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Sample records for act family relationships

  1. Parental relationships in fragile families.

    PubMed

    McLanahan, Sara; Beck, Audrey N

    2010-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing escalated in the United States over the past half century, fragile families--defined as unmarried couples with children--drew increased interest from researchers and policy makers. Sara McLanahan and Audrey Beck discuss four aspects of parental relationships in these families: the quality of parents' intimate relationship, the stability of that relationship, the quality of the co-parenting relationship among parents who live apart, and nonresident fathers' involvement with their child. At the time of their child's birth, half of the parents in fragile families are living together and another third are living apart but romantically involved. Despite high hopes at birth, five years later only a third of parents are still together, and new partners and new children are common, leading to high levels of instability and complexity in these families. Drawing on findings from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, McLanahan and Beck highlight a number of predictors of low relationship quality and stability in these families, including low economic resources, government policies that discourage marriage, gender distrust and acceptance of single motherhood, sex ratios that favor men, children from previous unions, and psychological factors that make it difficult for parents to maintain healthy relationships. No single factor appears to have a dominant effect. The authors next discuss two types of experiments that attempt to establish causal effects on parental relationships: those aimed at altering economic resources and those aimed at improving relationships. What can be done to strengthen parental relationships in fragile families? The authors note that although economic resources are a consistent predictor of stable relationships, researchers and policy makers lack good causal information on whether increasing fathers' employment and earnings will increase relationship quality and union stability. They also note that analysts need to

  2. Parental relationships in fragile families.

    PubMed

    McLanahan, Sara; Beck, Audrey N

    2010-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing escalated in the United States over the past half century, fragile families--defined as unmarried couples with children--drew increased interest from researchers and policy makers. Sara McLanahan and Audrey Beck discuss four aspects of parental relationships in these families: the quality of parents' intimate relationship, the stability of that relationship, the quality of the co-parenting relationship among parents who live apart, and nonresident fathers' involvement with their child. At the time of their child's birth, half of the parents in fragile families are living together and another third are living apart but romantically involved. Despite high hopes at birth, five years later only a third of parents are still together, and new partners and new children are common, leading to high levels of instability and complexity in these families. Drawing on findings from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, McLanahan and Beck highlight a number of predictors of low relationship quality and stability in these families, including low economic resources, government policies that discourage marriage, gender distrust and acceptance of single motherhood, sex ratios that favor men, children from previous unions, and psychological factors that make it difficult for parents to maintain healthy relationships. No single factor appears to have a dominant effect. The authors next discuss two types of experiments that attempt to establish causal effects on parental relationships: those aimed at altering economic resources and those aimed at improving relationships. What can be done to strengthen parental relationships in fragile families? The authors note that although economic resources are a consistent predictor of stable relationships, researchers and policy makers lack good causal information on whether increasing fathers' employment and earnings will increase relationship quality and union stability. They also note that analysts need to

  3. Parental Relationships in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLanahan, Sara; Beck, Audrey N.

    2010-01-01

    As nonmarital childbearing escalated in the United States over the past half century, fragile families--defined as unmarried couples with children--drew increased interest from researchers and policy makers. Sara McLanahan and Audrey Beck discuss four aspects of parental relationships in these families: the quality of parents' intimate…

  4. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15, 2012, the... Hour Division 29 CFR Part 825 RIN 1215-AB76 and RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY... for Comment The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) proposes revisions to the Family and......

  5. Relationships with Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the professional issues of relationships within child and youth care practice. The concept of "relationship-based practice" is examined from conceptual, linguistic and power-based perspectives. It is argued that the power base of relationships amongst practitioners manifests itself along five specific contexts: institutional…

  6. Acculturation gaps in Vietnamese immigrant families: Impact on family relationships

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Joyce; Birman, Dina

    2009-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in the United States face acculturation challenges involving the individual, family, and community. Experts suggest that immigrant family members acculturate at different rates resulting in an acculturation gap, which negatively influences family adjustment. In this study we examined the degree and patterns of acculturation differences between 104 first generation immigrant Vietnamese adolescents and their parents, and whether acculturation gap affected family relationships. Operationalizing the “gap” as both absolute value of differences in acculturation and interactions of parent and adolescent acculturation levels, we examined the impact of such gaps in Vietnamese and American language, identity, and behavioral acculturation on family relationships. Results revealed that family cohesion and satisfaction were predicted by gaps in Vietnamese identity acculturation, but not by gaps in other acculturation domains. PMID:20161537

  7. Disclosure and Relationship Satisfaction in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkenauer, Catrin; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim

    2004-01-01

    The present study developed a theoretical framework for understanding the social mechanisms underlying disclosure and its link with relationship satisfaction in a full family design. A study among 262 intact families, consisting of 2 children and 2 adults and involving 1,048 individuals, applied the social relations model. Results showed that…

  8. Family Relationships and Adolescent Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Catherine J.

    Previous research relating the quality of the relationship with the mother, father, and sibling to adolescent self-concept only investigated social and general self-concept and not various social and cognitive dimensions of self-concept. This study investigated family relationships and their link to the several domains of self-concept.…

  9. The brief family relationship scale: a brief measure of the relationship dimension in family functioning.

    PubMed

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David

    2014-02-01

    The Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale, which consists of the Cohesion, Expressiveness, and Conflict subscales, measures a person's perception of the quality of his or her family relationship functioning. This study investigates an adaptation of the Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale for Alaska Native youth. The authors tested the adapted measure, the Brief Family Relationship Scale, for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 12- to 18-year-old predominately Yup'ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents from rural, remote communities. This non-Western cultural group is hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism traditionally organized around an extended kinship family structure. Results demonstrate a subset of the adapted items function satisfactorily, a three-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale's underlying structure is best described through three distinct first-order factors, organized under one higher order factor. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Brief Family Relationship Scale was assessed through correlational analysis.

  10. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  11. Social Movements as Policy Entrepreneurs: The Family Protection Act and Family Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Janet K.

    Both the Family Impact Analysis and the Family Protection Act are perceived by governmental decision makers as pseudo-agenda items; thus, neither issue is being actively or seriously considered. The Family Impact Analysis and the concept of a Family Impact Statement (inspired but not modeled after the environmental impact statement) received an…

  12. An Update on the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Updates the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in light of two Supreme Court decisions in 2002: "Owasso Independent School District v. Falvo" and "Gonzaga University v. Doe." Suggests implications for school board policies on student records. (PKP)

  13. Learning to live with the Family and Medical Leave Act.

    PubMed

    White, J D

    1994-03-01

    Many issues surround the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. Employer concerns focus on eligibility, lost work hours, and the conditions of granting leave. Employees would like to know what their new rights are, how the Act affects their benefits, and what documentation they must present to demonstrate a need for leave. Both agency administrators and home care workers will find clarification here.

  14. Helping Relationships in Families: The Moderators Between Stress and Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ronald J.; Weir, Tamara

    Members of nuclear families look to one another for support in times of stress. Relationships between spouses and between parents and children contain the conditions required for effective counselling and helping. This paper presents the results of two tests of the hypothesis that such helping relationships in families act as moderators between…

  15. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false......

  16. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false......

  17. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false......

  18. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false......

  19. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false......

  20. Relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase extended family.

    PubMed

    Perozich, J; Nicholas, H; Wang, B C; Lindahl, R; Hempel, J

    1999-01-01

    One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project.

  1. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  2. Improvisational Acting Exercises and Their Potential Use in Family Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, James R.; Ruby, Nanci Carol

    2009-01-01

    Expressive therapy interventions are a useful resource for counselors working with a wide range of presenting issues. This article illustrates a series of improvisational acting exercises that can be used within a family counseling context. Clear directions for specific exercises are provided, along with illustrative case examples.

  3. How Does the Family Rights and Privacy Act Affect You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2007-01-01

    Enacted in 1974 to oversee the privacy, discharge, and accuracy of educational records, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) has significant implications for teachers and administrators, who should stay informed regarding its current policies and practices, and when in doubt seek legal advice regarding the privacy and disclosure…

  4. An Update on the Family Medical Leave Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Massucci, Joseph D.

    1998-01-01

    There has been little litigation since the Family Medical Leave Act's inception in 1993. This article highlights FMLA's scope of coverage, leave requirements, notice and verification, special rules for employees and local education agencies, employment and leave entitlements, and enforcement. Employers violating the FMLA may have to reinstate and…

  5. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... FR 67934. A. What the FMLA Provides The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq... FR 13394. The Department received comments from a wide variety of stakeholders, and after considering... FR 31794. After publication, the Department invited further public comment on the interim...

