects selected in response to the SMOS calibration and validation Announcement of Opportunity in 2005 as well as the two level 2 Expert Support Laboratories being involved in the development of the soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. For the validation of the soil moisture data products ESA's activities will focus on two main sites, the Valencia Anchor Station, located in the East of Spain, and the Upper Danube Catchment, located in the South of Germany. In preparation to the SMOS commissioning phase, airborne rehearsal campaigns were conducted in spring 2008 over both aforementioned key sites. These will be coupled with a SMOS matchup generation exercise to verify that the methodology proposed actually meets the foreseen

  17. Overview on calibration and validation activities for ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bouzinac, Catherine; Delwart, Steven

    2010-05-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched on 2 November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations will also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. A major undertaking in any environmental science related satellite mission are the calibration and validation activities. Calibration is an important prerequisite to the performance verification, which demonstrates that the instrument meets its requirements. It is also important for the validation of geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The validation of the data will be handled through a combination of ESA led activities and national efforts. The SMOS Validation and Retrieval Team (SVRT) comprises the scientific contributions that will be made by the projects selected in response to the SMOS calibration and validation Announcement of Opportunity in 2005 as well as the two level 2 Expert Support Laboratories being involved in the development of the soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. For the validation of the soil moisture data products ESA's activities will focus on two main sites, the Valencia Anchor Station, located in the East of Spain, and the Upper Danube Catchment, located in the South of Germany. In preparation to the SMOS commissioning phase, airborne rehearsal campaigns were conducted in spring 2008 over both aforementioned key sites and will be repeated, in collaboration with the French Space Agency CNES, in spring 2010. These will be coupled with a SMOS matchup generation

  18. ESA takes part in Earth observation and space science experiments on board the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The ATLAS-2 mission is focusing on Earth observation and space science; three out of the seven instruments have been developed by scientific institutes in Belgium, France and Germany, with support from ESA. Four experiments have been provided by NASA and US scientists. The three European instruments have already shown an excellent performance during the first Atlas mission in March 1992, when they were tended by payload specialist Dirk Frimout, a Belgian astronaut and ESA staff member. Although the main scientific objective of the series of Atlas missions is to achieve continuity of annual measurements over a period as long as a decade, the first scientific results from Atlas can already be considered as a contribution to critical research topics, in particular the environment. The data from ATLAS-2 will add to this achievement. Two European instruments, Solcon and Solspec, are measuring to a very high degree of precision the total irradiation the Earth receives from the Sun - the "solar constant" -and the spectral distribution of this radiation over a wide range of wavelengths. Knowledge of the solar constant and the solar radiation spectrum matters not only for a better understanding of the Sun, but also for improving numerical models of climate and climate change. SOLCON was developed under the responsibility of Dr. Dominique Crommelynck of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Brussels, Belgium. SOLSPEC was instead developed under the responsibility of Dr. Gerard Thuillier of the CNRS, Verrieres le Buisson, France. One of these instruments will be fully remote-controlled by scientists from a laboratory in Belgium, via telecommunications links to the Shuttle, and the data of another will be transmitted to Belgium in real time to follow the results obtained. This approach is known as telescience: using telescience, a scientist can monitor his experiment in real-time, repeat it with different settings, consult his team, process data and adapt his measurements when

  19. Story-List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lanaii

    The program, STORY-LIST, generates alphabetized cumulative word lists by story number within a school grade. It is designed to read a group of cards until it finds a new grade/story number. Each word read is stored in an array, sorted, and an asterisk is added to each word in the array. This array is then merged with the old sorted word list and…

  20. ESA's X-ray space telescope proves supernovae can cause mysterious gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    By analysing the afterglow of the gamma-ray burst in the X-ray light, scientists produced the first ever evidence of the presence of chemical elements which were the unmistakable remnants of a supernova explosion which had occurred just a few days before. "We can now confidently say that the death of a massive star, a supernova, was the cause of a gamma-ray burst. However we still don't know exactly how and why these bursts, the most energetic phenomena in the Universe, are triggered," says ESA astronomer Norbert Schartel, a co-author of the original paper, published today in Nature. Gamma-ray bursts were first discovered in 1967 by chance, when satellites designed to look for violations of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty detected strong gamma-ray emissions coming from sources not in the vicinity of Earth, but from outer space. They have been a mystery ever since. They occur as often as several times a day but last for no longer than a couple of minutes, and there is no way to predict when or where the next burst will occur. Consequently they are very difficult to study. For three decades it was not even known whether the explosions were close, in our own Milky Way galaxy, or far away in distant galaxies. But astronomers set up an 'alert system'. This allows them to see the 'afterglow' of the burst before it fades away, by quickly aiming their telescopes at the precise location in the sky shortly after a detector triggers the alert. It is now clear that the bursts occur in galaxies millions of light-years away. The longest burst Technically called 'GRB 011211', it was first detected on 11 December 2001 at 19:09:21 (Universal Time), by the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX. The burst lasted for 270 seconds - the longest one observed by the satellite. A few hours afterwards, when a first analysis confirmed that a burst had indeed been registered, the BeppoSAX team alerted the rest of the astronomical community. ESA's XMM-Newton arrived on the scene 11 hours after the

  1. Are you ready for Mars? - Main media events surrounding the arrival of ESA's Mars Express at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz launcher operated by Starsem, the European probe -built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet’s structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin explored uncharted areas of the Earth in 1830, will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On Christmas Eve the Mars Express orbiter will be steered on a course taking it into an elliptical orbit, where it will safely circle the planet for a minimum of almost 2 Earth years. The Beagle 2 lander - which will have been released from the mother craft a few days earlier (on 19 December) - instead will stay on a collision course with the planet. It too should also be safe, being designed for atmospheric entry and geared for a final soft landing due to a sophisticated system of parachutes and airbags. On arrival, the Mars Express mission control team will report on the outcome of the spacecraft's delicate orbital insertion manoeuvre. It will take some time for Mars Express to manouvre into position to pick communications from Beagle 2. Hence, initially, other means will be used to check that Beagle 2 has landed: first signals from the Beagle 2 landing are expected to be available throughout Christmas Day, either through pick-up and relay of Beagle 2 radio signals by NASA’s Mars Odyssey, or by direct pick-up by the Jodrell Bank radio telescope in the UK. Mars Express will then pass over Beagle 2 in early January 2004, relaying data and images back to Earth. The first images from the cameras of Beagle 2 and Mars Express are expected to be available between the end of the year and the beginning of January 2004. The key dates

  2. 76 FR 41246 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Registration Improvement Act (PRIA) Process Improvement Work Group. EPA plans to meet its ESA consultation... the PRIA Process Improvement Work Group continues the dialogue between EPA and interested stake...: The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC) provides a forum for a diverse group of stake...

