Copeland, Anne P.; And Others
This study examined the Family Relationships Grid (FRG), a new measure of family structure that evaluates alliances, identification, isolation, and the relative strength of sibling and marital relationships. Subjects were 52 female and 35 male adolescents who were recruited through a university course and who each had at least one sibling.…
McLanahan, Sara; Beck, Audrey N.
As nonmarital childbearing escalated in the United States over the past half century, fragile families--defined as unmarried couples with children--drew increased interest from researchers and policy makers. Sara McLanahan and Audrey Beck discuss four aspects of parental relationships in these families: the quality of parents' intimate…
Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten
The first aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the larger network of family relationships (parent-adolescent, marital, and sibling relations) affect adolescent adjustment. The second aim was to identify distinct patterns of family relationships and to examine whether these different family relationship patterns are…
... Hour Division 29 CFR Part 825 RIN 1215-AB76 and RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY... certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15, 2012, the... for Comment The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) proposes revisions to the Family and Medical...
A multitude of empirical studies clearly demonstrates that the origin and course of eating disorders is closely linked to family factors. The influence is exerted in a direct way by conveying attitudes towards food, eating, weight, shape and appearance within the family and in a more indirect way by the family relationships. Families of bulimics differ from those of anorexics by a higher degree of conflict, impulsivity, expressiveness and by lower affective resonance and cohesion. Family therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of eating disorders. A sketch of a family therapy describes the conflict oriented approach which includes behavioral elements in oder to stabilize the eating behavior and the weight.
...This Final Rule amends certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (the FMLA or the Act) to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the Act made by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which extends the availability of FMLA leave to family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of the......
Ho, Joyce; Birman, Dina
Vietnamese immigrants in the United States face acculturation challenges involving the individual, family, and community. Experts suggest that immigrant family members acculturate at different rates resulting in an acculturation gap, which negatively influences family adjustment. In this study we examined the degree and patterns of acculturation differences between 104 first generation immigrant Vietnamese adolescents and their parents, and whether acculturation gap affected family relationships. Operationalizing the “gap” as both absolute value of differences in acculturation and interactions of parent and adolescent acculturation levels, we examined the impact of such gaps in Vietnamese and American language, identity, and behavioral acculturation on family relationships. Results revealed that family cohesion and satisfaction were predicted by gaps in Vietnamese identity acculturation, but not by gaps in other acculturation domains. PMID:20161537
Lord Nelson, L.G.; Summers, J.e.a.n.A.n.n.; Turnbull, A.P.
The issue of boundaries between professionals and individuals/families is well documented within the clinical fields of counseling and social work but not thoroughly investigated in special education. Because maintaining quality relationships between families and educators is important, the development of appropriate guidelines requires a thorough…
Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David
The Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale, which consists of the Cohesion, Expressiveness, and Conflict subscales, measures a person's perception of the quality of his or her family relationship functioning. This study investigates an adaptation of the Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale for Alaska Native youth. The authors tested the adapted measure, the Brief Family Relationship Scale, for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 12- to 18-year-old predominately Yup'ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents from rural, remote communities. This non-Western cultural group is hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism traditionally organized around an extended kinship family structure. Results demonstrate a subset of the adapted items function satisfactorily, a three-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale's underlying structure is best described through three distinct first-order factors, organized under one higher order factor. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Brief Family Relationship Scale was assessed through correlational analysis.
Kent, J S; Clopton, J R
This study examined the relationship between bulimia and family variables. Eight hundred twenty female college students completed a personal history questionnaire, the Bulimia Test, and the Eating Disorders Inventory. Twenty-four subjects who met the DSM-III-R criteria for bulimia were compared with 24 subclinical bulimics and 24 symptom-free subjects on demographic and family variables, including subscales from the Family Environment Scale and the Parental Bonding Instrument. Significant group differences indicated that the families of bulimics differ from other families. However, in contrast to the findings of research done in treatment settings, bulimics in this nonclinical setting did not report more family conflict or less caring from their parents than did symptom-free subjects.
... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The Family and Medical Leave Act. 825.100 Section 825.100... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or...
... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The Family and Medical Leave Act. 825.100 Section 825.100... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Family and Medical Leave Act. 825.100 Section 825.100... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or...
Rohlfs, Rori V; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S
With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.
Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.
With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758
The Senate Human Resources Subcommittee under the chairmanship of Senator Alan Cranston has completed its work on the Family Planning Services and Population Research Amendments of 1973 (S. 1708) and has referred the bill to the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee. Right-to-Life activists are zeroing in on committee members in hopes of amending the bill to prohibit federal funds for sterilization and continued research on abortifacient drugs. If such provisions were to be approved, it would prohibit men from obtaining vasectomies with federal assistance and eliminate what has become a most popular birth control method for couples who have reached their desired family size. Such a prohibition would be especially discriminatory of low income males who cannot afford to finance a vasectomy through the private health care system. Banning use of IUDs by federal family planning agencies could also interfere with valuable cancer research and the treatment of such ailments as asthma and duodenal ulcers. The Senate Labor Committee needs to be fully advised as to the dangerous implications of these provisions and of the public opposition to their enactment. Vocalize your opposition today by urging the committee to exclude such amendments from the legislation they send to the Senate. The committee members are: Chairman: Williams, New Jersy; Randolph, West Virginia; Pell, Rhode Island; Kennedy, Massachusetts; Nelson, Vermont; Mondale, Minnesota; Eagleton, Missouri; Cranston, California; Hughes, Iowa; Hathaway, Maine; Javits, New York; Dominick, Colorado; Schweiker, Pennsylvania; Taft, Ohio; Beall, Maryland; and Stafford, Vermont.
Dickinson, Annette R; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Deb
This hermeneutic phenomenological study explores the relationship between health professionals and families who have a child with a chronic illness. Study participants included 10 family groups who had a child with a chronic illness and 12 practitioners from the disciplines of nursing, medicine, dietetics, physiotherapy and speech therapy. Data were collected by narrative audiotaped interviewing. The results of this study revealed that chronic childhood illness 'throws' families and practitioners together into a web of relationships, which must work for the sake of the child. However, children are usually excluded from the relationship. To understand and manage the child's illness, practitioners and families 'go around' and act 'in-between' relationships. While the quality of the relationship from the family perspective is not essential, relationships are more successful when practitioners recognize the uniqueness of each family web. The nature of the relationship is often simple, yet it coexists with complexity.
Perozich, J.; Nicholas, H.; Wang, B. C.; Lindahl, R.; Hempel, J.
One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project. PMID:10210192
Ruby, James R.; Ruby, Nanci Carol
Expressive therapy interventions are a useful resource for counselors working with a wide range of presenting issues. This article illustrates a series of improvisational acting exercises that can be used within a family counseling context. Clear directions for specific exercises are provided, along with illustrative case examples.
Intergenerational ambivalence-the simultaneous presence of both positive and negative dimensions of a parent-child tie-is a concept widely used in family studies. Scholars have clarified the measurement of psychological ambivalence, or an individual's own feelings of ambivalence towards others. Yet research has yet to demonstrate whether-and, if so, how-individuals characterize others as ambivalent. Moreover, relatively little is known about ambivalence in gay and lesbian families. In the present study 60 in-depth interviews were analyzed to identify what the author calls perceived ambivalence in the parent, sibling, extended kin, and "in-law" relationships of gay and lesbian adults. Perceived ambivalence is revealed through gay and lesbian adults' characterizations of family members' simultaneous positive and negative overt and covert beliefs and behavior. In addition, the author refines the concept of collective ambivalence, wherein perceived ambivalence typifies an entire family unit. The findings further revealed the importance of broader sociological factors, such as homophobia, in structuring perceived ambivalence.
Lustig, Daniel C.; Xu, Yonghong Jade; Strauser, David R.
Family of origin relationships are an important influence on career decision-making. The current study investigates the relationship between family cohesion, expressiveness and conflict and dysfunctional career thoughts. The Family Environment Scale-Form R (Moos & Moos, 2009) measured the family environment and the Career Thoughts Inventory…
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses.
Crouter, Ann C.; Booth, Alan
The central premise of this volume is that children bring personal qualities to their relationships with other family members that help shape family interaction, relationships, and even processes that family researchers have called "parenting." The chapters address how children's personal qualities make their mark on families in ways that may in…
DiPrima, Amy J.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gnilka, Philip B.; Noble, Christina L.
Several authors have suggested that perfectionism develops in the context of a person's family of origin. However, there are few empirical studies that address the relationship between family variables and perfectionism. This study examined the relationship between family variables and multidimensional perfectionism among a sample of 253…
Austin, Wendy; Goble, Erika; Strang, Vicki; Mitchell, Agnes; Thompson, Elizabeth; Lantz, Helen; Balt, Linda; Lemermeyer, Gillian; Vass, Kelly
In this Canadian study, a participatory action research approach was used to examine the relationships between families of residents of traditional continuing care facilities and the health care team. The objectives were to (a) explore the formation and maintenance of family-staff relationships, with attention paid to the relational elements of engagement and mutual respect; (b) explore family and staff perspectives of environmental supports and constraints; and (c) identify practical ways to support and enhance these relationships. Results indicate that the resource-constrained context of continuing care has directly impacted family and staff relationships. The nature of these relationships are discussed using the themes of "Everybody Knows Your Name," "Loss and Laundry," "It's the Little Things That Count," and "The Chasm of Us Versus Them." Families' and staff's ideas of behaviors that support or undermine relationships are identified, as are concrete suggestions for improving family- staff relationships in traditional continuing care settings in Canada.
Shea, Catherine A.
The soundness of the home-school relationship depends on mutual trust and understanding. This relationship is now at risk because schools have not adjusted to single-parent and step-families. Concern about the home-school relationship has increased over the last decade. However, accompanying the recent rise in non-nuclear families is a gap in…
Edgar-Smith, Susan E.; Wozniak, Robert H.
This study measured the relational family values system of upper-middle-class mothers, fathers, and adolescents in the United States. Results revealed that participants shared common family values that mainly reflected the importance of individualism, equality in family relationships, family member interdependence, and parental guidance. Parent…
Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…
Scherrer, Kristin S.
This paper describes the intergenerational family relationships of grandparents and GLBQ grandchildren. Reviewing empirical research on GLBQ family of origin relationships that include materials on grandparent-GLBQ grandchild relationships, this paper examines, 1) disclosure patterns with grandparents, 2) social expectations that exist about “coming out” to grandparents, 3) social expectations of GLBQ grandchildren when “coming out” to grandparents, 4) the mediating role of parents and other extended family in grandparent-GLBQ grandchild relationships, and 5) theorizing differences amongst grandparent-GLBQ grandchild relationships. This review indicates that grandparents have been overlooked in existing empirical research in research on GLBQ family relationships. Grandparents may be a unique source of support for younger GLBQ individuals and their parents. Future research may usefully incorporate grandparents, as well as other extended family members, to better understand the experience of “coming out” in families. PMID:20865130
Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma
This study sought to examine the association between adolescents’ relationship with family and school and depressive symptoms across ethnic/racial groups (White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian), and to test potentially unique explanatory power in youth-family relationship versus youth-school relationship, in a sample of 4,783 adolescents. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a 19-item, modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The results indicated that youth-family relationship and youth-school relationship were significant predictors of adolescent depression. However, the findings of the study indicated that unique contributions by youth-family relationship and youth-school relationship were different by racial/ethnic groups. These findings elucidate protective factors for adolescent depression and highlight the importance of cultural context of each racial/ethnic group. PMID:20454598
Gurung, Regan A. R.; And Others
Current family relationships not only form an important part of most people's social networks but also influence global perceptions of social support. Using multiple regression techniques, this study investigated the roles of students' perceptions of their family environment and the quality of specific student-parent relationships in predicting…
Pratt, Charlotte; Doyle, Margaret
The relationship of family environment to food use and nutrient intakes was investigated among a sample of working mothers in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The family environment scale that measured cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, intellectual-cultural orientation, morals and religious emphasis, organization, and control in the family was used to…
Marshall, Amy J; Harper-Jaques, Sandy
Like a pebble that creates ripples when dropped into still water, depression is a health problem with an impact that reaches beyond the individual to touch family members. This health problem can limit the individual's ability to function and can create distress for loved ones. In this article, the authors present a clinical vignette about maternal depression to highlight the reciprocal nature of depression and family functioning. Family focused interventions based on the Calgary Family Intervention Model and the Illness Beliefs Model are presented and include psychoeducation, circular pattern diagrams, and therapeutic letters. The authors conclude the article with a discussion of implications for nursing practice.
Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B
Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.
This second chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" presents four articles that deal with family relationships in early adolescence. "Teen-Parent Relationship Enrichment Through Choice Awareness," by Richard Nelson and Marsha Link, describes a process through which counselors may help to enrich relationships between teenagers…
Raikes, Helen H.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope
This article begins with vignettes illustrating some of the concerns that parents have about relationships in child care. It may be helpful for teachers, students, and directors to reflect on the feelings of parents about relationships in child care. It may also be helpful for parents to recognize the universality of common questions of parents.…
Henry, Jane; Parthasarathy, R.
The article presents the premises for the need to develop a relationship-focused family life education program for young adult employees. The article explores the changing trends in the Indian family unit and their impact on the workforce. The author also presents the findings from interviews with family-intervention experts and their recommendations for the contents of such a program. PMID:20808662
Ward-Griffin, C; McKeever, P
Increasing reliance on family care of elderly people at home calls for a critical analysis of the relationship between formal and informal caregivers. Although much has been written about how health professionals and family caregivers should relate to one another, we know very little about the relationships that develop between them. Using data from a qualitative study, this article illustrates that relationships between community nurses and family members caring for frail elders are complex, dynamic, and multifaceted. Shifting boundaries in caring work leads to changes in nurse-family caregiver relationships, which can be categorized as four distinct, yet interconnected, types: (1) nurse-helper, (2) worker-worker, (3) manager-worker, and (4) nurse-patient. Each type is described, and implications for nursing practice and research are discussed.
Reid, Megan; Reczek, Corinne
In this article, the authors merge the study of support, strain, and ambivalence in family relationships with the study of stress to explore the ways family members provide support or contribute to strain in the disaster recovery process. The authors analyze interviews with 71 displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors, and identify three family…
Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…
Celdran, Montserrat; Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme
This study aims to identify changes in adolescents' lives and in the relationships within the family when a family member has a dementia. Grandchildren living in Barcelona, Spain, participated in the study (N = 145). The data, based on both quantitative and qualitative information, showed that if the grandparent moved into the grandchildren's…
Overholt, Jillisa R.
This study explored the phenomenon of father-child relationship development within the context of an Outward Bound (OB) family course, an environment that may both disrupt the ordinary aspects of an established relationship, and provide activities to purposefully encourage relationship development through a variety of aspects inherent to the…
Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…
Hognas, Robin S.; Carlson, Marcia J.
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,656), we examined the association between intergenerational relationships and parents' union stability 5 years after a baby's birth. Results showed that more amiable relationships between parents and each partner's parents, and children's spending more time with paternal…
Nealeigh, M. Deirdre
This paper reviews what is known about the relationships between gifted adolescents and their family members and school associates, and offers some ideas and suggestions to help in improving these relationships. Attitudes of the gifted themselves toward giftedness are considered, noting differences between extremely gifted and moderately gifted…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act... TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to... Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act....
... Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 200e et seq., are satisfied, any violation of the Equal... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...
... Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 200e et seq., are satisfied, any violation of the Equal... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...
... Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 200e et seq., are satisfied, any violation of the Equal... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...
... Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 200e et seq., are satisfied, any violation of the Equal... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...
Bratter, Thomas Edward
Suggests that the psychotherapist working with families of adolescent drug abuser must work for parental involvement, strengthening of the family group, and increased adolescent responsibility and independence from parents who unwittingly encourage a prolonged symbiotic relationship. (Author/CJ)
This document contains final regulations relating to cafeteria plans that reflect changes made by the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (Act). The final regulations provide the public with guidance needed to comply with the Act and affect employees who participate in cafeteria plans.
The Department of Labor's (Department) Wage and Hour Division (WHD) revises the regulation defining "spouse" under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA or the Act) in light of the United States Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Windsor, which found section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) to be unconstitutional.
Michel, Jesse S.; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.; Pichler, Shaun; Cullen, Kristin L.
Although work and family social support predict role stressors and work-family conflict, there has been much ambiguity regarding the conceptual relationships among these constructs. Using path analysis on meta-analytically derived validity coefficients (528 effect sizes from 156 samples), we compare three models to address these concerns and…
Senguttuvan, Umadevi; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Jensen, Alexander C.
Family relationships are important predictors of adolescents’ diet, physical activity, and health issues including obesity. Despite their prominence in the family, siblings have received little attention on how they may influence these health-related behaviors. Addressing this gap, the present study examined associations between sibling relationship qualities and adolescents’ health attitudes, exercise behaviors, and weight controlling for other family relationship qualities. Participants included one parent and two adolescent siblings (ages 12 to 19) from 326 families. Multilevel models indicated that net of parent-adolescent relationship qualities and adolescents’ personal characteristics, sibling intimacy was related to healthy attitudes and greater exercise behaviors, whereas sibling conflict was associated with increased risk of being overweight. Links between sibling conflict and weight status, however, were further qualified by gender composition of the sibling dyad. Results highlight the significance of sibling relationships in adolescents’ everyday health attitudes and behaviors and implications for intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:24954967
Allen, D M; Farmer, R G
Current, ongoing interactions between adults exhibiting borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and their families of origin may influence and maintain self-destructive behavior. Family interactions in such patients are often characterized by coexisting extremes of overinvolvement and underinvolvement by parental figures. Such parental behavior may trigger preexisting role relationship schemata in vulnerable individuals. Negative family reactions to new behavior patterns may make change difficult. A model for how present-day interpersonal patterns lead to self-destructive behavior, based on clinical observations, is proposed and case examples are presented.
Lee, Joyce; Bell, Kirsten
This study examines the impact of cancer on family relationships among members of a Chinese cancer support group. A qualitative research design was used, including participant observation of 96 participants at group meetings over an 8-month period and in-depth interviews with seven group members. Findings indicated that family members were integral to the support group, constituting almost 40% of the participants. Patients in the group expressed concerns about family, with family members identified as having "equal suffering" when caring for patients. Notably, among both patients and family members, there was a strong emphasis on the need to conceal emotion, coupled with a focus on instrumental support in caregiving. Furthermore, patients' anxiety about "burdening" their family appeared to inflate their own experience of distress, as patients and their family carers both sought to maintain a positive front. The findings highlight the need for practitioners to focus on the entire family when designing interventions to help patients cope with cancer. More important, interventions need to be culturally sensitive that will empower patients and family members in living with the illness.
Hadžikapetanović, Halima; Babić, Tajib; Bjelošević, Edin
Aim To determine an impact of parental divorce to depression and intimate relationships of young people during adolescence, and prevalence of symptoms of depression and the level of intimacy in relations to adolescents living in intact families and those from divorced families. Methods This prospective descriptive research was conducted on a sample of 168 examinees of which 64 (38.1%) were students of the University Zenica, and 104 (61.9%) high students schools from Zenica and Maglaj cities during May and June 2011. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) II, Miller Social Intimacy Scale and sociodemographic questionnaire were used. Results Adolescents from divorced families had statistically significantly higher level of depression (p<0.05), with moderate and severe depression found in 20 (24.69%) adolescents from divorced families as compared with six (6.89%) adolescents from intact families. An analysis of BDI-II scale showed that adolescents from divorced families had statistically significant difference in agitation(p<0.01), difficult concentration, suicidal thoughts, grief and pessimism (p<0.05). Conclusion It is necessary to carry out detailed studies on longterm effects of breakup of families due to divorce, which have negative implications on psychological and social functioning of adolescents and the development of their identity and closeness in intimate relationships, with a legislative introduction of premarital and marriage counseling for parents in the conflict.
Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.
This study investigated whether genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict are explained by parents’ personality, marital quality, and negative parenting. The sample comprised 876 same-sex pairs of twins, their spouse, and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS). Genetic influences on aggressive personality were correlated with genetic influences on global family conflict. Nonshared environmental influences on marital quality and negative parenting were correlated with nonshared environmental influences on global family conflict. Results suggest that parents’ personality and unique experiences within their family relationships are important for understanding genetic and environmental influences on global conflict in the home. PMID:21480697
more married women with children were working, and more families were headed by single parents. For employees who did not have job-protected family...of Employees Who Have Children Under the Age of 18 ..................................................... 7 Comparison of Employees Who May Be...Are Married and the Percentage of Employees Who Have Children Under the Age of 18 According to the 2012 DOL employee survey, among all employees who
Lee, Sook-Jung; Chae, Young-Gil
We conducted a survey of 222 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade Korean children to examine (a) whether children's Internet use influences declines in family time and family communication and (b) how parental mediation techniques are related to children's online activities. According to the findings, total time using the Internet was related to perceived declines in family time but not related to family communication. The influence of the Internet on family time and family communication differed by the type of children's online activities. The analysis of the relationship between parental mediation techniques and children's online activities indicated that parents' recommendation of useful Web sites and co-using were positively related to frequency of children's educational online activities. However, parental restrictions on time and Web sites did not alter children's actual Internet usage.
Background There are caregivers who see their quality of life (QoL) impaired due to the demands of their caregiving tasks, while others manage to adapt and overcome the crises successfully. The influence of the family function in the main caregiver's situation has not been the subject of much evaluation. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the functionality of the family and the QoL of caregivers of dependent relatives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 153 caregivers. Setting: Two health centers in the city of Salamanca(Spain). Caregiver variables analysed: demographic characteristics, care recipient features; family functionality (Family APGAR-Q) and QoL (Ruiz-Baca-Q) perceived by the caregiver. Five multiple regressions are performed considering global QoL and each of the four QoL dimensions as dependent variables. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to study the influence of the family function questionnaire on QoL. Results Family function is the only one of the variables evaluated that presented an association both with global QoL and with each of the four individual dimensions (p < 0.05). Using the CCA, we found that the physical and mental well-being dimensions are the ones which present a closer relationship with family functionality, while social support is the quality dimension that is least influenced by the Family APGAR-Q. Conclusion We find an association between family functionality and the caregiver's QoL. This relation holds for both the global measure of QoL and each of its four individual dimensions. PMID:21496270
Moy, Caryl T.; Goodman, Earl O.
A common assumption in family therapy supervision is that the relationship between supervisor and supervisee changes over time, following a developmental continuum from the tentative competency of the supervisee as a therapist to relative competency. In particular, Ard (1973) theorizes that supervisees and supervisors move steadily together…
All professionals are concerned about maintaining the appropriate limits in their relationships with those they serve. Pediatricians should be aware that, under normal circumstances, caring for one's own children presents significant ethical issues. Pediatricians also must strive to maintain appropriate professional boundaries in their relationships with the family members of their patients. Pediatricians should avoid behavior that patients and parents might misunderstand as having sexual or inappropriate social meaning. Romantic and sexual involvement between physicians and patients is unacceptable. The acceptance of gifts or nonmonetary compensation for medical services has the potential to affect the professional relationship adversely.
An overview of the traditional Hispanic family and male-female relationships is presented, with an emphasis on issues relevant to providing health care to Hispanic populations. Aspects of the family presented include visitation, decision making, self-care, and emotional problems. Male-female relationships stem from traditional gender roles. Machismo and patriarchal authority characterize the male role; the roles of a traditional woman are housewife and mother. Women are expected to defer to the authority of their husbands. The negative aspects of machismo can result in heavy drinking and the pursuit of high-risk activities, leading to domestic violence and HIV/AIDS. These health risks are exacerbated by such cultural factors as male dominance, female modesty, and the practice of keeping problems within the family. The importance of personalism in patient-provider encounters is emphasized.
Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano, Cristina; Jankowski, Konrad S; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph
Accumulating evidence suggests that evening-type adolescents are exposed to a number of determinants that might have a negative impact on their health condition. Despite the fact that biological and psychosocial factors are interrelated, their impacts on the shift toward eveningness during puberty have been considered only separately. In this study, the effects of frequency of conflicts and functional autonomy on the relationship between pubertal development and Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) were tested together. A sample of 2081 adolescents aged 12-16 completed pubertal development, M-E, family frequency of conflicts and functional autonomy scales. Results indicated that greater functional autonomy and more conflicts in the family were unique predictors of greater eveningness, and they both together were better predictors of M-E than an advanced age and pubertal development. Apart from biological development, family relationship seems an important factor explaining progressive tendency toward eveningness during puberty and adolescence. Some implications to adolescent development were indicated.
Gage, Jack; And Others
The article describes the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act which provides for recovery awards for vaccine-related injuries caused by diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines. A Vaccine Injury Table lists types of disabilities covered and time periods for first symptoms. The claims process, legal assistance,…
This analysis of the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 (BEA) and its implications for public financing of education and other children's services notes that voters want more and better education and related services, and at the same time want to pay less in taxes and balance budgets at every governmental level. The first section details recent…
Warburton, Jeni; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Pinsker, Donna
The article adopts a developmental approach to successful human aging by exploring the concept of generativity in relation to a study of older Australians' lived experiences of involvement in the family and community. Qualitative data, collected through focus group interviews, were analyzed interpretively using recent developments in Erikson's…
... spouse, parent, son, or daughter with a serious health condition; or when the employee is unable to work due to the employee's own serious health condition. The FMLA was amended in January 2008 by enactment... protected family and medical leave, employers must also maintain any preexisting group health plan...
Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana
Discordant development of brain regions responsible for cognitive control and reward processing may render adolescents susceptible to risk taking. Identifying ways to reduce this neural imbalance during adolescence can have important implications for risk taking and associated health outcomes. Accordingly, we sought to examine how a key family relationship-family obligation-can reduce this vulnerability. Forty-eight adolescents underwent an fMRI scan during which they completed a risk-taking and cognitive control task. Results suggest that adolescents with greater family obligation values show decreased activation in the ventral striatum when receiving monetary rewards and increased dorsolateral PFC activation during behavioral inhibition. Reduced ventral striatum activation correlated with less real-life risk-taking behavior and enhanced dorsolateral PFC activation correlated with better decision-making skills. Thus, family obligation may decrease reward sensitivity and enhance cognitive control, thereby reducing risk-taking behaviors.
Illinois Community College Board, 2014
This document contains Illinois' State Plan for Adult Education and Family Literacy under Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for July 1, 1999, through June 30, 2015. The plan is comprised of the following sections: (1) Eligible agency certifications and assurances; (2) Description of the steps to ensure direct and equitable access;…
East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.
This study examined how increased stress in Latino families following an adolescent’s childbearing impacts family relationships and the adolescent’s siblings. Participants were 243 Mexican American youth (mean age: 13.7 years; 62% girls), or 121 youth who had a pregnant adolescent sister and 122 youth who had an adolescent sister who had never been pregnant. Youth and their mothers were studied at 4 time points across 15 months: The families of pregnant adolescents were studied when the adolescent sister was in her third trimester of pregnancy, and at 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum; the families of never-pregnant adolescents were studied at like intervals. Individual fixed-effects structural equation models were computed, which control for earlier measures of study constructs and thereby reduce omitted variable bias from preexisting family group differences. Results showed that an adolescent’s childbearing was related to increases in family stress, which were related to increases in mothers’ harsh parenting and mother–sibling conflict, which, in turn, were related to subsequent increases in siblings’ problem behavior. Multiple group analyses revealed that the pathways through which a teenager’s childbearing influences siblings operate similarly for girls and boys. Tests of an alternate ordering of model variables indicated a poor fit with the data. Findings provide evidence that the accumulation of stressful family changes following an adolescent’s childbearing can negatively impact siblings. Findings also elucidate how family-level stress and disruption experienced across a family transition trickle down to affect family relationships and, in turn, child family members. PMID:23458699
Prest, L A; Benson, M J; Protinsky, H O
This study investigated codependency in Caucasian individuals within the framework of Bowen's Family Systems Theory. The sample consisted of a group of couples, in which one member of the couple was a recovering alcoholic in an aftercare program, and a group of matched, comparison couples. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Friel Codependency Assessment Inventory, and the Personal Authority in the Family System (PAFS) Questionnaire. The findings confirmed that codependency levels were higher in clinical than in comparison couples. Moreover, within the clinical group, there was little difference between alcoholics and their spouses with respect to dysfunction in their families of origin, current families, or their codependency levels. The findings further suggested that the etiology and function of codependency are different in clinical and nonclinical families. In the clinical sample, the family of origin and current relationship characteristics were related to codependency in patterns consistent with previous theory and research. For the nonclinical sample, however, the findings contradicted conventional codependency theory. The findings suggest that, in contrast to clinical populations, codependency in nonclinical populations has some links with favorable characteristics of family functioning.
... Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT... equal pay under the Equal Pay Act has no relationship to whether the employee is in the lower paying job... on jobs requiring equal skill, effort and responsibility, and which are performed under...
White, Yohann; Sandfort, Theo; Morgan, Kai; Carpenter, Karen; Pierre, Russell
Gay and bisexual men in Jamaica encounter stigma and discrimination due to criminalization of and negative attitudes towards same-sex sexuality. Disclosure of sexual orientation may be self-affirming, but could increase exposure to negative responses and stressors. Outcomes of an online survey among 110 gay and bisexual Jamaican men ages 18 to 56 years suggest that disclosure to family is affected by level of economic independence. Furthermore, negative familial responses to sexual identity significantly predicted depression. Social and structural interventions, and efforts to strengthen positive family relationships, are needed to foster an environment that enables well-being among sexual minorities in Jamaica.
Euben, Donna R.; Thornton, Saranna R.
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) entitles many faculty members to 12 weeks of job-protected unpaid leave each year to take care of a serious health condition or a family obligation such as the birth of a child, the arrival of an adoptive or foster child, or the serious health condition of a spouse, child, or parent. This guidebook is a…
Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.
A Children's Defense Fund (CDF) survey indicates that many AFDC families are being forced to place their children in low-quality and potentially dangerous child care. Family Support Act (FSA) childcare typically lacks basic health and safety and precautions, fails to provide sufficient assistance to support quality childcare and preschool…
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction With the Family and Medical Leave Act. 2590.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Health Coverage Portability, Nondiscrimination, and Renewability § 2590.701-8 Interaction With the Family...
Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.
This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…
Venäläinen, Jarkko I; Juvonen, Risto O; Männistö, Pekka T
The prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) family of serine proteases includes prolyl oligopeptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, acylaminoacyl peptidase and oligopeptidase B. The enzymes of this family specifically hydrolyze oligopeptides with less than 30 amino acids. Many of the POP family enzymes have evoked pharmaceutical interest as they have roles in the regulation of peptide hormones and are involved in a variety of diseases such as dementia, trypanosomiasis and type 2 diabetes. In this study we have clarified the evolutionary relationships of these four POP family enzymes and analyzed POP sequences from different sources. The phylogenetic trees indicate that the four enzymes were present in the last common ancestor of all life forms and that the beta-propeller domain has been part of the family for billions of years. There are striking differences in the mutation rates between the enzymes and POP was found to be the most conserved enzyme of this family. However, the localization of this enzyme has changed throughout evolution, as three archaeal POPs seem to be membrane bound and one third of the bacterial as well as two eukaryotic POPs were found to be secreted out of the cell. There are also considerable distinctions between the mutation rates of the different substrate binding subsites of POP. This information may help in the development of species-specific POP inhibitors.