  6. A Guide to the Family & Medical Leave Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, John D.; Strom, David J.; Sloan, Monica; McElroy, Liz

    This document provides a summary description of the most important provisions of the Family and Medical Leave Act that affect members of the American Federation of Teachers. Twenty-eight chapters examine the details of employer and employee obligations: (1) "General Overview"; (2) "FMLA Checklist"; (3) "Key Definitions"; (4) "How To Apply for FMLA…

  7. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses. PMID:27066615

  8. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses.

  9. Children's Influence on Family Dynamics: The Neglected Side of Family Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Booth, Alan

    The central premise of this volume is that children bring personal qualities to their relationships with other family members that help shape family interaction, relationships, and even processes that family researchers have called "parenting." The chapters address how children's personal qualities make their mark on families in ways that may in…

  10. Exploring the Evolutionary Relationship of Insulin Receptor Substrate Family Using Computational Biology

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Hsu, Minna J.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) harbors proteins such as IRS1, IRS2, IRS3, IRS4, IRS5 and IRS6. These key proteins act as vital downstream regulators in the insulin signaling pathway. However, little is known about the evolutionary relationship among the IRS family members. This study explores the potential to depict the evolutionary relationship among the IRS family using bioinformatics, algorithm analysis and mathematical models. PMID:21364910

  11. Does the federal Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 create a hole in ERISA preemption?

    PubMed

    Mueller, K A

    1996-01-01

    ERISA's board preemption provision has survived many challenges to its scope and effect. Now it may have succumbed in the face of a few statements tucked into the legislative history of the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Language in the legislative history presents the view that the Act was meant to overturn ERISA preemption of state family and medical leave laws. The text of the FMLA contains no corroborating language to support that view. However, at least one court found the statements in the legislative history to be persuasive and ruled that under the FMLA, ERISA does not preempt state family and medical leave laws that regulate ERISA plans. If other courts follow that decision, there will be great implications to employee benefit plan regulation and administration. This article explores the court's decision and the relationship between the FMLA and ERISA preemption.

  12. Family of Origin Influences on Late Adolescent Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Mark J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Single, never-married late adolescents (n=977) completed measures regarding trait anxiety, family dynamics in family of origin, and communication patterns in romantic relationships. Found that dynamics of fusion and control were associated with higher anxiety and were related to communication in romantic relationships. Triangulation in family of…

  13. Family Relationships and Perfectionism in Middle-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPrima, Amy J.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gnilka, Philip B.; Noble, Christina L.

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that perfectionism develops in the context of a person's family of origin. However, there are few empirical studies that address the relationship between family variables and perfectionism. This study examined the relationship between family variables and multidimensional perfectionism among a sample of 253…

  14. Schools and Non-Nuclear Families: Recasting Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Catherine A.

    The soundness of the home-school relationship depends on mutual trust and understanding. This relationship is now at risk because schools have not adjusted to single-parent and step-families. Concern about the home-school relationship has increased over the last decade. However, accompanying the recent rise in non-nuclear families is a gap in…

  15. Family Relational Values in the Parent-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar-Smith, Susan E.; Wozniak, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    This study measured the relational family values system of upper-middle-class mothers, fathers, and adolescents in the United States. Results revealed that participants shared common family values that mainly reflected the importance of individualism, equality in family relationships, family member interdependence, and parental guidance. Parent…

  16. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  17. The Intergenerational Family Relationships of Grandparents and GLBQ Grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Kristin S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intergenerational family relationships of grandparents and GLBQ grandchildren. Reviewing empirical research on GLBQ family of origin relationships that include materials on grandparent-GLBQ grandchild relationships, this paper examines, 1) disclosure patterns with grandparents, 2) social expectations that exist about “coming out” to grandparents, 3) social expectations of GLBQ grandchildren when “coming out” to grandparents, 4) the mediating role of parents and other extended family in grandparent-GLBQ grandchild relationships, and 5) theorizing differences amongst grandparent-GLBQ grandchild relationships. This review indicates that grandparents have been overlooked in existing empirical research in research on GLBQ family relationships. Grandparents may be a unique source of support for younger GLBQ individuals and their parents. Future research may usefully incorporate grandparents, as well as other extended family members, to better understand the experience of “coming out” in families. PMID:20865130

  18. The Role of Judaism in Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Aliza Y.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the religious and social underpinnings of family as a central social structure to Jewish life. Torah and Talmudic sources, conceptual papers, and empirical research that address the relevance of family to Judaism are examined. Suggestions for working with Jewish families in a therapeutic setting are provided.

  19. Adolescent Pubertal Status and Affective Family Relationships: A Multivariate Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; Sebby, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-one families responded to questionnaires on affective relations between parents and their adolescent children. On the basis of the pubertal status of their children, families were classified into prepubertal, transpubertal, or postpubertal groups. Results showed that differences in family relationships were due to the transformation of…

  20. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    PubMed

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.

  1. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    PubMed

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family. PMID:25535047

  2. Intimacy and family relationships of women with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, A Ann

    2003-09-01

    This study explored family relationships and intimacy of women experiencing chronic pain from the perspective of the women and their family members. A narrative ethnographic qualitative research design was used. Narrative and field data were analyzed using the coding procedure outlined by Strauss aided by the QSR NUD*IST 4 qualitative computer software program. Twenty-five women self-identified as experiencing chronic pain, and 13 family members including 7 husbands, 1 father, 1 stepmother, and 4 children living in the home were interviewed. Three patterns of behavior emerged regarding family relationships: cycle of close involvement compensated with isolation, focus directed toward others, and loss of physical sexual intimacy. Findings of this study indicate that family members' perception is that chronic pain affects important basic relationships and both emotional and physical intimacy. A need exists to relieve some of the suffering that accompanies pain in these women and their families. Based on the study's findings, several treatment strategies are recommended.

  3. The Challenge of Family Relationships in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This second chapter in "The Challenge of Counseling in Middle Schools" presents four articles that deal with family relationships in early adolescence. "Teen-Parent Relationship Enrichment Through Choice Awareness," by Richard Nelson and Marsha Link, describes a process through which counselors may help to enrich relationships between teenagers…

  4. A Strategy for School Family Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrado, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The key to successful family-school linkages is the RFV Quotient: risk, flak, and vulnerability. Educators need to be willing to open up communications and to deal with the conflicts that this will bring. (SJL)

  5. Predictors of Between-Family and Within-Family Variation in Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Dunn, Judy; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Rasbash, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found that multiple factors are associated with parent-child relationship quality, but have not distinguished potential sources of between-family and within-family variation in parent-child relationship quality. Methods: Approximately equal numbers of biological (non-stepfamilies), single-mother, stepfather, and…

  6. Grandparent-Grandchild Relationships: From Families in Contexts to Families as Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Adam; Savla, Jyoti; Janke, Megan; Anderson, Shayne

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between grandparents and grandchildren provide an excellent framework for integrating family theory and family methodology. Systematic differences as a function of age, gender, life expectancy, and health as played out through generations suggest some topics are best studied by disentangling variability between and within families.…

  7. The family and work connect: A case for relationship-focused family life education

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Jane; Parthasarathy, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the premises for the need to develop a relationship-focused family life education program for young adult employees. The article explores the changing trends in the Indian family unit and their impact on the workforce. The author also presents the findings from interviews with family-intervention experts and their recommendations for the contents of such a program. PMID:20808662

  8. Family Relationships From Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Changes in the Family System Following Firstborns’ Leaving Home

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns’ departure from their parents’ home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born children from 184, White, working and middle class families. Multilevel models revealed declines in parent-child conflict, acceptance, and sibling negativity, and increases or U-shaped patterns in sibling and parent-child intimacy over time. Birth order X leaving home interactions revealed that firstborns’ leaving home related to changes in family relationship qualities for both first- and second-borns, with relationships improving for firstborns and no changes or declines in relationship quality for second-borns. Overall, the results highlight the inter-relatedness of family subsystems. PMID:21765625