  3. Effect of Environment-Based Coursework on the Nature of Attitudes toward the Endangered Species Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Alan D.; Tarrant, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines college students' attitudes and complexity of thinking about the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the effects of environment-based coursework on their attitudes and thinking. Investigates attitudes in terms of their direction, extremity, ambivalence, and importance and measures complexity of thinking as integrative complexity. (Contains…

  4. 75 FR 79375 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Order adopting basic rules of the road to preserve the open Internet as a platform for innovation... COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FCC to Hold Open Commission Meeting Tuesday, December 21, 2010 The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open Meeting on the subjects listed below on Tuesday, December 21,...

  5. 75 FR 50730 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List AGENCY: Centers... current HHS list of select agents and toxins. This document is extending the comment period for that ANPRM... Proposed Rulemaking (75 FR 42363) should be marked ``Comments on the changes to the list of select...

  6. 75 FR 42363 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List AGENCY: Centers... biennial review and republication of the HHS list of select agents and toxins. Accordingly, we are soliciting public comment on the current HHS list of select agents and toxins, including whether...

  7. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select Agent and Toxin List; Reorganization of the Select Agent and Toxin List AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regarding the list of select agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to animal...

  8. Taking advantage of the ESA G-POD service to study deformation processes in mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Cignetti, Martina; Ardizzone, Francesca; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; De Luca, Claudio; Manunta, Michele; Casu, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In mountain environments, the analysis of surface displacements is extremely important for a better understanding the effects of mass wasting phenomena, such as landslides, rock-glaciers, and glacier activity. In this scenario, the use of straightforward tools and approaches to monitor surface displacements at high spatial and temporal resolutions is a real need. Here we use the Parallel-SBAS service recently released within the ESA's Grid Processing On Demand environment (G-POD, http://gpod.eo.esa.int/) to generate Earth's surface deformation time series and interferometric production. This service performs the full SBAS-DInSAR chain starting from Level 0 data, and generates displacement time series. We use the data available on the Virtual Archive 4 (http://eo-virtual-archive4.esa.int/, in the framework of Supersite initiative. In the framework of the HAMMER project (part of the NextData initiative, http://www.nextdataproject.it/ ), we produced mean deformation velocity maps, as well as deformation time series, on a regional scale case (Aosta Valley Region, northern Italy), and at local landslide scale (Puy landslide, Piedmont, northen Italy). The possibility to gather the final results in less than 24h (by processing an average of about 30 SAR images for each frame considered), allowed to perform in relatively short time a large number of attempts. By "tuning" the processing, we have maximized for both datasets the final coverage of coherent points, by analysing the effect of SAR images acquired in the winter season, as well as of the impact of perpendicular and temporal baseline constraints. The results obtained with P-SBAS G-POD service on Valle d'Aosta region have been compared to the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DGSD, reference IFFI project), finding a good correlation with the anomalous areas of surface deformation and the catalogued DGSD. In addition, the results obtained on Valle d'Aosta and Piedmont regions show a good agreement to the

  9. SMART-1 Technology and Science Experiments in Preparation of Future Missions and ESA Cornerstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A. E.; Racca, G. D.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project

    1999-12-01

    SMART-1 is the first ESA Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology, aimed at the demonstration of enabling technologies for future scientific missions. SMART-1's prime technology objective is the demonstration of the solar primary electric propulsion, a key for future interplanetary missions. SMART-1 will use a Stationary Plasma Thruster engine, cruising 15 months to capture a Moon polar orbit. A gallery of images of the spacecraft is available at the web site: http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/smart1/html/11742.html SMART-1 payload aims at monitoring the electric propulsion and its spacecraft environment and to test novel instrument technologies. The Diagnostic Instruments include SPEDE, a spacecraft potential plasma and charged particles detector, to characterise both spacecraft and planetary environment, together with EPDP, a suite of sensors monitoring secondary thrust-ions, charging and deposition effects. Innovative spacecraft technologies will be tested on SMART-1 : Lithium batteries and KATE, an experimental X/Ka-band deep-space transponder, to support radio-science, to monitor the accelerations of the electric propulsion and to test turbo-code technique, enhancing the return of scientific data. The scientific instruments for imaging and spectrometry are: \\begin{itemize} D-CIXS, a compact X-ray spectrometer based on novel SCD detectors and micro-structure optics, to observe X-ray celectial objects and to perform lunar chemistry measurements. SIR, a miniaturised quasi-monolithic point-spectrometer, operating in the Near-IR (0.9 ÷ 2.4 micron), to survey the lunar crust in previously uncovered optical regions. AMIE, a miniature camera based on 3-D integrated electronics, imaging the Moon, and other bodies and supporting LASER-LINK and RSIS. RSIS and LASER-LINK are investigations performed with the SMART-1 Payload: \\begin{itemize} RSIS: A radio-science Experiment to validate in-orbit determination of the libration of the celestial target, based on high

  10. Space safety trajectory optimization and debris analysis using ASTOS at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo; Blasco, Ana; Weikert, Sven