Monroe, Pamela A.; And Others
A model of roll call voting by House members on the Family and Medial Leave Act (FMLA) of 1990 was tested. Found that support for the FMLA was tied to a range of dispositional and contextual demand variables: conservatism, presidential support, etc. The model accurately predicted 90% of the votes. (RJM)
Högnäs, Robin S.; Carlson, Marcia J.
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well being Study (N= 2,656), we examined the association between intergenerational relationships and parents’ union stability five years after a baby’s birth. Results showed that more amiable relationships between parents and each partner’s parents, and more time children spent with paternal grandparents, were associated with increased odds that parents were co-residing by the time their focal child was age five. More time that children spent with maternal grandparents reduced union stability, although this result was not robust to methods that better address selection. These findings underscore the importance of the broader social contexts affecting couple stability. Findings further suggest that even amidst changing demographic conditions, intergenerational family ties are important for couples—and by extension—their children. PMID:21909159
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.
This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem. PMID:27122959
From his obituary of Samuel Hammerschlag, we know of Freud's great veneration for his teacher of Jewish religion. However, not only Hammerschlag himself but his whole family had a formative influence on young Freud, who was deeply impressed by their humanity. This paper describes Freud's relationships with all the family members. In particular, it shows how warmly he felt towards the only daughter, Anna Hammerschlag, who was his patient for a while and whom he chose as a godmother for his youngest daughter Anna. By virtue of the crucial role she played in Freud's 'specimen dream' of July 1895 ('Irma's injection'), she also became as it were the godmother of Freud's magnum opus, The Interpretation of Dreams. All the known extant letters from Freud to members of the Hammerschlag family are published here for the first time in English translation.
From his obituary on Samuel Hammerschlag we know of Freud's great veneration for his teacher of Jewish religion. However, not only Hammerschlag himself but his whole family had a formative influence on young Freud who was deeply impressed by their humanity. This paper describes Freud's relationship to all family members. In particular it shows how warmly he felt towards the only daughter, Anna Hammerschlag, who was his patient for a while and whom he chose as a godmother of his youngest daughter Anna. By virtue of the crucial role she played in Freud's "specimen dream" of July 1895 ("Irma's injection"), she also became as it were the godmother of Freud's magnum opus, The Interpretation of Dreams.--All known surviving letters of Freud to members of the Hammerschlag family are published here for the first time.
Werosh, Keith R.
The purpose of this study was to determine what relationship exists between knowledge of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) to organizational position and training among faculty and administrators employed within complementary and alternative healthcare educational institutions. Within these knowledge levels, this study…
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations Act and the Railway Labor Act. 417.159 Section 417.159 Public....159 Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations...
... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations Act and the Railway Labor Act. 417.159 Section 417.159 Public... § 417.159 Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor...
... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations Act and the Railway Labor Act. 417.159 Section 417.159 Public....159 Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations...
... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations Act and the Railway Labor Act. 417.159 Section 417.159 Public... § 417.159 Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor...
... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations Act and the Railway Labor Act. 417.159 Section 417.159 Public... § 417.159 Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to Freedom of Information Act. 407.7 Section 407.7 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF EX-IM BANK MEETINGS § 407.7 Relationship to Freedom of Information Act. Nothing...
Garbacz, S Andrew; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Santiago, Rachel T
Family educational involvement and parent-teacher relationships are important for supporting student outcomes and have unique implications for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little research has examined child and family characteristics among families of children with ASD as predictors of family involvement and parent-teacher relationships. The present study examined child and family variables that may affect family involvement and parent-teacher relationships for families of children with ASD. Findings suggested (a) parents of children with higher developmental risk reported less family involvement and poorer relationships with their child's teacher and (b) family histories accessing services predicted family involvement and parent-teacher relationships. Limitations of the current study and implications for science and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Woodruff, David J.
The Educational Planning and Assessment System (EPAS) of the American College Testing Program consists of three testing programs: EXPLORE, PLAN, and the ACT Assessment Program (ACT). EXPLORE is administered in the 8th grade, PLAN in the 10th grade, and the ACT in the 11th or 12th grade. This study investigated relationships among the composite…
Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Post, Thomas
This study examined the relationship between the American College Testing (ACT) college mathematics readiness standard and college mathematics achievement using a sample of students who met or exceeded the minimum 3 years high school mathematics coursework recommended by ACT. According to ACT, a student who scores 22 or higher on the ACT…
... the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act Presidential Determination No. 2011-15 of... September 12, 2011 Delegation Under Section 2(A) of the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes... the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act (Public Law 111-178) to prescribe...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. 1604.8... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.8 Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. (a) The... based on the Equal Pay Act may be raised in a proceeding under title VII. (c) Where such a defense...
Cherian, Varghese I.
Compares relationship between family size and academic achievement of children from broken and intact families among Black African Xhosa-speaking children between the ages of 13 and 17. Results indicate a negative relationship between family size and academic achievement, regardless of broken or intact families. (Author/NL)
van As, N. M. C.; Janssens, J. M. A. M.
Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbalanced parent- child relationship, a lack of…
Bauer, Michael; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Tarzia, Laura; Chenco, Carol
The aim of the study was to examine staff and family members' perceptions of each other's roles and responsibilities in the Australian residential aged care setting. Data was collected by interview and focus group from 27 staff and 14 family members at five residential aged care facilities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlight "communication" as the core category supporting the formation of constructive staff-family relationships, as described by three main themes; "building trust," "involvement," and "keeping the family happy." Staff attitudes, mutual cooperation, meaningful engagement, and shared expectations lay the foundation for relationships. Findings suggest that further efforts to establish and sustain good relationships with families are required by facilities. Characteristics, roles, and expectations of staff and family that can both promote and hinder the formation of constructive staff-family relationships are discussed.
Shlafer, Rebecca J; Poehlmann, Julie
This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver-child and incarcerated parent-child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children's behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children's behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment.
Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.
Mothers and fathers in 156 African American families reported on racial discrimination experiences, gendered traits, and warmth and conflict in family relationships. Discrimination was linked with relationship quality, but links differed for mothers and fathers. More expressive parents and less instrumental fathers had more positive relationships in the face of discrimination, but for more instrumental fathers, discrimination–relationship quality links were negative. Findings imply consideration of sociocultural and individual characteristics for family relationships. PMID:22068292
Takata, Naoki; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Ohki, Shinya; Mori, Masashi; Taniguchi, Toru; Kurita, Manabu
EPF1-EPF2 and EPFL9/Stomagen act antagonistically in regulating leaf stomatal density. The aim of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary functional divergence of EPF/EPFL family genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like genes are conserved only in vascular plants and are closely related to AtEPF1/EPF2-like genes. Modeling showed that EPF/EPFL peptides share a common 3D structure that is constituted of a scaffold and loop. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that AtEPF1/EPF2-like peptides form an additional disulfide bond in their loop regions and show greater flexibility in these regions than AtEPFL9/Stomagen-like peptides. This study uncovered the evolutionary relationship and the conformational divergence of proteins encoded by the EPF/EPFL family genes. PMID:23755192
Garbacz, S. Andrew; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Santiago, Rachel T.
Family educational involvement and parent--teacher relationships are important for supporting student outcomes and have unique implications for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little research has examined child and family characteristics among families of children with ASD as predictors of family involvement and…
... Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... protect children and adolescents as required by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control...
Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sukkharak, Phiangphak; Gradstein, Robbert; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Glowniak, Kazimierz
The major purpose of this study was to determine the chemical relationships between liverwort species belonging to the Lejeuneaceae family on the basis of sesqui- and diterpenoid composition. GC/MS analysis of the 31 liverwort specimens belonging to the Lejeuneaceae family indicated variability of the chemical composition of terpenoids depending on liverwort species. Each of the analyzed liverworts is characterized by the presence of particular compounds. However, there are some characteristic components, which can be chemical markers of this liverwort family. These are the pinguisane and monocyclofarnesane type sesquiterpenoids, the fusicoccane type diterpenoids, and also the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, isolepidozene. Chemical data also showed the differences among liverworts classified in the two subfamilies, the Ptychanthoideae and Lejeuneoideae. All of the mentioned characteristic components are present in species of the subfamily Ptychanthoideae. On the other hand, among the characteristic components, only beta-pinguisene was detected in Cololejeunea stotleriana, Colura irrorata, and Myriocoleopsis gymnocolea classified in the subfamily Lejeuneoideae (subtribe Cololejeuneinae). The latter component was found to be a marker for members of the subtribe Cololejeuneinae. Neither isolepidozene nor the pinguisanes, fusicoccanes and monocyclofarnesanes were found in Lejeunea topoensis (subfamily Lejeuneoideae). The existence of the chemical polymorphism between both subfamilies is also evident from PCA analysis.
Ebb, Nancy; And Others
This guide is designed to provide information about transitional child care (TCC) program policies and operations and to offer recommendations to policymakers and advocates. Transitional child care is a new federal child care program that every state must implement by April 1, 1990. Established by the Family Support Act (FSA) of 1988, TCC is…
Urban Institute (NJ1), 2009
President Clinton signed the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997, Public Law 105-89 105th Congress, 1st session on November 19, 1997. The ambitious new law aimed to reaffirm the focus on child safety in case decision making and to ensure that children did not languish and grow up in foster care but instead were connected with permanent…
Williams, Melissa Hufstetler
It is imperative that school administrators understand the rights of parents and students as guaranteed by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). School personnel should know the rights of parents and students regarding access to education records and understand the restrictions of disclosure. Educational leaders must balance the…
Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina
The Focus Study, conducted by the National Council of La Raza's Poverty Project, used structured discussions by focus groups to examine Mexican American women's opinions, needs, and attitudes as they relate to the implementation of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA). FSA's primary objective is to move people off welfare through education, training,…
American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) pertains broadly to education records, though an institution can exempt its law enforcement records from FERPA coverage. The primary purpose of this report was to examine FERPA's effect on the flow of information between institutions of higher education and law enforcement agencies. Study…
McWey, Lenore M.; Henderson, Tammy L.; Tice, Susan N.
Although marriage and family therapists are being called on to help at-risk families, some say that clinicians have insufficient knowledge about the impact of policies on families involved in the foster care system. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to identify how the Adoption and Safe Families Act informs decision making, to…
Poehlmann, Julie; White, Tiffany; Bjerke, Kathryn
Although HIV risk reduction interventions and family programs are crucial elements of the rehabilitation process for women offenders, these programs have operated in isolation from each other. HIV interventions for women offenders have not attended to family relationships, and family programs for women offenders have not focused on HIV-related…
This article uses a demands-and-resources approach to examine relationships between three types of work demands and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict: time-based demands, strain-based demands, and boundary-spanning demands. The analysis is based on data from 2,155 employed adults living with a family member who were interviewed for the…
Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model.
... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.8 Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. (a) The employee coverage of the prohibitions against discrimination based on sex contained in title VII...
... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.8 Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. (a) The employee coverage of the prohibitions against discrimination based on sex contained in title VII...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974. 5.4 Section 5.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.4 Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974. (a) Coverage. The FOIA and...
Ensher, Gail L.; Clark, David A.
Strong working relationships with diverse families and children are the foundation of successful early intervention. Discover fresh, practical ways to build these relationships in this essential guidebook, every professional's blueprint for working with children and families within the specific context of their culture, family structure, and risk…
Hsiung, Rachel Oakley; Bagozzi, Richard P.
Uses the family social relations model (SRM) to test for the personal relationship qualities of influence and persuasion in the family decision-making context of buying a new car. Uncovers patterns in the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion across three decisions families make when buying a new car (i.e., how much to spend, car…
Greenhaus, J H; Parasuraman, S; Collins, K M
This study extended prior analyses by J. H. Greenhaus, K. M. Collins, R. Singh, and S. Parasuraman (1997) by examining relationships between 2 directions of work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict) and withdrawal from public accounting. The sample consisted of 199 members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (135 men and 64 women) who were married or in a long-term relationship and who had 1 or more children. It was found that work-to-family conflict (but not family-to-work conflict) was positively related to withdrawal intentions. In addition, relationships of work-to-family conflict with withdrawal intentions and withdrawal behavior were stronger for individuals who were relatively uninvolved in their careers than for those who were highly involved in their careers. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed.
Bonner, Gloria J; Wang, Edward; Wilkie, Diana J; Ferrans, Carol E; Dancy, Barbara; Watkins, Yashika
Research is limited on end-of-life treatment decisions made by African American family caregivers. In a pilot study, we examined the feasibility of implementing an advance care treatment plan (ACT-Plan), a group-based education intervention, with African American dementia caregivers. Theoretically based, the ACT-Plan included strategies to enhance knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral skills to make end-of-life treatment plans in advance. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and tube feeding were end-of-life treatments discussed in the ACT-Plan. In a four-week pre/posttest two-group design at urban adult day care centers, 68 caregivers were assigned to the ACT-Plan or attention-control health promotion conditions. Findings strongly suggest that the ACT-Plan intervention is feasible and appropriate for African American caregivers. Self-efficacy and knowledge about dementia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and tube feeding increased for ACT-Plan participants but not for the attention-control. More ACT-Plan than attention-control participants developed advance care plans for demented relatives. Findings warrant a randomized efficacy trial.
Wisensale, Steven K
The Family and Medical Leave Act provides unpaid leave but a key component is its intergenerational structure, permitting employees to take time off from work to care for an infant as well as an ill elderly parent. However, in an effort to provide paid leave, 23 of 28 states dropped the elder care provision in new initiatives introduced between 2000 and 2003. This article argues that in reforming leave policy in the future, the leave should be paid, remain intergenerational, cover more workers, and be adaptable to changing family patterns in an aging society. Also discussed is California's paid leave law, which meets these criteria.
Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan
This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…
Strazdins, Lyndall; Clements, Mark S.; Korda, Rosemary J.; Broom, Dorothy H.; D'Souza, Rennie M.
Many children live in families where one or both parents work evenings, nights, or weekends. Do these work schedules affect family relationships or well-being? Using cross-sectional survey data from dual-earner Canadian families (N=4,306) with children aged 2-11 years (N=6,156), we compared families where parents worked standard weekday times with…
CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2012
The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) provides funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act…
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act; Notice of Revision of System of Records, the Single Family Housing... Federal Register about one of its record systems, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data Warehouse... (202) 402-8087 or Mary Jo Sullivan, System Owner, Director, Office of Single Family Program...
Hantel-Quitmann, Wolfgang; Weidtmann, Katja
The emotional family climate is considered both an effective risk and protective factor for child development. Factors such as negative experiences parents made during their childhood or adolescence, which can reoccur as intergenerational transmission, a low partnership quality and a high level of conflict seem to be particularly relevant for the quality of the emotional family climate. Consequently, the relationship between partners, as the core relation within families, is particularly important for the family climate and subsequently for the development of the child. For this reason, problems in parent relationships should receive special attention in family therapeutic interventions. Mentalisation-based family therapy (MBF-T) offers promising approaches in this context. The key principles of mentalisation are introduced and the links between family and mentalisation are presented, followed by information on the history, objectives and the procedures of MBF-T. A case study of a family therapy, in which a child suffers from chronic headache, illustrates the connection and interrelation between family climate, family conflicts and the parental relationship, and it will further show the importance of mentalisation-based elements for therapeutic treatments.
This document summarizes major provisions of the 1987 Family Law Reform Act of the UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. This Act amends existing law so that to the greatest extent possible the legal position of a child is the same regardless of whether the parents were married or unmarried. In determining parentage, courts may require scientific testing. In addition, new birth registration provisions are created to facilitate the recording of paternity on birth certificates. The Act also contains provisions relating to the rights and duties of parents and artificial insemination. Thus, if a married woman was artificially inseminated with her husband's permission, then the child is legally a child of that marriage and not of any other person.
Rogers, Bonnie; Franke, Joanne V; Jeras, JoAnn; Gravitte, Joy T; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) was enacted in 1993 to balance the demands of the workplace with the needs of families. Balancing work and family responsibilities will affect most workers as they experience their own serious illness or care for a child or a parent. The FMLA continues to present challenges regarding medical certifications, recordkeeping, intermittent leave management, and lack of understanding by employees and employers about rights and responsibilities under the law. This article discusses the rights and responsibilities of both parties. It also discusses how the occupational and environmental health nurse can bridge the gap between meeting the needs of the employee and those of the employer by serving as educator, advocate, and liaison/collaborator, leading to measurable cost savings for the employer and immeasurable benefits for the employee.
Welsh, Ericka M.; French, Simone A.; Wall, Melanie
Objective: To confirm previously reported associations between family meal frequency and dietary intake, and to examine family cohesion as a potential mediator of this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Data collected at baseline via questionnaire. Setting: Randomized, controlled household weight gain prevention trial.…
Eulálio, Maria do Carmo; dos Santos, Ellis Regina Ferreira; Paz e Albuquerque, Tiago
Nursing professionals have themselves held liable for the "art" of take care of the users and are the ones who dedicate the major part of their time to them. The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between the nursing assistant and the user expressed by the social representations of the touch act by these professionals in the Family Health Program context. The qualitative-quantitative research involved 25 nursing assistants. The instruments utilized were: free word association, interview, and questionnaire. It was observed that the touch represents possibilities of approximation between the professional and the user as it helps in the user's cure and humanizes the relationship.
Bell, Linda; Goulet, Céline; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise; Paul, Denise; Boisclair, Annick; Tronick, Edward Z
This study examined the interrelatedness of mother-infant and father-infant relationships as they develop over the first 4 months postpartum as well as the dynamics used by the couple to balance these relationships. First-time mother-father couples (n = 18) were interviewed separately at 1, 6, and 16 weeks postpartum using the Parent-Infant Relationship Interview. The data were analyzed using in-depth qualitative strategies. The parents' core themes of their early family relationships ranged from an undifferentiated unit at 1 week, to being a highly disorganized unit at 6 weeks, to a more integrated unit at 16 weeks. These results suggest that one should be thinking of early family relationships and parenting in terms of "messy processes" out of which new ways of being together are created. This disorganization plays a fundamental role in the establishment of early family relationships and warrants further empirical and clinical attention.
Hertlein, Katherine M.
We are in an unprecedented age of technology. Few articles in family journals address online behavior, intimacy patterns, and influences on the ways couples and families communicate through technology. The purpose of this article is to use a multitheoretical model to describe the process of how technologies are affecting couple and family life.…
O'Connor, Brian P.
In a study of relationships and life satisfaction, 82 independently-living older adults and 91 younger adults completed measures of their relationships with family and friends. For elderly people, the quality of relationships with their friends was more important than the quality of relationships with their children. The discussion focuses on how…
Gulbas, Lauren E; Zayas, Luis H; Nolle, Allyson P; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Kuhlberg, Jill A; Baumann, Ana A; Pena, Juan B
Using qualitative data collected from adolescent Latinas and their parents, this article describes ways in which family relationships are organized within low-income Latino families (n = 24) with and without a daughter who attempted suicide. Based on a family-level analysis approach, we present a framework that categorizes relationships as reciprocal, asymmetrical, or detached. Clear differences are identified: Families of non-attempters primarily cluster in reciprocal families, whereas families with an adolescent suicide attempter exhibit characteristics of asymmetrical or detached families. Our results highlight the need for detailed clinical attention to family communication patterns, especially in Latino families. Clinicians may reduce the likelihood of an attempt or repeated attempts by raising mutual, reciprocal exchanges of words and support between parents and daughter.
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.; Nolle, Allyson P.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Baumann, Ana A.; Pena, Juan B.
Using qualitative data collected from adolescent Latinas and their parents, this article describes ways in which family relationships are organized within low-income Latino families (n = 24) with and without a daughter who attempted suicide. Based on a family-level analysis approach, we present a framework that categorizes relationships as reciprocal, asymmetrical, or detached. Clear differences are identified: Families of non-attempters primarily cluster in reciprocal families, whereas families with an adolescent suicide attempter exhibit characteristics of asymmetrical or detached families. Our results highlight the need for detailed clinical attention to family communication patterns, especially in Latino families. Clinicians may reduce the likelihood of an attempt or repeated attempts by raising mutual, reciprocal exchanges of words and support between parents and daughter. PMID:27330263
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship of the Act and the Internal Revenue Code of... EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200a-1 Relationship of the Act and the...
Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon
This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…
Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Fox, Michael; Martin, Jeff
In this article we argue that the scholarship on marriages and families provides invaluable insights into town-gown relationships. Marital typologies are used to generate insights into what happens between campus and community relationships over time, and a line of family scholarship provides some additional illumination about the ways in which…
Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer
Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,667), we examined the intergenerational link between parental family structure history and relationship formation in young adulthood. We investigated (a) whether parental family structure history is associated with young adults' own relationship formation…
Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.
Mothers and fathers in 156 African American families reported on racial discrimination experiences, gendered traits, and warmth and conflict in family relationships. Discrimination was linked with relationship quality, but links differed for mothers and fathers. More expressive parents and less instrumental fathers had more positive relationships…
Wightman, Barbara; Weatherston, Deborah
This article illustrates how observation can help one learn about the importance of observation, the development of relationships, and how a baby becomes part of a family. Author Barbara Wightman observed the evolving relationships in a new family for 1 hour every other week beginning in the last months of pregnancy through the first 4 months of…
Tsai, Kim M.; Telzer, Eva H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
The present 8-year longitudinal study examined how multiple aspects of family relationships change across the transition from adolescence (M[subscript age] = 15 years) to young adulthood (M[subscript age] = 22 years) among 821 individuals. Results showed that there was more discontinuity than continuity in family relationships across this…
Houseknecht, Sharon K.
Results of a study of the relationship between female employment and reduced family size are reported. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether career involvement precedes the final family size decision or whether the family size decision precedes career involvement. Thirty-two voluntarily childless women constituted the sample. The…
CHILMAN, CATHERINE S.
STUDIES ON THE POOR'S PATTERNS OF CHILD-REARING AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS ARE SUMMARIZED AND COMPARED WITH STUDIES ON IDEAL PATTERNS OF CHILD-READING AND LIFE. EDUCATIONALLY ACHIEVING FAMILIES GIVE THE CHILD FREEDOM WITHIN CONSISTENT LIMITS AND A WIDE RANGE OF PARENT-GUIDED EXPERIENCES. VERY POOR FAMILIES LIMIT FREEDOM FOR EXPLORATION AND HAVE A…
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…
Jang, Soo Jung; Zippay, Allison; Park, Rhokeun
Employer initiatives that address the spillover of work strain onto family life include flexible work schedules. This study explored the mediating role of negative work-family spillover in the relationship between schedule flexibility and employee stress and the moderating roles of gender, family workload, and single-parent status. Data were drawn…
Steward, Margaret S.; And Others
Adolescent women's perception of their identity in relation to family members spanning three generation was related to their sex-role orientation. Significantly more constructs empirically differentiated family by generation than by sex. There was no relationship between family constellation and sex-role orientation. (Author/CP)
Smith, Christian; Kim, Phillip
This report examines associations between three dimensions of family religious involvement (number of days per week the family does something religious, parental worship service attendance, and parental prayer) and the quality of family relationships for early adolescents. Out of the 27 family relationship variables examined, all significantly…
to a new social and school environment, and poses obstacles to the wife’s career. The findings point out that the military wife plays a dominant role...organizational support and spouses’ relationship. Whenever these factors serve as sources of strength, the activate a positive cycle and thereby allow the family...other works (notably, Lidz, 1946; Bey and Lange, 1974). it has become evident that family support and positive family- unit relationships may play a
Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G
The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and
Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.
Relationship aggression has negative effects on adults, children, and on our society that cannot be overstated. In this paper, we first outline the benefits of using relationship education programs that are delivered to individuals (rather than couples) in preventing relationship aggression and co-occurring relationship aggression toward children. Next, we briefly review one such program, Within My Reach, and related research on its effectiveness in preventing relationship aggression. Implications of this research for future research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed. PMID:21603076
Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Cappa, Claudia; Petrowski, Nicole
This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and family planning among adolescent girls and young women in formal unions in the Philippines. Analyzing a sample (n =1,566) from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, logistic regression models were separately run for current contraception use and unmet need for family planning on recent physical violence (yes/no), recent sexual violence (yes/no), and recent emotional (yes/no). Findings revealed that the odds of using contraception were significantly higher among girls and young women who reported recent physical IPV (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.13, 2.99; p<0.05) and sexual IPV (OR=2.18; 95% CI=1.17, 4.06; p<0.05). No significant relationship between recent emotional IPV and contraception use was found. Having an unmet need for family planning showed no significant relationship to IPV. The study adds to a growing body of literature revealing a positive association between IPV and contraception use. Findings hold implications for the provision of family planning services for adolescents and young women in response to the recent passage of landmark legislation pertaining to reproductive health in the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act.
Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Cappa, Claudia; Petrowski, Nicole
This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and family planning among adolescent girls and young women in formal unions in the Philippines. Analyzing a sample (n =1,566) from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, logistic regression models were separately run for current contraception use and unmet need for family planning on recent physical violence (yes/no), recent sexual violence (yes/no), and recent emotional (yes/no). Findings revealed that the odds of using contraception were significantly higher among girls and young women who reported recent physical IPV (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.13, 2.99; p<0.05) and sexual IPV (OR=2.18; 95% CI=1.17, 4.06; p<0.05). No significant relationship between recent emotional IPV and contraception use was found. Having an unmet need for family planning showed no significant relationship to IPV. The study adds to a growing body of literature revealing a positive association between IPV and contraception use. Findings hold implications for the provision of family planning services for adolescents and young women in response to the recent passage of landmark legislation pertaining to reproductive health in the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act. PMID:27157175
Zhao, Man-xi; Yan, Cui-qi; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jian-ming; Zhong, Yong-kun; Ke, Zun-hong; Hao, Xiao-feng; Ke, Xiao; Ye, Liang; Huang, Lu-qi
Based on variation of Pinus massoniana families, heritablility and correlation analysis, the contents of shikimic acid and procyanidine (heritability 0.90, 0.70), dry weight of single branch (heritability 0.60) and and leaf length (heritability 0.46) were screened out as quality, yield and harvest cost traits of Folium Pini, respectively. For the different medicinal application of Folium Pini, varied methods were chosen to estimate weight and construct index equation. Weight adjustment based.on equal emphasis were used as economic weight determining method to select the best families, and the index (accuracy 0. 936 4 and heritability 0. 881 6) obtained was a little better than that obtained by equal emphasis, and much better than that by restricted index. The superior families selected with adjustment weight and equal emphasis were No. 46, 43 and 28. Partial regression were used as economic weight determining method to select the best families,and the index obtained had the highest accuracy (0.941 5) , index heritability (0. 889 9) and the genetic gain of shikimic acid content. The superior families selected with this method were No. 46, 27 and 47. No. 46 was the best families with maximal economic benefit. Our study indicated that suitable method for estimate weight and construct index equation can be applied for better accuracy of superior families selection of P. massoniana.
Cooperative Education Student Rights and Responsibilities: Federal Family Educational Rights Act and Privacy Act of 1974 [and] Michigan Employee Right to Know Act of 1978. Legal Modules for Vocational Cooperative Education.
Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo.
This module deals with cooperative education student rights and responsibilities as they are specified in the Federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 and the Michigan Employee Right to Know Act of 1978. Designed to be a self-paced instructional package, the module includes a pre-test, answer key, scoring instructions, a…
Randall, G. Kevin
In the past 40 years, individuals' close relationships, marriages, and families have undergone dramatic changes. The development and maintenance of strong interpersonal relationships, particularly close romantic relationships, are known to associate strongly and positively with physiological and psychological measures of well-being across the…
Leventhal, Bennett L.; And Others
This study of 47 families of autistic probands found that whole blood serotonin was positively correlated between autistic children and their mothers, fathers, and siblings, but plasma norepinephrine levels were not. (Author/JDD)
Thompson, Cynthia A; Prottas, David J
The authors analyzed data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 3,504) to investigate relationships among availability of formal organizational family support (family benefits and alternative schedules), job autonomy, informal organizational support (work-family culture, supervisor support, and coworker support), perceived control, and employee attitudes and well-being. Using hierarchical regression, the authors found that the availability of family benefits was associated with stress, life satisfaction, and turnover intentions, and the availability of alternative schedules was not related to any of the outcomes. Job autonomy and informal organizational support were associated with almost all the outcomes, including positive spillover. Perceived control mediated most of the relationships.
Prachakul, Worawan; Grant, Joan S; Pryor, Erica; Keltner, Norman L; Raper, James L
The purpose of this study was to identify relationships of individuals that people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (PLWH) in a city in the USA include in their family of choice, or chosen family. The convenience sample in this cross-sectional, exploratory study consisted of 150, mostly male and African American PLWH. Participants included partners/lovers most frequently, followed by children, mother, and siblings, and grandparents in their chosen family. Family structures of PLWH in this study are consistent with the diverse nature of families within society.
Parish, Thomas S.
College students (n=130) described support system failures they encountered during childhood and adolescence through responses on Personal History Inventory and ratings of self and family on Personal Attribute Inventory. Found significant direct relationships between level of support system failures and negativeness expressed in ratings of both…
Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey
Existing research suggests that sexual minority youth experience lower levels of well-being, in part because they perceive less social support than heterosexual youth. Sexual minority youth with strong family relationships may demonstrate resilience and increased well-being; however, it is also possible that the experience of sexual stigma may…
ŞENORMANCI, Ömer; KONKAN, Ramazan; GÜÇLÜ, Oya; ŞENORMANCI, Güliz
Although the internet is used effectively and beneficially in every aspect of life, several users have been experiencing some problems due to excessive and uncontrolled use. While the term “internet addiction” still remains controversial, disturbed family relationships are considered to be a diagnostic criterion. The use of the internet, even in non-excessive levels, is associated with disturbance in family and social life. As considering from systemic point of view; while family relationships may be disturbed with internet addiction, people who have problems with their family relationships also may use internet excessively. This case report is composed of both the cases with excessive internet usage and those who had problems in complying with the changes in their family systems following the decrease in duration of internet usage during the treatment process. PMID:28360639
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development.