  9. Relationships between nurses and family caregivers: partners in care?

    PubMed

    Ward-Griffin, C; McKeever, P

    2000-03-01

    Increasing reliance on family care of elderly people at home calls for a critical analysis of the relationship between formal and informal caregivers. Although much has been written about how health professionals and family caregivers should relate to one another, we know very little about the relationships that develop between them. Using data from a qualitative study, this article illustrates that relationships between community nurses and family members caring for frail elders are complex, dynamic, and multifaceted. Shifting boundaries in caring work leads to changes in nurse-family caregiver relationships, which can be categorized as four distinct, yet interconnected, types: (1) nurse-helper, (2) worker-worker, (3) manager-worker, and (4) nurse-patient. Each type is described, and implications for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  10. Stress and Support in Family Relationships after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Megan; Reczek, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors merge the study of support, strain, and ambivalence in family relationships with the study of stress to explore the ways family members provide support or contribute to strain in the disaster recovery process. The authors analyze interviews with 71 displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors, and identify three family…

  11. The Relationship between Mastery and Depression among Japanese Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiner, Andrea S.; Morimoto, Tomoko

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between caregiver mastery and depressive symptoms among family stroke caregivers in western Japan (N = 100). Family caregivers were identified from a sample of rehabilitation hospitals; participation rate was 100 percent for all eligible caregivers. Care-givers with high mastery were found to have…

  12. When Grandparents Have Dementia: Effects on Their Grandchildren's Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celdran, Montserrat; Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify changes in adolescents' lives and in the relationships within the family when a family member has a dementia. Grandchildren living in Barcelona, Spain, participated in the study (N = 145). The data, based on both quantitative and qualitative information, showed that if the grandparent moved into the grandchildren's…

  13. Mature Women and Higher Education: Reconstructing Identity and Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…

  14. The impact of war on Puerto Rican families: challenges and strengthened family relationships.

    PubMed

    Magaly Freytes, I; Hannold, Elizabeth M; Resende, Rosana; Wing, Kristen; Uphold, Constance R

    2013-08-01

    We describe the impact of war on Puerto Rican Veterans and family members. We used qualitative research methods to collect and analyze data. We interviewed 8 Veterans and 8 family members. We used the constant comparison method to review data to identify prominent themes. Two categories emerged: (1) Challenges associated with post-deployment family reintegration, and (2) A positive aftermath of war on the family. Overall, findings indicate that OEF/OIF Veterans and family members were not prepared for the changes they encounter post-deployment. Despite these challenges, some Veterans and family members strengthened their relationships and renewed their appreciation for one another.

  15. Family Relationships from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Changes in the Family System following Firstborns' Leaving Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    This study charted the course of parent-child and sibling relationships from early adolescence to early adulthood and examined how these relationships changed following firstborns' departure from their parents' home for the first time. Data were drawn from a 10-year longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants included mothers,…

  16. Exploring Familial Relationship Growth and Negotiation: A Case Study of Outward Bound Family Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overholt, Jillisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of father-child relationship development within the context of an Outward Bound (OB) family course, an environment that may both disrupt the ordinary aspects of an established relationship, and provide activities to purposefully encourage relationship development through a variety of aspects inherent to the…

  17. The Americans with Disabilities Act and Family and Medical Leave Act: Legal Requirements, Negotiations and Policy Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juengart, Laurie S.

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) are two major pieces of social legislation that impact private and public employers, including school districts. Public school employers must have thorough awareness of the legal requirements of both laws and must analyze the ways in which those requirements…

  18. Intergenerational Relationships and Union Stability in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hognas, Robin S.; Carlson, Marcia J.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,656), we examined the association between intergenerational relationships and parents' union stability 5 years after a baby's birth. Results showed that more amiable relationships between parents and each partner's parents, and children's spending more time with paternal…

  19. Adult family relationships in the context of friendship

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the complex way in which relationships with family and friends shape health and well-being in adulthood over time. Specifically, we explored whether the longitudinal effects of positive and negative family relationship quality on health and well-being differ in the context of varying levels of positive friend relationships. Data were from two waves (1992/1993 and 2005) of the Social Relations, Aging and Health Study. The sample included respondents aged 18 and older at Wave 1 who reported having a best friend at both waves (N = 455), and consisted of 291 (64%) women and 164 (36%) men. Wave 1 friend positivity and family positivity interacted to predict self-rated health but not self-esteem, indicating that among respondents with a less positive friend relationship, more positive family relationships were related to worse health at Wave 2. Wave 1 friend positivity and family negativity significantly interacted to predict self-rated health and self-esteem at Wave 2. The nature of the interactions were consistent in that among respondents with a more highly positive friend relationship, less negative family relationships were linked to better health and self-esteem at Wave 2. Findings provide insight into the complex way in which social relations impact positive outcomes in adulthood. Previous studies have documented the consistent and straightforward manner in which negative relationships impact health and well-being, whereas this study illustrates that the role of positive social relations is more variable and dependent on multiple relationship contexts. PMID:24273462

  20. Adult family relationships in the context of friendship.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Webster, Noah; Antonucci, Toni C

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the complex way in which relationships with family and friends shape health and well-being in adulthood over time. Specifically, we explored whether the longitudinal effects of positive and negative family relationship quality on health and well-being differ in the context of varying levels of positive friend relationships. Data were from two waves (1992/1993 and 2005) of the Social Relations, Aging and Health Study. The sample included respondents aged 18 and older at Wave 1 who reported having a best friend at both waves (N = 455), and consisted of 291 (64%) women and 164 (36%) men. Wave 1 friend positivity and family positivity interacted to predict self-rated health but not self-esteem, indicating that among respondents with a less positive friend relationship, more positive family relationships were related to worse health at Wave 2. Wave 1 friend positivity and family negativity significantly interacted to predict self-rated health and self-esteem at Wave 2. The nature of the interactions were consistent in that among respondents with a more highly positive friend relationship, less negative family relationships were linked to better health and self-esteem at Wave 2. Findings provide insight into the complex way in which social relations impact positive outcomes in adulthood. Previous studies have documented the consistent and straightforward manner in which negative relationships impact health and well-being, whereas this study illustrates that the role of positive social relations is more variable and dependent on multiple relationship contexts.

  1. Gene - Environment Interplay, Family Relationships, and Child Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Briana N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews behavioral genetic research from the past decade that has moved beyond simply studying the independent influences of genes and environments. The studies considered in this review have instead focused on understanding gene - environment interplay, including genotype - environment correlation ( rGE) and genotype × environment interaction (G × E). Studies have suggested that rGE is an important pathway through which family relationships are associated with child adjustment. Also important are direct causal influences of family relationships on child adjustment, independent of genetic confounds. Other studies have indicated that genetic and environmental influences on child adjustment are moderated by different levels of family relationships in G × E interactions. Genetically informed studies that have examined family relations have been critical to advancing our understanding of gene - environment interplay.

  2. Family relationships and the psychosocial adjustment of school-aged children in intact families.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Esther M; Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M A

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The findings confirm associations between the marital and the parent-child relationship, and between the parent-child and the sibling relationship, Further, both father-child relationships and sibling relationships predict children's adjustment. Father-child conflicts contribute to children's problem behavior, while father-child acceptance and sibling affection contribute significantly to children's general self-esteem. However, contrary to previous studies no support was found for the association between marital relationship and sibling relationship, or for that between marital relationship quality and children's adjustment.

  3. The Relationship between Family Variables and Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Rhonda E.; Kampfe, Charlene M.

    1994-01-01

    Literature review on relationship between adolescent chemical dependency and family factors yielded two broad categories: family drug usage patterns and family atmosphere. Found strong relationship between adolescent substance abuse and family drug usage, family composition, family interaction patterns, and discrepancies in family perceptions.…

  4. "Family Comes First!" Relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim

    2014-12-01

    We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by means of a qualitative approach. Participants were 39 emerging adults (51% males), who were interviewed individually or within a focus group. In Study II, we sought to examine how family and friend importance to identity were related to life satisfaction through a quantitative approach. Participants were 474 (47.3% males) emerging adults who filled a self-report questionnaire. Overall, findings indicated solid family ties and a strong impact of family importance to identity for life satisfaction. Results were independent of gender and occupational status (university students vs. workers). Thus, findings highlighted that in the Italian context young people's transition to adulthood is strongly intertwined with family relationships.