    This paper describes the coupling of the space trajectory optimization software ASTOS with a tool for splashdown analysis of separated spacecraft stages and debris called DARS (Destructive Analysis for Re-entry Spacecraft), and a Risk Analysis Module called RAM. ASTOS is a main reference tool for space trajectory optimization at ESA. It is also used to compute demise and break up of rocket stages and re-entry vehicles and analyze the risk to populated areas. ASTOS software is a simulation and optimization environment to compute optimal trajectories for a variety of complex multi-phase optimal control problems. It consists of fast and powerful optimization programs, PROMIS, CAMTOS, SOCS and TROPIC, that handle large and highly discretized problems, a user interface with multiple plot capability, and GISMO, an integrated graphical iteration monitor to review the optimization process and plot the state and control histories at intermediate steps during the optimization. The optimization programs used by ASTOS use Non-Linear Programming (NLP) mathematical solvers like NPSOL, SLSQP, SLLSQP, and SNOPT. These solvers use Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) mathematical algorithms to find the solution of the non-linear programming problems in trajectory optimization. ASTOS comprises an extensive model library, which allows launcher and re-entry spacecraft trajectory optimization without programming work. DARS considers not only a stage break-up, but also ablation and melting of the fragments, taking diverse materials and shapes into account. The paper discusses hazard due to stage and debris impact, considering the ESA launchers and re-entry vehicles as examples. Previous approaches for the impact point calculation during trajectory optimization are presented. Subsequently the results of these approaches are compared to DARS results. This paper shows that ASTOS and the DARS and RAM extensions can calculate impact points with satisfactory accuracy and calculation time

  11. Two ESA astronauts named to early Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Nicollier and three NASA astronauts, who had already been training for a Hubble servicing mission planned for June 2000, have been reassigned to this earlier mission (STS-103). Jean-Francois Clervoy and two other NASA astronauts will complete the STS-103 crew. The repairs and maintenance of the telescope will require many hours spent working outside the Shuttle and will make extensive use of the Shuttle's robotic arm Nicollier, of Swiss nationality and making his fourth flight, will be part of the team that will perform the "spacewalks". An astronomer by education, he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts on the other end of the arm performed the delicate repairs to the telescope. He also served on STS-46 in 1992 using the robotic arm to deploy ESA's Eureca retrievable spacecraft from the Shuttle, and on STS-75 with the Italian Tethered Satellite System in 1996. Nicollier is currently the chief of the robotics branch in NASA's astronaut office and ESA's lead astronaut in Houston. Jean-Francois Clervoy, of French nationality and making his third flight, will have the lead role in the operation of the robotic arm for this mission. He previously served on STS-66 in 1994 using the robotic arm to deploy and later retrieve the German CRISTA-SPAS atmospheric research satellite, and on STS-84 in 1997, a Shuttle mission to the Russian Mir space station. The other STS-103 crewmembers are: Commander Curtis Brown, pilot Scott Kelly, and mission specialists Steven Smith, Michael Foale and John Grunsfeld. During the flight, the astronauts will replace Hubble's failing pointing system, which allows the telescope to aim at stars, planets and other targets, and install other equipment that will be ready for launch at that time. A second mission to complete the previously-scheduled Hubble refurbishment work is foreseen at a later date. The crew for that mission has not yet been assigned. The Hubble

  12. First Prototype of a Web Map Interface for ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a first prototype of a Web Map Interface that will serve as a proof of concept and design for ESA's future fully web-based Planetary Science Archive (PSA) User Interface. The PSA is ESA's planetary science archiving authority and central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's Solar System missions [1]. All data are compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards and are accessible through several interfaces [2]: in addition to serving all public data via FTP and the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), a Java-based User Interface provides advanced search, preview, download, notification and delivery-basket functionality. It allows the user to query and visualise instrument observations footprints using a map-based interface (currently only available for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA instruments). During the last decade, the planetary mapping science community has increasingly been adopting Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and standards, originally developed for and used in Earth science. There is an ongoing effort to produce and share cartographic products through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services, or as standalone data sets, so that they can be readily used in existing GIS applications [3,4,5]. Previous studies conducted at ESAC [6,7] have helped identify the needs of Planetary GIS users, and define key areas of improvement for the future Web PSA User Interface. Its web map interface shall will provide access to the full geospatial content of the PSA, including (1) observation geometry footprints of all remote sensing instruments, and (2) all georeferenced cartographic products, such as HRSC map-projected data or OMEGA global maps from Mars Express. It shall aim to provide a rich user experience for search and visualisation of this content using modern and interactive web mapping technology. A comprehensive set of built-in context maps from external sources, such as MOLA topography, TES

  13. SMILE: a joint ESA/CAS mission to investigate the interaction between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Walfried; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Wang, Chi; Dai, Lei; Donovan, Eric; Enno, Greg; Escoubet, Philippe; Holland, Andrew; Jing, Li; Kataria, Dhiren; Li, Lei; Read, Andy; Rebuffat, Denis; Romstedt, Jens; Runciman, Chris; Sembay, Steve; Spanswick, Emma; Sykes, Jon; Thornhill, Julian; Wielders, Arno; Zhang, Aibing; Zheng, Jianhua

    2016-07-01

    The Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) is a collaborative science mission between ESA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). SMILE is a novel self-standing mission to observe the coupling of the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere via X-Ray imaging of the solar wind - magnetosphere interaction zones, UV imaging of global auroral distributions and simultaneous in-situ solar wind, magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field measurements. The SMILE mission proposal was submitted by a consortium of European, Chinese and Canadian scientists following a joint call for mission by ESA and CAS. It was formally selected by ESA's Science Programme Committee (SPC) as an element of the ESA Science Program in November 2015, with the goal of a launch at the end of 2021. In order to achieve its scientific objectives, the SMILE payload will comprise four instruments: the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), which will spectrally map the Earth's magnetopause, magnetosheath and magnetospheric cusps; the UltraViolet Imager (UVI), dedicated to imaging the auroral regions; the Light Ion Analyser (LIA) and the MAGnetometer (MAG), which will establish the solar wind properties simultaneously with the imaging instruments. We report on the status of the mission and payload developments and the findings of a design study carried out in parallel at the concurrent design facilities (CDF) of ESA and CAS in October/November 2015.