Larsen-Rife, Dannelle; Tronick, Ed
Rachel attended the Family Connection Program (FCP) with her 9-month-old son to learn about infant development so she could her overcome the relational deficits of severe postpartum depression. The FCP fostered connections between Rachel, her son, and other participants through presentations about communication and interaction techniques and about…
Administration for Children & Families, 2015
The director measure is intended for use with program directors in center-based, family child care, and Head Start/Early Head Start settings for children from birth through five years old. This measure asks respondents general questions about the early childhood education environment, the children enrolled in the program, and how the program…
Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M
Background Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work–family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. Methods In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results/Conclusion Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work–family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. PMID:24673505
Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal
The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences…
Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey
Existing research suggests that sexual minority youth experience lower levels of well-being, in part because they perceive less social support than heterosexual youth. Sexual minority youth with strong family relationships may demonstrate resilience and increased well-being; however, it is also possible that the experience of sexual stigma may make these relationships less protective for sexual minority youth. Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we explore the links between same-sex attraction, family relationships, and adolescent well-being in a sample of over 13,000 7th-12th grade adolescents (51 % female, 52 % non-Latino/a white, 17 % Latino, 21 % African American, and 7 % Asian). Specifically, we examine whether lower levels of parental closeness, parental involvement, and family support among same-sex attracted youth explain in part why these youth experience increased depressive symptoms and risk behaviors, including binge drinking, illegal drug use, and running away from home, relative to other-sex attracted youth. Second, we ask whether family relationships are equally protective against depressive symptoms and risk behaviors for same-sex attracted and other-sex attracted youth. We find that same-sex attracted youth, particularly girls, report higher levels of depressive symptoms, binge drinking, and drug use in part because they perceive less closeness with parents and less support from their families. Results also suggest that parental closeness and parental involvement may be less protective against risk behaviors for same-sex attracted boys than for their other-sex attracted peers. Findings thus suggest that interventions targeting the families of sexual minority youth should educate parents about the potentially negative effects of heteronormative assumptions and attitudes on positive adolescent development.
Halliday, J A; Palma, C L; Mellor, D; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N
There is mounting evidence that family functioning is linked to childhood overweight and obesity, and that both of these are associated with health-related behaviours and adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents. This paper systematically examines the peer-reviewed evidence regarding the relationship between child and adolescent overweight and obesity and family functioning. Peer-reviewed literature published between 1990 and 2011 hosted in Scopus, Pub Med or Psyc INFO were searched, in addition to the reference lists of included papers. Twenty-one studies met the selection criteria. Of the 17 identified cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, 12 reported significant associations between family functioning and childhood overweight and obesity. The instruments used to measure family functioning in the identified studies were heterogeneous. Poor family functioning was associated with increased risk of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents, and obese children and adolescents were more likely to come from families with poor family functioning. Aspects of family functioning which were associated with increased risk of child and adolescent obesity included poor communication, poor behaviour control, high levels of family conflict and low family hierarchy values. Half (2/4) of the identified intervention studies showed a significant relationship between family functioning and changes in child weight. The results demonstrate that family functioning is linked to obesity; however, higher level evidence and greater understanding of the mechanisms behind this relationship are required. The results indicate a need for a standardised family functioning measure applicable across populations. The results provide evidence of the value of considering family functioning in childhood obesity research and intervention.
Azuma, Hiroshi; Tobe, Hiroshi
Tofieldiaceae are a small monocot family comprising about 20 species, mostly distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, with some in northern South America. To clarify the family circumscription, the number of distinguishable genera in the family, and relationships among the genera, we conducted molecular analyses of cpDNA (matK and non-coding trnL-trnL-trnF region) sequences of 17 associated species of Tofieldiaceae, along with 14 species of Acorales, Alismatales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, and Liliales. Results showed that Tofieldiaceae are monophyletic, comprising all the species assignable to Harperocallis, Isidrogalvia, Pleea, Tofieldia, and Triantha, thus supporting the original family circumscription. Within the family, Pleea is sister to the rest of the family, in which Isidrogalvia is sister to Harperocallis, and Tofieldia to Triantha. Morphological characters supporting the relationships among the genera were briefly discussed.
Harris, M B; Begay, C; Page, P
This study looked at ethnic and gender differences in activities, family relationships, and feelings about aging in 128 American Indian, Anglo, and Hispanic adults over sixty. Reading, visiting, and watching television were the most popular activities for all subjects, with a number of sex and ethnic differences appearing. Most subjects reported improved relationships with their families on various dimensions after turning sixty. A number of advantages and disadvantages of aging were mentioned. Few ethnic or gender differences were found on these latter variables.
Roa-Varón, Adela; Ortí, Guillermo
Phylogenetic hypotheses among Gadiformes fishes at the suborder, family, and subfamily levels are controversial. To address this problem, we analyze nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences for the most extensive taxonomic sampling compiled to date, representing all of the recognized families and subfamilies in the order (except the monotypic family Lyconidae). Our study sampled 117 species from 46 genera, comprising around 20% of the species described for the order (more than 60% of all genera in the order) and produced 2740 bp of DNA sequence data for each species. Our analysis was successful in confirming the monophyly of Gadiformes and most of the proposed families for the order, but alternative hypotheses of sister-group relationships among families were poorly resolved. Our results are consistent with dividing Gadiformes into 12 families in three suborders, Muraenolepidoidei, Macrouroidei, and Gadoidei. Muraenolepidoidei contains the single family Muraenolepididae. The suborder Macrouroidei includes at least three families: Macrouridae, Macruronidae and Steindachneriidae. Macrouridae is deeply divided into two well-supported subfamilies: Macrourinae and Bathygadinae, suggesting that Bathygadinae may be ranked at the family level. The suborder Gadoidei includes the families: Merlucciidae, Melanonidae, Euclichthyidae, Gadidae, Ranicipitidae, and Bregmacerotidae. Additionally, Trachyrincinae could be ranked at family level including two subfamilies: Trachyrincinae and Macrouroidinae within Gadoidei. Further taxonomic sampling and sequencing efforts are needed in order to corroborate these relationships.
Walkner, Amy J.; Rueter, Martha A.
While adoptive family research has increased, most has focused on childhood and adolescence. Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Utilizing the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study is to build upon previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence (14.50–18.49 years) and young adulthood (18.50–22.49 years), and analyzed using within subjects repeated measures. While adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators compared to nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types. Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process. PMID:25221972
Walkner, Amy J; Rueter, Martha A
Although adoptive family research has increased, most has focused on childhood and adolescence. Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Using the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study was to build on previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence (range: 14.50-18.49 years) and young adulthood (range:18.50-22.49 years), and analyzed using within-subjects repeated measures. Although adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators than nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types. Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process.
McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary
Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…
C, Francisca Pérez; Moessner, Markus; A, María Pía Santelices
This study examines the relationship between triadic family interactions and preschoolers' attachment representations, or internal working models (IWMs), from a qualitative and dimensional perspective. Individual, relational, and sociocultural variables were evaluated using two different samples. The results showed that triadic family interactions were linked to preschoolers' attachment security levels in both groups, indicating the reliability of the proposed model.
Throughout its history, street children have been a major concern of Turkish society and have lately been uppermost on social workers agenda. This study examines the relationships between sociodemographic and family characteristics, family relations, street life experiences and the hopelessness of street children. The study focuses on a population…
Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Shams, Fatemeh
Objective: To compare Children's Perceived Parent-Child Relationships (PCR) and family functioning in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a general population sample. Method: A total of 49 ADHD subjects and 51 subjects without any psychiatric disorder were matched for age, sex, educational level, family income, level…
Krampe, Edythe M.; Newton, Rae R.
The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants' evaluations of…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family…
This paper explores the relationship between influencing factors from family on Thai students' choices of international education. The study classifies choices of international education into the decision to study abroad, choice of country, city, academic program, and of university. The influences from family are identified as finance,…
da Silva, Doane Martins; Vilela, Alba Benemérita Alves; Nery, Adriana Alves; Duarte, Ana Cristina Santos; Alves, Marta dos Reis; Meira, Saulo Sacramento
This study aimed to describe the dynamics of intergenerational family relationships from the viewpoint of the elderly. It is a study of qualitative approach, developed with 32 elderly people registered in the coverage area of a Family Health Program in a city in the state of Bahia. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during the first half of 2013, through home visits. We applied to thematic content analysis, and four categories emerged: harmonic intergenerational family relationships; conflicting intergenerational family relationships; family relationships permeated by intergenerational carefor the elderly; intergenerational relationships permeated by elderly caring for their grandchildren. The categories enabled an understanding of the dynamics of intergenerational family relationships from the viewpoint of elderly, unveiling family relationships guided in the care, support, family unity and even conflicts.
... Pub. L. 85-804. 33.205 Section 33.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804. (a) Requests for relief under Pub. L. 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431-1435... available only under Pub. L. 85-804; i.e., legal entitlement to rescission or reformation for mutual...
... Pub. L. 85-804. 33.205 Section 33.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804. (a) Requests for relief under Pub. L. 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431-1435... available only under Pub. L. 85-804; i.e., legal entitlement to rescission or reformation for mutual...
... Pub. L. 85-804. 33.205 Section 33.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804. (a) Requests for relief under Pub. L. 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431-1435... available only under Pub. L. 85-804; i.e., legal entitlement to rescission or reformation for mutual...
Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Reina, Michelle L; Reina, Dennis S
A difficult case study involving repeated health crises and irreversible organ dysfunction illustrates the challenges critical care professionals face in caring for patients and their families. In such cases, trust is especially fragile, and coexists with its counterpart, betrayal. The Reina Trust & Betrayal Model defines 3 types of Transactional Trust. The first, Competence Trust, or the Trust of Capability, requires that clinicians practice humility, engage in inquiry, honor the patient's choices, and express compassion. The second, Contractual Trust, or the Trust of Character, demands that clinicians keep agreements, manage expectations, establish boundaries, and encourage mutually serving expectations. The third, Communication Trust, or the Trust of Disclosure, must be rooted in respect and based on truth-telling. Particularly in life-and-death situations, communication requires honesty and clarity. Each type of trust involves specific behaviors that build trust and can guide critical care professionals as they interact with patients and their families.
Bustamante, Juan P.; Radusky, Leandro; Boechi, Leonardo; Estrin, Darío A.; ten Have, Arjen; Martí, Marcelo A.
Predicting function from sequence is an important goal in current biological research, and although, broad functional assignment is possible when a protein is assigned to a family, predicting functional specificity with accuracy is not straightforward. If function is provided by key structural properties and the relevant properties can be computed using the sequence as the starting point, it should in principle be possible to predict function in detail. The truncated hemoglobin family presents an interesting benchmark study due to their ubiquity, sequence diversity in the context of a conserved fold and the number of characterized members. Their functions are tightly related to O2 affinity and reactivity, as determined by the association and dissociation rate constants, both of which can be predicted and analyzed using in-silico based tools. In the present work we have applied a strategy, which combines homology modeling with molecular based energy calculations, to predict and analyze function of all known truncated hemoglobins in an evolutionary context. Our results show that truncated hemoglobins present conserved family features, but that its structure is flexible enough to allow the switch from high to low affinity in a few evolutionary steps. Most proteins display moderate to high oxygen affinities and multiple ligand migration paths, which, besides some minor trends, show heterogeneous distributions throughout the phylogenetic tree, again suggesting fast functional adaptation. Our data not only deepens our comprehension of the structural basis governing ligand affinity, but they also highlight some interesting functional evolutionary trends. PMID:26788940
Acri, Mary C; Palinkas, Larry; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Shen, Sa; Schoonover, Diana; Reutz, Jennifer Rolls; Landsverk, John
This study examined: (1) qualitative aspects of close working relationships between family support organizations and child mental health agencies, including effective and ineffective characteristics of the relationship and aspects that they would change, and (2) the impact of the working relationship upon the family support organization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 directors of family support organizations characterized as having a close working relationship with a child mental health agency. Three main themes emerged regarding the quality of the working relationship: (a) interactional factors, including shared trust, communication, collaboration and service coordination; (b) aspects of the inner context of the family support organization, mental health agency, or both, including alignment of goals and values and perceptions of mental health services; and (c) outer contextual factors external to the organizations, such as financial and county regulations. Responses to the perceived impact of the relationship was divided into two themes: positive impacts (e.g. gained respect, influence and visibility), and negative impacts (e.g. lack of trust). This study lays the foundation for future research to better understand the mechanisms underlying interorganizational relationships in communities among different types of providers to create a more seamless continuum of services for families of children with mental health conditions.
Gordon, Judith R; Whelan-Berry, Karen S; Hamilton, Elizabeth A
This article examines the relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and four work outcomes for 489 working women over the age of 50. Survey results from two U.S. health care organizations and one U.S. financial services organization indicate that older working women experience differing amounts of work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, work-to-family enhancement, and family-to-work enhancement. Hypotheses relating organizational work-family culture to work-family conflict and enhancement were partially supported, and hypotheses relating conflict and enhancement to four work outcomes were partially supported. Work-to-family conflict and work-to-family enhancement partially mediate the relationship between organizational work-family culture and selected work outcomes. Implications for theory and practice, limitations of this study, and directions for future research are also presented.
Crosnoe, Robert; Elder, Glen H., Jr.
If problematic relationships with parents are an academic risk factor during adolescence, then nonparental sources of support (e.g., friends, siblings, and teachers) may be arenas of comfort that promote educational resilience in the face of such risk. In a series of structural models using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…
The literature on research carried out in the field and parents' and teachers' declarations all point in the same direction: good collaboration between home and school is useful to the child-student for his education and learning. Despite this, parent-teacher relationships in Europe (and elsewhere), from Spain to Sweden, from Ireland to Greece,…
Wright, George E., Jr.
The crisis in primary care has long been discussed and the dismal litany of statistics is now familiar. The G.P. is vanishing from the medical scene. Over one-third of the active general practitioners are now over 60. In 1970 the U.S. Congress responded to the declining availability of primary health care by passing the Family Practice Act. The…
Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.
Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…
Roberts, Jane; Fenton, Gaynor; Barnard, Michaela
It is imperative that nurses caring for children, young people and their families develop and maintain effective, trusting and collaborative therapeutic relationships that sit within the scope of professional boundaries. This relationship is the nurse's responsibility and should be positive and mutually acceptable to all stakeholders. A unique challenge for children's nurses is to address and prioritise the child's care needs, while meeting the needs of, and empowering, the family. The 6Cs--care, compassion, competence, communication, courage, commitment--should underpin care and enable nurses to overcome challenges such as time pressures, acute situations or disturbed family expectation. Confidentiality and safeguarding should always be observed.
Henderson, Craig E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Sanders, Leah M.; Louden, Linda
This study investigates maternal grandmother-grandchild relationship quality as a predictor of psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families. Three hundred twenty-four adolescents aged between 17 and 20 report on the quality of their relationships with their maternal grandmothers and their relational competence, self-efficacy, and…
Guerrero, Laura K.; Afifi, Walid A.
Finds that adolescents avoid discussing negative experiences and dating experiences more with parents than siblings, and avoid discussing sexual matters with opposite-sex family members. Finds that female dyads practice the least avoidance on topics involving relationship issues or friendships, while males avoid discussing relationship issues,…
Lemaire, François; Marchenay, Brigitte; Chassany, Olivier; Barthélémy, Philippe; Bouzzagou, Mohamed; Comet, Denis; Delval, Cécile; Dubray, Claude; Fouret, Cécile; Frija-Orvoen, Elisabeth; Gambotti, Laetitia; Lamarque, Véronique; d'Orsay, Geneviève; Plattner, Valérie; Sibenaler, Claire; Roux, Jacques; Thoby, Frédérique
In May 2014, the European Union Parliament and Council published a new regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which is designed to replace Directive 2001/20/EC. It will not come into effect until 2016. Nevertheless, it is essential to examine its relationship with national legislation, i.e. the Jardé Act, whose implementation has been delayed pending publication of the European regulation. The Giens workshop identified and examined the various issues that this relationship is bound to raise. In particular, it looked at trial methodology assessment procedures, the working relationship between the French National Agency of Drug Safety and Health Products (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé, ANSM) and ethics committees during the authorization application evaluation phase, review of post-authorization/registration studies on medicinal products and medical devices, and data transparency.
Marques, António Manuel; Chambel, Maria José; Pinto, Inês
Workers' perception that their job experience enriches their family life has been considered a mechanism that explains their positive attitudes toward the organization where they work. However, because women and men live their work and family differently, gender may condition this relationship between the work-family enrichment and workers' attitudes. With a sample of 1885 workers from one Portuguese bank, with 802 women, the current study investigated the relationship between work-family enrichment and organizational affective commitment as well as the role of sex as a moderator of this relationship. The hypotheses were tested by using regression analysis. The results indicated that the perception held by workers that their work enriches their family is positively correlated with their affective commitment toward the organization. Furthermore, the data revealed that this relationship is stronger for women than for men. Study results have implications for management, particularly for human resource management, enhancing their knowledge about the relationship of work-family enrichment and workers' affective commitment toward organization.
Perkins, Patrick Scott; Slane, Jennifer D; Klump, Kelly L
Personality clusters in women with eating disorders predict important clinical variables (e.g., social functioning) better than eating disorder diagnoses. However, it is unknown whether these findings generalize to samples with subclinical pathology. Further, little is known about associations between personality clusters and family relationships. This study sought to address these limitations by replicating personality clusters in a college sample of women with disordered eating symptoms Based on reported symptoms, women were divided into a restricting, binging and purging, or control (i.e., symptom free) group. Participants completed measures of personality, social functioning, and family relationships. Cluster analyses suggested three personality groups (i.e., Adaptive, Rigid, Dysregulated) which corresponded to those identified previously in clinical samples. Personality clusters, and not disordered eating groups, significantly predicted social functioning, and these clusters were differentially associated with family conflict type. Meaningful personality clusters are present in subclinical populations and have clinical utility in predicting social functioning and family relationships.
Yu, Yizhen; Shi, Junxia; Huang, Yan; Wang, Jun
In order to identify family factors obviously relevant to aggression, and offer a theoretical foundation for the prevention of aggression, 4010 students from primary and secondary schools in 5 different areas in Hubei province were surveyed. The Child Behavior Checklist " parents' form" (Chinese version) and the four scales of Family Environment Scale were used. A multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. The results showed that maternal education, paternal occupation, family type, parental child-rearing attitude and patterns, students' interpersonal relationship were significantly associated with the children's and adolescents' aggression. The risk factors of aggression were parental child-rearing patterns, peer relationship, teacher-student relationship, and family conflicts.
Somech, Anit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat
Study 1, with 266 employed parents, identified 8 coping strategies: super at home, good enough at home, delegation at home, priorities at home, super at work, good enough at work, delegation at work, and priorities at work. Study 2, with 679 employed parents, demonstrated a moderating effect of sex and gender role ideology in the relationship between coping strategy and work-family conflict. Specifically, the relationships between coping strategies (i.e., good enough at home, good enough at work, and delegation at work) and work interference with family were moderated by sex and gender role ideology. Regarding family interference with work, the relationships between coping strategies (i.e., good enough at home and good enough at work, delegation at home and delegation at work, and priorities at home) and family interference with work were moderated by sex and gender role ideology.
Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A
Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children's representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children's represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children's represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm.
Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A.
Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children’s representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children’s represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children’s represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm. PMID:24580068
Most narrators of the Dakota Memories Oral History Project (DMOHP), the children and grandchildren of ethnic German immigrants from Russia, reminisce a great deal about their family relationships -- grandparent-grandchild relationships, parent-child relationships, and sibling-sibling relationships. They share memories of their grandmothers baking them delicious dough dishes, of their fathers making them labor endlessly in the fields, and of their siblings coaxing them into mischief. Through these relationships, Germans from Russia not only learned about their ethnic group's identity, but they also reshaped it into a new identity, blending their past with their present. Within the context of family relationships, these German Russian descendants forged a new identity rooted in their ethnic heritage and history, but serviceable to new, American-born generations.
Roley, Michelle E; Kawakami, Ryoko; Baker, Jessica; Hurtado, Gabriela; Chin, Andrew; Hovey, Joseph D
Acculturative stress is a risk factor for depression, and may be important in the risk for depression among acculturating Japanese adolescents. However, little to no research has been published on the mental health of acculturating Japanese adolescents. Further, although family cohesion has been shown to be protective against depression across ethnic groups, no prior research has examined family cohesion as a protective factor for Japanese adolescents. To examine these relationships, 26 Japanese temporary resident adolescents and 76 parents in the Midwest were recruited to participate. Moderate to strong correlations between acculturative stress, depression, likelihood for and seriousness of family conflict were found. A regression analysis found that likelihood for family conflict moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Findings broaden our understanding of the role of acculturative stress and family conflict on depression risk for Japanese adolescent immigrants.
Stanik, Christine E.; Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.
Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent – adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families. PMID:24532863
Caldera, Yvonne M; Lindsey, Eric W
Coparenting behavior and the quality of mothers' parenting behavior were examined in relation to parents' perceptions of their child's attachment in 60 two-parent families with 11- to 15-month-old infants (30 boys and 30 girls). Parent-child attachment was assessed using the Attachment Q-Sort. Competitive coparenting was associated with mothers' and fathers' perception of a less secure parent-child attachment relationship, whereas maternal responsiveness was associated with mothers' perception of a more secure mother-child attachment relationship. Families with mothers who were more restrictive and those with parents who were more competitive were less likely to have mothers and fathers with similar perceptions of the quality of parent-child attachment relationships. Findings support the proposal that different levels of family functioning affect the quality of parent-child relationships.
Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.
Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers’ adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. Results We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, “light” cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Conclusion Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions. PMID:23557638
Yang, Yanjie; Sun, Hailian; Pan, Hui; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Sui, Hong; Wang, Wenbo; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Ban, Bo; He, Changzhi
Background Depression is a major health concern for college students due to its substantial morbidity and mortality. Although low parental education has been identified as a factor in depression in college students, the mechanisms through which parental educational achievement affects students’ depression are not well understood. We tested whether adverse family and college environments mediate the relationship between parental educational level and depression among Chinese college students. Methods A total of 5180 respondents were selected using a cross-sectional survey. We examined the association of parental education, adverse family and college environments with depression in college students using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory and socio-demographic questionnaires. Results Lower parental educational level is significantly correlated with depression in college students in our sample. Additionally, low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, having been scolded and beaten by parents, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends, heavy course load and failure in selection processes are also associated with parental education. Low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends and heavy course load mediated the relationship between parental education and depression in college students. Conclusions Adverse family and college environments could explain the influence of parental educational level on depression in college students. PMID:26991783
Gockel, Annemarie; Russell, Mary; Harris, Barbara
Although existing family preservation program research has focused on identifying the components of effective treatment, we remain far from fully developing empirically supported interventions (Barth, Chamberlain, Reid, Rolls, Hurlburt, Farmer, James, McCabe, & Kohl, 2005; Dufour, Chamberland, & Trocme, 2003). The current longitudinal study…
Schwartz, Seth J; Mason, Craig A; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José
The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family functioning. Significant variability over time and across individuals emerged in identity confusion, but not in identity coherence. As a result, the present analyses focused on identity confusion. Changes in adolescent-reported, but not parent-reported, family functioning were significantly related to changes in identity confusion. Follow-up analyses suggested that family functioning primarily influences identity confusion in early adolescence, but that identity confusion begins to exert a reciprocal effect in middle adolescence. Exploratory latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) analyses produced three classes of adolescents based on their baseline values and change trajectories in identity confusion. The potential for family-strengthening interventions to affect identity development is discussed.
Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard
This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854
Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard
This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act has sometimes caused confusion among higher education professionals since the legislation was introduced by Senator James Buckley in 1974. Reasons for this confusion range from the fact that it became a law without the usual congressional considerations to the belief that FERPA was never intended to…
Greer, Christine Glah
This study focuses on the response of universities to the permissive disclosure clauses of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). FERPA has been amended nine times; some of these amendments permit universities to disclose personally identifiable information without the permission of students. The purpose of this study is to…
Pavetti, LaDonna; Rosenberg, Linda; Derr, Michelle K.
In this paper, the authors examine how policy and structural changes states made in response to the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (DRA) may influence the level and composition of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) caseload. This paper grew out of a 50-state survey Mathematica Policy Research conducted on diversion programs which…
Lindsay, J S
The medical profession are concerned with diseases or disorders, their diagnoses, and the appropriate treatment of their patients. The relevant processes involve interpersonal relationships in physical examinations, associated with the conventional social ritual courtesies. There are only two certainties--birth and death--with areas of probabilities and uncertainties in between. One such uncertainty is the sudden death of an infant in its first year. After the obstetrical birth processes, the specific health of the neonate involves the paediatrician. His skill and modern technical resources have enabled numbers of the prematurely born to survive. Has the modern neonate evolved over the centuries to have some needs that must be worked out between mother and her baby? To attribute hands-on experiences to genes takes away four holding hands from what they feel, the eyeball movements and what they see, the noses and what they smell, and the breast milk for the energy to move the muscles no longer in floating weightlessness.
Jenson, Desmond; Lester, Joelle; Berman, Micah L
Among other key objectives, the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act was designed to end an era of constant product manipulation by the tobacco industry that had led to more addictive and attractive products. The law requires new tobacco products to undergo premarket review by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be sold. To assess FDA's implementation of its premarket review authorities, we reviewed FDA actions on new product applications, publicly available data on industry applications to market new products, and related FDA guidance documents and public statements. We conclude that FDA has not implemented the premarket review process in a manner that prioritises the protection of public health. In particular, FDA has (1) prioritised the review of premarket applications that allow for the introduction of new tobacco products over the review of potentially non-compliant products that are already on the market; (2) misallocated resources by accommodating the industry's repeated submissions of deficient premarket applications and (3) weakened the premarket review process by allowing the tobacco industry to market new and modified products that have not completed the required review process.
Baxevanis, A D; Landsman, D
The abundant and highly-conserved nucleoproteins comprising the high mobility group-1/2 (HMG-1/2) family contains two homologous basic domains of about 75 amino acids. These basic domains, termed HMG-1 boxes, are highly structured and facilitate HMG-DNA interactions. Many proteins that regulate various cellular functions involving DNA binding and whose target DNA sequences share common structural characteristics have been identified as having an HMG-1 box; these proteins include the RNA polymerase I transcription factor UBF, the mammalian testis-determining factor SRY and the mitochondrial transcription factors ABF2 and mtTF1, among others. The sequences of 121 HMG-1 boxes have been compiled and aligned in accordance with thermodynamic results from homology model building (threading) experiments, basing the alignment on structure rather than by using traditional sequence homology methods. The classification of a representative subset of these proteins was then determined using standard least-squares distance methods. The proteins segregate into two groups, the first consisting of HMG-1/2 proteins and the second consisting of proteins containing the HMG-1 box but which are not canonical HMG proteins. The proteins in the second group further segregate based on their function, their ability to bind specific sequences of DNA, or their ability to recognize discrete non-B-DNA structures. The HMG-1 box provides an excellent example of how a specific protein motif, with slight alteration, can be used to recognize DNA in a variety of functional contexts. Images PMID:7784217
Meng, Xiangfeng; Gangoiti, Joana; Bai, Yuxiang; Pijning, Tjaard; Van Leeuwen, Sander S; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce large amounts of α-glucan exopolysaccharides. Family GH70 glucansucrase (GS) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of these α-glucans from sucrose. The elucidation of the crystal structures of representative GS enzymes has advanced our understanding of their reaction mechanism, especially structural features determining their linkage specificity. In addition, with the increase of genome sequencing, more and more GS enzymes are identified and characterized. Together, such knowledge may promote the synthesis of α-glucans with desired structures and properties from sucrose. In the meantime, two new GH70 subfamilies (GTFB- and GTFC-like) have been identified as 4,6-α-glucanotransferases (4,6-α-GTs) that represent novel evolutionary intermediates between the family GH13 and "classical GH70 enzymes". These enzymes are not active on sucrose; instead, they use (α1 → 4) glucans (i.e. malto-oligosaccharides and starch) as substrates to synthesize novel α-glucans by introducing linear chains of (α1 → 6) linkages. All these GH70 enzymes are very interesting biocatalysts and hold strong potential for applications in the food, medicine and cosmetic industries. In this review, we summarize the microbiological distribution and the structure-function relationships of family GH70 enzymes, introduce the two newly identified GH70 subfamilies, and discuss evolutionary relationships between family GH70 and GH13 enzymes.
Kanarek, Gerard; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Sitko, Jiljí; Tkach, Vasyl V
The systematic position and phylogenetic relationships of the family Cortrematidae Yamaguti, 1958 have always been controversial. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships of this family and its constituent genera and families within the superfamily Microphalloidea were evaluated using previously published and newly obtained sequences of 28S rDNA of Cortrema magnicaudata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1950) (Cortrematidae), Phaneropsolus praomydis Baer, 1971 and Microtrema barusi Sitko, 2013 (Phaneropsolidae). Results clearly demonstrate that the genus Cortrema Tang, 1951 is closest to Gyrabascus Macy 1935, both genera forming one of the clades within the family Pleurogenidae in the superfamily Microphalloidea and sharing several important morphological features. Thus, the family Cortrematidae should be considered among synonyms of the Pleurogenidae. Based on the analysis of morphology, C. corti Tang, 1951, C. testilobata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1953) and C. niloticus Ashour, Ahmed et Lewis, 1994 are considered junior synonyms of C. magnicaudata. The phylogenetic position of P. praomydis as a family-level branch not showing close relationships with other families of the Microphalloidea, supports the status of the Phaneropsolidae as an independent family. The genus Parabascus Looss, 1907 previously considered within the Phaneropsolidae clearly belongs to the Pleurogenidae. In addition, the molecular phylogeny has demonstrated that the recently described phaneropsolid Microtrema barusi belongs to the microphallid genus Microphallus Ward, 1901. Therefore, Microtrema Sitko, 2013 is considered a junior synonym of Microphallus. Our analysis has also confirmed the status of Collyriclidae as a family within the Microphalloidea. Not yet sequenced representatives of other families within the Microphalloidea (e.g. Anenterotrematidae, Eumegacetidae, Renschtrematidae, Stomylotrematidae, etc.) need to be included in future molecular phylogenetic studies to better unravel
Pan, Peter Jen Der
Examines the effects of group counseling based on the Satir model on college students' family roles and relationships with family members. Forty-two college participants in Taiwan were assigned to one of two experimental conditions. Results reveal that participants' family roles became more positive and definite, and their relationship with family…
Maintaining Student Records and Meeting Confidentiality Requirements under the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (504). A Primer for Educators
An important federal statute impacting student records is the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), enacted to ensure student/parent access to education records and to limit disclosures to others for unauthorized purposes. FERPA Regulations set forth the basic federal records retention and destruction requirements. The records of…
Hall, Scott S; Kandiah, Jayanthi; Saiki, Diana; Nam, Jinhee; Harden, Amy; Park, Soonjee
Technological advances in monitoring vulnerable care-recipients are on the rise. Recent and future development of Smart Wear technology (devices integrated into clothing that monitor care-recipients) might assist family caregivers with tasks related to caring for young children, relatives with disabilities, and frail spouses or parents. However, the development and use of this technology in family caregiving contexts is in its infancy. Focus group interviews of family caregivers were conducted to explore perspectives regarding the potential integration of Smart Wear technology into their family caregiving. Responses were analyzed qualitatively for themes related to perceptions of how Smart Wear could impact relationships between caregivers and care-recipients. Three major themes emerged: quality and quantity of interaction, boundary issues, and implications for anxiety. Implications and recommendations are discussed regarding maximizing the potential benefits of Smart Wear technology in ways that promote and protect healthy relationships among caregivers and care-recipients.