  5. Examining the Relationships Between Family Meal Practices, Family Stressors, and the Weight of Youth in the Family

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Mary O.; Fulkerson, Jayne; Murray, David M.; Martinson, Brian; Klein, Elizabeth; Pasch, Keryn; Samuelson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Research is limited on how the social environment of the home is related to childhood obesity. Purpose The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between positive family meal practices, family stressors, and the weight of youth and to examine parental weight status as a moderator of these relationships. Methods The study enrolled 368 parent/child dyads from a Minnesota sample. We used mediation analysis to examine the associations Results Families represented by an overweight parent reported fewer positive family meal practices (p<0.001), higher levels of depression (p=0.01), and fewer family rules (p=0.02) as compared to families represented by a healthy weight parent. For overweight parents, positive family meal practices mediated the relationship between some family stressors and child weight. Conclusions This research suggests that the home environment may affect the weight of children in the family, and the effect is more pronounced in families with at least one overweight parent. PMID:21136225

  6. 45 CFR 146.120 - Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. 146.120 Section 146.120 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING... Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act....

  7. 45 CFR 146.120 - Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. 146.120 Section 146.120 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING... Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act....

  8. 45 CFR 146.120 - Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. 146.120 Section 146.120 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING... Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act....

  9. 45 CFR 146.120 - Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. 146.120 Section 146.120 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING... Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act....

  10. 45 CFR 146.120 - Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act. 146.120 Section 146.120 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING... Interaction with the Family and Medical Leave Act....

  11. Family Relationships and Adolescents’ Health Attitudes and Weight: The Understudied Role of Sibling Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Senguttuvan, Umadevi; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Jensen, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    Family relationships are important predictors of adolescents’ diet, physical activity, and health issues including obesity. Despite their prominence in the family, siblings have received little attention on how they may influence these health-related behaviors. Addressing this gap, the present study examined associations between sibling relationship qualities and adolescents’ health attitudes, exercise behaviors, and weight controlling for other family relationship qualities. Participants included one parent and two adolescent siblings (ages 12 to 19) from 326 families. Multilevel models indicated that net of parent-adolescent relationship qualities and adolescents’ personal characteristics, sibling intimacy was related to healthy attitudes and greater exercise behaviors, whereas sibling conflict was associated with increased risk of being overweight. Links between sibling conflict and weight status, however, were further qualified by gender composition of the sibling dyad. Results highlight the significance of sibling relationships in adolescents’ everyday health attitudes and behaviors and implications for intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:24954967

  12. Parental Adjustment, Marital Relationship, and Family Function in Families of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychopathology, marital relationship, and family function in parents of children with autistic disorder (autism) as compared to parents of typically developing children. We also compared these measures between the mothers and the fathers. We assessed 151 families with at least one child with autistic disorder…

  13. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  14. Clarifying Relationships among Work and Family Social Support, Stressors, and Work-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Jesse S.; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.; Pichler, Shaun; Cullen, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Although work and family social support predict role stressors and work-family conflict, there has been much ambiguity regarding the conceptual relationships among these constructs. Using path analysis on meta-analytically derived validity coefficients (528 effect sizes from 156 samples), we compare three models to address these concerns and…

  15. 29 CFR 1926.15 - Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Healey Public Contracts Act. (a) A contract for “construction” is one for nonpersonal service. See, e.g., 41 CFR 1-1.208. Section 2(e) of the Service Contract Act of 1965 requires as a condition of every... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship to the Service Contract Act;...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.15 - Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Healey Public Contracts Act. (a) A contract for “construction” is one for nonpersonal service. See, e.g., 41 CFR 1-1.208. Section 2(e) of the Service Contract Act of 1965 requires as a condition of every... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Service Contract Act;...

  17. 29 CFR 1620.27 - Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 200e et seq., are satisfied, any violation of the Equal... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...

  18. 29 CFR 1620.27 - Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 200e et seq., are satisfied, any violation of the Equal... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...

  19. 29 CFR 1620.27 - Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 200e et seq., are satisfied, any violation of the Equal... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...

  20. 29 CFR 1620.27 - Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 200e et seq., are satisfied, any violation of the Equal... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...

  1. 29 CFR 1620.27 - Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 200e et seq., are satisfied, any violation of the Equal... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. 1620.27 Section 1620.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL...

  2. Intimacy and family relationships of women with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, A Ann

    2003-09-01

    This study explored family relationships and intimacy of women experiencing chronic pain from the perspective of the women and their family members. A narrative ethnographic qualitative research design was used. Narrative and field data were analyzed using the coding procedure outlined by Strauss aided by the QSR NUD*IST 4 qualitative computer software program. Twenty-five women self-identified as experiencing chronic pain, and 13 family members including 7 husbands, 1 father, 1 stepmother, and 4 children living in the home were interviewed. Three patterns of behavior emerged regarding family relationships: cycle of close involvement compensated with isolation, focus directed toward others, and loss of physical sexual intimacy. Findings of this study indicate that family members' perception is that chronic pain affects important basic relationships and both emotional and physical intimacy. A need exists to relieve some of the suffering that accompanies pain in these women and their families. Based on the study's findings, several treatment strategies are recommended. PMID:14566711

  3. Family relationships and the development of social competence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brennan, J L

    1993-01-01

    Resilient adolescents are notable for their social competence, which enables them to form and maintain close relationships. The evidence is that adolescents' social competence is derived from their experience of close relationships within their family. On the basis of structured interviews, adolescents' working models of attachments can be categorized into secure, dismissive, or pre-occupied. These attachment styles are associated with very divergent beliefs about the self and others, with differing patterns of emotion regulation and with differing risk profiles for maladjustment. Parenting styles and family relationships appear to have considerable influence on attachment behaviour. Further evidence for the importance of the family comes from research on ego development. Family level behavioural patterns have been discerned from family research interviews which are associated with stagnation or advancement in ego development during adolescence. Though the results suggest causal connections, the direction of effects is far from clear. Longitudinal research underpins the importance of childhood temperament as a contributing factor to the quality of the family environment that the child and then adolescent experiences.

  4. Grandparent-grandchild relationships: from families in contexts to families as contexts.

    PubMed

    Davey, Adam; Savla, Jyoti; Janke, Megan; Anderson, Shayne

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between grandparents and grandchildren provide an excellent framework for integrating family theory and family methodology. Systematic differences as a function of age, gender, life expectancy, and health as played out through generations suggest some topics are best studied by disentangling variability between and within families. Using data from 1,345 grandchildren (52% girls, mean age 13.69 years, range 9 to 20) reporting on 3,664 grandparents, we compare results obtained from studying grandparent-grandchild relationships individually and at the family level. Results suggest important predictors of relationship quality at the within-subject and between-subject levels. Future research should more carefully integrate each level into theory and design.

  5. The Relationship of Perceptions of Service and Support Adequacy to Family Quality of Life for Families of Children with Deafblindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between families' perceptions of supports and services and family quality of life (FQOL) for families of children with deafblindness, and the potential of satisfaction with family-professional partnerships and child age as moderators of this relationship. The study was guided by the Unified Theory of Family…

  6. Relationships between quality of life and family function in caregiver

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are caregivers who see their quality of life (QoL) impaired due to the demands of their caregiving tasks, while others manage to adapt and overcome the crises successfully. The influence of the family function in the main caregiver's situation has not been the subject of much evaluation. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the functionality of the family and the QoL of caregivers of dependent relatives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 153 caregivers. Setting: Two health centers in the city of Salamanca(Spain). Caregiver variables analysed: demographic characteristics, care recipient features; family functionality (Family APGAR-Q) and QoL (Ruiz-Baca-Q) perceived by the caregiver. Five multiple regressions are performed considering global QoL and each of the four QoL dimensions as dependent variables. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to study the influence of the family function questionnaire on QoL. Results Family function is the only one of the variables evaluated that presented an association both with global QoL and with each of the four individual dimensions (p < 0.05). Using the CCA, we found that the physical and mental well-being dimensions are the ones which present a closer relationship with family functionality, while social support is the quality dimension that is least influenced by the Family APGAR-Q. Conclusion We find an association between family functionality and the caregiver's QoL. This relation holds for both the global measure of QoL and each of its four individual dimensions. PMID:21496270

  7. Family Relationships in Realistic Young Adult Fiction, 1987 to 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Cathie

    The purpose of this study was to determine how parents and family relationships are characterized in realistic young adult fiction. A random sample of 20 realistic young adult novels was selected from the American Library Association's Best Lists for the years 1987-1991. A content analysis of the novels focused on the following: (1) whether…

  8. Observing Change in the Family Therapy Supervisory Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Caryl T.; Goodman, Earl O.