  14. Interest Check List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The original edition of the Department of Labor Interest Check List aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations. The student is advised to read each of approximately 175 items and indicate how he feels about the activity described by placing a…

  15. NSSDC Data Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) are listed. The spacecraft, principal investigator, the experiment, and time span of the data are given. A listing is also included of ground-based data, models, computer routines and composite spacecraft data that are available from NSSDC.

  16. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  17. Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frame Realization with Highly Elliptical Orbit - The ESA STE-QUEST Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svehla, Drazen; Rothacher, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs; Nothnagel, Axel; Willis, Pascal; Biancale, Richard; Ziebart, Marek; Appleby, Graham; Schuh, Harald; Ádám, József; Iess, Luciano; Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    The Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) is a Medium Class fundamental physics mission pre-selected for the M3 slot of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme to test Einstein's Equivalence Principle using atom interferometry and the general and special theory of relativity. Two secondary mission objectives are related to space geodesy: terrestrial and celestial reference frame of the Earth and relativistic geodesy aiming at the realization of unified reference frame for positioning, time, and temporal gravity. The highly elliptical orbit of the STE-QUEST satellite can be used for terrestrial reference frame realization by means of on board GNSS, SLR and VLBI radio source (STE-QUEST metrology link tracked by VLBI antenna - compatible with VLBI2010). By upgrading the on board GNSS receiver for DORIS tracking, the STE-QUEST mission will be similar to the GRASP mission proposal from JPL. Due to the highly elliptical orbit of STE-QUEST (apogee

  18. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission.

    PubMed

    Sims, M R; Pillinger, C T; Wright, I P; Dowson, J; Whitehead, S; Wells, A; Spragg, J E; Fraser, G; Richter, L; Hamacher, H; Johnstone, A; Meredith, N P; de la Nougerede, C; Hancock, B; Turner, R; Peskett, S; Brack, A; Hobbs, J; Newns, M; Senior, A; Humphries, M; Keller, H U; Thomas, N; Lingard, J S; Ng, T C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X-ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies.

  19. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  20. NASA/ESA CT-990 Spacelab simulation. Appendix A: The experiment operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Two experiment operators from Europe and two from the U.S. were selected to live aboard the aircraft along with a mission manager for a six-day period and operate the experiments in behalf of the principal scientists. This appendix discusses the experiment operators and their relationship to the joint mission under the following general headings: selection criteria, training programs, and performance. The performance of the proxy operators was assessed in terms of adequacy of training, amount of scientific data obtained, quality of data obtained, and reactions to problems that arose in experiment operation.

  1. Development of the multi-mode external lighting system for aircraft (M2ESA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John J.

    2005-08-01

    This paper documents the development of the Multi-Mode External Lighting System for Aircraft (M2ESA), a solid-state near-IR and visible light emitting diode-based programmable system designed to replace existing incandescent navigation lights on the exterior of military aircraft, and tailored for use with night vision goggles. Integrated systems of optics, electronics and mechanical structures were designed that were compatible with legacy aircraft systems, and which thus conformed to rigid configuration requirements and severe volume constraints. The genesis of the concept, evolution and general architecture of the system, top-level performance and environmental requirements, integration on the designated aircraft platform (the F-15), and general results of flight demonstration assessments are described.

  2. Status and progress in the Space Surveillance and Tracking Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, E.

    2010-09-01

    In November 2008, the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at Ministerial level approved the start of ESA’s Space Situational Awareness programme. Between 2009 and 2012 a preparatory phase will run that will develop the architectural design of the system, the governance and data policy and the provision of precursor services in the areas of: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near Earth Objects. This paper will concentrate on the first of these segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking. It will develop the following main topics: Customer requirements and their integration, the initiation of an integrated catalogue, extension of correlated data to service provision and international cooperation and data fusion The development of the services resulting from these points will be a key driver in the final architecture. This architecture will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council to further develop a full SSA system from 2012 onwards.

  3. Facilities for Simulation of Microgravity in the ESA Ground-Based Facility Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brungs, Sonja; Egli, Marcel; Wuest, Simon L.; M. Christianen, Peter C.; W. A. van Loon, Jack J.; Ngo Anh, Thu Jennifer; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the role of gravity in fundamental biological processes and, consequently, the impact of exposure to microgravity conditions provide insight into the basics of the development of life as well as enabling long-term space exploration missions. However, experimentation in real microgravity is expensive and scarcely available; thus, a variety of platforms have been developed to provide, on Earth, an experimental condition comparable to real microgravity. With the aim of simulating microgravity conditions, different ground-based facilities (GBF) have been constructed such as clinostats and random positioning machines as well as magnets for magnetic levitation. Here, we give an overview of ground-based facilities for the simulation of microgravity which were used in the frame of an ESA ground-based research programme dedicated to providing scientists access to these experimental capabilities in order to prepare their space experiments.

  4. Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.; Murphy IV, Frank V.; Gould, Ty A.; Jambeck, Per; Val, Dale L.; Cronan, Jr., John E.; Beck von Bodman, Susan; Churchill, Mair E.A.

    2009-04-22

    Acyl-homoserine-L-lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33 {angstrom}. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified.

  5. Spaceborne lasers development for ALADIN instrument on board ADM-Aeolus ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Alberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Bravetti, Paolo; Suetta, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    ALADIN TXA is the first in the world All-Solid-State, Compact, Transmitterlaser Assembly for the first in the world Doppler Wind Lidar inside the ESA Aeolus mission. Its optical architecture is that of a MOPA, medium energy, pulsed, frequency tripled, tunable, almost single transverse and single longitudinal mode Nd:YAG lasers with 50 Hz PRF and a three years in-orbit lifetime. A brief resume of the design, together with the qualification approach and the main experimental results obtained with the two flight models are presented. The main technological challenges faced during the program development and the lesson learnt for future space All-Solid-State lasers will complete the paper.