Berger, Lawrence M.; McLanahan, Sara S.
Prior research suggests considerable heterogeneity in the advantages of living in a two-parent family. Specifically, children living with married biological parents exhibit more favorable outcomes than children living with cohabiting biological parents and with married and cohabiting stepparents. To explain these differences, researchers have focused almost exclusively on differences in the levels of factors such as income, parental relationship quality, and parenting quality across family types. In this paper, we examined whether differences in the benefits associated with these factors might also account for some of the variation in children’s cognition and social-emotional development. Focusing on children at the time they enter kindergarten, we found only weak evidence of differences in benefits across family types. Rather, we found that children living in stepfather families experienced above average levels of parental relationship quality and parenting quality which, in turn, played a protective role vis-à-vis their cognitive and social-emotional development. PMID:26339104
Tompkins, Catherine J; Ihara, Emily S; Cusick, Alison; Park, Nan Sook
Social support is a key component of well-being for older adults, particularly for those who have moved from independent living to assisted living involving a transformation of roles, relationships, and responsibilities. Twenty-nine assisted-living facility residents were interviewed to understand the perceived continuity of relationships with family and friends. An inductive approach to thematic analysis revealed 1 main theme and 3 subthemes. The main theme that emerged was: maintaining connections but wanting more. Residents appreciated maintaining connections with family and friends, but often expressed feelings of discontentment with the continuity of former relationships. The subthemes included: appreciating family and friends, waiting for more, and losing control. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Katki, Hormuzd A.; Sanders, Christopher L.; Graubard, Barry I.; Bergen, Andrew W.
Developing, targeting, and evaluating genomic strategies for population-based disease prevention require population-based data. In response to this urgent need, genotyping has been conducted within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES III), the nationally-representative household-interview health survey in the U.S. However, before these genetic analyses can occur, family relationships within households must be accurately ascertained. Unfortunately, reported family relationships within NHANES III households based on questionnaire data are incomplete and inconclusive with regards to actual biological relatedness of family members. We inferred family relationships within households using DNA fingerprints (Identifiler®) that contain the DNA loci used by law enforcement agencies for forensic identification of individuals. However, performance of these loci for relationship inference is not well understood. We evaluated two competing statistical methods for relationship inference on pairs of household members: an exact likelihood ratio relying on allele frequencies to an Identical By State (IBS) likelihood ratio that only requires matching alleles. We modified these methods to account for genotyping errors and population substructure. The two methods usually agree on the rankings of the most likely relationships. However, the IBS method underestimates the likelihood ratio by not accounting for the informativeness of matching rare alleles. The likelihood ratio is sensitive to estimates of population substructure, and parent-child relationships are sensitive to the specified genotyping error rate. These loci were unable to distinguish second-degree relationships and cousins from being unrelated. The genetic data is also useful for verifying reported relationships and identifying data quality issues. An important by-product is the first explicitly nationally-representative estimates of allele frequencies at these ubiquitous forensic loci. PMID
Hunt, Tenah K A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Assari, Shervin
This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed.
Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin
This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454
Chen, Y-C; Kao, C-F; Lu, M-K; Yang, Y-K; Liao, S-C; Jang, F-L; Chen, W J; Lu, R-B; Kuo, P-H
Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs.
Background The circumscription of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea is a matter of long ongoing debate. While the overall inclusiveness has now been mostly agreed on and 20 families recognised, the phylogenetic relationships among the families are largely unknown. We here present a phylogenetic hypothesis for Sylvioidea based on one mitochondrial and six nuclear markers, in total ~6.3 kbp, for 79 ingroup species representing all currently recognised families and some species with uncertain affinities, making this the most comprehensive analysis of this taxon. Results The resolution, especially of the deeper nodes, is much improved compared to previous studies. However, many relationships among families remain uncertain and are in need of verification. Most families themselves are very well supported based on the total data set and also by indels. Our data do not support the inclusion of Hylia in Cettiidae, but do not strongly reject a close relationship with Cettiidae either. The genera Scotocerca and Erythrocercus are closely related to Cettiidae, but separated by relatively long internodes. The families Paridae, Remizidae and Stenostiridae clustered among the outgroup taxa and not within Sylvioidea. Conclusions Although the phylogenetic position of Hylia is uncertain, we tentatively support the recognition of the family Hyliidae Bannerman, 1923 for this genus and Pholidornis. We propose new family names for the genera Scotocerca and Erythrocercus, Scotocercidae and Erythrocercidae, respectively, rather than including these in Cettiidae, and we formally propose the name Macrosphenidae, which has been in informal use for some time. We recommend that Paridae, Remizidae and Stenostiridae are not included in Sylvioidea. We also briefly discuss the problems of providing a morphological diagnosis when proposing a new family-group name (or genus-group name) based on a clade. PMID:22920688
Frampton, Kristen L.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Dunn, Judy
The goal of this exploratory, within-family, longitudinal study was to examine whether children's perspectives of the mother-child relationship explained within-family differences in children's responses to a shared family stressor (maternal depressive symptoms) over time. Children (ages 8 to 15 years; N = 68) residing in 34 families were drawn…
Oku, Kanami; Imamura, Hisashi; Yabe, Mamoru
Phylogenetic relationships of the family Cyclopteridae were reconstructed based on osteological and external characters. The monophyly of the family was strongly supported by 47 commonly recognized synapomorphies, including six autapomorphies (plus one additional autapomorphy, presence of a dorsal process on the pelvis, recognized after the phylogenetic analysis) among the suborder Cottoidei. As a result of the cladistic analysis, a single most parsimonious phylogeny was obtained, based on characters in 32 transformation series. A new classification of Cyclopteridae based on reconstructed relationships, including three subfamilies [Liparopsinae, Cyclopterinae and Eumicrotreminae (newly established)] and four genera (Aptocyclus, Cyclopsis, Cyclopterus and Eumicrotremus), is proposed.
Rushing, Cassie; Powell, Lisa
A phenomenological qualitative study was utilized to explore family dynamics in stay-at-home father and working mother households. A total of 20 working mothers were asked to describe family interactions and daily routines with regard to their stay-at-home father and working mother dynamic. All participants were married, heterosexual women with biological children ages 1 to 4 and who worked outside the home and the father stayed home as primary caretaker and did not contribute financially. The study indicated that the family dynamic of a working mother and stay-at-home father provided a positive parent-child relationship, enhanced parenting cohesion, and enhanced quality time.
Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R
The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed.
Turnbull, Triece; van Schaik, Paul; van Wersch, Anna
In this study, we aimed to identify the impact that computers can have in relation to sex and relationship education, as well as to provide a communication model that can be used within British families. We used a mixed-methods approach to explore the factors that influence communication of sexual matters within British families. Twenty families from the northeast of England were recruited through purposive sampling. First, semistructured interviews were conducted to identify how sexual matters were discussed within families. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then analyzed using the grounded theory approach. The second part of the research involved identifying the impact of using a computer program on knowledge and confidence within families to enhance communication about sexual matters. Although the majority of parents and their children were found to discuss sexual matters, the computer program was found to increase knowledge and confidence, which led to greater communication within families. The results highlighted the beneficial role that computer programs can have when educating and increasing communication within families. Future research needs to focus on improving access to information relating to sex and relationship education for parents so they can educate and talk openly about sexual matters with their children. A resource that does exactly this is www.safecoolsex.com.
Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie
It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of
McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary
Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and trauma exposure among homeless families, in order to better serve the needs of this vulnerable population. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between caregiver exposure to violence, caregiver depression, and youth depression and behavioral problems among homeless families. Preliminary findings indicate that among this sample of homeless families, caregiver violence exposure has statistically significant relationships with both youth behavioral problems and youth depression symptoms, as mediated by caregiver depression. These findings indicate that youth behavioral health is associated with caregiver mental health, which, in turn, is associated with caregiver trauma exposure. This highlights the importance of taking into account adult mental health while treating youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors and ensuring that caregivers, too, have access to adequate treatment and supports. Furthermore, this treatment should be trauma informed, given the link between trauma and mental health. PMID:26420978
Freed, Rachel D.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Daryanani, Issar; Olino, Thomas M.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Emotion regulation has been implicated in the etiology of depression. A first step in adaptive emotion regulation involves emotional clarity, the ability to recognize and differentiate one’s emotional experience. As family members are critical in facilitating emotional understanding and communication, we examined the impact of family functioning on adolescent emotional clarity and depressive symptoms. We followed 364 adolescents (ages 12–17; 52.5% female; 51.4 % Caucasian, 48.6% African American) and their mothers over 2 years (3 time points) and assessed emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and adolescent-reported and mother-reported family functioning. Emotional clarity mediated the relationship between adolescent-reported family functioning and depressive symptoms at all time points cross-sectionally, and according to mother-reported family functioning at Time 1 only. There was no evidence of longitudinal mediation for adolescent- or mother-reported family functioning. Thus, family functioning, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms are strongly related constructs during various time points in adolescence, which has important implications for intervention, especially within the family unit. PMID:26832726
Whitton, Sarah W; Waldinger, Robert J; Schulz, Marc S; Allen, Joseph P; Crowell, Judith A; Hauser, Stuart T
To test the social learning-based hypothesis that marital conflict resolution patterns are learned in the family of origin, longitudinal, observational data were used to assess prospective associations between family conflict interaction patterns during adolescence and offspring's later marital conflict interaction patterns. At age 14 years, 47 participants completed an observed family conflict resolution task with their parents. In a subsequent assessment 17 years later, the participants completed measures of marital adjustment and an observed marital conflict interaction task with their spouse. As predicted, levels of hostility and positive engagement expressed by parents and adolescents during family interactions were prospectively linked with levels of hostility and positive engagement expressed by offspring and their spouses during marital interactions. Family-of-origin hostility was a particularly robust predictor of marital interaction behaviors; it predicted later marital hostility and negatively predicted positive engagement, controlling for psychopathology and family-of-origin positive engagement. For men, family-of-origin hostility also predicted poorer marital adjustment, an effect that was mediated through hostility in marital interactions. These findings suggest a long-lasting influence of family communication patterns, particularly hostility, on offspring's intimate communication and relationship functioning.
Whitton, Sarah W.; Waldinger, Robert J.; Schulz, Marc S.; Allen, Joseph P.; Crowell, Judith A.; Hauser, Stuart T.
To test the social learning–based hypothesis that marital conflict resolution patterns are learned in the family of origin, longitudinal, observational data were used to assess prospective associations between family conflict interaction patterns during adolescence and offspring’s later marital conflict interaction patterns. At age 14 years, 47 participants completed an observed family conflict resolution task with their parents. In a subsequent assessment 17 years later, the participants completed measures of marital adjustment and an observed marital conflict interaction task with their spouse. As predicted, levels of hostility and positive engagement expressed by parents and adolescents during family interactions were prospectively linked with levels of hostility and positive engagement expressed by offspring and their spouses during marital interactions. Family-of-origin hostility was a particularly robust predictor of marital interaction behaviors; it predicted later marital hostility and negatively predicted positive engagement, controlling for psychopathology and family-of-origin positive engagement. For men, family-of-origin hostility also predicted poorer marital adjustment, an effect that was mediated through hostility in marital interactions. These findings suggest a long-lasting influence of family communication patterns, particularly hostility, on offspring’s intimate communication and relationship functioning. PMID:18410214
Reali, Aline Maria de Medeiros Rodrigues; Tancredi, Regina Maria Simoes Puccinelli
This paper examines three projects conducted by researchers from Brazil's Federal University of Sao Carlos and teachers from low-income, public elementary schools. The study investigated an inservice teacher education effort designed to strengthen family-school relationships. The projects were designed to generate knowledge about teachers'…
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Carrano, Jennifer
The father-child relationship and father's parenting style are examined as predictors of first delinquency and substance use, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, Rounds 1 to 3 (N = 5,345), among adolescents in intact families. Discrete time logistic regressions indicate that a more positive father-child relationship…
Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae
The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by…
Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Robinson, Elizabeth; Fleming, Terry; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Grant, Sue
Objective: To examine the relationship between family meals and nutrition behaviors of adolescents. Design: Secondary analysis of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey. Setting: Secondary schools in New Zealand. Participants: Randomly selected adolescents (aged 13-17 years, n = 9,107) completed a multimedia and anonymous survey about their…
Ownsworth, Tamara; Goadby, Elizabeth; Chambers, Suzanne Kathleen
Shorter hospital stays and greater emphasis on outpatient care means that family members have the primary responsibility for supporting a person with brain tumor to manage the physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional effects of the illness and its treatment. Given the integral role of family caregivers, it is essential to understand their experience of the impact of brain tumor and their own support needs. Accordingly, this qualitative study aimed to investigate family caregivers’ experiences of support and relationship changes in the context of brain tumor. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 family caregivers (8 spouse/partner, 3 parents) of people with malignant or benign tumor. A thematic analysis of interview transcripts identified two major themes, namely, “Meanings of Support” and “Relationship Impacts.” The Meanings of Support theme was characterized by intertwined and distinct support needs, varied expectations of support and factors influencing support expectations. The Relationship Impacts theme depicted mixed experiences of strengthened, maintained, and strained relations with the person with brain tumor. Overall, the findings highlight that there is considerable variability in caregivers’ experiences and expectations of support and the impact of brain tumor on relationships. The implications of these findings for the provision of caregiver support are discussed. PMID:25729740
Fischer, Kathy E.; Kittleson, Mark; Ogletree, Roberta; Welshimer, Kathleen; Woehlke, Paula; Benshoff, John
Investigated relationships between collegiate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children from dysfunctional families (ACDFs) to determine whether they were at greater risk of stress than non-ACOA and non-ACDF students. Evaluations of students indicated that substantial numbers were ACOAs, ACDFs, or both, and the groups overlapped.…
Puff, Jayme; Kolomeyer, Ellen; McSwiggan, Meagan; Pearte, Catherine; Lauer, Brea-Anne; Renk, Kimberly
Objective: This study examined relationships among emerging adults' perceived familial criticism, their depressive symptoms, and their college adaptation. Participants: The current study examined the responses of 412 emerging adults (300 females and 112 males) who were college students at a large southeastern university. The majority of these…
Sterrett, Emma; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily
Nonmarital coparents, or adults who assist mothers with childrearing, play a significant role in the lives of African American single mothers and their children. Yet relatively little research has examined correlates of the quality of the coparenting relationship in these families. Using a broad ecological framework, the current study examined…
David, Hanna; Gil, Mali; Raviv, Idit
A most common belief is that giftedness is the cause of problems in sibling relationships when the family is "mixed", has at least one gifted child, and at least one non-gifted one. This belief has been accepted not only by parents and educators of the gifted, but also by researchers in the area of gifted education in general and…
Gardner, J. Emmett; Scherman, Avraham; Efthimiadis, Maria S.; Shultz, Shelli K.
The purpose of this article was to explore the family relationships and role adjustment of grandmothers in the Republic of Panama who have a grandchild with special needs. Thirty Panamanian grandmothers of children with a disability were interviewed using a standardized format and non-directive probing. Categories of analysis were established only…
Andrews, Judy A.; And Others
The inverse relation between academic motivation and substance use has been well established, but the direction of the influence remains to be specified; two possible influences are the mediating and moderating effects of family relationships and self-esteem. In this study, investigators used General Estimating Equation (GEE) models based on data…
Weissmann, Lenore R.; Harding, Carol Gibb
Traditionally, when an "outside evaluation" concerning a child's problems in school is sought by families, schools anticipate that the results will be reported in the context of an adversarial relationship, and their experiences have often borne out this expectation. A multidisciplinary Learning Evaluation Center (LEC) based within a university…
Policymakers need to decide how to invest in strengthening the most basic foundation for early childhood development: family relationships. The challenges: (1) help parents provide the responsive and stimulating environments that will prepare young children for school; and (2) support fathers' engagement with their children regardless of whether…
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e., breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a nonmarital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of…
Mason, Michael J; Schmidt, Christopher; Abraham, Anisha; Walker, Leslie; Tercyak, Kenneth
The present study examined components of adolescents' social environment (social network, extracurricular activities, and family relationships) in association with depression. A total of 332 adolescents presenting for a routine medical check-up were self-assessed for social network risk (i.e., smoking habits of best male and female friends), extracurricular activity level (i.e., participation in organized sports teams, clubs, etc.), family relationship quality (i.e., cohesion and conflict), and symptoms of depression (i.e., minimal, mild, moderate/severe). Results of a forward linear regression modeling indicate that social environment components were associated with a significant proportion of the variance in adolescent depression (Adjusted R (2) = .177, p < or = .05). Specifically, adolescent females (beta = .166, p < .01) and those having more smokers in their social network (beta = .107, p < .05) presented with significantly greater depression symptoms. Conversely, adolescents who engaged in more extracurricular activities (beta = -.118, p < .05) and experienced higher quality family relationships (beta = -.368, p < .001) presented with significantly lower depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the important role that the social environment plays in adolescent depression, as well as yields new insights into socially-based intervention targets that may ameliorate adolescent depression. These intervention targets may be gender-specific, include positive social network skills training, increase adolescents' engagement in organized activities, and attend to the quality of their family relationships.
Schofield, Thomas J.; Parke, Ross D.; Kim, Young; Coltrane, Scott
The authors examined the degree to which disparities in parent and child acculturation are linked to both family and child adjustment. With a sample of 1st- and 2nd-generation Mexican American children, acculturation and parent-child relationship quality at 5th grade, and parent-child conflict, child internalizing, and child externalizing at 7th…
Calabrese, Nicki McCullough
A pilot study was conducted in an urban Buffalo Public School to improve communication and relationships with families. Based on the research of Ruby Payne (2001), Canisius College and Early Childhood Center #17 (ECC#17) collaborated to create a school video. A copy was distributed to every student in the school. All students, faculty, and staff…
Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Parral, Skye N.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Ibrahim, Sirena M.; Delany, Danielle
A psychometric analysis was conducted using the nominal response model under the item response theory framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships scale. Using data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, this scale was constructed within a long-term longitudinal framework spanning middle childhood through adolescence. Items tapping…
Laporte, Lise; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra J.; Chamberland, Claire
This study examines whether experiences of familial victimization and aggression are potential risk factors for dating violence in male and female teenage relationships. The authors compare 471 adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the care of a youth protection agency and from a community sample. Results show that adolescents carry negative childhood…
This study examines the ways in which Japanese corporate transnationalism affects husbands' involvement in family life and marital relationships primarily from a perspective of wives. It is based on interviews with 22 Japanese wives and 4 husbands. Studies of Japanese corporate transnationalism treat men as mere supervisors to local workers or…
Bachman, Heather J.; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer
The present study investigated associations between maternal relationship instability patterns and children's behavioral and emotional functioning in middle childhood in a representative sample of low-income urban families (N = 891). Data from the "Three-City Study" tracked maternal partnerships through the child's life, assessing total marital…
Dumont, Hanna; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Neumann, Marko; Niggli, Alois; Schnyder, Inge
This research examines whether parental homework involvement mediates the relationship between family background and educational outcomes such as academic achievement and academic self-concept. Data from two studies in which grade 8 students (N = 1274 and N = 1911) described their parents' involvement in the homework process were reanalyzed via…
Vyncke, Johanna D; Julien, Danielle
Lesbian couples differ from heterosexual couples in that they must develop their relationship within an environment that is generally unsympathetic to homosexuality, a fact that could accentuate the importance of family support. Furthermore, the disclosure of their sexual orientation by lesbian couples could also affect the support given by family members. The present study examines the effect of coming-out and family support on the relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born within a heterosexual context. It was expected that family support would mediate the relationship between coming-out and relationship adjustment. Fifty-five lesbian mothers currently in a relationship answered questions about their perception of family support, on their coming-out behaviour and their relationship adjustment. Results revealed a positive relationship between coming-out and family support, and between family support and relationship adjustment, however no association was found between coming-out and relationship adjustment. The mediation model was therefore not confirmed. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of these results.
Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae
The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by the adolescents prior to a clinic visit with a nurse practitioner at a school-based clinic in Southeast Michigan, and interviews were conducted after the visit. Constant comparative analysis of EHCs and interview data of 19 sexually active 15 to 19-year-old girls revealed that those with positive familial and peer support were less likely to report risk behaviors compared to those with poor family and peer relationships. School nurses and other providers working with adolescents to prevent risk behaviors could utilize the EHC to determine risks and develop education plans and interventions to reduce risk behaviors.
Mulcahy, Helen; McCarthy, Geraldine
Public health nurses (PHNs) in Ireland are involved with all children and their families for health screening and health education. Nurse/client relationships with vulnerable families are important, yet there is evidence that they are not participatory. Participation in the context of this study implied PHN/client consensus in relation to the needs identified and provided, in conjunction with mutual satisfaction with the level of interpersonal involvement and responses. The primary purpose of this pilot study was to determine similarities in perceptions on participation between nurses and mothers of vulnerable families (n = 44 dyads). A cross-sectional quantitative design was used to investigate the needs identified and provided, as well as satisfaction with the level of involvement and response, from the perspective of both sides of the dyad. There were more similarities than differences in perception found in the dyads, indicating participatory relationships.
Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian
The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.
Hardy, Nathan R; Soloski, Kristy L; Ratcliffe, G Cole; Anderson, Jared R; Willoughby, Brian J
Using dyadic data from 961 married couples from the Relationship Evaluation Questionnaire project, the current study explored the direct association between family of origin climate and marital outcomes and the indirect association via relationship self-regulation (RSR). Results from the actor-partner interdependence model analysis indicated that family of origin climate was positively associated with marital stability directly and indirectly via the effects of RSR and marital satisfaction for both men and women. Results suggest that the experience one has in their family of origin is associated with their marital outcomes through their RSR. Actor-partner direct and indirect effects indicate that spouses' RSR may have important consequences for both partner's evaluation of the marriage. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.
Candib, L M; Steinberg, S L; Bedinghaus, J; Martin, M; Wheeler, R; Pugnaire, M; Wertheimer, R
Family physicians care for patients in all stages of the life-cycle, while at the same time proceeding themselves through the course of adult development. The purpose of this study was to examine, from the doctor's point of view, changes in the doctor-patient relationship resulting from the physician's pregnancy and child-bearing. Five faculty family physicians participated via individual interviews and group discussion. Two women without children, the clinical psychologist interviewer, and other faculty family physicians joined in the review of the interviews and the group discussion. Comprehensibility, reciprocity, mutuality, identification, credibility, availability for long-term relationships, nurturing, and support emerged as themes in the evolution of relationships with patients. The process of examining the effect of childbearing on our relationships with patients unexpectedly revealed how the dual expectation of career and motherhood causes colleagues without children to feel inadequate. On the other hand, the study itself had the positive effect of facilitating the resolution of long-standing tensions among group members. We conclude that becoming mothers, a significant life change, had a transforming effect on our clinical work with patients and that studying this effect as a group fostered growth in the relationships among the participants.
This manual for state agencies suggests law and policy changes that meet the new Federal requirements under Title I of the Family Support Act, passed in 1988 and the Title IV-D of the 1974 Social Security Act, both of which enable states to act to locate parents and enforce child support orders. Chapter 1 of this report is the introduction.…
... Partnerships to provide supporting parties with information to promote a national discourse on responsible... information to promote a national discourse on responsible fatherhood and healthy families. ROUTINE USES...
Bolin, Kristian; Jacobson, Lena; Lindgren, Björn
The Grossman model has been extended recently in order to take account of the fact that most people lead their lives in a family--using frameworks in which family members, respectively, (a) have common preferences and (b) are Nash-bargainers. These models, however, do not consider individual incentives for behaving strategically. In the model presented in this paper, spouses interact strategically both in the production of own health and in the production of health of other family members. We analyse, inter alia, the impact on the distribution of health of changes in family policies, such as child allowance and custody rules.
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years.
... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...
... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...
... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...
... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...
Almonte, Juan C; Mena, Cristián; Ortiz, Sofía; Osorio, Juan P
The Work Accidents and Occupational Diseases Act exists in Chile since 1968. It uses a single model for the understanding and management of both somatic diseases like silicosis and psychiatric disorders. During the last decade in Chile, the consultation rates due to psychiatric conditions of probable labor origin has rose over 1,000%, a factor that underscored the deficiencies of this model. The aim of this paper is to analyze the consequences of the application of this act in the psychiatric field for almost 50 years after its promulgation. This article contains an historical overview and an epistemological debate based on the authors experience dealing with clinical and administrative work both in occupational psychiatry departments and in regulatory entities. The development of occupational mental health in Chile is examined as part of an historical process that initially did not consider the relationship between work and mental suffering as relevant. The application of a single causality model in psychiatry, as well as the effects of building a psychiatric nosology upon legal rather than medical criteria is contested.
... manufactured or fabricated in any plants, factories, buildings, or surroundings or under working conditions... Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act to certain particular working conditions. None of the described working conditions are intended to deal with construction activities, although such activities...
... manufactured or fabricated in any plants, factories, buildings, or surroundings or under working conditions... Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act to certain particular working conditions. None of the described working conditions are intended to deal with construction activities, although such activities...
Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M; Kane, Robert T; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique
The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) - a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how 'healthy' they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children's pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology.
Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erica; Roe, Jacqueline R.
Very little previous research has considered the contributions of family relationships and interactions on the language input of mothers and fathers to their young children. This study examined the contributions of marital love and conflict, and broader family-level conflict, cohesion, and expressiveness to mother and father vocabulary in triadic interactions with their young children in 70 dual-earner families. It was found that after controlling for parent sensitivity and parent directive behavior, marital love and family conflict when children were 12 months of age were significant predictors of both father vocabulary and mother vocabulary to children at 24 months of age. In families with higher levels of marital love when children were 12 months of age, mothers and fathers used a more diverse vocabulary with their 24 month-old children. In families with lower levels of family conflict when children were 12 months of age, mothers and fathers used a more diverse vocabulary with their 24 month-old children. PMID:19169439
Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François
The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.
Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Sakai, M; Ichii, T; Chow, S
Squids of the family Ommastrephidae are distributed worldwide, and the family includes many species of commercial importance. To investigate phylogenetic relationships among squid species of the family Ommastrephidae, partial nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial gene loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [1277bp] and 16S rRNA [443bp]) of 15 ommastrephid species and two outgroup species from the families Loliginidae and Enoploteuthidae were determined and used to construct parsimony and distance based phylogenetic trees. The molecular data provided several new phylogenetic inferences. The monophyletic status of three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae and Ommastrephinae) was well supported, although phylogenetic relationships between the subfamilies were not resolved. Inclusion of a problematic species, Ornithoteuthis volatilis, to Todarodinae was indicated. Within Todarodinae, the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was observed to have much closer relationship to the species of the genus Nototodarus than to its congener (Todarodes filippovae). These results indicate that re-evaluation of several morphological key characters for ommastrephid taxonomy may be necessary.
Mullineaux, Paula Y; DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher
Nearly all aspects of human development are influenced by genetic and environmental factors, which conjointly shape development through several gene-environment interplay mechanisms. More recently, researchers have begun to examine the influence of genetic factors on peer and family relationships across the pre-adolescent and adolescent time periods. This article introduces the special issue by providing a critical overview of behavior genetic methodology and existing research demonstrating gene-environment processes operating on the link between peer and family relationships and adolescent adjustment. The overview is followed by a summary of new research studies, which use genetically informed samples to examine how peer and family environment work together with genetic factors to influence behavioral outcomes across adolescence. The studies in this special issue provide further evidence of gene-environment interplay through innovative behavior genetic methodological approaches across international samples. Results from the quantitative models indicate environmental moderation of genetic risk for coercive adolescent-parent relationships and deviant peer affiliation. The molecular genetics studies provide support for a gene-environment interaction differential susceptibility model for dopamine regulation genes across positive and negative peer and family environments. Overall, the findings from the studies in this special issue demonstrate the importance of considering how genes and environments work in concert to shape developmental outcomes during adolescence.
Juárez-Verdayes, Marco A; Parra-Ortega, Berenice; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C
NorA, NorB, and NorC are efflux proteins in the Nor family that regulate the secretion of fluoroquinolones, and MgrA/NorR is a transcription factor of the Nor family. Overexpression of Nor family proteins provides fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. However, in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), members of the Nor family had not been identified. In this work, the presence of Nor family proteins in Staphylococcus spp. and the expression of Nor family in gatifloxacin resistant S. epidermidis strains obtained from ocular infections (OI) were identified and analyzed. S. epidermidis strains from OIs (n = 44) and healthy skin (HS; n = 52) were isolated. The nor family genes were identified in CNS using PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic approaches. Nor family expression was determined by RT-PCR. NorA efflux activity was determined using the automated ethidium bromide method. In-silico analysis showed that norA, mgrA/norR, and "norB-like" and "norC-like" (norB/norC) genes are present in CNS. The nor family genes were distributed and constitutively expressed in all S. epidermidis strains studied. In one gatifloxacin resistant strain isolated from the endophthalmitis, treatment with gatifloxacin induced overexpression of the norA gene and resulted in high activity of NorA efflux. These results indicate that the Nor family of proteins is present in CNS, and the NorA efflux mechanism for gatifloxacin response occurs in at least one strain of S. epidermidis, contributing to gatifloxacin resistance.
Moore, Mignon R.; Dacus, Jagadisa-devasri; McCuller, William J.; Fernandez, Lawrence; Moore, Alison A.
The primary objective of this study was to explore how middle-aged gay men in recovery cope with stigma and family relationships. For gay men, perceptions of acceptance of their sexual orientation and degree of social connectedness can play a role in their recovery from alcohol and substance use disorders. Yet gay men may have a more difficult time accessing certain family-level health resources because their families of origin may stigmatize, reject or silence them on account of their sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how participants in recovery constructed and coped with their experiences of stigma, family relationships, and alcohol and substance use. Participants (30 gay men aged 50–64) completed a questionnaire and interview. We used constructivist Grounded Theory method and Minority Stress Theory as a theoretical framework to interpret the data. We identified the following themes: Internalization of Stigma, Changes in Coping Strategies, and Ongoing Stigma. Future research should explore how to incorporate familial support into gay men’s recovery, address ongoing internalized stigma, and develop a social response to stigma, rather than leaving it to individuals to confront on their own. PMID:27092028
McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Lord, Alison; Smith, Melissa; Downey, Belinda
The purpose of this study was to explore how connections between families, communities and educators can be facilitated in teacher education courses through the use of playgroups. Barriers to building relationships, as well as the perceived benefits of these relationships to families and pre-service teachers, were also explored. Participants were…
Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.