    A common assumption in family therapy supervision is that the relationship between supervisor and supervisee changes over time, following a developmental continuum from the tentative competency of the supervisee as a therapist to relative competency. In particular, Ard (1973) theorizes that supervisees and supervisors move steadily together…

  9. The Hispanic family and male-female relationships: an overview.

    PubMed

    Galanti, Geri-Ann

    2003-07-01

    An overview of the traditional Hispanic family and male-female relationships is presented, with an emphasis on issues relevant to providing health care to Hispanic populations. Aspects of the family presented include visitation, decision making, self-care, and emotional problems. Male-female relationships stem from traditional gender roles. Machismo and patriarchal authority characterize the male role; the roles of a traditional woman are housewife and mother. Women are expected to defer to the authority of their husbands. The negative aspects of machismo can result in heavy drinking and the pursuit of high-risk activities, leading to domestic violence and HIV/AIDS. These health risks are exacerbated by such cultural factors as male dominance, female modesty, and the practice of keeping problems within the family. The importance of personalism in patient-provider encounters is emphasized.

  10. The Budget Enforcement Act: Implications for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehler, Karen

    This analysis of the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 (BEA) and its implications for public financing of education and other children's services notes that voters want more and better education and related services, and at the same time want to pay less in taxes and balance budgets at every governmental level. The first section details recent…

  11. The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act: A Chance for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Jack; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The article describes the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act which provides for recovery awards for vaccine-related injuries caused by diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines. A Vaccine Injury Table lists types of disabilities covered and time periods for first symptoms. The claims process, legal assistance,…

  12. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (FY 2008 NDAA). 73 FR 67934. The FY 2008 NDAA created two... its intent to review the impact of the 2008 Final Rule on the regulated community. 77 FR 67934... on March 10, 1993. 58 FR 13394. The Department received comments from a wide variety of...

  13. The Family and Medical Leave Act and the Public School Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczely, Bernadette

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act as it affects public school teachers. Discusses basic provisions, covered employers and eligible employees, employee rights under the law, employee responsibilities, and the potential effect on the teaching workforce. (SR)

  14. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem. PMID:27122959

  15. Intergenerational Relationships and Union Stability in Fragile Families

    PubMed Central

    Högnäs, Robin S.; Carlson, Marcia J.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well being Study (N= 2,656), we examined the association between intergenerational relationships and parents’ union stability five years after a baby’s birth. Results showed that more amiable relationships between parents and each partner’s parents, and more time children spent with paternal grandparents, were associated with increased odds that parents were co-residing by the time their focal child was age five. More time that children spent with maternal grandparents reduced union stability, although this result was not robust to methods that better address selection. These findings underscore the importance of the broader social contexts affecting couple stability. Findings further suggest that even amidst changing demographic conditions, intergenerational family ties are important for couples—and by extension—their children. PMID:21909159

  16. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  17. Child Care under the Family Support Act: Early Lessons from the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    A Children's Defense Fund (CDF) survey indicates that many AFDC families are being forced to place their children in low-quality and potentially dangerous child care. Family Support Act (FSA) childcare typically lacks basic health and safety and precautions, fails to provide sufficient assistance to support quality childcare and preschool…

  18. 29 CFR 2590.701-8 - Interaction With the Family and Medical Leave Act. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction With the Family and Medical Leave Act. 2590.701-8 Section 2590.701-8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY... Coverage Portability, Nondiscrimination, and Renewability § 2590.701-8 Interaction With the Family...

  19. Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions & Answers. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Partnership for Women and Families, Washington, DC.

    The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) provided workers with the right to take time off from work to care for their families or themselves without fear of losing their jobs. Although this law is relatively straightforward, some employees and employers may be unsure about how it actually works. This guide is designed to answer many…

  20. A Preventive Law Approach to the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Albert S.

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 was passed to promote a healthier balance between work and family responsibilities. It allows covered employers to grant up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave to eligible workers for: (1) the birth, adoption, or foster-care assumption of a child; (2) the "serious health condition" of a spouse, son,…

  1. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993: Applications in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    This pamphlet explores how universities must integrate the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) with existing institutional leave policies and how universities can harmonize the requirements of the FMLA with other federal mandates, particularly the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). First, basic FMLA concepts are discussed, including…

  2. 76 FR 32991 - Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee and Employer Surveys; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. Type of Review: New Information Collection Request. Agency... with family and medical leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). A copy of the proposed... Hour Division Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave......

  3. [Freud and the Hammerschlag family--a formative relationship].

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    From his obituary on Samuel Hammerschlag we know of Freud's great veneration for his teacher of Jewish religion. However, not only Hammerschlag himself but his whole family had a formative influence on young Freud who was deeply impressed by their humanity. This paper describes Freud's relationship to all family members. In particular it shows how warmly he felt towards the only daughter, Anna Hammerschlag, who was his patient for a while and whom he chose as a godmother of his youngest daughter Anna. By virtue of the crucial role she played in Freud's "specimen dream" of July 1895 ("Irma's injection"), she also became as it were the godmother of Freud's magnum opus, The Interpretation of Dreams.--All known surviving letters of Freud to members of the Hammerschlag family are published here for the first time.

  4. Freud and the Hammerschlag family: a formative relationship.

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    From his obituary of Samuel Hammerschlag, we know of Freud's great veneration for his teacher of Jewish religion. However, not only Hammerschlag himself but his whole family had a formative influence on young Freud, who was deeply impressed by their humanity. This paper describes Freud's relationships with all the family members. In particular, it shows how warmly he felt towards the only daughter, Anna Hammerschlag, who was his patient for a while and whom he chose as a godmother for his youngest daughter Anna. By virtue of the crucial role she played in Freud's 'specimen dream' of July 1895 ('Irma's injection'), she also became as it were the godmother of Freud's magnum opus, The Interpretation of Dreams. All the known extant letters from Freud to members of the Hammerschlag family are published here for the first time in English translation.

  5. Genealogy data design appropriate for family relationship retrieving.

    PubMed

    Kern, J; Vuletić, S

    1993-01-01

    Data structure representing a genealogy or genealogies as a stand-alone date structure is presented. Genealogy is considered as a finite, connected graph with nodes ni representing individuals, arcs (ni, nj), ordered pairs of nodes as parent-offspring relationships and edges (ni, nj), unordered pairs of nodes as twinships. Such structure enables storage of the minimum of family relationships and recognition of them and others like 'ancestor-descendant', 'sibs', 'twins', 'cousins', 'uncle/aunt-nephew/niece' or 'spouses'. Algorithms for genealogy retrieval are classified as vertical, lateral and parallel. In certain combinations, vertical and lateral algorithms become capable of finding any relatives, no matter if they are in a direct 'ancestor-descendant' relationship or if they have only the same ancestor(s). A parallel algorithm is designed in order to search for twins, triplets etc. PMID:8366693

  6. Genealogy data design appropriate for family relationship retrieving.

    PubMed

    Kern, J; Vuletić, S

    1993-01-01

    Data structure representing a genealogy or genealogies as a stand-alone date structure is presented. Genealogy is considered as a finite, connected graph with nodes ni representing individuals, arcs (ni, nj), ordered pairs of nodes as parent-offspring relationships and edges (ni, nj), unordered pairs of nodes as twinships. Such structure enables storage of the minimum of family relationships and recognition of them and others like 'ancestor-descendant', 'sibs', 'twins', 'cousins', 'uncle/aunt-nephew/niece' or 'spouses'. Algorithms for genealogy retrieval are classified as vertical, lateral and parallel. In certain combinations, vertical and lateral algorithms become capable of finding any relatives, no matter if they are in a direct 'ancestor-descendant' relationship or if they have only the same ancestor(s). A parallel algorithm is designed in order to search for twins, triplets etc.