  6. Identification and Analysis of Landing sites for the ESA ExoMars Rover (2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Bridges, John; Fawdon, Peter; Grindrod, Peter; Gupta, Sanjeev; Michalski, Joe; Conway, Susan

    2014-05-01

    spatial filters in a GIS (Geographical Information systems) to define regions of Mars where landing could be possible. We have used published geological maps of Mars to define areas that are of the appropriate age and integrated published catalogues of morphological indicators of standing water (e.g. delta-like landforms) and of layered terrains, and of the locations and spectral characteristics of minerals indicative of the action of water. Using this GIS we identified ~25 study areas that held promise scientifically, and into which one or more landing 'uncertainty ellipses' could be fitted without breaching the engineering constraints. For each of these, we obtained and processed imaging data (from the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 'CTX' instrument and the ESA Mars Express Orbiter 'HRSC' instrument), high resolution topographic data (again, from ESA's HRSC), and mineralogical data (based on infrared spectrometry data obtained by ESA's OMEGA instrument and NASA's CRISM instrument. Using these data we down-selected to five sites that had the highest potential and which, in some cases, had not been well-described previously in the peer-reviewed literature. At the time of writing, we are undertaking further geomorphological and mineralogical mapping of these sites, with the expectation of submitting 1-3 sites to ESA's ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group by the deadline set at end of February 2014. In this presentation we detail the GIS and terrain analysis element of the work we have done, and describe how the diverse data types and team abilities were harnessed to solve the challenging problem created by ExoMars' stringent scientific and engineering constraints.

  7. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, M. R.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Dowson, J.; Whitehead, S.; Wells, A.; Spragg, J. E.; Fraser, G.; Richter, L.; Hamacher, H.; Johnstone, A.; Meredith, N. P.; de La Nougerede, C.; Hancock, B.; Turner, R.; Peskett, S.; Brack, A.; Hobbs, J.; Newns, M.; Senior, A.; Humphries, M.; Keller, H. U.; Thomas, N.; Lingard, J. S.; Underwood, J. C.; Sale, N. M.; Neal, M. F.; Klingelhofer, G.; Ng, T. C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X- ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies.

  8. Development of Jettisonable Fluid Ground Connector for the ESA Next Generation Launcher Cryogenic Upper Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Nick

    2014-06-01

    RUAG Space have successfully designed, developed and tested a new cryogenic connector sub-system for Hydrogen and Oxygen Filling and Venting of a potential launcher Upper Stage tank. The work was performed within the ESA Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies, Future Launchers Preparatory Programme. The scope of the work was the development of this technology within Europe to a Technology Readiness Level of 5. Basic requirements were that the connector is jettisoned at lift-off, and that the filling of tanks located within the payload fairing volume is feasible. Beginning with concept studies, basic approaches were described and traded off, and more detailed designs and analyses performed for selected concepts. Experimental validation of the connector design was performed using extensive testing to simulate the fluid, mechanical, dynamic and thermal environments of the connector in pre-launch, lift-off and flight conditions.

  9. ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

    2010-05-01

    synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified

  10. New Facility For Micro-Vibration Measurements ESA Reaction Wheel Characterisation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decobert, Francois; Wagner, Mark; Airey, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    A micro-vibration measurement table has been developed by ESA and SEREME for the measurement of micro forces at high frequencies. The motivation for the Research and Development of this new equipment was the characterisation of reaction wheel dynamic behavior which may influence the pointing stability of observation satellites. There was the need to have an improved test equipment being able to quantify very low level forces and moments in 6 degrees of freedom. The measured data can be used as input to numerical analysis and simulation to derive a prediction of the dynamic disturbances induced by the operation of a reaction wheel. The new facility combines higher frequency capability i.e. first bare table resonance modes higher than 1250 Hz with high measurement sensitivity and low force threshold (20mN respectively 2mNm).

  11. The cytotoxic effect of Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) on cancer cells and its application to molecular probe for drug delivery system using lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, T; Ohama, Y; Fukuda, A; Hayashi, M; Kawakubo, A; Kato, K

    2001-07-01

    Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) derived from a marine red alga, Eucheuma serra, is a lectin that specifically binds to mannose-rich carbohydrate chains. ESA is a monomeric molecule, with a molecular weight of29,000. ESA induced cell death against several cancer cell lines, such as colon cancer Colo201 cells and cervix cancer HeLa cells. DNA ladder detection and the induction of caspase-3 activity suggested that the cell death induced by ESA against cancer cells was apoptosis. ESA bound to the cell surface of Colo201 cells in the sugar chain dependent manner. This means that the binding of ESA to the cell surface is specific for mannose-rich sugar chains recognized by ESA. The binding of ESA to the cell surface of Colo201 cells was slightly suppressed by the high concentrations of serum because of the competition with serum components possessing the mannose-rich sugar chain motifs. On the other hand, a lipid vesicle is a very useful microcapsule constructed by multilamellar structure,and adopted as drug or gene carrier. ESA was immobilized on the surface of the lipid vesicles to apply the lipid vesicles to cancer specific drug delivery system. ESA-immobilized lipid vesicles were effectively bound to cancer cell lines compared with plane vesicles.

  12. ESA's billion star surveyor - Flight operations experience from Gaia's first 1.5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, D.; Rudolph, A.; Whitehead, G.; Loureiro, T.; Serpell, E.; di Marco, F.; Marie, J.; Ecale, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper details the initial in-flight mission operations experience from ESA's ultra-precise Gaia spacecraft. Tasked with mapping the positions and movements of 1 billion stars to unprecedented precision (to the 10 s of micro-arc-second level, comparable to the width of a coin on the Moon as viewed from Earth). ESA's Science cornerstone mission is expected to also discover and chart 100,000's of new objects including near Earth Asteroids, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and Quasars. After a flawless launch 19 Dec 2013, Gaia was brought the circa 1.5 million kms into L2 via a sequence of technically demanding orbit transfer manoeuvres using onboard thrusters in thrust vectoring mode. Starting in parallel to this, and lasting 6 months, the full spacecraft was commissioned and brought gradually up to the highest operational mode. A number of problems were detected and tackled during commissioning and early routine phase operations. An apparent dimming of the on-board laser and imaged stars, was tracked down to water ice building up inside the telescope enclosure. Also apparent was more straylight than expected. Elsewhere, a micro-propulsion thruster developed unexpected performance levels and a back-up chemical thruster suffered a failed latch valve. These issues, like several others, were dealt with and solved in a series of review meetings, in-orbit special operations and newly developed procedures and on-board software changes. After commissioning Gaia was working so well that it was producing approximately 45% more science data than originally foreseen, primarily since it was able to see stars fainter than required. The mission operations concept was quickly adapted to partially automate ground operations and increase ground station time to allow the full scientific potential of Gaia to be realised.