The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…
Liu, Jiawang; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Foroozesh, Maryam
With the widespread use of O-alkoxyresorufin dealkylation assays since the 1990’s, thousands of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 1 enzymes (P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1) have been identified and studied. Generally, planar polycyclic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, stilbenoids, and flavonoids are considered to potentially be effective inhibitors of these enzymes. However, the details of structure-activity relationships and selectivity of these inhibitors are still ambiguous. In this review, we thoroughly discuss the selectivity of many representative P450 family 1 inhibitors reported in the past 20 years through a meta-analysis. PMID:24287985
expanded rcogjnition by military le-dership of the interdependence among quality of life is-ues, family well -being and satisfaction , job productivity...rw L FKI, COPY Technical Report 864 The Relationship of Family Satisfaction to Satisfaction with the Military Way of Life Among Soldiers Gary L...to Satisfaction with the Military Way of Life Among Soldiers 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S, DU-teu, GayL Sý~Iof2~ a o nivo=rsitv of North Carolina at Chiapel
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.
Whyte, Kristin Lyn; Karabon, Anne
Education has embraced the idea of an "asset approach" to working with families and children, creating a focus on developing collaborative relationships with families by building on what they bring to the table. In this paper we explore what happened when early childhood teachers entered homes to learn from families and identify their…
Gover, Angela R; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A
Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and dating violence has traditionally focused on physical violence. This research examines the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating dating violence and exposure to violence in the family of origin. Specifically, the current research examines gender differences in the relationship between exposure to violence during childhood and physical and psychological abuse perpetration and victimization. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 2,500 college students at two southeastern universities. Findings indicate that childhood exposure to violence is a consistent predictor of involvement in relationships characterized by violence for males and females. The implications of the current research on policy are discussed.
Vandenbroucke, Loren; Verschueren, Karine; Ceulemans, Eva; De Smedt, Bert; De Roover, Kim; Baeyens, Dieter
Executive functioning (EF), needed for goal-oriented behaviour, thoughts, and emotions, is important for various life domains. This study examined the relationship between family demographics and EF subcomponents. A kindergarten sample was tested on subcomponents of working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. Parents provided information on demographic variables. For 78 children both EF and demographic data were available. First, demographic profiles were identified within the sample. Two profiles were found: A low-risk profile of mainly two-biological-parent, high-income families with a highly educated mother who did not smoke during pregnancy and a high-risk profile of low-income families with a young, low-educated mother who more often smoked during pregnancy. Second, children with different demographic profiles were compared on EF subcomponents. Results indicate differential relations between family demographics and EF subcomponents: Whereas for most EF subcomponents no association with family demographics was found, high-risk children performed better on response shifting and tended to perform worse on verbal memory than low-risk children. Parenting stress decreased performance only for high-risk children. Although this study found limited impact of family demographics for EF, further longitudinal research can provide nuanced insights about which factors influence specific EF subcomponents during which developmental periods and guide targeted prevention of EF difficulties.
Baker, Jason; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn
Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother's jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers' release and community reentry. Forty mother-grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother-grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for understanding mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children's functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed.
BAKER, JASON; McHALE, JAMES; STROZIER, ANNE; CECIL, DAWN
Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother’s jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers’ release and community reentry. Forty mother–grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother–grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for under-standing mother–grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children’s functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:20594205
Kamp Dush, Claire M
Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e. breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a non-marital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of these, 76% broke-up. Black mothers had the highest rates of dissolution. Maximum likelihood discrete-time event history results revealed that younger mothers were more likely to experience cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Fewer relationship-specific investments and more family chaos were also associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Mothers' multipartnered fertility and fewer relationship-specific investments were associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution with a continued romantic relationship. Post-dissolution, mothers who maintained a romantic relationship were more likely to reenter a union with their former partner while mothers whose union broke-up most often remained so.
An integration of family systems perspectives with developmental psychopathology provides a framework for examining the complex interplay between family processes and developmental trajectories of child psychopathology over time. In a community sample of 98 families, we investigated the evolution of family relationships, across multiple subsystems of the family (i.e., interparental, mother-child, father-child), and the impact of these changing family dynamics on developmental trajectories of child internalizing symptoms over 6 years, from preschool age to pre-adolescence. Parent–child relationship quality was observed during lengthy sessions, consisting of multiple naturalistic, carefully scripted contexts. Each parent completed reports about interparental relationship satisfaction and child internalizing symptoms. To the extent that mothers experienced a steeper decline in interparental relationship satisfaction over time, children developed internalizing symptoms at a faster rate. Further, symptoms escalated at a faster rate to the extent that negative mother-child relationship quality increased (more negative affect expressed by both mother and child, greater maternal power assertion) and positive mother-child relationship quality decreased (less positive affect expressed by both mother and child, less warmth and positive reciprocity). Time-lagged growth curve analyses established temporal precedence such that decline in family relationships preceded escalation in child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that family dysfunction, across multiple subsystems, represents a driving force in the progression of child internalizing symptoms. PMID:25790794
Bioethics is a subject far removed from the Chinese, even from many Chinese medical students and medical professionals. In-depth interviews with eighteen physicians, patients, and family members provided a deeper understanding of bioethical practices in contemporary China, especially with regard to the doctor-patient relationship (DPR) and informed consent. The Chinese model of doctor-family-patient relationship (DFPR), instead of DPR, is taken to reflect Chinese Confucian cultural commitments. An examination of the history of Chinese culture and the profession of medicine in China is used to disclose the deep roots of these commitments. The author predicts that the DFPR model will further develop in China but that it will maintain its Chinese character.
Colpin, H; Demyttenaere, K; Vandemeulebroecke, L
Parent-child relationships and the parents' psychosocial functioning were assessed in families with a 24-30-month-old, single born child conceived by homologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in a control group of families with a naturally conceived child. The investigation included behavioural observations of mother-child interactions in the home, and self-rated questionnaires. No significant multivariate group effects were found for indicators of the parent-child relationship, nor for the parents' psychosocial functioning. However, in the case of IVF the employment status of the mother was associated with her behaviour towards her child: employed IVF-mothers showed less respect for their child's autonomy compared with both nonemployed IVF-mothers and employed control mothers.
Background The need of home care services is becoming an increasingly common scenario. These cares are mainly provided by the dependents’ relatives specifically, by the women part of the family. This situation might take years, decreasing the physical and psychological health of the caregiver. In Spain, the Act of Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for dependent persons, guarantees those dependent persons and their caregivers to have access to social services or to financial grants. The aim of this study is to Know the possible effects of the benefits provided by this Act in regards to the mental health, the quality of life and use of health services by the family caregivers assisting their relatives in situation of dependency. Methods and design A longitudinal descriptive study following-up a cohort of patients and caregivers. The study shall be carried out in Andalusia. It shall include the baseline assessment of the variables in those caregivers free from the exposure factor (reception of assistance pursuant to the Act). Following, once the benefits have been received, this cohort shall be followed-up. The study shall take three years, and the starting date for its development as well as its funding is January 2011. Discussion The longitudinal assessment of the rate of change of the variables studied shall allow us to know the implications which might be potentially generated as well as the natural evolution of those. PMID:23244337
Child, Holly; McIntyre, Dara
Although the evidence is accumulating to substantiate the successes of Family Drug Courts (FDC), there is little research on the relationship between parent compliance and successful reunification of children with their parent(s). This study looked at data from 206 families participating in a FDC in Sacramento County, California. Four compliance measures were examined individually and collectively, after controlling for participant characteristics, using logistic regression models to determine how FDC participation benchmarks impact child reunification. This study found the best predictors of reunification was participation in support group meetings and negative tests for substance use. These findings indicate that initiatives designed to address the needs of families affected by child maltreatment and substance use should take into account and support engagement in informal, community-based activities as well as formal, clinically focused interventions.
Younis, Mustafa Z
The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) reduced the payment for fees for service providers and reduced the subsidy paid by the government for teaching hospitals. Since the passage of such cost containment measures, debates regarding their impact on hospitals, graduate medical education, and access to health care were raised. The need to examine the effect of such payment reduction on hospital profitability was widely ignored. We examined the relationship between the BBA and hospital profitability by using return on assets to measure profitability, by running an ordinary least squares regression for 1996 as pre-BBA and 1999 as post-BBA. We controlled for variables that were not included in previous literature, such as disproportionate share hospital status, critical access hospital status, and graduate medical education, measured by teaching hospitals to measure the effect of BBA cuts on teaching hospitals. Furthermore we incorporated several economic, financial, and utilization variables in the model. We used 1996 and 1999 data in our analysis to bridge potential effects of the BBA. To locate hospitals that changed ownership status we cross-matched the Medicare Cost Report data with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We found that overall hospital profitability declined as a result of the introduction of the BBA; however, small rural hospitals that converted to critical access status enjoyed improvement in financial status over the period of our study. Hospitals that converted to for-profit status did not improve in financial status, and showed a lower earning after the conversation. Our results show that the BBA had a negative effect on hospitals because of cuts in its reimbursement policy, except for critical access hospitals, which show improvement because of their exemption from the prospective payment system. Our study differs from others by using national comprehensive data for years that focus exclusively on the Balanced Budget Act period. We
Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E
The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.
Swedlund, Matthew P; Schumacher, Jayna B; Young, Henry N; Cox, Elizabeth D
Over 8% of children have a chronic disease and many are unable to adhere to treatment. Satisfaction with chronic disease care can impact adherence. We examine how visit satisfaction is associated with physician communication style and ongoing physician-family relationships. We collected surveys and visit videos for 75 children ages 9-16 years visiting for asthma, diabetes, or sickle cell disease management. Raters assessed physician communication style (friendliness, interest, responsiveness, and dominance) from visit videos. Quality of the ongoing relationship was measured with four survey items (parent-physician relationship, child-physician relationship, comfort asking questions, and trust in the physician), while a single item assessed satisfaction. Correlations and chi square were used to assess association of satisfaction with communication style or quality of the ongoing relationship. Satisfaction was positively associated with physician to parent (p < 0.05) friendliness. Satisfaction was also associated with the quality of the ongoing parent-physician (p < 0.001) and child-physician relationships (p < 0.05), comfort asking questions (p < 0.001), and trust (p < 0.01). This shows that both the communication style and the quality of the ongoing relationship contribute to pediatric chronic disease visit satisfaction.
The present article reviews the empirical research regarding the parent-child relationships and the development of children in donor insemination (DI) families. Over the years, follow-up studies have appeared sporadically and, despite the varying quality of the research methods, preliminary findings have emerged. Heterosexual DI parents were psychologically well adjusted and had stable marital relationships. DI parents showed a similar or higher quality of parent-child interaction and a greater emotional involvement with their children compared with naturally conceived families. The majority of studies which investigated several aspects of child development found that, overall, DI children were doing well. Findings with regard to emotional/behavioural development, however, were divergent in that some studies identified an increase of such problems while others did not. A steadily growing group within the DI population is lesbian mother families. More recently, follow-up studies have been carried out among DI children who were raised from birth by two mothers. Despite many concerns about the well-being of these children, no adverse effects of this alternative family structure on child development could be identified. As the DI children in all investigations were still young, our knowledge about the long-term effects of DI remains incomplete.
Preechawong, Sunida; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Heinzer, Marjorie M V; Musil, Carol M; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Aswinanonh, Rungtiwa
Within the context of Rosenbaum's theory of learned resourcefulness, this correlational study examined the relationships among family functioning, self-esteem, and resourceful coping in Thai adolescents with asthma. A convenience sample of 132 Thai adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with asthma was recruited from the outpatient asthma clinics of four hospitals in Bangkok. Self-administered questionnaires included an assessment of demographic information and asthma status, the revised Family APGAR, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Children's Self-Control Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships among variables. Effective family functioning had a significant positive effect on self-esteem (beta = .27, p < .01) and resourceful coping (beta = .30, p < .01), controlling for gender and age. However, self-esteem was not significantly correlated with resourceful coping (beta = .15, p = .08). The findings suggest that nursing interventions should take into account the role of family functioning in promoting self-esteem and resourceful coping in Thai adolescents with asthma. Recommendations for future research include replication of the study with a larger sample of adolescents with asthma and with adolescents with other chronic illnesses.
Hatam, Nahid; Jalali, Marzie Tajik; Askarian, Mehrdad; Kharazmi, Erfan
Background: High turnover intention rate is one of the most common problems in healthcare organizations throughout the world. There are several factors that can potentially affect the individuals’ turnover intention; they include factors such as work-family conflict, family-work conflict, and organizational commitment. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between family-work and work-family conflicts and organizational commitment and turnover intention among nurses and paramedical staff at hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) and present a model using SEM. Methods: This is a questionnaire based cross-sectional study among 400 nurses and paramedical staff of hospitals affiliated to SUMS using a random-proportional (quota) sampling method. Data collection was performed using four standard questionnaires. SPSS software was used for data analysis and SmartPLS software for modeling variables. Results: Mean scores of work-family conflict and desertion intention were 2.6 and 2.77, respectively. There was a significant relationship between gender and family-work conflict (P=0.02). Family-work conflict was significantly higher in married participants (P=0.001). Based on the findings of this study, there was a significant positive relationship between work-family and family-work conflict (P=0.001). Also, work-family conflict had a significant inverse relationship with organizational commitment (P=0.001). An inverse relationship was seen between organizational commitment and turnover intentions (P=0.001). Conclusion: Thus, regarding the prominent and preventative role of organizational commitment in employees’ desertion intentions, in order to prevent negative effects of staff desertion in health sector, attempts to make policies to increase people’s organizational commitment must be considered by health system managers more than ever. PMID:27218108
Chen, Liuxi; Xu, Kai; Fu, Lingyun; Xu, Shaofang; Gao, Qianqian; Wang, Wei
Consistent results have shown a relationship between the psychological world of children and their perceived parental bonding or family attachment style, but to date there is no single measure covering both styles. The authors designed a statement matrix with 116 items for this purpose and compared it with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in a study with 718 university students. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, five factors (scales)--namely, Paternal/Maternal Encouragement (5 items each), Paternal/Maternal Abuse (5 items each), Paternal/Maternal Freedom Release (5 items each), General Attachment (5 items), and Paternal/Maternal Dominance (4 items each)--were defined to form a Family Relationship Questionnaire (FRQ). The internal alphas of the factors ranged from .64 to .83, and their congruency coefficients were .93 to .98 in samples regarding father and mother. Women scored significantly higher on FRQ General Attachment and Maternal Encouragement and lower on Paternal Abuse than men did; only children scored significantly higher on Paternal and Maternal Encouragements than children with siblings did. Women also scored significantly higher on PBI Paternal Autonomy Denial; only children scored significantly higher on Paternal and Maternal Cares and Maternal Autonomy Denial. All intercorrelations between FRQ scales were low to medium, and some correlations between FRQ and PBI scales were medium to high. This study demonstrates that the FRQ has a structure of five factors with satisfactory discriminant and convergent validities, which might help to characterize family relationships in healthy and clinical populations.
Henneberger, Angela K; Durkee, Myles I; Truong, Nancy; Atkins, Avis; Tolan, Patrick H
Mapping the relationship of peer influences and parental/family characteristics on delinquency can help expand the understanding of findings that show an interdependence between peer and family predictors. This study explored the longitudinal relationship between two characteristics of peer relationships (violence and perceived popularity) with subsequent individual delinquency and the moderating role of family characteristics (cohesion and parental monitoring) using data from the Chicago Youth Development Study. Participants were 364 inner-city residing adolescent boys (54% African American; 40% Hispanic). After controlling for the effects of age and ethnicity, peer violence is positively related to boys' delinquency. The effect of popularity depends on parental monitoring, such that the relationship between popularity and delinquency is positive when parental monitoring is low, but there is no relationship when parental monitoring is high. Furthermore, parental monitoring contributes to the relationship between peer violence and delinquency such that there is a stronger relationship when parental monitoring is low. Additionally, there is a stronger relationship between peer violence and delinquency for boys from high cohesive families. Findings point to the value of attention to multiple aspects of peer and family relationships in explaining and intervening in the risk for delinquency. Furthermore, findings indicate the importance of family-focused interventions in preventing delinquency.
CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2011
The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) provide funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act…
Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441
Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved.
Kosmidis, Mary H.; Bozikas, Vasilis P.; Giannouli, Vaitsa; Karavatos, Athanasios; Fokas, Konstantinos
Our purpose in undertaking the present study was to examine the hypotheses proposed for explaining the frequent comorbidity of bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis. One hypothesis posits that, when there is comorbidity, MS plays a causal role in psychiatric manifestations. Another suggests that both disorders have a common underlying physiological process that increases the likelihood of their co-occurrence. We examined two adult siblings with comorbidity and their relatives, including three generations of family members with psychiatric morbidity. We found an extensive multigenerational history of bipolar disorder in this family. This history would seem to support the hypothesis of a common underlying brain process (potentially genetically-based) to explain the comorbidity of BD and MS, but cannot clarify whether this comorbidity implies a relationship between the two disorders or merely reflects parallel processes of brain deterioration. We cannot, however, rule out the possibility of a subclinical MS-related process leading to the early manifestation of BD, with MS appearing much later in time, or even a third, undetermined factor, leading to familial comorbidity. Although we have insufficient information to support either hypothesis definitively, we present the familial cases as a springboard for a discussion of dilemmas related to teasing apart MS and BD comorbidity. Further observation of the clinical course of the younger family members, who have not yet shown any neurological signs, over the next few years may elucidate the current picture further. PMID:22713400
MacGregor, E A; Janecek, S; Svensson, B
The hydrolases and transferases that constitute the alpha-amylase family are multidomain proteins, but each has a catalytic domain in the form of a (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel, with the active site being at the C-terminal end of the barrel beta-strands. Although the enzymes are believed to share the same catalytic acids and a common mechanism of action, they have been assigned to three separate families - 13, 70 and 77 - in the classification scheme for glycoside hydrolases and transferases that is based on amino acid sequence similarities. Each enzyme has one glutamic acid and two aspartic acid residues necessary for activity, while most enzymes of the family also contain two histidine residues critical for transition state stabilisation. These five residues occur in four short sequences conserved throughout the family, and within such sequences some key amino acid residues are related to enzyme specificity. A table is given showing motifs distinctive for each specificity as extracted from 316 sequences, which should aid in identifying the enzyme from primary structure information. Where appropriate, existing problems with identification of some enzymes of the family are pointed out. For enzymes of known three-dimensional structure, action is discussed in terms of molecular architecture. The sequence-specificity and structure-specificity relationships described may provide useful pointers for rational protein engineering.
Goldberg, Daniel; Goldberg, Marge
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 outlaws discrimination against people with disabilities. It is a bold and comprehensive law affecting employment, transportation, services provided by state and local government, services and accommodations offered by private businesses, and telecommunication access for people with communication…
Observed Hindi-speaking Indian caregivers and their children to examine how caregivers use language to create diverse conceptions of personhood. Distributional analyses examined the proportion of person references and class-based patterns of co-occurrence between particular social acts and person references. Discussion explored ways in which…
Sittikariyakul, Pat; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kirshen, A. J.
Recent publications have confirmed the use of standardized patients (SPs) in improving clinical skills and enhancing competency. Little research has studied the benefits residents may themselves gain in palliative care playing the role of SPs. Nineteen Family Medicine residents were recruited as standardized patients (FMR-SPs) for a mandatory…
In the late 1920s, Kiowa photographer Horace Poolaw began documenting daily life in southwestern Oklahoma with the camera. As Poolaw began making dramatically posed, narrative-rich portraits of family members, historian Lewis Mumford asserted that the modern individual now viewed him or herself "as a public character, "being…
Whiteman, Shawn D.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.
Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings (at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48% female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52% female) and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for three years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents’ depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents’ adjustment. PMID:25893573
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the relationship between the SCSEP and the Workforce Investment Act? 641.200 Section 641.200 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the relationship between the SCSEP and the Workforce Investment Act? 641.200 Section 641.200 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT...
Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine
We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.
Background Testicular cancer, while rare compared with other adult solid tumors, is the most common cancer in young men in northern Europe and North America. Risk factors include white race, positive family history, contralateral testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, infertility and testicular microlithiasis. As the genetic causes of familial clusters (Familial Testicular Cancer or FTC) are being sought, it is also important to understand the psycho-social experiences of members of FTC families. Methods This is a cross-sectional examination via the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map (CEGRM) of social connections reported by 49 men in FTC families participating in NCI research study 02-C-178. Results The CEGRM was acceptable and feasible for use with men in FTC families, and valuable in understanding their social connections. These men have largely adjusted to the TC history in themselves and/or their relatives. They have considerable social and emotional support from family and friends, although there is wide variability in sources and types. Conclusions The CEGRM focuses on men's social connections and close emotional bonds in FTC families. This action-oriented process of placing colored symbols on significant relationships uncovered previously under-appreciated emotions accompanying men's social exchanges. Most men in FTC families succeed in re-establishing a sense of normalcy in their lives and social connections, in the aftermath of a testicular cancer diagnosis. PMID:22381132
Ma, S.; Wu, J.; Wu, J.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, L.; Ning, Q.; Hu, D.
Objective We explored the relationship between HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms and familial aggregation of hepatocellular carcinoma (fhcc). Methods Polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers were used to determine HLA-DRB1 genotypes for 130 members of families with 2 or more liver cancer patients and for 130 members of families without any diagnosed cancers. The genotype profiles were then compared to explore the relationship between HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and fhcc. Result Of 11 selected alleles, the frequencies of DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 were significantly lower in the fhcc group than in no-cancer group (p < 0.05; odds ratio: 0.286; 95% confidence interval: 0.091 to 0.901; and odds ratio: 0.493; 95% confidence interval: 0.292 to 0.893). Differences in the frequencies of the other 9 alleles were not statistically significant in the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Our research suggests that if genetic factors play a role in fhcc, the deficiency in the DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles might be the risk factor at work in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, P.R.C. PMID:26966407
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
This document contains the text of Child and Family Services Act of 1975, H.R. 2966, and background materials concerning that act. Included are reprints of many newspaper and magazine articles as well as statements of members of Congress in response to the campaign against the bill. (MS)
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250... I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Eligibility for Youth Services § 664.250 May a disabled...
Bell, Jessica L; Malyukova, Alena; Holien, Jessica K; Koach, Jessica; Parker, Michael W; Kavallaris, Maria; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B
The TRIM family of proteins is distinguished by its tripartite motif (TRIM). Typically, TRIM proteins contain a RING finger domain, one or two B-box domains, a coiled-coil domain and the more variable C-terminal domains. TRIM16 does not have a RING domain but does harbour two B-box domains. Here we showed that TRIM16 homodimerized through its coiled-coil domain and heterodimerized with other TRIM family members; TRIM24, Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein and Midline-1 (MID1). Although, TRIM16 has no classic RING domain, three-dimensional modelling of TRIM16 suggested that its B-box domains adopts RING-like folds leading to the hypothesis that TRIM16 acts as an ubiquitin ligase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that TRIM16, devoid of a classical RING domain had auto-polyubiquitination activity and acted as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in vivo and in vitro assays. Thus via its unique structure, TRIM16 possesses both heterodimerization function with other TRIM proteins and also has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is intended to protect employees' job and health benefits while they are on leave for certain family and health needs. This publication provides, in question-answer format, a description of the rights and obligations of employees and employers as stipulated by the FMLA. The report focuses on the requirements…
Motoki, Airi; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yamagata, Zentaro
Purpose Declining birth rates are an important social issue worldwide, and allocating resources to benefits for child-rearing households is a necessary countermeasure. In this study, we investigate and compare the relationship between child-related social security costs and total fertility rate internationally.Method In 2011, the ratios of family- and elderly-related social spending to gross domestic product (GDP) were recorded in 34 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries. The former was designated as the percentage allocated to members of the population between the ages of 0 and 14 (young population ratio), and the latter was designated as the percentage allocated to members of the population over the age of 65 (elderly population ratio). We compared these two factors for every country and performed correlation and partial correlation analyses of total fertility rates and family-related social spending to GDP adjusted by population proportion to examine the relationship between the two.Results The comparison of the youth and elderly populations' spending ratios in the total social spending to GDP ratio revealed that OECD countries had an average family-related social spending ratio of 0.13 and an average elderly-related social spending ratio of 0.47. Comparatively, Japan has a family-related social spending ratio of 0.10 and an elderly-related social spending ratio of 0.45. In the correlation analysis for total fertility rates and family-related social spending to GDP ratio, the benefits-in-kind to GDP ratio and total fertility rates indicated a trend toward correlation (r=0.32, P=0.06). In addition, the results for the partial correlation between family-related social spending to GDP ratio and total fertility rates showed a significant correlation between the two. When divided into cash benefits and benefits-in-kind, the partial correlation analysis of the GDP ratios and total fertility rates revealed a significant
The relationship between beginning college chemistry achievement and prior knowledge, number of college mathematics courses completed, GPA of college mathematics courses completed, levels of Piagetian intellectual development, mathematics ACT score, science ACT score, and composite ACT score
Barthel, Margaret Gorjanc
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between achievement in Chem 33 (a third semester general chemistry course) and the following predictor variables: prior knowledge (Chem 32 grade), level of Piagetian intellectual development, number of college mathematics courses previously completed, grades received in prior college mathematics courses, science ACT scores, mathematics ACT scores, and composite ACT scores. During the winter semester of the 1994--1995 school year, the students who were enrolled in two sections of Chem 33, taught by the same professor, were given the TOLT test. In addition, their student records were examined in order to determine the grade they received in Chem 32, the number of mathematics courses Completed in college, the GPA for the mathematics courses completed in college, the science ACT score, mathematics ACT score, and the composite ACT score. A Pearson Correlation was performed on these variables to determine to what extent they were able to predict the student's achievement, measured by the grade in Chem 33. What was found in respect to achievement in Chem 33 was: prior knowledge was r = 0.67, GPA of mathematics courses completed in college was r = 0.58, mathematics ACT was r = 0.50, composite ACT was r = 0.40, and TOLT was r = 0.33. A stepwise multiple regression was also performed to see what interactions could be found between the variables themselves. There was no single predictor variable that adequately serves as a dominant predictor variable for success in Chem 33. It can be concluded that the Chem 32 grade (prior knowledge) coupled with the GPA of the college mathematics courses completed in college as well as the mathematics ACT score are the best predictors for achievement in Chem 33.
Lim, Kean Chong; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chong, Ving Ching; Loh, Kar-Hoe
Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the current but problematic Dasyatidae (Order Myliobatiformes) was the first priority of the current study. Here, we studied three molecular gene markers of 43 species (COI gene), 33 species (ND2 gene) and 34 species (RAG1 gene) of stingrays to draft out the phylogenetic tree of the order. Nine character states were identified and used to confirm the molecularly constructed phylogenetic trees. Eight or more clades (at different hierarchical level) were identified for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes in the Myliobatiformes including four clades containing members of the present Dasyatidae, thus rendering the latter non-monophyletic. The uncorrected p-distance between these four ‘Dasytidae’ clades when compared to the distance between formally known families confirmed that these four clades should be elevated to four separate families. We suggest a revision of the present classification, retaining the Dasyatidae (Dasyatis and Taeniurops species) but adding three new families namely, Neotrygonidae (Neotrygon and Taeniura species), Himanturidae (Himantura species) and Pastinachidae (Pastinachus species). Our result indicated the need to further review the classification of Dasyatis microps. By resolving the non-monophyletic problem, the suite of nine character states enables the natural classification of the Myliobatiformes into at least thirteen families based on morphology. PMID:25867639
Kaplan, Daniel D.; Zimmermann, Gregor; Suyama, Kaye; Meyer, Tobias; Scott, Matthew P.
Growth and body size are regulated by the CNS, integrating the genetic developmental program with assessments of an animal’s current energy state and environmental conditions. CNS decisions are transmitted to all cells of the animal by insulin/insulin-like signals. The molecular biology of the CNS growth control system has remained, for the most part, elusive. Here we identify NS3, a Drosophila nucleostemin family GTPase, as a powerful regulator of body size. ns3 mutants reach <60% of normal size and have fewer and smaller cells, but exhibit normal body proportions. NS3 does not act cell-autonomously, but instead acts at a distance to control growth. Rescue experiments were performed by expressing wild-type ns3 in many different cells of ns3 mutants. Restoring NS3 to only 106 serotonergic neurons rescued global growth defects. These neurons are closely apposed with those of insulin-producing neurons, suggesting possible communication between the two neuronal systems. In the brains of ns3 mutants, excess serotonin and insulin accumulate, while peripheral insulin pathway activation is low. Peripheral insulin pathway activation rescues the growth defects of ns3 mutants. The findings suggest that NS3 acts in serotonergic neurons to regulate insulin signaling and thus exert global growth control. PMID:18628395
He, Xinjun; Ohba, Shinsuke; Hojo, Hironori; McMahon, Andrew P
An analysis of Sox9 binding profiles in developing chondrocytes identified marked enrichment of an AP-1-like motif. Here, we have explored the functional interplay between Sox9 and AP-1 in mammalian chondrocyte development. Among AP-1 family members, Jun and Fosl2 were highly expressed within prehypertrophic and early hypertrophic chondrocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) showed a striking overlap in Jun- and Sox9-bound regions throughout the chondrocyte genome, reflecting direct binding of each factor to the same enhancers and a potential for protein-protein interactions within AP-1- and Sox9-containing complexes. In vitro reporter analysis indicated that direct co-binding of Sox9 and AP-1 at target motifs promoted gene activity. By contrast, where only one factor can engage its DNA target, the presence of the other factor suppresses target activation consistent with protein-protein interactions attenuating transcription. Analysis of prehypertrophic chondrocyte removal of Sox9 confirmed the requirement of Sox9 for hypertrophic chondrocyte development, and in vitro and ex vivo analyses showed that AP-1 promotes chondrocyte hypertrophy. Sox9 and Jun co-bound and co-activated a Col10a1 enhancer in Sox9 and AP-1 motif-dependent manners consistent with their combined action promoting hypertrophic gene expression. Together, the data support a model in which AP-1 family members contribute to Sox9 action in the transition of chondrocytes to the hypertrophic program.
Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Catalano, Richard F; Gainey, Randy R
Few studies follow the lives of opiate-addicted parents. The authors examined a 12-year follow-up of 144 parents in methadone treatment and their 3- to 14-year-old children. Parent mortality was high. Among survivors, drug use and treatment, incarceration, residential and family disruptions, and health problems were common. Moderate and long-term recovery were associated with consistent methadone treatment, further education, employment, and fewer relationship disruptions. Earlier depression, deviant friends, and poor coping skills predicted continued drug problems. Thus, interventions should include treatment for depression and build skills for avoiding and refusing drugs, coping with stress, and maintaining recovery-supportive friendships.
Skinner, Martie L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Fleming, Charles B.; Catalano, Richard F.; Gainey, Randy R.