  7. Faculty and Administrator Knowledge of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act at Select U.S. Complimentary and Alternative Healthcare Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werosh, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what relationship exists between knowledge of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) to organizational position and training among faculty and administrators employed within complementary and alternative healthcare educational institutions. Within these knowledge levels, this study…

  8. Relationship between Size of Broken and Intact Families and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherian, Varghese I.

    1991-01-01

    Compares relationship between family size and academic achievement of children from broken and intact families among Black African Xhosa-speaking children between the ages of 13 and 17. Results indicate a negative relationship between family size and academic achievement, regardless of broken or intact families. (Author/NL)

  9. 42 CFR 417.159 - Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations Act and the Railway Labor Act. 417.159 Section 417.159 Public....159 Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations...

  10. 42 CFR 417.159 - Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations Act and the Railway Labor Act. 417.159 Section 417.159 Public....159 Relationship of section 1310 of the Public Health Service Act to the National Labor Relations...

  11. 22 CFR 1104.11 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1104.11 Section 1104.11 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND...

  12. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  13. 22 CFR 1104.11 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1104.11 Section 1104.11 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND...

  14. 18 CFR 1312.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1312.12 Section 1312.12 Conservation of Power and Water... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance...

  15. 32 CFR 229.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 229.12 Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 229.12 Section 229.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued)...

  16. 18 CFR 1312.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1312.12 Section 1312.12 Conservation of Power and Water... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance...

  17. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  18. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  19. 32 CFR 229.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 229.12 Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 229.12 Section 229.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued)...

  20. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  1. 18 CFR 1312.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1312.12 Section 1312.12 Conservation of Power and Water... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance...

  2. 22 CFR 1104.11 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1104.11 Section 1104.11 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND...

  3. 22 CFR 1104.11 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1104.11 Section 1104.11 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND...

  4. 36 CFR 296.12 - Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 296.12 Section 296.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 296.12 Relationship to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit...

  5. 18 CFR 1312.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1312.12 Section 1312.12 Conservation of Power and Water... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance...

  6. 32 CFR 229.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 229.12 Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 229.12 Section 229.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued)...

  7. 32 CFR 229.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 229.12 Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 229.12 Section 229.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued)...

  8. 18 CFR 1312.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1312.12 Section 1312.12 Conservation of Power and Water... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance...

  9. 32 CFR 229.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 229.12 Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 229.12 Section 229.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued)...

  10. 22 CFR 1104.11 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 1104.11 Section 1104.11 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND...

  11. China's Marriage Law: a model for family responsibilities and relationships.

    PubMed

    Hare-Mustin, R T

    1982-12-01

    China's Marriage Law of 1981 is presented with a brief commentary. The law encompasses the responsibilities of spouses, parents, children, grandparents, and siblings to one another. The new law is contrasted with the 1950 Marriage Law, which prohibited such feudal practices of former times as arranged marriages and child betrothals. The 1981 law is concerned with equality and the lawful needs of women, children, and the aged. Family planning is encouraged. Divorce is made easier to obtain. Adoptees and stepchildren are provided for. The law provides a legislative model for personal relationships.

  12. China's Marriage Law: a model for family responsibilities and relationships.

    PubMed

    Hare-Mustin, R T

    1982-12-01

    China's Marriage Law of 1981 is presented with a brief commentary. The law encompasses the responsibilities of spouses, parents, children, grandparents, and siblings to one another. The new law is contrasted with the 1950 Marriage Law, which prohibited such feudal practices of former times as arranged marriages and child betrothals. The 1981 law is concerned with equality and the lawful needs of women, children, and the aged. Family planning is encouraged. Divorce is made easier to obtain. Adoptees and stepchildren are provided for. The law provides a legislative model for personal relationships. PMID:7160464

  13. 43 CFR 7.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 7.12 Section 7.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with the Act and this part does...

  14. 43 CFR 7.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 7.12 Section 7.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the... the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with the Act and this...

  15. 43 CFR 7.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 7.12 Section 7.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the... the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with the Act and this...

  16. 43 CFR 7.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 7.12 Section 7.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the... the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with the Act and this...

  17. 25 CFR 700.825 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with the Act and this part does not... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 700.825 Section 700.825 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION...

  18. 43 CFR 7.12 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 7.12 Section 7.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the... the National Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with the Act and this...

  19. 25 CFR 700.825 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Historic Preservation Act. Issuance of a permit in accordance with the Act and this part does not... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. 700.825 Section 700.825 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION...

  20. Relationships between EPAS Scores and College Preparatory Course Work in High School. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The Educational Planning and Assessment System (EPAS) of the American College Testing Program consists of three testing programs: EXPLORE, PLAN, and the ACT Assessment Program (ACT). EXPLORE is administered in the 8th grade, PLAN in the 10th grade, and the ACT in the 11th or 12th grade. This study investigated relationships among the composite…

  1. A Study of the Relationship between the ACT College Mathematics Readiness Standard and College Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Post, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the American College Testing (ACT) college mathematics readiness standard and college mathematics achievement using a sample of students who met or exceeded the minimum 3 years high school mathematics coursework recommended by ACT. According to ACT, a student who scores 22 or higher on the ACT…

  2. Children's representations of attachment relationships in family drawings.

    PubMed

    Fury, G; Carlson, E A; Sroufe, L A

    1997-12-01

    Children's representational models of self and attachment figures were investigated in family drawings at age 8-9 in a high-risk, racially mixed sample. Drawings were scored using a series of specific signs and a group of theoretically derived, global rating scales. When specific signs were treated in a combined way (versus separately), they were significantly related to early attachment history in predicted ways. Similarly, specific rating scales were found to be significantly related to early relationship history. Analyses exploring the relative contributions of early attachment history and contemporary measures of child IQ, life stress, and emotional functioning revealed that even after contemporary influences were taken into account, attachment history made a significant contribution to the prediction of negative drawing outcome. Results were interpreted as supporting an organizational perspective on development where qualitative differences in early relationships are hypothesized to shape core representational models of the self and to exert an ongoing influence on later representational processes.

  3. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration.

    PubMed

    Shlafer, Rebecca J; Poehlmann, Julie

    2010-07-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver-child and incarcerated parent-child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children's behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children's behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment.

  4. 3 CFR - Delegation Under Section 2(a) of the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum... Fallen Heroes Act Memorandum for the Administrator of General Services By the authority vested in me as... the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act (Public Law 111-178) to prescribe...

  5. Children, Families, and Disparities: Pediatric Provisions in the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Grace, Aimee M; Horn, Ivor; Hall, Robert; Cheng, Tina L

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has caused and continues to cause sweeping changes throughout the health system in the United States. Poorly explained, complex, controversial, confusing, and subject to continuous legal and regulatory definition, the law stands as a hallmark piece of legislation that will change the health sector in America forever. This article summarizes the Affordable Care Act with a focus on children, families, and disparities. Also provided is the context of the current system of health care coverage in the United States.

  6. Chemical relationships between liverworts of the family Lejeuneaceae (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida).

    PubMed

    Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sukkharak, Phiangphak; Gradstein, Robbert; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Glowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-11-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the chemical relationships between liverwort species belonging to the Lejeuneaceae family on the basis of sesqui- and diterpenoid composition. GC/MS analysis of the 31 liverwort specimens belonging to the Lejeuneaceae family indicated variability of the chemical composition of terpenoids depending on liverwort species. Each of the analyzed liverworts is characterized by the presence of particular compounds. However, there are some characteristic components, which can be chemical markers of this liverwort family. These are the pinguisane and monocyclofarnesane type sesquiterpenoids, the fusicoccane type diterpenoids, and also the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, isolepidozene. Chemical data also showed the differences among liverworts classified in the two subfamilies, the Ptychanthoideae and Lejeuneoideae. All of the mentioned characteristic components are present in species of the subfamily Ptychanthoideae. On the other hand, among the characteristic components, only beta-pinguisene was detected in Cololejeunea stotleriana, Colura irrorata, and Myriocoleopsis gymnocolea classified in the subfamily Lejeuneoideae (subtribe Cololejeuneinae). The latter component was found to be a marker for members of the subtribe Cololejeuneinae. Neither isolepidozene nor the pinguisanes, fusicoccanes and monocyclofarnesanes were found in Lejeunea topoensis (subfamily Lejeuneoideae). The existence of the chemical polymorphism between both subfamilies is also evident from PCA analysis.