  13. Monitoring of the reflectors of ESA's Planck telescope by close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parian, Jafar Amiri; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro

    2007-11-01

    The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. Planck's objective is to analyze, with the highest accuracy ever achieved, the remnants of the radiation that filled the universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the cosmic microwave background. To achieve this aim well-manufactured reflectors are used as parts of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of the Secondary and Primary Reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with diameters of 1.1 and 1.9 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at temperatures down to 95K, using close-range photogrammetric techniques. We have designed an optimal close-range photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the Primary and Secondary Reflectors with a mean relative precision better than 1:1,000,000 and 1:400,000, respectively, to achieve the requested accuracies. Special considerations have been taken into account in different steps of design, such as the determinability of additional parameters under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources of errors. A least squares best-fit ellipsoid was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflector. We present our procedure and the results of processing the photogrammetric measurements of the Flight Models of the Primary and Secondary Reflectors which were executed by Thales Alenia Space France under ESA-ESTEC contract in vacuum and at very low temperatures.

  14. ESA New Generation Science Archives: New Technologies Applied to Graphical User Interface Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Arviset, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Castellanos, J.; Cheek, N.; Costa, H.; Fajersztejn, N.; Gonzalez, J.; Laruelo, A.; Leon, I.; Ortiz, I.; Osuna, P.; Salgado, J.; Stebe, A.; Tapiador, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Science Archives and VO Team (SAT) has undertaken the effort to build state of the art sub-systems for its new generation of archives. At the time of writing this abstract, the new technology has already been applied to the creation of the SOHO and EXOSAT Science Archive s and will be used to re-engineer some of the already existing ESA Science Archives in the future. The Graphical User Interface sub-system has been designed and developed upon the premises of building a lightweight rich client application to query and retrieve scientific data quickly and efficiently; special attention has been paid to the usability and ergonomics of the interface. The system architecture relies on the Model View Controller pattern, which isolates logic from the graphical interface. Multiple window layout arrangements are possible using a docking windows framework with virtually no limitations (InfoNode). New graphical components have been developed to fulfill project-specific user requirements. For example video animations can be generated at runtime based on image data requests matching a specific search criteria. In addition, interoperability is achieved with other tools for data visualization purposes using internationally approved standards (c.f., IVOA SAMP), a messaging protocol already adopted by several analysis tools (ds9, Aladin, Gaia). In order to avoid the increasingly common network constraints affecting the end-user’s daily work the system has been designed to cope with possible restrictive firewall set up. Therefore, ESA New Generation archives are accessible from anyplace where standard basic port 80 HTTP connections are available.

  15. The ESA SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; SMART-1 Science and Technology Working Team

    2000-10-01

    SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The project aims to have the spacecraft ready in October 2002 for launch as an Ariane-5 auxiliary payload. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 15 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemica composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin

  16. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission in ESA assessment study phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert; Barucci, Antonella; Michel, Patrick; Böhnhardt, Hermann; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian; Green, Simon; Lara, Luisa; Marty, Bernard; Romstedt, Jens; Agnolon, David; Koschny, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is an European-led sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive (341843) 2008 EV5, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes and it will provide a sample from a known target with known geological context. Direct investigation of both the regolith and fresh interior fragments is also impossible by any means other than sample return. Primitive material, having experienced less alteration on the asteroid, will be more friable and would not survive atmospheric entry in any discernible amount. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority by a number of the leading space agencies.

  17. NASA's Deep Space Network and ESA's Tracking Network Collaboration to Enable Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Sami; Accomazzo, Andrea; Firre, Daniel; Ferri, Paolo; Liebrecht, Phil; Mann, Greg; Morse, Gary; Costrell, Jim; Kurtik, Susan; Hell, Wolfgang; Warhaut, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Planetary missions travel vast distances in the solar system to explore and answer important scientific questions. To return the data containing their discoveries, communications challenges have to be overcome, namely the relatively low transmitter power, typically 20 Watts at X-band, and the one-over-the-square of the distance loss of the received power, among other factors. These missions were enabled only when leading space agencies developed very large communications antennas to communicate with them as well as provide radio-metric navigation tools. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's ESTRACK network are distributed geographically in order to provide global coverage and utilize stations ranging in size from 34 m to 70 m in diameter. With the increasing number of missions and significant loading on networks' capacity, unique requirements during critical events, and long-baseline interferometry navigation techniques, it became obvious that collaboration between the networks was necessary and in the interest of both agencies and the advancement of planetary and space sciences. NASA and ESA established methods for collaboration that include a generic cross-support agreement as well as mission-specific memoranda of understanding. This collaboration also led to the development of international inter-operability standards. As a result of its success, the DSN-ESTRACK cross support approach is serving as a model for other agencies with similar stations and an interest in collaboration. Over recent years, many critical events were supported and some scientific breakthroughs in planetary science were enabled. This paper will review selected examples of the science resulting from this work and the overall benefits for deep space exploration, including lessons learned, from inter-agency collaboration with communications networks.