Few studies follow the lives of opiate-addicted parents. We examine a 12-year follow-up of 144 parents in methadone treatment and their 3- to 14-year-old children. Parent mortality was high. Among survivors, drug use and treatment, incarceration, residential and family disruptions, and health problems were common. Moderate and long-term recovery were associated with consistent methadone treatment, further education, employment, and fewer relationship disruptions. Earlier depression, deviant friends, and poor coping skills predicted continued drug problems. Thus, interventions should include treatment for depression and build skills for avoiding and refusing drugs, coping with stress, and maintaining recovery-supportive friendships. PMID:21218307
Westneat, Mark W; Alfaro, Michael E
The family Labridae (including scarines and odacines) contains 82 genera and about 600 species of fishes that inhabit coastal and continental shelf waters in tropical and temperate oceans throughout the world. The Labridae (the wrasses) is the fifth largest fish family and second largest marine fish family, and is one of the most morphologically and ecologically diversified families of fishes in size, shape, and color. Labrid phylogeny is a long-standing problem in ichthyology that is part of the larger question of relationships within the suborder Labroidei. A phylogenetic analysis of labrids was conducted to investigate relationships among the six classical tribes of wrasses, the affinities of the wrasses to the parrotfishes (scarines), and the broad phylogenetic structure among labrid genera. Four gene fragments were sequenced from 98 fish species, including 84 labrid fishes and 14 outgroup taxa. Taxa were chosen from all major labrid clades and most major global ocean regions where labrid fishes exist, as well as cichlid, pomacentrid, and embiotocid outgroups. From the mitochondrial genome we sequenced portions of 12S rRNA (1000 bp) and 16S rRNA (585 bp), which were aligned by using a secondary structure model. From the nuclear genome, we sequenced part of the protein-coding genes RAG2 (846 bp) and Tmo4C4 (541 bp). Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses on the resulting 2972 bp of DNA sequence produced similar topologies that confirm the monophyly of a family Labridae that includes the parrotfishes and butterfishes and strong support for many previously identified taxonomic subgroups. The tribe Hypsigenyini (hogfishes, tuskfishes) is the sister group to the remaining labrids and includes odacines and the chisel-tooth wrasse Pseudodax moluccanus, a species previously considered close to scarines. Cheilines and scarines are sister-groups, closely related to the temperate Labrini, and pseudocheilines and cheilines are split in all phylogenies
Fischer, Judith L.; Wampler, Richard S.
Examined relationship between roles in the family and individual personality types and abusive drinking among young adults (n=674). Family roles and personality type were found to moderate effects of family-of-origin variables on abusive drinking: family role of hero acted as buffer between family of origin and young adult's drinking behaviors;…
Yuan, Xiangqun; Gao, Ke; Yuan, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Yalin
Hesperiidae is one of the largest families of butterflies. Our knowledge of the higher systematics on hesperiids from China is still very limited. We infer the phylogenetic relationships of the subfamilies of Chinese skippers based on three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b (Cytb), the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI)). In this study, 30 species in 23 genera were included in the Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The subfamily Coeliadinae, Eudaminae, Pyrginae and Heteropterinae were recovered as a monophyletic clade with strong support. The subfamily Hesperiinae formed a clade, but support for monophyly was weak. Our results imply that the five subfamilies of Chinese Hesperiidae should be divided into: Coeliadinae, Eudaminae, Pyrginae, Heteropterinae and Hesperiinae. The relationships of the five subfamilies should be as follows: Coeliadinae + (Eudaminae + (Pyrginae + (Heteropterinae + Hesperiinae))).
Robledo, Renato; Lorenz, Joseph; Beck, Jeanne; Else, James; Bender, Patrick
Twelve autosomal dinucleotide repeat loci were analyzed in chimpanzees genomes by DNA amplification using primers designed for analysis of human loci. The markers span the entire length of human chromosomes 21 and 22. Nine markers were polymorphic in chimpanzee as well, with a somewhat comparable level of polymorphism and allele size range. Even in the presence of very limited information and in spite of missing samples, it was possible to reconstruct a complex pedigree and to provide molecular data that corroborate family relationships that were deduced from cage history and behavioral data. The conclusions were further supported by mitochondrial DNA analysis. The data presented in this report show that the extremely abundant source of human markers may be exploited to validate, with molecular evidence, hypotheses on individual relationship or alleged pedigrees, based upon behavioral observations.
Whiston, Susan C.
Undergraduate women with higher levels of organization and control in their families experienced less career indecision but not higher career self-efficacy. Males and females whose families had intellectual/cultural orientation had higher self-efficacy in using occupational information. An inverse relationship appeared between this type of…
The family unit and home domain have been and remain important in heritage language maintenance efforts. There are complex relationships between parental language attitudes, their application in everyday language management activities and the children's knowledge of home language vocabulary. The present large-scale study examined the family policy…
Rudo, Zena H.
This paper constructs a multi-systemic picture of the impact of family violence on children, families, and society through a review of the empirical literature in these areas and their inter-relationships. Findings from the review include: (1) the experience of physical abuse has been associated with aggression toward others, children who have…
Wuest, J; Stern, P N
The analysis of data from a grounded theory study of family interaction when a child has otitis media with effusion (OME) shows that these families are engaged in the process of learning to manage. Their relationship with the health care system, coupled with the effects of the disease on the child and the family lifestyle, has a powerful influence on how this process proceeds. In this paper, the authors discuss the impact of the family's relationship with the Canadian health care system on the development of management skills. Relationships with the health care system fluctuate forward and backward through entrusting, becoming disillusioned, learning the rules and negotiating, as families learn to manage the effects of the disease process on the child and the family. The family perspective of the quality and availability of health care at a time when health care systems throughout the world are under close scrutiny, adds to our understanding of consumer expectations. Some recommendations for improving current relationships between families and the health care system are made.
This study examined the relationship between income and saving patterns in rural Puerto Rico. It was hypothesized that social and psychological variables are related to saving habits of families. The level of living as measured by a scale based on possessions was found to be significantly (.33) associated with the saving patterns of the family.…
Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung
This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…
Rush-Ossenbeck, Marilyn; West-Olatunji, Cirecie
The authors propose a CBT-based Therapeutic Community (TC) program designed to facilitate healthy relationships between military veterans and their families. In many military veteran families, there is a struggle to maintain a healthy and balanced life both outside and inside the household. This struggle affects both spouses and children and is…
This study brings together two main theoretical traditions in order to better understand how parent-child relationships are influenced by the societal conditions around the family. The concept of the ecological niche has been used to describe the way in which East German families dealt with government institutions during communism, while we used…
Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Cavendish, Wendy
The role of gender and ethnicity as moderators of the relationship between perceived family environments and levels of self-determination was examined in a sample of students with disabilities. A sample of 157 Latino and Anglo students with disabilities completed the "Family Environment Scale" and the "Arc Self-Determination…
Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary…
Craft, Shonda M; Serovich, Julianne M
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide a more comprehensive examination of these relationships. The results of this study indicated that psychological abuse was the most commonly reported form of violence in these relationships. The results also provided partial support for the hypothesized relationship between family-of-origin violence and subsequent violence in an intimate relationship. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.
... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship of section 269 to sections 382 and 383 after the Tax Reform Act of 1986. 1.269-7 Section 1.269-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Deductible § 1.269-7 Relationship of section 269 to sections 382 and 383 after the Tax Reform Act of...
Lindgren, A R; Katugin, O N; Amezquita, E; Nishiguchi, M K
The oceanic squid family Gonatidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) is widely distributed in subpolar and temperate waters, exhibiting behavioral and physiological specializations associated with reproduction. Females of several species undergo muscular degeneration upon maturation; origins of this complex morphogenic change are unknown, hindering our understanding of ecological and morpho-physiological adaptations within the family. To provide further information regarding the evolutionary relationships within Gonatidae, three mitochondrial loci (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) were analyzed for 39 individuals representing fourteen gonatid and six outgroup cephalopod species. In addition to elucidating relationships among gonatids, molecular data provided more information than morphological data for problematic specimens. Although some data sets are incongruent or have low nodal support values, combined molecular analysis confirms the presence of gonatid groups previously established by morphological characteristics (i.e., possessing radular teeth in seven longitudinal rows and muscular mantle tissue). These characteristics are basal to taxa possessing radular teeth in five longitudinal rows and less muscular mantle tissue, indicating that the derived forms are those species exhibiting physiological adaptation such as tissue degeneration upon maturation and egg brooding.
Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N
Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.
Ribisl, Kurt M
This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.
St. John, Maria Seymour
This article weaves the stories of three practitioner-family relationships and describes how the Parent-Child Relationship Competencies (PCRCs; St. John, 2010) function as a map for assessment and treatment planning. The PCRCs are a set of culturally variable yet universal bi-directional (parent-to-child and child-to-parent) relational capacities…
Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants.
Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants. PMID:27625661
Liu, W; Wang, J; Wang, L; Qian, C; Qian, Y; Xuan, H; Zhuo, W; Li, X; Yu, J; Si, J
Ras-Association Domain Family 10 (RASSF10) is the last identified member of the RASSF family. The functional characteristics of this new gene in human cancers remain largely unclear. Here, we examined RASSF10 for the biological functions and related molecular mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that RASSF10 is expressed in normal human liver tissue, but is silenced or down-regulated in 62.5% (5/8) of HCC cell lines. The mean expression level of RASSF10 was significantly lower in primary HCCs compared with their adjacent normal tissues (P<0.005, n=52). The promoter methylation contributes to the inactivation of RASSF10 as demonstrated by bisulfite genomic sequencing and demethylation treatment analyses. Transgenic expression of RASSF10 in silenced HCC cell lines suppressed cell viability, colony formation and inhibited tumor growth in nude mice (QGY7703, P<0.01; HepG2, P<0.05). Furthermore, RASSF10 was shown to induce the cell accumulation in G1 phase with the increase of p27, as well as the decrease of cyclinD1 and CDK2/CDK4. Over-expression of RASSF10 also inhibited HCC cells migration (P<0.01) or invasion (P<0.05). Adhesion genes array revealed that Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was a downstream effector of RASSF10. RASSF10 acting as a tumor suppressor to inhibit HCC invasion partially mediated by Focal Adhesion Kinase or p38 MAPK to decrease the accumulation of MMP2. Our study suggests that RASSF10 acts as a tumor suppressor for HCC. PMID:27348267
Hill, Malcolm S.; Hill, April L.; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C.; Thacker, Robert W.; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cárdenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C.; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E.; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rützler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A.; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E.; Collins, Allen G.
Background Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap, Haploscleromorphap (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlaviap. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosap and Myxospongiaep to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorphap+Spongillidap+Democlaviap. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillidap) are sister to Haploscleromorphap rather than part of Democlaviap. Within Keratosap, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiaep, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlaviap, Tetractinellidap, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlaviap. Within Tetractinellidap, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. Conclusions/Significance These results, using an
Bagozzi, R P; Van Loo, M F
This longitudinal study finds that wife's labor force participation and family size are spuriously correlated. Research data are from the Panel Study of Young Married Couples collected by the Survey Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois. The sample represents a marriage cohort. In 1972, a list of couples married in August of that year and residing in the Chicago metropolitan area was provided by the Illinois Office of Vital Records. Only those couples in which the husband was aged 30 or less were considered. A random sample of 400 couples was drawn from this group. At the start of the survey, the average age of the women was 21 and men 23. Data used in the study consisted of information collected in 1978 and 1980, after 6 and 8 years of marriage. 2 measures of actual labor force behavior of the wife were taken at each of the 2 points in time. Family size was indicated through 3 measures at each point in time, and achievement motivation of the wife was measured with a 5-point bipolar very positive/very negative scale asking for the evaluation of the wife's attitude toward work. Responses from both the husband and wife served as 2 measures of a latent achievement motivation variable in the key informant methodology. 3 dimensions of sex role norms were measured with Scanzoni's Wife's Self-actualization Scale, Traditional Wife Role Scale, and Problematic Husband Alterations Scale. Responses from both spouses were used. Findings indicate that, except for certain special cases, wife's work and family size are not causally related. Although negatively correlated between themselves, wife's work and family size appear to be mutually dependent on achievement motivation of the wife, sex role norms, and the felt value of children. Thus, when the effects of these antecedents are partialled-out, no evidence for causality exists between wife's work and family size outcomes. Evidence suggests that the spouses in a marriage socially construct their role relationships
Booth, Ian R; Blount, Paul
Single-celled organisms must survive exposure to environmental extremes. Perhaps one of the most variable and potentially life-threatening changes that can occur is that of a rapid and acute decrease in external osmolarity. This easily translates into several atmospheres of additional pressure that can build up within the cell. Without a protective mechanism against such pressures, the cell will lyse. Hence, most microbes appear to possess members of one or both families of bacterial mechanosensitive channels, MscS and MscL, which can act as biological emergency release valves that allow cytoplasmic solutes to be jettisoned rapidly from the cell. While this is undoubtedly a function of these proteins, the discovery of the presence of MscS homologues in plant organelles and MscL in fungus and mycoplasma genomes may complicate this simplistic interpretation of the physiology underlying these proteins. Here we compare and contrast these two mechanosensitive channel families, discuss their potential physiological roles, and review some of the most relevant data that underlie the current models for their structure and function.
Booth, Ian R.
Single-celled organisms must survive exposure to environmental extremes. Perhaps one of the most variable and potentially life-threatening changes that can occur is that of a rapid and acute decrease in external osmolarity. This easily translates into several atmospheres of additional pressure that can build up within the cell. Without a protective mechanism against such pressures, the cell will lyse. Hence, most microbes appear to possess members of one or both families of bacterial mechanosensitive channels, MscS and MscL, which can act as biological emergency release valves that allow cytoplasmic solutes to be jettisoned rapidly from the cell. While this is undoubtedly a function of these proteins, the discovery of the presence of MscS homologues in plant organelles and MscL in fungus and mycoplasma genomes may complicate this simplistic interpretation of the physiology underlying these proteins. Here we compare and contrast these two mechanosensitive channel families, discuss their potential physiological roles, and review some of the most relevant data that underlie the current models for their structure and function. PMID:22685280
Cheng, Changyong; Wang, Xiaowen; Dong, Zhimei; Shao, Chunyan; Yang, Yongchun; Fang, Weihuan; Fang, Chun; Wang, Hang; Yang, Menghua; Jiang, Lingli; Zhou, Xiangyang; Song, Houhui
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes employs a number of virulence determinants including metalloproteases to infect hosts. Here for the first time, we identified an M29 family aminopeptidase T (encoded by lmo1603) from L. monocytogenes that possesses a typical feature to catalyze the cleavage of amino acids from peptide substrates, with a preference for arginine. The purified recombinant Lmo1603 was activated by Fe3+, Zn2+ and Mn2+, but strongly stimulated by Co2+, indicating that Lmo1603 is a cobalt-dependent aminopeptidase. Single mutation at any of the Glu216, Glu281, His308, Tyr315, His327, and Asp329 completely abolished the enzymatic activity of Lmo1603. More importantly, we showed that Lmo1603 was mainly involved in Listeria infection, but not required for growth in rich laboratory medium and minimal defined medium. Disruption of Lmo1603 resulted in almost complete attenuation of Listeria virulence in a mouse infection model. In addition, we demonstrated that Lmo1603 was mainly localized in the bacterial cytosol and required for invasion and survival inside human epithelial cells and murine macrophages. We conclude that Lmo1603 encodes a functional aminopeptidase T of M29 family, which acts as a novel intracellular virulence factor essential in the successful establishment of L. monocytogenes infections in a mouse model. PMID:26610705
Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Wayne, Julie Holliday; Musisca, Nicholas; Fleeson, William
Using a national, random sample (N=2130), we investigated the relationship between each of the Big Five personality traits and conflict and facilitation between work and family roles. Extraversion was related to greater facilitation between roles but was not related to conflict, whereas neuroticism was related to greater conflict but only weakly…
Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli
In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (referred to as family allocentrism), which drove commitment up (Study 2). Along similar lines, Study 1 found that collectivists' greater acceptance of parental influence on mate choice contributed to their reduced relationship passion, whereas Study 2 found that their greater family allocentrism may have enhanced their passion. Study 2 also revealed that collectivists may have reported a smaller discrepancy between their own preferences for mates high in warmth and trustworthiness and their perception of their parents' preferences for these qualities because of their stronger family allocentrism. However, their higher tolerance of parental influence may have also contributed to a smaller discrepancy in their mate preferences versus their perceptions of their parents' preferences for qualities signifying status and resources. Implications for the roles of collectivism, parental influence, and family allocentrism in relationship quality and mate selection will be discussed.
Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli
In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (referred to as family allocentrism), which drove commitment up (Study 2). Along similar lines, Study 1 found that collectivists’ greater acceptance of parental influence on mate choice contributed to their reduced relationship passion, whereas Study 2 found that their greater family allocentrism may have enhanced their passion. Study 2 also revealed that collectivists may have reported a smaller discrepancy between their own preferences for mates high in warmth and trustworthiness and their perception of their parents’ preferences for these qualities because of their stronger family allocentrism. However, their higher tolerance of parental influence may have also contributed to a smaller discrepancy in their mate preferences versus their perceptions of their parents’ preferences for qualities signifying status and resources. Implications for the roles of collectivism, parental influence, and family allocentrism in relationship quality and mate selection will be discussed. PMID:25719563
Lehan, Tara J; Stevens, Lillian Flores; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Díaz Sosa, Dulce María; Espinosa Jove, Irma Guadalupe
Much of what is known about family functioning in the face of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is based on research conducted in the United States. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the levels of family adaptability, cohesion, communication, and satisfaction as reported by Mexican TBI survivors and their family caregivers, (2) test the hypothesis of the Circumplex Model that balanced families would exhibit better communication and greater satisfaction, and (3) explore how TBI survivors' and their family caregivers' perceptions of family adaptability and cohesion influenced their own and the other's perceptions of family communication and satisfaction. In the majority of dyads, both the TBI survivor and the family caregiver endorsed balanced family adaptability and cohesion. Both TBI survivors and their family caregivers reported a relatively high level of family communication and satisfaction. TBI survivors and family caregivers who reported greater levels of family adaptability and cohesion also endorsed better family communication and greater family satisfaction. In addition, individuals with TBI whose family caregiver endorsed balanced family adaptability and cohesion reported better family communication. Further, family caregivers of TBI survivors who reported balanced family adaptability and cohesion reported better family communication. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Fadda, Salvatore; Giorgi, Gabriele; Benitez Muñoz, Juan Luis; Justicia Justicia, Fernando; Solinas, Giuliana
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence of workplace bullying in an Italian university. Design/methodology/approach: More than 200 workers have completed the Italian version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire. Findings: The results show a spread of low to medium negative actions in…
Chojnacka, K; Górecka, H; Górecki, H
The paper discusses the content of elements in hair of subjects studied over several years. The study was performed on 5 subjects (N=28) that lived together or were family related. The elemental composition of hair of the studied subjects was compared with the average content of the population living in the same urban area (Wrocław city, south-west Poland), with the population of a non-industrialized area in Poland (Silesian Beskid), as well as with the population of north-east Sweden and Rio de Janeiro. When comparing the composition of hair from the studied subjects with the people living in the same city, it was found that the differences resulted mainly from different living habits (Na, Si, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn) and local exposure (Pb, Cd, Al). When comparing with the reference material for unexposed population, it was found that the studied subjects were exposed to Al. Time profile of element contents in hair of a given person showed that the level changed significantly (even several fold) with changes of living habits or environmental exposure. Also, it was found that there were similar tendencies in the accumulation of the majority of elements by people that lived together. The effect of living habits on the level of a given element was found to be stronger than the influence of either sex or family relationship. The paper also discusses inter-element interactions within the studied group. Statistically significant (p<0.05) correlations were found between elements that occur together: Ca-Mg, Fe-Mn, Na-K, Co-K, Au-Pt, Cd-Pb. In order to determine the influence of various elements on the content of another element, linear multiple regression was performed that revealed the following relationships: Ca=f(Mn, Sr), Na=f(K, Mn), K=f(V, Ti).
Xiao, Liang; Gurrola, Georgina B.; Zhang, Jing; Valdivia, Carmen R.; SanMartin, Mario; Zamudio, Fernando Z.; Zhang, Liming; Possani, Lourival D.
Calcins are a novel family of scorpion peptides that bind with high affinity to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and increase their activity by inducing subconductance states. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure–function relationships of the eight calcins known to date, based on their primary sequence, three-dimensional modeling, and functional effects on skeletal RyRs (RyR1). Primary sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis show high similarity among all calcins (≥78.8% identity). Other common characteristics include an inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) motif stabilized by three pairs of disulfide bridges and a dipole moment (DM) formed by positively charged residues clustering on one side of the molecule and neutral and negatively charged residues segregating on the opposite side. [3H]Ryanodine binding assays, used as an index of the open probability of RyRs, reveal that all eight calcins activate RyR1 dose-dependently with Kd values spanning approximately three orders of magnitude and in the following rank order: opicalcin1 > opicalcin2 > vejocalcin > hemicalcin > imperacalcin > hadrucalcin > maurocalcin >> urocalcin. All calcins significantly augment the bell-shaped [Ca2+]-[3H]ryanodine binding curve with variable effects on the affinity constants for Ca2+ activation and inactivation. In single channel recordings, calcins induce the appearance of a subconductance state in RyR1 that has a unique fractional value (∼20% to ∼60% of the full conductance state) but bears no relationship to binding affinity, DM, or capacity to stimulate Ca2+ release. Except for urocalcin, all calcins at 100 nM concentration stimulate Ca2+ release and deplete Ca2+ load from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum. The natural variation within the calcin family of peptides offers a diversified set of high-affinity ligands with the capacity to modulate RyRs with high dynamic range and potency. PMID:27114612
Labeda, David P; Dunlap, Christopher A; Rong, Xiaoying; Huang, Ying; Doroghazi, James R; Ju, Kou-San; Metcalf, William W
The family Streptomycetaceae, notably species in the genus Streptomyces, have long been the subject of investigation due to their well-known ability to produce secondary metabolites. The emergence of drug resistant pathogens and the relative ease of producing genome sequences has renewed the importance of Streptomyces as producers of new natural products and resulted in revived efforts in isolating and describing strains from novel environments. A previous large study of the phylogeny in the Streptomycetaceae based on 16S rRNA gene sequences provided a useful framework for the relationships among species, but did not always have sufficient resolution to provide definitive identification. Multi-locus sequence analysis of 5 house-keeping genes has been shown to provide improved taxonomic resolution of Streptomyces species in a number of previous reports so a comprehensive study was undertaken to evaluate evolutionary relationships among species within the family Streptomycetaceae where type strains are available in the ARS Culture Collection or genome sequences are available in GenBank. The results of the analysis supported the distinctiveness of Kitasatospora and Streptacidiphilus as validly named genera since they cluster outside of the phylogenetic radiation of the genus Streptomyces. There is also support for the transfer of a number of Streptomyces species to the genus Kitasatospora as well for reducing at least 31 species clusters to a single taxon. The multi-locus sequence database resulting from the study is a useful tool for identification of new isolates and the phylogenetic analysis presented also provides a road map for planning future genome sequencing efforts in the Streptomycetaceae.
Xiao, Liang; Gurrola, Georgina B; Zhang, Jing; Valdivia, Carmen R; SanMartin, Mario; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Zhang, Liming; Possani, Lourival D; Valdivia, Héctor H
Calcins are a novel family of scorpion peptides that bind with high affinity to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and increase their activity by inducing subconductance states. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure-function relationships of the eight calcins known to date, based on their primary sequence, three-dimensional modeling, and functional effects on skeletal RyRs (RyR1). Primary sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis show high similarity among all calcins (≥78.8% identity). Other common characteristics include an inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) motif stabilized by three pairs of disulfide bridges and a dipole moment (DM) formed by positively charged residues clustering on one side of the molecule and neutral and negatively charged residues segregating on the opposite side. [(3)H]Ryanodine binding assays, used as an index of the open probability of RyRs, reveal that all eight calcins activate RyR1 dose-dependently with Kd values spanning approximately three orders of magnitude and in the following rank order: opicalcin1 > opicalcin2 > vejocalcin > hemicalcin > imperacalcin > hadrucalcin > maurocalcin > urocalcin. All calcins significantly augment the bell-shaped [Ca(2+)]-[(3)H]ryanodine binding curve with variable effects on the affinity constants for Ca(2+) activation and inactivation. In single channel recordings, calcins induce the appearance of a subconductance state in RyR1 that has a unique fractional value (∼20% to ∼60% of the full conductance state) but bears no relationship to binding affinity, DM, or capacity to stimulate Ca(2+) release. Except for urocalcin, all calcins at 100 nM concentration stimulate Ca(2+) release and deplete Ca(2+) load from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum. The natural variation within the calcin family of peptides offers a diversified set of high-affinity ligands with the capacity to modulate RyRs with high dynamic range and potency.
Smith, Emilie Phillips; Atkins, Jacqueline; Connell, Christian M
This study examined family, school, and community factors and the relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement among 98 African American fourth-grade children. It has been posited that young people who feel better about their racial-ethnic background have better behavioral and academic outcomes, yet there is a need for more empirical tests of this premise. Psychometric information is reported on measures of parent, teacher, and child racial-ethnic attitudes. Path analysis was used to investigate ecological variables potentially related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and achievement. Parental education and level of racial-ethnic pride were correlated and both were related to children's achievement though in the final path model, only the path from parental education level was statistically significant. Children whose teachers exhibited higher levels of racial-ethnic trust and perceived fewer barriers due to race and ethnicity evidenced more trust and optimism as well. Children living in communities with higher proportions of college-educated residents also exhibited more positive racial-ethnic attitudes. For children, higher racial-ethnic pride was related to higher achievement measured by grades and standardized test scores, while racial distrust and perception of barriers due to race were related to reduced performance. This study suggests that family, school, and community are all important factors related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and also to their academic achievement.
Divakar, Pradeep K; Crespo, Ana; Wedin, Mats; Leavitt, Steven D; Hawksworth, David L; Myllys, Leena; McCune, Bruce; Randlane, Tiina; Bjerke, Jarle W; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Schmitt, Imke; Boluda, Carlos G; Alors, David; Roca-Valiente, Beatriz; Del-Prado, Ruth; Ruibal, Constantino; Buaruang, Kawinnat; Núñez-Zapata, Jano; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rico, Víctor J; Molina, M Carmen; Elix, John A; Esslinger, Theodore L; Tronstad, Inger Kristin K; Lindgren, Hanna; Ertz, Damien; Gueidan, Cécile; Saag, Lauri; Mark, Kristiina; Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Beck, Andreas; Benatti, Michel Navarro; Blanchon, Dan; Candan, Mehmet; Clerc, Philippe; Goward, Trevor; Grube, Martin; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kantvilas, Gintaras; Kirika, Paul M; Lendemer, James; Mattsson, Jan-Eric; Messuti, María Inés; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Nelsen, Matthew; Ohlson, Jan I; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Saag, Andres; Sipman, Harrie J M; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Thell, Arne; Thor, Göran; Truong, Camille; Yahr, Rebecca; Upreti, Dalip K; Cubas, Paloma; Lumbsch, H Thorsten
We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi. In all cases, the independent origins occurred c. 24 million yr ago. Further, we show that the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene were key periods when diversification of major lineages within Parmeliaceae occurred, with subsequent radiations occurring primarily during the Oligocene and Miocene. Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the independent origin of lichenicolous fungi associated with climatic shifts at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Moreover, diversification bursts at different times may be crucial factors driving the diversification of Parmeliaceae. Additionally, our study provides novel insight into evolutionary relationships in this large and diverse family of lichen-forming ascomycetes.
Zhang, W Q; Zhang, M H
Many mitochondrial DNA sequences are used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and perform molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the continuous development of sequencing technology, numerous mitochondrial sequences have been released in public databases, especially complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Using multiple sequences is better than using single sequences for phylogenetic analysis of animals because multiple sequences have sufficient information for evolutionary process reconstruction. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 14 species of Felidae based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences, with Canis familiaris as an outgroup, using neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference methods. The consensus phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Felidae, and the family could be divided into 2 subfamilies, Felinae and Pantherinae. The genus Panthera and species tigris were also studied in detail. Meanwhile, the divergence of this family was estimated by phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method with a relaxed molecular clock, and the results shown were consistent with previous studies. In summary, the evolution of Felidae was reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genome sequences. The described method may be broadly applicable for phylogenetic analyses of anima taxa.
Ly, Jennifer; Zhou, Qing; Chu, Keira; Chen, Stephen H
This study examined the cross-sectional relations between teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) and math and reading achievement in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N=207). Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions including closeness, conflict, and intimacy, and children completed a questionnaire measuring overall TCRQ. Standardized tests were used to assess children's math and reading skills. Analyses were conducted to (a) test the factor structure of measures assessing TCRQ among Chinese American children, (b) examine the associations between teacher- and child-rated TCRQ and children's academic achievement, controlling for demographic characteristics, and (c) examine the potential role of child gender as a moderator in the relations between TCRQ and achievement. Results indicated that teacher-rated TCRQ Warmth was positively associated with Chinese American children's reading achievement. Two child gender-by-TCRQ interactions were found: (a) teacher-rated TCRQ Conflict was negatively associated with girls' (but not boys') math achievement, and (b) child-rated Overall TCRQ was positively associated with boys' (but not girls') reading achievement. These findings highlight the valuable role of TCRQ in the academic success of school-aged children in immigrant families.
The article gives an insight into the practice of Integrated Family Counseling and identifies their interfaces with psychotherapeutic approaches. The example of the child-centered educational counseling shows how consultancy, systemic and psychotherapeutic interventions interact in order to meet the parents educational needs defined by the parents. The first part of the article explains the term of Integrated Family Counseling, differentiates the various substantive areas of work and outlines the systematic attitude. The second part describes the psychotherapy-systemic action in the child-centered educational counseling from the perspective of the practice. Main priorities in the course of counseling, including cause-related behavioral and developmental diagnostics, play therapy intervention and parental involvement are presented. Here the systemic approach, major methodological elements as well as their effects are pointed up. The third part is devoted to the reflection of the relationship between counseling and psychotherapy. It becomes clear that in particular the intended effectiveness of an intervention determines their methodological design to a large extent.
... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...