  7. Crimes (Family Violence) Act 1987 (No. 19 of 1987), 12 May 1987.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The Australia-Victoria Crimes (Family Violence) Act of 1987 states in the Intervention Orders section that: a court may make an intervention order if satisfied on the balance of probabilities that the person has assaulted a family member or caused damage to a family member's property, and it is likely to happen again; or the person has threatened to assault a family member or cause damage to a family member's property; or the person has harassed or molested a family member or has behaved in an offensive manner towards a family member and is likely to do so again. The order may impose any restrictions on the person that appear necessary. Without limiting the generality of the previous section, an order may also prohibit or restrict the following: approaches by the defendant to the aggrieved family member; access by the defendant to premises where the aggrieved family member lives, works, or frequents, regardless of the defendant's legal interest in those premises; the defendant being in a specified locality; the defendant contacting, harassing, threatening, or intimidating the aggrieved family member; the defendant damaging property of the aggrieved family member; the defendant causing another person to engage in conduct restrained by the court. The court may also direct the defendant to participate in prescribed counseling and may revoke any license or permit to possess, carry, or use firearms and direct the forfeiture or disposal of any firearms in the defendant's possession. The order may not exceed 12 months. Complaints may be made by the police; the aggrieved family member; the parent of a minor child; any person, with the written consent of a parent of the child; or any other person, with the written consent of the aggrieved family member. The court may make an interim intervention order, when the defendant has not been served a copy of the complaint, if the court is satisfied that the intervention is necessary to ensure the safety of the aggrieved family

  8. New Law Relating to Child Custody Determinations in Actions Affecting the Family (1987 Wisconsin Act 355, as Affected by 1987 Wisconsin Act 364). Information Memorandum 88-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm, Don

    This information memorandum of the Wisconsin Legislative Council describes two pieces of state legislation: 1987 Wisconsin Act 355, which revises the laws relating to child custody determinations in actions affecting the family, and 1987 Wisconsin Act 364, which clarifies and revises the initial applicability provisions in Act 355. Part I of the…

  9. Parents' and partners' life course and family experiences: links with parent-child relationships in different family settings.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J; Davies, L C; O'Connor, T G; Sturgess, W

    2000-11-01

    Life course and current family factors associated with individual differences in parent-child relationships were investigated in a sample of 467 children from 192 families, including stepfather, single-parent, stepmother, and complex stepfamilies; informants were fathers, mothers, and children. Both positive and negative dimensions of father-child and mother-child relationships were linked to earlier life course experiences of parent and of partner, to current family factors, and to the quality of partner's relationship with the child. The pattern of associations between the adults' life course experiences meant that children were at risk for a "double dose" of less affectionate relationships in families in which parents had experienced early adversities. The significance of biological relatedness, family setting, and child partner relationships was highlighted.

  10. On My Own: Mexican American Women, Self-Sufficiency, and the Family Support Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    The Focus Study, conducted by the National Council of La Raza's Poverty Project, used structured discussions by focus groups to examine Mexican American women's opinions, needs, and attitudes as they relate to the implementation of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA). FSA's primary objective is to move people off welfare through education, training,…

  11. Court Cases Involving Schools and Universities under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Vincent H.

    2009-01-01

    Educational institutions are required either by law or by necessity to maintain records on students. Prior to the passage of the "Buckley Amendment," more commonly known as the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), K-12 and postsecondary school officials maintained, used, and shared records according to their own discretion. Although…

  12. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974: Issues and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melissa Hufstetler

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative that school administrators understand the rights of parents and students as guaranteed by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). School personnel should know the rights of parents and students regarding access to education records and understand the restrictions of disclosure. Educational leaders must balance the…

  13. The Family Rights and Privacy Act: 7 Myths--and the Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    An extraordinary amount of the national discussion since the shootings at Virginia Tech a year ago has focused on the role that the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, or Ferpa, the federal statute governing the privacy of student records, played in that tragedy. What that discussion has revealed most notably is that, although colleges have…

  14. Transitional Child Care: State Experiences and Emerging Policies under the Family Support Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebb, Nancy; And Others

    This guide is designed to provide information about transitional child care (TCC) program policies and operations and to offer recommendations to policymakers and advocates. Transitional child care is a new federal child care program that every state must implement by April 1, 1990. Established by the Family Support Act (FSA) of 1988, TCC is…

  15. Intentions and Results: "A Look Back at the Adoption and Safe Families Act"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Institute (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    President Clinton signed the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997, Public Law 105-89 105th Congress, 1st session on November 19, 1997. The ambitious new law aimed to reaffirm the focus on child safety in case decision making and to ensure that children did not languish and grow up in foster care but instead were connected with permanent…

  16. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993: An Overview and Implications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Albert S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) applies new federally mandated employee leave provisions to institutions. Schools must formulate leave policies, communicate them to all staff, and document all FMLA-related actions. Offers a guide to planning and implementing FMLA leave. (MLF)

  17. A School Administrator's Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosland, Carl C.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, yet practical, reference for information and guidance to comply with the requirements of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. It provides school administrators with the latest information to ensure that school policies and practices are up-to-date and it helps to manage leave and avoid costly legal violations.…

  18. Sibling Relationships and Social-Emotional Adjustment in Different Family Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dunn, Judy; Lussier, Gretchen

    2002-01-01

    Examined family- and sibling-type differences in sibling relationship quality and links between sibling relationship quality and child behavior problems among 192 families with a 5-year-old target child and an older sibling. Found that sibling negativity was highest in single-mother families. Found that full-siblings were more negative than half-…

  19. Validating the Relationship Qualities of Influence and Persuasion with the Family Social Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Rachel Oakley; Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the family social relations model (SRM) to test for the personal relationship qualities of influence and persuasion in the family decision-making context of buying a new car. Uncovers patterns in the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion across three decisions families make when buying a new car (i.e., how much to spend, car…

  20. Relationship-Centered Practices in Early Childhood: Working with Families, Infants, and Young Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensher, Gail L.; Clark, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Strong working relationships with diverse families and children are the foundation of successful early intervention. Discover fresh, practical ways to build these relationships in this essential guidebook, every professional's blueprint for working with children and families within the specific context of their culture, family structure, and risk…

  1. Career involvement and family involvement as moderators of relationships between work-family conflict and withdrawal from a profession.

    PubMed

    Greenhaus, J H; Parasuraman, S; Collins, K M

    2001-04-01

    This study extended prior analyses by J. H. Greenhaus, K. M. Collins, R. Singh, and S. Parasuraman (1997) by examining relationships between 2 directions of work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict) and withdrawal from public accounting. The sample consisted of 199 members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (135 men and 64 women) who were married or in a long-term relationship and who had 1 or more children. It was found that work-to-family conflict (but not family-to-work conflict) was positively related to withdrawal intentions. In addition, relationships of work-to-family conflict with withdrawal intentions and withdrawal behavior were stronger for individuals who were relatively uninvolved in their careers than for those who were highly involved in their careers. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed.

  2. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children’s behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children’s behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847

  3. 29 CFR 1604.8 - Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.8 Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. (a) The employee coverage of the prohibitions against discrimination based on sex contained in title VII...

  4. 29 CFR 1604.8 - Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.8 Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. (a) The employee coverage of the prohibitions against discrimination based on sex contained in title VII...

  5. The Moderating Effects of Work-Family Role Combinations and Work-Family Organizational Culture on the Relationship between Family-Friendly Workplace Supports and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahibzada, Khatera; Hammer, Leslie B.; Neal, Margaret B.; Kuang, Daniel C.