  18. Harmonisation and diagnostics of MIPAS ESA CH4 and N2O profiles using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errera, Quentin; Ceccherini, Simone; Christophe, Yves; Chabrillat, Simon; Hegglin, Michaela I.; Lambert, Alyn; Ménard, Richard; Raspollini, Piera; Skachko, Sergey; van Weele, Michiel; Walker, Kaley A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses assimilation experiments of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) profiles retrieved from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). Here we focus on data versions 6 and 7 provided by the ESA processor. These data sets have been assimilated by the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE). The CH4 and N2O retrieved profiles can oscillate, especially in the tropical lower stratosphere. Using the averaging kernels of the observations and a background error covariance matrix, which has previously been calibrated, allows the system to partly remedy this issue and provide assimilated fields that are more regular vertically. In general, there is a good agreement between the BASCOE analyses and independent observations from ACE-FTS (CH4 and N2O) and MLS (N2O), demonstrating the general good quality of CH4 and N2O retrievals provided by MIPAS ESA. Nevertheless, this study also identifies two issues in these data sets. First, time series of the observations show unexpected discontinuities due to an abrupt change in the gain of MIPAS band B, generally occurring after the instrument decontamination. Since the calibration is performed weekly, the abrupt change in the gain affects the measurements until the subsequent calibration is performed. Second, the correlations between BASCOE analyses and independent observations are poor in the lower stratosphere, especially in the tropics, probably due to the presence of outliers in the assimilated data. In this region, we recommend using MIPAS CH4 and N2O retrievals with caution.

  19. Wildlife Legislation before and after the Endangered Species Act of 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Dorothy A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent federal legislation on endangered species, the early history of wildlife legislation, and administration of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Annotated lists of congressional hearings and reports, laws, and comments on the laws are attached, as well as chronological listings of acts and court decisions. (MES)

  20. Development of New European VLIW Space DSP ASICS, IP Cores and Related Software via ESA Contracts in 2015 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautner, R.

    2015-09-01

    European space industry needs a new generation of payload data processors in order to cope with in-creasing payload data processing requirements. ESA has defined a roadmap for the development of future payload processor hardware which is being implemented. A key part of this roadmap addresses the development of VLIW Digital Signal Processor (DSP) ASICs, IP cores and associated software. In this paper, we first present an overview of the ESA roadmap and the key development routes. We recapitulate the activities that have created the technology base for the ongoing DSP development, and present the ASIC development and several accompanying activities that will lead to the availability of a new space qualified DSP - the Scalable Sensor Data Processor (SSDP) - in the near future. We then present the expected future evolution of this technology area, and summarize the corresponding ESA roadmap part on VLIW DSPs and related IP and software.

  1. 78 FR 69310 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Protective Regulations for the Gulf of Maine Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... oxyrinchus). On February 6, 2012, we listed the Gulf of Maine DPS of Atlantic sturgeon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). When a species is listed as threatened under the ESA, we are required to issue protective regulations under section 4(d) of the ESA. Such protective regulations...

  2. 40 CFR 68.130 - List of substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... methyl ether 107-30-2 5,000 b Crotonaldehyde 4170-30-3 20,000 b Crotonaldehyde, (E)- 123-73-9 20,000 b...,000 e 10025-87-3 Phosphorus oxychloride 5,000 b 10049-04-4 Chlorine dioxide 1,000 c 10102-43-9 Nitric... Act are the substances listed in Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4. Threshold quantities for listed toxic...

  3. 40 CFR 68.130 - List of substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... methyl ether 107-30-2 5,000 b Crotonaldehyde 4170-30-3 20,000 b Crotonaldehyde, (E)- 123-73-9 20,000 b...,000 e 10025-87-3 Phosphorus oxychloride 5,000 b 10049-04-4 Chlorine dioxide 1,000 c 10102-43-9 Nitric... Act are the substances listed in Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4. Threshold quantities for listed toxic...

  4. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this listing, Satellite Data, is in an abbreviated form compared to the data catalogs published by NSSDC. It is organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are printed for each spacecraft. The experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name following the spacecraft name. The experiment name and NSSDC ID are printed for each experiment. The data sets are listed by NSSDC ID following the experiment name. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are printed for each data set.

  5. 77 FR 61407 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information... Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). To request a copy of these requests, call the CDC...

  6. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    The scientific payload was confirmed by ESA's Science Programme Committee in February. Now the scientists must perfect the full range of ultra-sensitive yet spaceworthy instruments in good time for Rosetta's despatch by an Ariane 5 launcher in January 2003. And even as most of the world was admiring Comet Hale-Bopp at its brightest, dedicated astronomers were examining the comet that will be Rosetta's target. Although too faint to be seen with the naked eye, Comet Wirtanen made its closest approach to the Sun on 14 March and a fairly close approach to the Earth on 24 March. This comet comes back every 5.5 years. Rosetta will dance attendance on Comet Wirtanen, not at the next return in 2002, nor even in 2008, but in 2013. The project is an ambitious and patient effort to achieve the most thorough investigation of a comet ever attempted. As the successor to ESA's highly successful Giotto mission to Halley's Comet and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (which took seven years) Rosetta will spend eight years positioning itself. It will manoeuvre around the planets until it is shadowing Comet Wirtanen far beyond Mars, on nearly the same path around the Sun. In 2011 it will rendezvous with the comet and fly near it. In April 2012 Rosetta will go into a near orbit around Comet Wirtanen, and escort it for 17 busy months, as it flies in to make its closest approach to the Sun in September 2013, at the climax of the mission. "The Giotto mission placed us at the forefront of cometary exploration," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "The motivation came from European scientists with a sharp sense of the special importance of comets for understanding the Solar System. The same enthusiasm drives us onward to Rosetta, which will ensure our continued leadership in this important branch of space science." Scientific tasks During its prolonged operations in very close company with the comet's nucleus, Rosetta will map and examine its entire surface from distances of 10 to 50

  7. [The National List of recommendations-- what is it based on?].

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Jens P; Glintborg, Dorte; Bygsø, Mikael Juul

    2009-03-02

    The National List of recommendations is a scientific survey of the most used drugs. It separates the drugs into three groups: 1) recommended drugs, 2) drugs only to be used in special circumstances, and 3) drugs which should not be used in normal circumstances because of too limited efficacy or serious adverse reactions. The list is made by specialists chosen by the scientific bodies. The Institute of Rational Pharmacotherapy acts as secretariat. The primary selection criterion is the relationship between effect and adverse reactions, while price issues are not considered. Special consideration has been given to how the effect is expressed, composite measurements of effect and to extrapolation. The list, which is updated annually, is available at the IRF's homepage. The list of recommendations is primarily an instrument for general practitioners and drug committees; in future it should be integrated into the regional drug lists.