Azmoude, Elham; Tafazoli, Mahin; Parnan, Azam
Introduction: One of the most important components and health indicators, especially among people with chronic diseases is quality of life. One of the possible factors which may impact on quality of life of diabetic patients is family functioning. This study aimed to determine the relationship between family functioning and quality of life of diabetic and non-diabetic women. Methods: In this correlational cross-sectional study, 180 women (diabetics and non-diabetics) who referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2014-2015 were studied. Data were collected using SF-36 questionnaire and Mc Master Family Assessment Device (FAD). Data were analyzed using descriptive and statistical tests by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The result showed that diabetic women reported family impairment compared with none diabetic women. There was a significant relationship between the family functioning and quality of life in diabetics and non-diabetic women. Based on the results of the stepwise regression model, among factors of family function only the factor of behavioral control was able to predict the quality of life in diabetic women. Conclusion: Regarding the study findings, good family function associated with better quality of life in diabetics and healthy women. Therefore, due to disturbed family function in diabetic’s women implementation of training programs and consulting services could improve their quality of life. PMID:27752489
Fan, Ruiping; Wang, Mingxu
This essay argues that the Chinese Mental Health Act of 2013 is overly individualistic and fails to give proper moral weight to the role of Chinese families in directing the process of decision-making for hospitalizing and treating the mentally ill patients. We present three types of reactions within the medical community to the Act, each illustrated with a case and discussion. In the first two types of cases, we argue that these reactions are problematic either because they comply with the law but undermine the patient's interests by refusing the family's request to have the patient hospitalized, or violate the law by hospitalizing patients in response to the real concerns of their families. In the third type of situation, psychiatrists inappropriately encourage families to produce evidence of the patient's behavior that is harmful to self or others in order legally to commit the patient. Each of these problems, we conclude, should be tackled by supplementing Article 30 of the Act with the stipulation that a psychiatrist may authorize the involuntary hospitalization of a patient, who is not at risk of causing physical harm to self or others, with the consent of all major family members. Drawing on the deeply culturally embedded moral traditions of Confucian medical familism, this proposal would facilitate the proper treatment of a significant number of Chinese mentally ill patients under the care of their families.
This article focuses on the relationship of female couples with their parents, siblings, and other relatives by exploring various patterns of coming out and family attitudes. After reviewing existing literature in this field, the article explores the extent to which my interviewees are out to their family, the reasons for and the possible complications about staying in the closet. Next the parents' reactions are discussed, which range from complete rejection through not admitting the truth to themselves to acceptance. Parents find it difficult to come out about their daughter to their immediate environment, as they fear prejudice and being blamed for her sexual orientation. This can also lead to conflict and alienation between parents and daughter. Accepting a person's sexual orientation and relationship, however, is only the first step toward her full integration into the family. Full inclusion in the family is only present when the person's same-sex partner is treated as kin to the same extent as an opposite-sex partner would be. This is demonstrated in a variety of ways, such as the names used (especially by the couple's children) and the system of obligations and favors constituting a formative element of kinship. There might be conflicts, however, when the two partners have different backgrounds and thus different expectations of family relations.
Carcone, April Idalski; Ellis, Deborah A.; Chen, Xinguang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Moltz, Kathleen
Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive, home and community-based family treatment, significantly improved patient-provider relationships in families where youth had chronic poor glycemic control. Methods One hundred forty-six adolescents with type 1 or 2 diabetes in chronic poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to MST or a telephone support condition. Caregiver perceptions of their relationship with the diabetes multidisciplinary medical team were assessed at baseline and treatment termination with the Measure of Process of Care-20. Results At treatment termination, MST families reported significant improvement on the Coordinated and Comprehensive Care scale and marginally significant improvement on the Respectful and Supportive Care scale. Improvements on the Enabling and Partnership and Providing Specific Information scales were not significant. Conclusions Results suggest MST improves the ability of the families and the diabetes treatment providers to work together. PMID:25940767
Figueroa, Diego F.; Baco, Amy R.
In the past decade, molecular phylogenetic analyses of octocorals have shown that the current morphological taxonomic classification of these organisms needs to be revised. The latest phylogenetic analyses show that most octocorals can be divided into three main clades. One of these clades contains the families Coralliidae and Paragorgiidae. These families share several taxonomically important characters and it has been suggested that they may not be monophyletic; with the possibility of the Coralliidae being a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae. Uncertainty exists not only in the relationship of these two families, but also in the classification of the two genera that make up the Coralliidae, Corallium and Paracorallium. Molecular analyses suggest that the genus Corallium is paraphyletic, and it can be divided into two main clades, with the Paracorallium as members of one of these clades. In this study we sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of five species of Paragorgia and of five species of Corallium to use in a phylogenetic analysis to achieve two main objectives; the first to elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the Paragorgiidae and Coralliidae and the second to determine whether the genera Corallium and Paracorallium are monophyletic. Our results show that other members of the Coralliidae share the two novel mitochondrial gene arrangements found in a previous study in Corallium konojoi and Paracorallium japonicum; and that the Corallium konojoi arrangement is also found in the Paragorgiidae. Our phylogenetic reconstruction based on all the protein coding genes and ribosomal RNAs of the mitochondrial genome suggest that the Coralliidae are not a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae, but rather a monophyletic sister branch to the Paragorgiidae. While our manuscript was in review a study was published using morphological data and several fragments from mitochondrial genes to redefine the taxonomy of the Coralliidae. Paracorallium was subsumed
Farrell, A D; White, K S
The moderating influences of family structure and parent-adolescent distress on the relationship between peer variables and drug use were examined in a predominantly African American sample of 630 10th graders at 9 urban high schools. Both peer pressure and peer drug use were significantly related to the reported frequency of drug use. The relationship between peer pressure and drug use was stronger among girls than boys, and also among adolescents in families without fathers or stepfathers. The association between peer pressure and drug use also increased as a function of the level of mother-adolescent distress among adolescents who were not living with fathers or stepfathers. Neither gender nor family structure moderated the relationship between peer drug models and drug use. However, the association between peer drug models and drug use increased as a function of the level of mother-adolescent distress.
Weisrock, David W.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Macey, J. Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H.; Zhao, Ermi; Larson, Allan
Phylogenetic relationships among species of the salamanderfamily Salamandridae are investigated using nearly 3000 nucleotide basesof newly reported mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the mtDNA genicregion spanning the genes tRNALeu-COI. This study uses nearlycomprehensive species-level sampling to provide the first completephylogeny for the Salamandridae. Deep phylogenetic relationships amongthe three most divergent lineages in the family Salamandrina terdigitata,a clade comprising the "True" salamanders, and a clade comprising allnewts except S. terdigitata are difficult to resolve. However, mostrelationships within the latter two lineages are resolved with robustlevels of branch support. The genera Euproctus and Triturus arestatistically shown to be nonmonophyletic, instead each contains adiverse set of lineages positioned within the large newt clade. The genusParamesotriton is also resolve as a nonmonophyletic group, with the newlydescribed species P. laoensis constituting a divergent lineage placed ina sister position to clade containing all Pachytriton species and allremaining Paramesotriton species. Sequence divergences between P.laoensis and other Paramesotriton species are as great as those comparingP. laoensis and species of the genera Cynops and Pachytriton. Analyses oflineage diversification across the Salamandridae indicate that, despiteits exceptional diversity, lineage accumulation appears to have beenconstant across time, indicating that it does not represent a truespecies radiation.
Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra
Forisomes protein belongs to SEO gene family and is unique to Fabaceae family. These proteins are located in sieve tubes of phloem and function to prevent loss of nutrient-rich photoassimilates, upon mechanical injury/wounding. Forisome protein is also known as ATP independent, mechanically active proteins. Despite the wealth of information role of forisome in plants are not yet fully understood. Recent reports suggest that forisomes protein can act as ideal model to study self assembly mechanism for development of nanotechnological devices like microfluidic system application in space exploration mission. Improvement in micro instrument is highly demanding and has been a key technology by NASA in future space exploration missions. Based on its physical parameters, forisome are found to be ideal biomimetic materials for micro fluidic system because the conformational shifts can be replicated in vitro and are fully reversible over large number of cycles. By the use of protein engineering forisome recombinant protein can be tailored. Due to its unique ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy forisome has received much attention. For nanotechnological application and handling biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, protein and cell as a whole microfluidic system will be the most powerful technology. The discovery of new biomimetic smart materials has been a key factor in development of space science and its requirements in such a challenging environment. The field of microfludic, particularly in terms of development of its components along with identification of new biomimetic smart materials, deserves more attention. More biophysical investigation is required to characterize it to make it more suitable under parameters of performance.
Samuel, Melaku; Fetters, Tamara; Desta, Demeke
Where unmet need for the safest, most effective, and long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is very high, the health system and partners need to implement problem-solving, locally feasible, and comprehensive family planning delivery strategies. Because young and unmarried women are most at risk for unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion due to poor access to contraceptive services, postabortion family planning (PAFP) is a key component in such strategies. In Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region, Ethiopia, Ipas implemented health system strengthening efforts from fiscal year (FY) 2010 (July 2009 to June 2010) to FY 2014 (July 2013 to June 2014) to improve the quality of PAFP services and expand method choice in 101 public facilities. The intervention significantly improved PAFP uptake at the project sites. Specifically, the proportion of abortion clients receiving LARCs progressively improved during the intervention period. The proportion of abortion clients who left the facilities with a contraceptive method increased from 58% in FY 2010 to 83% in FY 2014. The share of method mix for LARCs rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 55% in FY 2014, while the share for condoms, injectables, and oral contraceptives declined from 98% to 45%. Implant use rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 43% in FY 2014, while the use of intrauterine devices increased from 0.1% in FY 2010 to 12% in FY 2014. A larger proportion of PAFP users received LARCs at health centers, where midwives and nurses are the primary providers, than at hospitals (59% versus 37%, respectively). A broader method mix can satisfy clients with a variety of needs, a key factor for higher uptake of more effective methods and program success. Further evidence-based interventions need to be implemented to improve the quality of PAFP in a feasible and replicable strategy that addresses unmet need for modern contraceptive methods.
Samuel, Melaku; Fetters, Tamara; Desta, Demeke
ABSTRACT Where unmet need for the safest, most effective, and long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is very high, the health system and partners need to implement problem-solving, locally feasible, and comprehensive family planning delivery strategies. Because young and unmarried women are most at risk for unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion due to poor access to contraceptive services, postabortion family planning (PAFP) is a key component in such strategies. In Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region, Ethiopia, Ipas implemented health system strengthening efforts from fiscal year (FY) 2010 (July 2009 to June 2010) to FY 2014 (July 2013 to June 2014) to improve the quality of PAFP services and expand method choice in 101 public facilities. The intervention significantly improved PAFP uptake at the project sites. Specifically, the proportion of abortion clients receiving LARCs progressively improved during the intervention period. The proportion of abortion clients who left the facilities with a contraceptive method increased from 58% in FY 2010 to 83% in FY 2014. The share of method mix for LARCs rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 55% in FY 2014, while the share for condoms, injectables, and oral contraceptives declined from 98% to 45%. Implant use rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 43% in FY 2014, while the use of intrauterine devices increased from 0.1% in FY 2010 to 12% in FY 2014. A larger proportion of PAFP users received LARCs at health centers, where midwives and nurses are the primary providers, than at hospitals (59% versus 37%, respectively). A broader method mix can satisfy clients with a variety of needs, a key factor for higher uptake of more effective methods and program success. Further evidence-based interventions need to be implemented to improve the quality of PAFP in a feasible and replicable strategy that addresses unmet need for modern contraceptive methods. PMID:27540126
Bevans, Carville G.; Krettler, Christoph; Reinhart, Christoph; Watzka, Matthias; Oldenburg, Johannes
In humans and other vertebrate animals, vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) family enzymes are the gatekeepers between nutritionally acquired K vitamins and the vitamin K cycle responsible for posttranslational modifications that confer biological activity upon vitamin K-dependent proteins with crucial roles in hemostasis, bone development and homeostasis, hormonal carbohydrate regulation and fertility. We report a phylogenetic analysis of the VKOR family that identifies five major clades. Combined phylogenetic and site-specific conservation analyses point to clade-specific similarities and differences in structure and function. We discovered a single-site determinant uniquely identifying VKOR homologs belonging to human pathogenic, obligate intracellular prokaryotes and protists. Building on previous work by Sevier et al. (Protein Science 14:1630), we analyzed structural data from both VKOR and prokaryotic disulfide bond formation protein B (DsbB) families and hypothesize an ancient evolutionary relationship between the two families where one family arose from the other through a gene duplication/deletion event. This has resulted in circular permutation of primary sequence threading through the four-helical bundle protein folds of both families. This is the first report of circular permutation relating distant α-helical membrane protein sequences and folds. In conclusion, we suggest a chronology for the evolution of the five extant VKOR clades. PMID:26230708
Stratton, Jill A.
Leadership scholarship has paid increased attention to the connection between personal characteristics, such as emotional intelligence, and leadership. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a relationship exists between emotional intelligence and leadership in first-year college students at a private university in the Midwest. Using The…
Manning, Linda D.
Family meals act as a barometer to signify the changing nature of family life. The primary objective of this activity is to allow students to experience the many ways in which a recursive relationship exists between the food families eat and the patterns of communication families enact. Through this activity, students experience how food and…
...) on the operation of cafeteria plans. 1.125-3 Section 1.125-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... operation of cafeteria plans. The following questions and answers provide guidance on the effect of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq., on the operation of cafeteria plans:...
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
The House Committee on Education and Labor recommended passage of the Family and Medical Leave Act as amended and submitted the following regarding the legislation: (1) a synopsis of committee action in the 101th, 100th, 99th, and 98th Congresses; (2) background and need for the legislation, based primarily on previous testimony heard by the…
Introduction: This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Discussion: Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. Conclusions: The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed. PMID:21324834
Emery, Sherry L.; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C.; Ribisl, Kurt M.
Objectives. We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Methods. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Results. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors’ access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Conclusions. Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment. PMID:26270303
Rep. Gingrey, Phil [R-GA-11
03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV
01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S129-130) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA
05/12/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced in Senate: CR S2949-2954) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA
03/20/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2030-2035) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Rep. Honda, Michael M. [D-CA-15
08/19/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Rep. Turner, Michael R. [R-OH-3
06/04/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Haesler, Emily; Bauer, Michael; Nay, Rhonda
Background Modern healthcare philosophy espouses the virtues of holistic care and acknowledges that family involvement is appropriate and something to be encouraged due to the role it plays in physical and emotional healing. In the aged care sector, the involvement of families is a strong guarantee of a resident's well-being. The important role family plays in the support and care of the older adult in the residential aged care environment has been enshrined in the Australian Commonwealth Charter of Residents' Rights and Responsibilities and the Aged Care Standards of Practice. Despite wide acknowledgement of the importance of family involvement in the healthcare of the older adult, many barriers to the implementation of participatory family care have been identified in past research. For older adults in the healthcare environment to benefit from the involvement of their family members, healthcare professionals need an understanding of the issues surrounding family presence in the healthcare environment and the strategies to best support it. Objectives The objectives of the systematic review were to present the best available evidence on the strategies, practices and organisational characteristics that promote constructive staff-family relationships in the care of older adults in the healthcare setting. Specifically this review sought to investigate how staff and family members perceive their relationships with each other; staff characteristics that promote constructive relationships with the family; and interventions that support staff-family relationships. Search strategy A literature search was performed using the following databases for the years 1990-2005: Ageline, APAIS Health, Australian Family and Society Abstracts (FAMILY), CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Dare, Dissertation Abstracts, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. Personal communication from expert panel members was also used to identify studies for inclusion. A second search stage
Franklin, Diane, Ed.; Bankston, Karen, Ed.
This booklet discusses the importance of family rituals as a way of staying connected to children as they move through adolescence. Family rituals give teens a sense of being part of a family that values its time together. Even something as simple as a family meal together can have great impact on maintaining a bond between parents and children.…
Center for the Study of Social Policy, 2012
The relational well-being of families is an important factor affecting a family's economic success, physical and mental heath, the readiness and success of children in school, and the engagement of youth in positive and productive roles. In short, the strength of family bonds is crucial to a family's capacity to provide, nurture, and care for its…
Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul
Objective: To identify how British families discuss sexual matters and to determine if the use of a multimedia computer program increases knowledge to promote communication about sexual topics. Design: A mixed-method approach in which families were interviewed within the family environment. Method: Twenty families from the north east of England…
Caligiuri, P M; Hyland, M M; Joshi, A; Bross, A S
Based on theoretical perspectives from the work/family literature, this study tested a model for examining expatriate families' adjustment while on global assignments as an antecedent to expatriates' adjustment to working in a host country. Data were collected from 110 families that had been relocated for global assignments. Longitudinal data, assessing family characteristics before the assignment and cross-cultural adjustment approximately 6 months into the assignment, were coded. This study found that family characteristics (family support, family communication, family adaptability) were related to expatriates' adjustment to working in the host country. As hypothesized, the families' cross-cultural adjustment mediated the effect of family characteristics on expatriates' host-country work adjustment.
Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P < 0.05) was found between clutch size and age of the female. Twelve-year productivity of the Patuxent geese appeared related to the reproductive success of a specific resident family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.
Côté, Olivier; Viel, Laurent; Bienzle, Dorothee
Secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB 1A1) is a small anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory protein that is abundantly secreted in airway surface fluids. We recently reported the existence of three distinct SCGB1A1 genes in the domestic horse genome as opposed to the single gene copy consensus present in other mammals. The origin of SCGB1A1 gene triplication and the evolutionary relationship of the three genes amongst Equidae family members are unknown. For this study, SCGB1A1 genomic data were collected from various Equus individuals including E. caballus, E. przewalskii, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. quagga. Three SCGB1A1 genes in E. przewalskii, two SCGB1A1 genes in E. asinus, and a single SCGB1A1 gene in E. grevyi and E. quagga were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that the non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions between the different equid genes coded for 17 amino acid changes. Most of these changes localized to the SCGB 1A1 central cavity that binds hydrophobic ligands, suggesting that this area of SCGB 1A1 evolved to accommodate diverse molecular interactions. Three-dimensional modeling of the proteins revealed that the size of the SCGB 1A1 central cavity is larger than that of SCGB 1A1A. Altogether, these findings suggest that evolution of the SCGB1A1 gene may parallel the separation of caballine and non-caballine species amongst Equidae, and may indicate an expansion of function for SCGB1A1 gene products.
Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J.
Purpose Childhood exposure to violence in one’s family of origin has been closely linked to subsequent perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. There is, however, little research on the relationship between witnessing violence and subsequent peer violence. This study investigates the effects of witnessing interparental violence among Filipino young adults on their use and experience of psychological aggression with friends. Methods The data source for this study was the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Recent perpetration and victimization of friend psychological aggression among young adults ages 21–22 years was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and witnessing interparental violence during childhood was assessed through self-reports from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of witnessing interparental violence on subsequent use and experience of friend psychological aggression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results About 13% of females and 4% of males perpetrated psychological aggression towards close friends, and about 4% of females and males were victims. Fourteen percent of females and 3% of males experienced bidirectional psychological aggression. About 44% of females and 47% of males had, during childhood, witnessed their parents physically hurt one another. Witnessing maternal and reciprocal interparental violence during childhood significantly predicted bidirectional friend psychological aggression among males. Among females, witnessing interparental violence did not significantly predict involvement with friend psychological aggression. Conclusions Violence prevention programs should consider using family-centered interventions, and apply a gendered lens to their application. Further research on gender differences in friend aggression is recommended. PMID:23697789
Peckett, Helen; MacCallum, Fiona; Knibbs, Jacky
This study aimed to explore mothers' experience of implementing Lego Therapy at home within the family. Following a Lego Therapy training session, mothers carried out hourly sessions with their child with an autism spectrum condition and the child's sibling, once a week, for 6 weeks. Mothers were interviewed following the intervention, and the…
Hanna, Mattie; And Others
The family life education guide, part of a consumer and homemaking education unit, was developed in a 3-week curriculum workshop at Winthrop College in June 1972. The identified objectives and learning experiences have been developed with basic reference to developmental tasks, needs, interests, capacities, and prior learning experiences of…
Strengthening the Role of Families in States' Early Intervention Systems: Policy Guide to Procedural Safeguards for Infants and Toddlers and Their Families under Part H of the Education of the Handicapped Act.
Burnim, Ira A.
This book presents recommended policies and procedural safeguards for programs serving infants, toddlers and their families under Part H of the Education of the Handicapped Act. Policies are presented in five chapters covering: (1) consent to assessment, evaluation and services; (2) notice of parents' rights and of proposed actions; (3) right to…
Wang, Karyn L; Groth, Markus
The impact of emotional labor on customer outcomes is gaining considerable attention in the literature, with research suggesting that the authenticity of emotional displays may positively impact customer outcomes. However, research investigating the impact of more inauthentic emotions on service delivery outcomes is mixed (see Chi, Grandey, Diamond, & Krimmel, 2011). This study explores 2 potential reasons for why the service outcomes of inauthentic emotions are largely inconsistent: the impact of distinct surface acting strategies and the role of service delivery context. Drawing on social-functional theories of emotions, we surveyed 243 dyads of employees and customers from a wide variety of services to examine the links between employee surface acting and customer service satisfaction, and whether this relationship is moderated by relationship strength and service personalization. Our findings suggest that faking positive emotions has no bearing on service satisfaction, but suppressing negative emotions interacts with contextual factors to predict customers' service satisfaction, in line with social-functional theories of emotions. Specifically, customers who know the employee well are less sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions, and customers in highly personalized service encounters are more sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications.
East, Patricia L; Khoo, Siek Toon
This 3-wave, 5-year longitudinal study tested the contributions of family contextual factors and sibling relationship qualities to younger siblings' substance use, sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. More than 220 non-White families participated (67% Latino and 33% African American), all of which involved a younger sibling (133 girls and 89 boys; mean age = 13.6 years at Time 1) and an older sister (mean age = 17 years at Time 1). Results from structural equation latent growth curve modeling indicated that qualities of the sibling relationship (high older sister power, low warmth/closeness, and low conflict) mediated effects from several family risks (mothers' single parenting, older sisters' teen parenting, and family's receipt of aid) to younger sibling outcomes. Model results were generally stronger for sister-sister pairs than for sister-brother pairs. Findings add to theoretical models that emphasize the role of family and parenting processes in shaping sibling relationships, which, in turn, influence adolescent outcomes.
Samuelson, Kristin W.; Krueger, Casey E.; Wilson, Christina
Recently researchers have begun to explore the extent to which children's cognitive development is influenced by experiences in the family environment. Assessing mother-child dyads exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), a population at risk for emotional and neurocognitive problems, we examined relationships between maternal emotional…
Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa
Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress.
Al-Oweidi, Alia M.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between problems that accompany individuals with learning disability and the variables of gender and family economic status for a selected sample of Jordanians. The sample of the study, which consisted of (239) male and female students, was chosen randomly. To achieve this aim, the…
Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Cowan, Philip A; Pruett, Marsha Kline; Pruett, Kyle
In the context of current concern about levels of marital distress, family violence, and divorce, the SFI study is evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention to facilitate the positive involvement of low-income Mexican American and European American fathers with their children, in part by strengthening the men's relationships with their children's mothers. The study design involves a randomized clinical trial that includes assignment to a 16-week couples group, a 16-week fathers group, or a single-session control group. Couples in both group interventions and the control condition include partners who are married, cohabiting, and living separately but raising a young child together. This article presents the rationale, design, and intervention approach to father involvement for families whose relationships are at risk because of the hardships of their lives, many of whom are manifesting some degree of individual or relationship distress. We present preliminary impressions and qualitative findings based on our experience with 257 families who completed the pretest, and the first 160 who completed one postintervention assessment 9 months after entering the study. Discussion centers on what we have learned and questions that remain to be answered in mounting a multisite preventive intervention to strengthen relationships in low-income families.
Hamilton, Anna Rawlings
The primary purpose of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between teacher personality traits and teachers' reported attitudes and behaviors towards family-school partnerships. A secondary purpose of this study was to: 1) explore how various teacher demographic impacted attitudes and practices towards partnership, 2) examine if a…
Gardner, Keeba G.
This study will examine the relationship between career success outcomes of African American women and early familial factors, as well as personality traits. Using a cross-sectional case-control design. the study will use participants who self-identified as African American with two African American parents. They will be randomly selected from a…
Iruka, Iheoma U.; Winn, Donna-Marie C.; Kingsley, Susan J.; Orthodoxou, Yannick J.
This study uses National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) data to examine the moderating effects of child ethnicity and family income on the links between parent-teacher relationships and kindergartners' social skills. This study includes 481 Caucasian, African American, and Latino children from low-income households. Overall,…
Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.
Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988, the authors assess the extent to which adolescents' levels of parental attachment and opportunities for participating in delinquent activities mediate the family structure--substance use relationship. A series of hierarchical regressions supported the hypotheses that high levels…
An estimated 50 to 60% of children from typical families develop secure attachment relationships with their parents (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978; Van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg, 1988); however, intervention research has focused primarily on interventions for high-risk clinical samples (Berlin, Zeanah, & Lieberman, 2008). In this project,…
Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn
This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…
Colorado State Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.
This document cross-references Colorado's consumer and family studies core curriculums in life management and relationships with Colorado's academic content standards. Colorado's academic standards for students in grades 9-12 in the areas of reading and writing, geography, science, history, and mathematics are cross-referenced with student…
Cross, Suzanne L.; Day, Angelique G.
A qualitative study of eight grand family dyads was conducted to gain the perspective of the grandparents and grandchildren regarding the kinship care relationship. A phenomenological approach of the "lived experience" developed by P.A. Gibson (2002) was incorporated in the design of the study. Several major themes emerged from data analysis using…
Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.
Sibling relationships are an important context for development, but are often ignored in research and preventive interventions with youth and families. In childhood and adolescence, siblings spend considerable time together, and siblings' characteristics and sibling dynamics substantially influence developmental trajectories and outcomes. This…
Choksey, Linda L.
This paper primarily considers the effects of parental and sibling deaths on preadolescent children, including the relationship of child rearing styles to the process of mourning. Through a review of the literature and an integration of several psychological factors, the author shows that familial death places children at risk. However, she…
Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.
We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…
Ortega, Norma E.
This study examined the relationship between individual and family perfectionism and mental health functioning among two hundred and seven Latino college students. One aim of this study was to test the factor structure of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001) with Latino college students by…
Sanders, Matthew R; Morawska, Alina; Haslam, Divna M; Filus, Ania; Fletcher, Renee
This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Parent and Family Adjustment Scales (PAFAS). The PAFAS was designed as a brief outcome measure for assessing changes in parenting practices and parental adjustment in the evaluation of both public health and individual or group parenting interventions. The inventory consists of the Parenting scale measuring parenting practices and quality of parent-child relationship and of the Family Adjustment scale measuring parental emotional adjustment and partner and family support in parenting. Two studies were conducted to validate the inventory. A sample of 370 parents participated in Study 1 and a sample of 771 parents participated in Study 2. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 12 years old. In Study 1 confirmatory factor analysis supported an 18-item, four factor model of PAFAS Parenting, and a 12-item, three factor model of PAFAS Family Adjustment. Psychometric evaluation of the PAFAS revealed that the scales had good internal consistency, as well as satisfactory construct and predictive validity. In Study 2 confirmatory factor analysis supported stability of the factor structures of PAFAS Parenting and PAFAS Family Adjustment revealed in Study 1. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed.
McCloskey, L A; Stuewig, J
Three hundred sixty-three school-aged children from maritally violent and nonviolent families were interviewed about their friendship networks, frequency of social contact, the interpersonal quality of their friendships, and hostile attributional biases. Mothers answered items from the Child Behavior Checklist about peer conflict. Children did not differ on the number of friends they claimed or their frequency of contact with peers. However, children exposed to marital violence reported feeling more lonely and having more conflict with a close friend. Their mothers also reported them as having more problems with peers. In addition, children with punitive mothers had more conflict with a best friend. Residing in a shelter added further to children's feelings of loneliness, with one third having no best friend. Children's attributional biases were unrelated to the quality of their peer relations or any other index of peer functioning. Results are discussed in terms of an attachment framework. Findings confirm that it is important to examine the quality of relationships to determine how children at risk fare in their social lives.
Mazet, Francoise; Yu, Jr Kai; Liberles, David A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.
The Forkhead or Fox gene family encodes putative transcription factors. There are at least four Fox genes in yeast, 16 in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 42 in humans. Recently, vertebrate Fox genes have been classified into 17 groups named FoxA to FoxQ. Here, we extend this analysis to invertebrates, using available sequences from D. melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae (Ag), Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce), the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis (Ci) and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae (Bf), from which we also cloned several Fox genes. Phylogenetic analyses lend support to the previous overall subclassification of vertebrate genes, but suggest that four subclasses (FoxJ, L, N and Q) could be further subdivided to reflect their relationships to invertebrate genes. We were unable to identify orthologs of Fox subclasses E, H, I, J, M and Q1 in D. melanogaster, A. gambiae or C. elegans, suggesting either considerable loss in ecdysozoans or the evolution of these subclasses in the deuterostome lineage. Our analyses suggest that the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes had a minimum complement of 14 Fox genes.
Zydek, Grażyna; Brzezińska, Elżbieta
A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study has been made on 20 compounds with serotonin (5-HT) receptor affinity. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) data and physicochemical parameters were applied in this study. RP2 TLC 60F(254) plates (silanized) impregnated with solutions of propionic acid, ethylbenzene, 4-ethylphenol, and propionamide (used as analogues of the key receptor amino acids) and their mixtures (denoted as S1-S7 biochromatographic models) were used in two developing phases as a model of drug-5-HT receptor interaction. The semiempirical method AM1 (HyperChem v. 7.0 program) and ACD/Labs v. 8.0 program were employed to calculate a set of physicochemical parameters for the investigated compounds. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to search for the best QSAR equations. The correlations obtained for the compounds studied represent their interactions with the proposed biochromatographic models. The good multivariate relationships (R(2) = 0.78-0.84) obtained by means of regression analysis can be used for predicting the quantitative effect of biological activity of different compounds with 5-HT receptor affinity. "Leave-one-out" (LOO) and "leave-N-out" (LNO) cross-validation methods were used to judge the predictive power of final regression equations.
Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William
The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.
Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=113) reported more positive discipline and physical punishment but less involvement, less positive parenting, less monitoring, a lower sense of parenting competence, less acceptance of the child, and less closeness to the child than the families of a child with MBID and no accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=71). The parent-child relationship was most strongly associated with externalizing child behavior, over and above parenting behaviors. In addition, the parent-child relationship was found to be associated with parenting behavior, over and above the child's externalizing behavior. Our results highlight the importance of both the parent-child relationship and parenting behavior in connection with the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems on the part of children with MBID. Parenting behavior and the parent-child relationship may thus be promising targets for interventions with this group of children.