  8. 76 FR 67401 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... 54423) a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under...

  9. 75 FR 14905 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Quarterly Listing of Program Issuances-October Through December 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...-approved bariatric surgery facilities. Section 1871(c) of the Social Security Act requires that we publish... order to receive coverage for bariatric surgery procedures. Addendum XVI includes a listing of Medicare... list of Medicare-approved lung volume reduction surgery facilities, a list of...

  10. Associative list processing unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  11. An Energy Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VocEd, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Selected energy resource information, from both federal and private sources, is listed under funding, general information and assistance, recycling, solar, transportation, utilities, and wind power. Books, pamphlets, films, journals, newsletters, and other materials are included. (MF)

  12. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify, in a highly summarized way, data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Most data are maintained as offline data sets gathered from individual instruments carried on spacecraft; these comprise the Satellite Data Listing. Descriptive names, time spans, data form, and quality of these data sets are identified in the listing, which is sorted alphabetically, first by spacecraft name and then by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name. Several data sets not associated with individual spaceflight instruments are identified in separate listings following the Satellite Data Listing. These include composite spacecraft data sets, ground based data, models, and computer routines. NSSDC also offers data via special services and systems in a number of areas, including the Astronomical Data Center, Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops, NASA Climate Data System, Pilot Land Data System, and Crustal Dynamics Data Information System.

  13. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  14. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  15. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-05-29

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells.

  16. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-01-01

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells. PMID:26035023

  17. Science of the Joint ESA-NASA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Michel; Greeley, Ron

    2010-05-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), an international joint mission under study by NASA and ESA, has the overarching theme to investigate the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites—three of which are believed to harbor internal oceans—are the key to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. To this end, the reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO will execute a coordinated exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO carry sets of complementary instruments, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. Encompassed within the overall mission theme are two science goals, (1) Determine whether the Jupiter System harbors habitable worlds and (2) Characterize the processes within the Jupiter System. The science objectives addressed by the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressed by the second goal are to: i) understand the

  18. The Pilot Project 'Optical Image Correlation' of the ESA Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform (GTEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Since more than 20 years, "Earth Observation" (EO) satellites developed or operated by ESA have provided a wealth of data. In the coming years, the Sentinel missions, along with the Copernicus Contributing Missions as well as Earth Explorers and other, Third Party missions will provide routine monitoring of our environment at the global scale, thereby delivering an unprecedented amount of data. While the availability of the growing volume of environmental data from space represents a unique opportunity for science, general R&D, and applications, it also poses major challenges to fully exploit the potential of archived and daily incoming datasets. Those challenges do not only comprise the discovery, access, processing, and visualization of large data volumes but also an increasing diversity of data sources and end users from different fields (e.g. EO, in-situ monitoring, and modeling). In this context, the GTEP (Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform) initiative aims to build an operational distributed processing platform to maximize the exploitation of EO data from past and future satellite missions for the detection and monitoring of natural hazards. This presentation focuses on the "Optical Image Correlation" Pilot Project (funded by ESA within the GTEP platform) which objectives are to develop an easy-to-use, flexible and distributed processing chain for: 1) the automated reconstruction of surface Digital Elevation Models from stereo (and tristereo) pairs of Spot 6/7 and Pléiades satellite imagery, 2) the creation of ortho-images (panchromatic and multi-spectral) of Landsat 8, Sentinel-2, Spot 6/7 and Pléiades scenes, 3) the calculation of horizontal (E-N) displacement vectors based on sub-pixel image correlation. The processing chains is being implemented on the GEP cloud-based (Hadoop, MapReduce) environment and designed for analysis of surface displacements at local to regional scale (10-1000 km2) targeting in particular co-seismic displacement and slow

  19. Shape modeling technique KOALA validated by ESA Rosetta at (21) Lutetia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carry, B.; Kaasalainen, M.; Merline, W. J.; Müller, T. G.; Jorda, L.; Drummond, J. D.; Berthier, J.; O'Rourke, L.; Ďurech, J.; Küppers, M.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P.; Dumas, C.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    We present here a comparison of our results from ground-based observations of asteroid (21) Lutetia with imaging data acquired during the flyby of the asteroid by the ESA Rosetta mission. This flyby provided a unique opportunity to evaluate and calibrate our method of determination of size, 3-D shape, and spin of an asteroid from ground-based observations. Knowledge of certain observable physical properties of small bodies (e.g., size, spin, 3-D shape, and density) have far-reaching implications in furthering our understanding of these objects, such as composition, internal structure, and the effects of non-gravitational forces. We review the different observing techniques used to determine the above physical properties of asteroids and present our 3-D shape-modeling technique KOALA - Knitted Occultation, Adaptive-optics, and Lightcurve Analysis - which is based on multi-dataset inversion. We compare the results we obtained with KOALA, prior to the flyby, on asteroid (21) Lutetia with the high-spatial resolution images of the asteroid taken with the OSIRIS camera on-board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, during its encounter with Lutetia on 2010 July 10. The spin axis determined with KOALA was found to be accurate to within 2°, while the KOALA diameter determinations were within 2% of the Rosetta-derived values. The 3-D shape of the KOALA model is also confirmed by the spectacular visual agreement between both 3-D shape models (KOALA pre- and OSIRIS post-flyby). We found a typical deviation of only 2 km at local scales between the profiles from KOALA predictions and OSIRIS images, resulting in a volume uncertainty provided by KOALA better than 10%. Radiometric techniques for the interpretation of thermal infrared data also benefit greatly from the KOALA shape model: the absolute size and geometric albedo can be derived with high accuracy, and thermal properties, for example the thermal inertia, can be determined unambiguously. The corresponding Lutetia analysis leads

  20. 75 FR 36035 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Cumberland Darter, Rush Darter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the Cumberland darter (Etheostoma susanae), rush darter (Etheostoma phytophilum), yellowcheek darter (Etheostoma moorei), chucky madtom (Noturus crypticus), and laurel dace (Phoxinus saylori) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's......