Jozefowicz-Simbeni, Debra M. Hernandez; Israel, Nathaniel
In 1987 Congress authorized the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act to protect the rights of homeless students and to ensure that they receive the same quality and appropriate education that other students receive. This article summarizes key aspects of the 2001 reauthorization of the act, now known as the McKinney-Vento Act, outlines how…
Andexer, Jennifer N.; Kendrew, Steven G.; Nur-e-Alam, Mohammad; Lazos, Orestis; Foster, Teresa A.; Zimmermann, Anna-Sophie; Warneck, Tony D.; Suthar, Dipen; Coates, Nigel J.; Koehn, Frank E.; Skotnicki, Jerauld S.; Carter, Guy T.; Gregory, Matthew A.; Martin, Christine J.; Moss, Steven J.; Leadlay, Peter F.; Wilkinson, Barrie
The macrocyclic polyketides FK506, FK520, and rapamycin are potent immunosuppressants that prevent T-cell proliferation through initial binding to the immunophilin FKBP12. Analogs of these molecules are of considerable interest as therapeutics in both metastatic and inflammatory disease. For these polyketides the starter unit for chain assembly is (4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxycyclohex-1-enecarboxylic acid derived from the shikimate pathway. We show here that the first committed step in its formation is hydrolysis of chorismate to form (4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxycyclohexa-1,5-dienecarboxylic acid. This chorismatase activity is encoded by fkbO in the FK506 and FK520 biosynthetic gene clusters, and by rapK in the rapamycin gene cluster of Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Purified recombinant FkbO (from FK520) efficiently catalyzed the chorismatase reaction in vitro, as judged by HPLC-MS and NMR analysis. Complementation using fkbO from either the FK506 or the FK520 gene cluster of a strain of S. hygroscopicus specifically deleted in rapK (BIOT-4010) restored rapamycin production, as did supplementation with (4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxycyclohexa-1,5-dienecarboxylic acid. Although BIOT-4010 produced no rapamycin, it did produce low levels of BC325, a rapamycin analog containing a 3-hydroxybenzoate starter unit. This led us to identify the rapK homolog hyg5 as encoding a chorismatase/3-hydroxybenzoate synthase. Similar enzymes in other bacteria include the product of the bra8 gene from the pathway to the terpenoid natural product brasilicardin. Expression of either hyg5 or bra8 in BIOT-4010 led to increased levels of BC325. Also, purified Hyg5 catalyzed the predicted conversion of chorismate into 3-hydroxybenzoate. FkbO, RapK, Hyg5, and Bra8 are thus founder members of a previously unrecognized family of enzymes acting on chorismate. PMID:21383123
Gangl, Roman; Tenhaken, Raimund
Raffinose synthase 5 (AtRS5, At5g40390) was characterized from Arabidopsis as a recombinant enzyme. It has a far higher affinity for the substrates galactinol and sucrose than any other raffinose synthase previously reported. In addition raffinose synthase 5 is also working as a galactosylhydrolase, degrading galactinol, and raffinose under certain conditions. Together with raffinose synthase 4, which is predominantly a stachyose synthase, both enzymes contribute to the raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) accumulation in seeds. A double knockout in raffinose synthase 4 and raffinose synthase 5 (ΔAtRS4,5) was generated, which is devoid of RFOs in seeds. Unstressed leaves of 4 week old ΔAtRS4,5 plants showed drastically 23.8-fold increased concentrations of galactinol. Unexpectedly, raffinose appeared again in drought stressed ΔAtRS4,5 plants, but not under other abiotic stress conditions. Drought stress leads to novel transcripts of raffinose synthase 6 suggesting that this isoform is a further stress inducible raffinose synthase in Arabidopsis. ΔAtRS4,5 seeds showed a 5 days delayed germination phenotype in darkness and an elevated expression of the transcription factor phytochrome interacting factor 1 (AtPIF1) target gene AtPIF6, being a repressor of germination. This prolonged dormancy is not seen during germination in the light. Exogenous galactose partially promotes germination of ΔAtRS4,5 seeds in the dark suggesting that RFOs act as a galactose store and repress AtPIF6 transcripts. PMID:27507985
Andexer, Jennifer N; Kendrew, Steven G; Nur-e-Alam, Mohammad; Lazos, Orestis; Foster, Teresa A; Zimmermann, Anna-Sophie; Warneck, Tony D; Suthar, Dipen; Coates, Nigel J; Koehn, Frank E; Skotnicki, Jerauld S; Carter, Guy T; Gregory, Matthew A; Martin, Christine J; Moss, Steven J; Leadlay, Peter F; Wilkinson, Barrie
The macrocyclic polyketides FK506, FK520, and rapamycin are potent immunosuppressants that prevent T-cell proliferation through initial binding to the immunophilin FKBP12. Analogs of these molecules are of considerable interest as therapeutics in both metastatic and inflammatory disease. For these polyketides the starter unit for chain assembly is (4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxycyclohex-1-enecarboxylic acid derived from the shikimate pathway. We show here that the first committed step in its formation is hydrolysis of chorismate to form (4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxycyclohexa-1,5-dienecarboxylic acid. This chorismatase activity is encoded by fkbO in the FK506 and FK520 biosynthetic gene clusters, and by rapK in the rapamycin gene cluster of Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Purified recombinant FkbO (from FK520) efficiently catalyzed the chorismatase reaction in vitro, as judged by HPLC-MS and NMR analysis. Complementation using fkbO from either the FK506 or the FK520 gene cluster of a strain of S. hygroscopicus specifically deleted in rapK (BIOT-4010) restored rapamycin production, as did supplementation with (4R,5R)-4,5-dihydroxycyclohexa-1,5-dienecarboxylic acid. Although BIOT-4010 produced no rapamycin, it did produce low levels of BC325, a rapamycin analog containing a 3-hydroxybenzoate starter unit. This led us to identify the rapK homolog hyg5 as encoding a chorismatase/3-hydroxybenzoate synthase. Similar enzymes in other bacteria include the product of the bra8 gene from the pathway to the terpenoid natural product brasilicardin. Expression of either hyg5 or bra8 in BIOT-4010 led to increased levels of BC325. Also, purified Hyg5 catalyzed the predicted conversion of chorismate into 3-hydroxybenzoate. FkbO, RapK, Hyg5, and Bra8 are thus founder members of a previously unrecognized family of enzymes acting on chorismate.
Scott, Allison M; Quick, Brian L
Considerable research has investigated how psychological reactance affects individuals' responses to health promotion messages, but little is known about how family processes might moderate the reactance process. In this study, 301 participants were exposed to a persuasive message about organ donation. The moderating role of family communication patterns in the reactance process was tested using hierarchical regression. We found that family conversation orientation had a direct effect on willingness to talk with family members about being an organ donor and that family conformity orientation and family conversation orientation each interacted with reactance to predict willingness to communicate with family about donation. Theoretically, these results extend psychological reactance theory by considering how interpersonal factors affect the reactance process. Practically, the findings suggest that for optimal impact, family processes should be considered in the design of messages promoting organ donation.
Kalahasti, Geetha; Rodan, Aylin R.; Rothenfluh, Adrian
Responses to the effects of ethanol are highly conserved across organisms, with reduced responses to the sedating effects of ethanol being predictive of increased risk for human alcohol dependence. Previously, we described that regulators of actin dynamics, such as the Rho-family GTPases Rac1, Rho1, and Cdc42, alter Drosophila’s sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation. The GTPase activating protein RhoGAP18B also affects sensitivity to ethanol. To better understand how different RhoGAP18B isoforms affect ethanol sedation, we examined them for their effects on cell shape, GTP-loading of Rho-family GTPase, activation of the actin-severing cofilin, and actin filamentation. Our results suggest that the RhoGAP18B-PA isoform acts on Cdc42, while PC and PD act via Rac1 and Rho1 to activate cofilin. In vivo, a loss-of-function mutation in the cofilin-encoding gene twinstar leads to reduced ethanol-sensitivity and acts in concert with RhoGAP18B. Different RhoGAP18B isoforms, therefore, act on distinct subsets of Rho-family GTPases to modulate cofilin activity, actin dynamics, and ethanol-induced behaviors. PMID:26366560
Jesús Cava, María; Musitu, Gonzalo; Buelga, Sofia; Murgui, Sergio
This study analyzes the relationships of adolescents' perceptions of their family and classroom environments with peer relational victimization, taking into account that these relationships could be mediated by adolescents' self-esteem, feelings of loneliness, and sociometric status. These relationships, and their possible gender differences, were analyzed in a sample of 1319 Spanish adolescents (48% boys and 52% girls), ages 11 to 16 years (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5). A structural equation modeling was calculated for boys and girls separately. The findings suggested that the adolescents' self-esteem, loneliness, and sociometric status had a significant direct effect on peer relational victimization for boys, and adolescents' loneliness and sociometric status for girls. Their perceptions of family and classroom environments had a significant indirect effect on peer relational victimization for boys and girls, but the paths were different. Overall, findings suggested that a negative classroom environment had a more relevant effect in relational victimization for boys.
Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Ciardiello, Maria Antonietta; Osinski, Tomasz; Majorek, Karolina A; Giangrieco, Ivana; Font, Jose; Breiteneder, Heimo; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Minor, Wladek
The allergen Act d 11, also known as kirola, is a 17 kDa protein expressed in large amounts in ripe green and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit. Ten percent of all kiwifruit-allergic individuals produce IgE specific for the protein. Using X-ray crystallography, we determined the first three-dimensional structures of Act d 11, produced from both recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and from the natural source (kiwifruit). While Act d 11 is immunologically correlated with the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and other members of the pathogenesis-related protein family 10 (PR-10), it has low sequence similarity to PR-10 proteins. By sequence Act d 11 appears instead to belong to the major latex/ripening-related (MLP/RRP) family, but analysis of the crystal structures shows that Act d 11 has a fold very similar to that of Bet v 1 and other PR-10 related allergens regardless of the low sequence identity. The structures of both the natural and recombinant protein include an unidentified ligand, which is relatively small (about 250 Da by mass spectrometry experiments) and most likely contains an aromatic ring. The ligand-binding cavity in Act d 11 is also significantly smaller than those in PR-10 proteins. The binding of the ligand, which we were not able to unambiguously identify, results in conformational changes in the protein that may have physiological and immunological implications. Interestingly, the residue corresponding to Glu45 in Bet v 1 (Glu46), which is important for IgE binding to the birch pollen allergen, is conserved in Act d 11, even though it is not in other allergens with significantly higher sequence identity to Bet v 1. We suggest that the so-called Gly-rich loop (or P-loop), which is conserved in all PR-10 allergens, may be responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between Bet v 1 and Act d 11.
Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer
This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs.
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360
Demsky, Caitlin A; Ellis, Allison M; Fritz, Charlotte
The current study investigates workplace aggression and psychological detachment from work as possible antecedents of work-family conflict. We draw upon Conservation of Resources theory and the Effort-Recovery Model to argue that employees who fail to psychologically detach from stressful events in the workplace experience a relative lack of resources that is negatively associated with functioning in the nonwork domain. Further, we extend prior research on antecedents of work-family conflict by examining workplace aggression, a prevalent workplace stressor. Utilizing multisource data (i.e., employee, significant other, and coworker reports), our findings indicate that self-reported psychological detachment mediates the relationship between coworker-reported workplace aggression and both self- and significant other-reported work-family conflict. Findings from the current study speak to the value of combining perspectives from research on recovery from work stress and the work-family interface, and point toward implications for research and practice.
Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Hamby, Sherry; Leeb, Rebecca T; Mercy, James A; Holt, Melissa
Based on a nationally representative sample of 2,017 children age 2-9 years, this study examines variations in "safe, stable, and nurturing" relationships (SSNRs), including several forms of family perpetrated victimization, and documents associations between these factors and child trauma symptoms. Findings show that many children were exposed to multiple forms of victimization within the family (such as physical or sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, child neglect, sibling victimization, and witnessing family violence), as evidenced by substantial intercorrelations among the different forms of victimization. Moreover, victimization exposure was significantly associated with several indices of parental dysfunction, family adversity, residential instability, and problematic parenting practices. Of all SSNR variables considered, emotional abuse and inconsistent or hostile parenting emerged as having the most powerful independent effects on child trauma symptoms. Also, findings supported a cumulative risk model, whereby trauma symptom levels increased with each additional SSNR risk factor to which children were exposed. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Kutash, Krista; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; Ferron, John M.; Duchnowski, Albert J.; Walrath, Christine; Green, Amy L.
The purpose of the current study is to contribute to the knowledge base on the use of family education and support (FES) services by examining the longitudinal trajectories of FES receipt and multiple domains of child and family functioning. Using an extant data set of more than 9,000 youth and their caregivers, results indicate that families who…
Professional family child care providers' work with children from birth through age five can be exemplary, particularly with regard to building stable and substantive relational ties. Such long-term engagements with client children and their families offer potential for strong partnership with families and local contexts over time. This paper…
Wu, Ho-tang; Chou, Mei-ju; Chen, Wei-hung; Tu, Chin-Tang
This research aims to analyze the correlation between family support, love attitude, and well-being of junior high school students. After analyzing related literature, it is found that demographic variables like gender, grade, family structure, socioeconomic position have difference in perception of well-being. In addition, family support and love…
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…
Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Morrison, Doug; Goldstein, Ben A.; Hsia, Renee Y.
Study objective The 2010 provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) extended eligibility for health insurance for young adults aged 19 to 25 years. It is unclear, however, how expanded coverage changes health care behavior and promotes efficient use of emergency department (ED) services. Our objective was to use population-level emergency department data to characterize any changes in diagnoses seen in ED among young adults since the implementation of the ACA dependent coverage expansion. Methods We performed a difference-in-differences analysis of 2009 to 2011 ED visits from California, Florida, and New York, using all-capture administrative data to determine how the use of ED services changed for clinical categories after the ACA provision among young adults aged 19 to 25 years compared with slightly older adults unaffected by the provision, aged 26 to 31 years. Results We analyzed a total of 10,158,254 ED visits made by 4,734,409 patients. After the implementation of the 2010 ACA provision, young adults had a relative decrease of 0.5% ED visits per 1,000 people compared with the older group. For the majority of diagnostic categories, young adults’ rates and risk of visit did not change relative to that of slightly older adults after the implementation of the ACA. However, although young adults’ ED visits significantly increased for mental illnesses (2.6%) and diseases of the circulatory system (eg, nonspecific chest pain) (4.8%), visits decreased for pregnancy-related diagnoses and diseases of the skin (eg, cellulitis, abscess) compared with that of the older group (3.7% and 3.1%, respectively). Conclusion Our results indicate that increased coverage has kept young adults out of the ED for specific conditions that can be cared for through access to other channels. As EDs face capacity challenges, these results are encouraging and offer insight into what could be expected under further insurance expansions from health care reform. PMID
Wheeler, Lorey A; Killoren, Sarah E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50 % female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51 % female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a 2-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth.
Rivera, Fernando I; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Lin, Julia Y; Torres, Maria; Alegria, Margarita
This paper presents analyses of a representative sample of US Latinos (N=2540) to investigate whether family cohesion moderates the effects of cultural conflict on psychological distress. The results for the aggregated Latino group suggests a significant association between family cohesion and lower psychological distress and the combination of strong family cohesion with presence of family cultural conflict was associated with higher psychological distress. However, this association differed by Latino groups. We found no association for Puerto Ricans, Cuban results were similar to the aggregate group, family cultural conflict in Mexicans was associated with higher psychological distress, while family cohesion in Other Latinos was associated with higher psychological distress. Implications of these findings are discussed to unravel the differences in family dynamics across Latino subethnic groups.
Individual, dyadic, and triadic influences on the development of the family system were examined in the context of developmental risk. Participants were 145 couples and their 4-month-old first-born child in six groups: controls, three mother-risk groups (depressed, anxious, comorbid), and two infant-risk groups (preterm, intrauterine growth retardation). Dyadic and triadic interactions were observed. Differences in parent-infant reciprocity and intrusiveness were found, with mother-risk groups scoring less optimally than controls and infant-risk groups scoring the poorest. Similar results emerged for family-level cohesion and rigidity. Structural modeling indicated that father involvement had an influence on the individual level, by reducing maternal distress, as well as on the triadic level, by increasing family cohesion. Maternal emotional distress affected the reciprocity component of early dyadic and triadic relationships, whereas infant negative emotionality impacted on the intrusive element of parenting and family-level relationships. Discussion considered the multiple and pattern-specific influences on the family system as it is shaped by maternal and child risk conditions.
Bahremand, Mostafa; Rai, Alireza; Alikhani, Mostafa; Mohammadi, Samira; Shahebrahimi, Karoon; Janjani, Parisa
This study was aimed at describing the mediating role of resiliency in the relationship between family functioning and mental health in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This descriptive research was a correlational study. A total of 225 individuals were chosen by simple random sampling technique from type 2 diabetic patients presented to diabetes care centers in Kermanshah in 2014 in Iran. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and the Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were used to collect the required data. The collected data were analyzed using the Pearson’s correlation test and to study the mediating role of resiliency in family functioning and mental health interaction, the path analysis method was applied. The results showed that there is a relationship between family functioning, resilience and mental health. Resilience plays a mediating role between family functioning and mental health. Therefore, paying attention to resilience in patients may lead to improving mental health in diabetic patients. PMID:25948449
Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M
We examined relationships between alcohol-related neighborhood context, protective home and family management practices, and alcohol use among urban, racial/ethnic minority, adolescents. The sample comprised 5,655 youth who were primarily low SES (72%), African American (43%) and Hispanic (29%). Participants completed surveys in 2002-2005 (ages 11-14 years). Items assessed alcohol use, accessibility of alcohol at home and parental family management practices. Neighborhood context measures included: (1) alcohol outlet density; (2) commercial alcohol accessibility; (3) alcohol advertisement exposure; and (4) perceived neighborhood strength, reported by parents and community leaders. Structural equation modeling was used to assess direct and indirect relationships between alcohol-related neighborhood context at baseline, home alcohol access and family management practices in seventh grade, and alcohol use in eighth grade. Neighborhood strength was negatively associated with alcohol use (beta = -0.078, p < or = 0.05) and exposure to alcohol advertisements was positively associated with alcohol use (beta = 0.043, p < or = 0.05). Neighborhood strength and commercial alcohol access were associated with home alcohol access (beta = 0.050, p = 0.05 and beta = -0.150, p < or = 0.001, respectively) and family management practices (beta = -0.061, p < or = 0.01 and beta = 0.083, p < or = 0.001, respectively). Home alcohol access showed a positive association with alcohol use (beta = 0.401, p < or = 0.001). Tests for indirect effects suggest that home alcohol access may partially mediate the relationship between neighborhood strength and alcohol use (beta = 0.025, p < 0.062). Results suggest inner-city parents respond to environmental risk, such that as neighborhood risk increases, so also do protective home and family management practices. Parent engagement in restricting alcohol access and improving family management practices may be key to preventive efforts to reduce
Yun, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Ki-Nam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of family support for diabetic patients and the diet therapy practice of patients themselves, and to analyze the relationship between family support and diet therapy practice and blood glucose control, and thus to prepare basic data for the development of effective education programs to improve blood glucose control in diabetic patients. The study subjects were 82 patients with type II diabetes, aged over 20 in the Chungbuk area. The gender distribution of subjects was 52.4% males and 47.6% females, and BMI showed 29.3% overweight and 35.3% obesity. Among the 82 study subjects, the relationship between diet therapy related family support and blood glucose control was examined in 67 subjects who answered practicing diet therapy, and the results showed that the family support score of a group with excellent blood glucose control was significantly higher than those of groups with fair or poor control (p<0.001) and the correlation between the two factors was very high (r=0.341, p<0.001). For the relationship between diet therapy practice by patients themselves and blood glucose control, diet therapy practice of a group with excellent blood glucose control was significantly higher than those of other groups (fair or poor control groups) (p<0.001) and the correlation between two factors was very high (r=0.304, p<0.001). For other factors influencing blood glucose control, a group with diabetes education showed significantly better blood glucose control compared to other groups without education (p<0.05). From the above results, diet therapy practice by patients, family support, and the necessity of diabetes education were confirmed to control blood glucose of diabetic patients. In conclusion, development and operation of education program should include not only patients but also their family members.
Recognizes the importance of the caregiver/parent relationship and presents three steps for developing positive relationships with non-traditional families: (1) develop positive transitions; (2) know the issues; and (3) find resources to share with families. Provides advice and resource lists for general information, legal information, and…
Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.
This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…
Bachraz, Vijetta; Grace, Rebekah
This article reports findings from a study that explored the nature of sibling relationships when one child in the family has autism. It employs a collective case study approach to capture the perspectives of parents and young children (aged four to seven years) from three different families. A multifaceted exploration of sibling relationships was…
Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett
The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…
Weisrock, David W; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Macey, J Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H; Zhao, Ermi; Jowkar, Houman; Larson, Allan
We examine phylogenetic relationships among salamanders of the family Salamandridae using approximately 2700 bases of new mtDNA sequence data (the tRNALeu, ND1, tRNAIle, tRNAGln, tRNAMet, ND2, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, tRNATyr, and COI genes and the origin for light-strand replication) collected from 96 individuals representing 61 of the 66 recognized salamandrid species and outgroups. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis are performed on the new data alone and combined with previously reported sequences from other parts of the mitochondrial genome. The basal phylogenetic split is a polytomy of lineages ancestral to (1) the Italian newt Salamandrina terdigitata, (2) a strongly supported clade comprising the "true" salamanders (genera Chioglossa, Mertensiella, Lyciasalamandra, and Salamandra), and (3) a strongly supported clade comprising all newts except S. terdigitata. Strongly supported clades within the true salamanders include monophyly of each genus and grouping Chioglossa and Mertensiella as the sister taxon to a clade comprising Lyciasalamandra and Salamandra. Among newts, genera Echinotriton, Pleurodeles, and Tylototriton form a strongly supported clade whose sister taxon comprises the genera Calotriton, Cynops, Euproctus, Neurergus, Notophthalmus, Pachytriton, Paramesotriton, Taricha, and Triturus. Our results strongly support monophyly of all polytypic newt genera except Paramesotriton and Triturus, which appear paraphyletic, and Calotriton, for which only one of the two species is sampled. Other well-supported clades within newts include (1) Asian genera Cynops, Pachytriton, and Paramesotriton, (2) North American genera Notophthalmus and Taricha, (3) the Triturus vulgaris species group, and (4) the Triturus cristatus species group; some additional groupings appear strong in Bayesian but not parsimony analyses. Rates of lineage accumulation through time are evaluated using this nearly comprehensive sampling of
... or her ineligible for Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments; (3) The alien, upon whose...) A qualifying relationship to the alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity...
... or her ineligible for Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments; (3) The alien, upon whose...) A qualifying relationship to the alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity...
... or her ineligible for Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments; (3) The alien, upon whose...) A qualifying relationship to the alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity...
Parents have a critical role in adolescent health. The association of adolescents' perceptions of family relationships with adolescent health was investigated using a sample of 67 female adolescents who participated in eight focus group discussions, utilising a purposeful sampling method. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and content analysis was performed. Three themes were identified, namely emotional support, responsible parents and well-informed parents. With regard to some of the challenges in Iranian adolescents' relationships with their parents, it is necessary to educate parents to be alert to their role in adolescent health. PMID:24294300
Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.
The present study examines the associations between family environment, parenting practices and executive functions in normally developing children. One hundred parents of children between the ages of 5 and 12 completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions from the Family Environment Scale and the Parent-Child Relationship…
Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick
The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…
Lee, Pai-Lin; Hamman, Douglas; Lee, Chaolin Charles
Family is a key factor to one's development. Family closeness is thus fundamental to the development of happy and competent children and adults. Self-regulated learners usually exhibit greater academic performance. Students who adjust well to school settings build confidence toward learning and exhibit appropriate school behavior. This paper…
The purpose of this study is to examine a preschool program with a high level of quality family involvement. Since family involvement during the early years has been linked to achievement and success in school, it is important to examine how such partnerships can be fostered in a meaningful way. The study employs an inductive qualitative approach,…
Lazar, Amnon; Guttmann, Joseph
The relation of adolescents' experiencing parental divorce, their perception of parents' characteristics, and their perception of the ideal mate's characteristics was investigated. One hundred adolescents from intact families and 79 from nonintact families were asked to rank both the degree to which each of 40 personality traits characterized…
Bromer, Juliet; Bibbs, Tonya
Family child care (FCC) providers often experience isolation from other early childhood and child care professionals. Yet, research suggests that providers who network with other providers, engage with community resources, and belong to support groups tend to offer higher quality child care. For example, the Family Child Care Network Impact Study…
Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie
Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…
DeCaporale, Lauren; Mensie, Lauren; Steffen, Ann
Family caregivers of physically and cognitively impaired older adults face multiple challenges when providing care, including responses to tangible and anticipated losses. However, little is known about the grief experiences of family caregivers and how these might differentially influence the care-related behaviors of spouses and adult children.…
Pressman, Leah J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Carpenter, Erika M.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Lynn, Deborah; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Yang, May H.; Smalley, Susan L.
Objective: Family environmental factors as well as parental attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) status have shown associations with variability in ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to examine the links among family environment, parental psychiatric diagnosis, and child impairment within a sample of ADHD-affected sibling pairs…
Cai, Xiao-Hui; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Wooley, John; Godzik, Adam
The protein universe can be organized in families that group proteins sharing common ancestry. Such families display variable levels of structural and functional divergence, from homogenous families, where all members have the same function and very similar structure, to very divergent families, where large variations in function and structure are observed. For practical purposes of structure and function prediction, it would be beneficial to identify sub-groups of proteins with highly similar structures (iso-structural) and/or functions (iso-functional) within divergent protein families. We compared three algorithms in their ability to cluster large protein families and discuss whether any of these methods could reliably identify such iso-structural or iso-functional groups. We show that clustering using profile-sequence and profile-profile comparison methods closely reproduces clusters based on similarities between 3D structures or clusters of proteins with similar biological functions. In contrast, the still commonly used sequence-based methods with fixed thresholds result in vast overestimates of structural and functional diversity in protein families. As a result, these methods also overestimate the number of protein structures that have to be determined to fully characterize structural space of such families. The fact that one can build reliable models based on apparently distantly related templates is crucial for extracting maximal amount of information from new sequencing projects.
Rivera, Fernando I.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Lin, Julia Y.; Torres, Maria; Alegria, Margarita
This article presents analyses of a representative sample of U.S. Latinos (N = 2,540) to investigate whether family cohesion moderates the effects of cultural conflict on psychological distress. The results for the aggregated Latino group suggest a significant association between family cohesion and lower psychological distress, and the…
Robinson, Bryan E.; And Others
Studied gay men and women (N=322) concerning parent-child relationships. Found two-thirds perceived their relationship with their father as satisfactory. Over three-fourths perceived their relationship with their mother as satisfactory. The majority perceived that both parents would accept their homosexuality. Data also supported the belief that…
An estimated 50 to 60% of children from typical families develop secure attachment relationships with their parents (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978; Van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg, 1988); however, intervention research has focused primarily on interventions for high-risk clinical samples (Berlin, Zeanah, & Lieberman, 2008). In this project, the influence of a popular community-based parent-child program was assessed in a non-clinical sample of families. Families participating in a 10-week Parent-Child Mother Goose Program (n.d.) and families on the waitlist for the program were asked to complete questionnaires to assess parenting efficacy and satisfaction as well as parents' perception of their own and their child's attachment styles at the beginning of the program, the end of the program, and six months later. Mothers in the program group reported significantly more positive change in their reports of parenting efficacy over time and also reported significantly more change in their children's attachment category. Specifically, children in the program group were significantly more likely to be classified as secure over time (55% at T1 to 81% at T3) as compared to the waitlist participants (45% at T1 to 62% at T2). In this popular 10-week, community-based program, parents learned skills that continued to influence their relationship with their children six months after the conclusion of the program.
... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum...
... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum...
... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum...
Finkenwirth, Christa; Burkart, Judith M
Cooperatively breeding, group-living common marmosets show differentiated relationships, where more strongly bonded dyads within a group engage more in affiliative interactions than less strongly bonded ones. Intriguingly, recent results suggest that strong bonds do not only occur between breeding partners but between individuals from any sex or status, and that strong-bond partners exhibit correlated oxytocin fluctuations (dyadic oxytocin synchrony, OTS) over a period of six weeks. To date, it is unclear whether such relationships are stable over time and whether they are also reflected in higher partner-specific proactive prosociality. To assess the long-term stability of the relationship structure of common marmoset family groups, we investigated whether hormonal and behavioral markers of group structure (dyadic OTS, dyadic affiliation, and individual group integration) in common marmoset families remained stable over a period of six months. We collected baseline urinary OT and social behavior of 36 dyads from three family groups in a non-reproductive period (period A), and again six months later, around the birth of new infants (period B). Patterns of dyadic OTS, dyadic affiliation, and individual group integration were consistent between the two study periods. Oxytocin data from a fourth group (10 dyads), collected in two non-reproductive periods separated by a period of more than five years, could replicate this finding. Furthermore, OTS was also correlated with proactive prosociality that was assessed experimentally for 38 dyads during an earlier study. These results suggest that differentiated relationships are stable over time, even between group members other than the breeding pair, and that more strongly bonded partners also show higher levels of proactive prosociality. Future studies are necessary to identify whether these relationships have an adaptive function, perhaps with regard to positive consequences on cooperativeness.
Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J
Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.
Lee, Cheol-Soon; Lee, Dongyun; Seo, Ji-Young; Ahn, In-Young; Bhang, Soo-Young
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of school violence on depressive symptoms among the offspring of multicultural families in South Korea. Data from the National Survey of Multicultural Families 2012, conducted by the Korean Women's Development Institute and Statistics Korea, were used in this study. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of school violence on depressive mood. The survey participants were 3999 students between the ages of 9 and 24. Of the participants, 22.1% reported experiencing depressive symptoms and 9.1% reported experiencing school violence within the last year. School violence was a strong risk factor (OR=5.142, 95% CI=4.067-6.500) for depressive symptoms after adjusting for personal, familial and school factors. School violence is a serious contributor to depressive mood among the offspring of multicultural families. There is a significant need to monitor school violence among this vulnerable group.
Lee, Cheol-Soon; Lee, Dongyun; Seo, Ji-Young; Ahn, In-Young
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of school violence on depressive symptoms among the offspring of multicultural families in South Korea. Data from the National Survey of Multicultural Families 2012, conducted by the Korean Women's Development Institute and Statistics Korea, were used in this study. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of school violence on depressive mood. The survey participants were 3999 students between the ages of 9 and 24. Of the participants, 22.1% reported experiencing depressive symptoms and 9.1% reported experiencing school violence within the last year. School violence was a strong risk factor (OR=5.142, 95% CI=4.067–6.500) for depressive symptoms after adjusting for personal, familial and school factors. School violence is a serious contributor to depressive mood among the offspring of multicultural families. There is a significant need to monitor school violence among this vulnerable group. PMID:28326121
Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Wheeler, Lorey A.
Drawing on ecological and gender socialization perspectives, this study examined mothers’ and fathers’ relationships with young adolescents, exploring differences between mothers and fathers, for sons versus daughters, and as a function of parents’ division of paid labor. Mexican immigrant families (N = 162) participated in home interviews and seven nightly phone calls. Findings revealed that mothers reported higher levels of acceptance toward adolescents and greater knowledge of adolescents’ daily activities than did fathers, and mothers spent more time with daughters than with sons. Linkages between parent-adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment were moderated by adolescent gender and parents’ division of paid labor. Findings revealed, for example, stronger associations between parent–adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment for girls than for boys. PMID:19779582