    2005-01-01

    This study determined whether work-family role combinations (i.e., work and elder care, work and child care, work and elder care and child care) and work-family culture significantly moderate the relationship between availability of workplace supports and job satisfaction. The data were obtained from the Families and Work Institute's 1997 archival…

  6. Families Created Through Surrogacy Arrangements: Parent-Child Relationships in the 1st Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Murray, Clare; Jadva, Vasanti; MacCallum, Fiona; Lycett,Emma

    2004-01-01

    Findings are presented of a study of families created through surrogacy arrangements. Forty-two surrogacy families were compared with 51 egg-donation families and 80 natural-conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, the quality of parent-child relationships, and infant…

  7. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  8. Unsociable Work? Nonstandard Work Schedules, Family Relationships, and Children's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strazdins, Lyndall; Clements, Mark S.; Korda, Rosemary J.; Broom, Dorothy H.; D'Souza, Rennie M.

    2006-01-01

    Many children live in families where one or both parents work evenings, nights, or weekends. Do these work schedules affect family relationships or well-being? Using cross-sectional survey data from dual-earner Canadian families (N=4,306) with children aged 2-11 years (N=6,156), we compared families where parents worked standard weekday times with…

  9. 12 CFR 196.9 - Interlocking relationships permitted pursuant to Federal Deposit Insurance Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Federal Deposit Insurance Act. 196.9 Section 196.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY... pursuant to Federal Deposit Insurance Act. A management official or prospective management official of a... depository organization for a period of up to 10 years if such relationship is approved by the...

  10. 12 CFR 563f.9 - Interlocking relationships permitted pursuant to Federal Deposit Insurance Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Deposit Insurance Act. 563f.9 Section 563f.9 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION... pursuant to Federal Deposit Insurance Act. A management official or prospective management official of a... depository organization for a period of up to 10 years if such relationship is approved by the...

  11. Children, Families, and Disparities: Pediatric Provisions in the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Grace, Aimee M; Horn, Ivor; Hall, Robert; Cheng, Tina L

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has caused and continues to cause sweeping changes throughout the health system in the United States. Poorly explained, complex, controversial, confusing, and subject to continuous legal and regulatory definition, the law stands as a hallmark piece of legislation that will change the health sector in America forever. This article summarizes the Affordable Care Act with a focus on children, families, and disparities. Also provided is the context of the current system of health care coverage in the United States. PMID:26318953

  12. [Family Climate, Parental Partner Relationships and Symptom Formation in Children - Mentalisation- Based Family Therapy for Childhood Headache].

    PubMed

    Hantel-Quitmann, Wolfgang; Weidtmann, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The emotional family climate is considered both an effective risk and protective factor for child development. Factors such as negative experiences parents made during their childhood or adolescence, which can reoccur as intergenerational transmission, a low partnership quality and a high level of conflict seem to be particularly relevant for the quality of the emotional family climate. Consequently, the relationship between partners, as the core relation within families, is particularly important for the family climate and subsequently for the development of the child. For this reason, problems in parent relationships should receive special attention in family therapeutic interventions. Mentalisation-based family therapy (MBF-T) offers promising approaches in this context. The key principles of mentalisation are introduced and the links between family and mentalisation are presented, followed by information on the history, objectives and the procedures of MBF-T. A case study of a family therapy, in which a child suffers from chronic headache, illustrates the connection and interrelation between family climate, family conflicts and the parental relationship, and it will further show the importance of mentalisation-based elements for therapeutic treatments. PMID:26758340

  13. End-of-Year 2010-11 Progress Report to the Legislature: Implementation and Impact of the Workforce Investment Act, Title II Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) provides funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act…

  14. Examining the Relationship between Family Meal Frequency and Individual Dietary Intake: Does Family Cohesion Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ericka M.; French, Simone A.; Wall, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To confirm previously reported associations between family meal frequency and dietary intake, and to examine family cohesion as a potential mediator of this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Data collected at baseline via questionnaire. Setting: Randomized, controlled household weight gain prevention trial.…

  15. Relationship between endothelial dysfunction and microalbuminuria in familial Mediterranean fever

    PubMed Central

    Güneş, Hakan; Kıvrak, Tarık; Tatlısu, Mustafa; Kaya, Hakkı; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between microalbuminuria and flow-mediated dilatation in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients. Material and Methods In our study, there were two groups consisting of 54 patients who were out of the attack period (43 of whom had no microalbuminuria and 11 of whom had microalbuminuria) and 40 healthy controls (M/F: 12/28). Results There was no statistically difference between patient and control groups’age (25.06±8.07, 22.89±6.00 years, respectively). Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) percentages were significantly different between the three groups (p=0.01). It was observed that there was a correlation between microalbuminuria and FMD percentage. Conclusion Endothelial dysfunction and renal damage occurred as a result of low-grade chronic inflammation. Microalbuminuria, which is the indicator of renal damage and endothelial dysfunction, and FMD show that endothelial functions can be used in the following of early detection of renal damage and endothelial functions in FMF patients.

  16. Public Law 100-485, Family Support Act of 1988, 13 October 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The US Family Support Act of 1988 makes several amendments in the law relating to child support and establishment of paternity including: 1) requiring states to withhold wages from absent parents, regardless of whether there is an arrearage, in cases where support orders are issued after January 1, 1994; 2) creating the possibility of immediate wage withholding in other cases where orders were made before that time; 3) presuming that state child support guidelines established in compliance with federal law establish the proper support levels unless a written finding in a particular case shows that the guidelines would be unjust or inappropriate; 4) establishes that such guidelines must be reviewed at least once every four years; 5) requires the Secretary of Health and Human Services to set standards for measuring state performance in establishing paternity for children receiving various federal benefits; 6) orders states to require that the child and all other parties submit to genetic tests in a contested paternity case on the request of any party; 7) requires the Secretaries of Labor and Health and Human Services to give the federal parent locator system prompt access to wage and unemployment compensation claims and information useful in locating an absent parent or the parent's employer; 8) states that child support awards made to families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) must be reviewed and adjusted every three years; and 9) creates a Commission on Interstate Child Support. In addition, the Act 1) requires states to establish a job opportunity and basic skills training program to help needy families with children obtain the education, training, and employment that will help them avoid longterm welfare dependence; 2) directs states to guarantee child care services to families receiving AFDC to the extent that such services are necessary for a family member's employment or participation in a state-approved education or training activity

  17. Capturing Complexities of Relationship-Level Family Planning Trajectories in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Furnas, Hannah E

    2016-09-01

    In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need.

  18. Capturing Complexities of Relationship-Level Family Planning Trajectories in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Furnas, Hannah E

    2016-09-01

    In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need. PMID:27517867

  19. [Social representations of the relationship between the nursing assistant and the user in the Family Health Program context].

    PubMed

    Eulálio, Maria do Carmo; dos Santos, Ellis Regina Ferreira; Paz e Albuquerque, Tiago

    2009-12-01

    Nursing professionals have themselves held liable for the "art" of take care of the users and are the ones who dedicate the major part of their time to them. The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between the nursing assistant and the user expressed by the social representations of the touch act by these professionals in the Family Health Program context. The qualitative-quantitative research involved 25 nursing assistants. The instruments utilized were: free word association, interview, and questionnaire. It was observed that the touch represents possibilities of approximation between the professional and the user as it helps in the user's cure and humanizes the relationship.

  20. Home-School Relationships: A Qualitative Study with Diverse Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardona, Betty; Jain, Sachin; Canfield-Davis, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored how families from diverse cultural backgrounds understood family involvement in the context of early childhood care and educational settings. Participants in the study included nine members from six families who had children enrolled in three early childhood care and education programs. The primary method of…

  1. [Living conditions of the family, relationships between married couples, and the birth rate in the USSR].

    PubMed

    Foteeva, E

    1988-01-01

    The relationships between various aspects of the family and reproduction in the USSR are explored using data from various Soviet sources. Attention is paid to the impact of living conditions on fertility, as well as to the effects of personality and the roles played by both spouses within the family. The author concludes that large families are associated with mothers who are more involved in the family than in outside activities, mothers who are able to combine family roles with their other activities, and families in which both spouses participate in family-oriented tasks.

  2. Family Relationships and Latina Teen Suicide Attempts: Reciprocity, Asymmetry, and Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.; Nolle, Allyson P.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Baumann, Ana A.; Pena, Juan B.

    2016-01-01

    Using qualitative data collected from adolescent Latinas and their parents, this article describes ways in which family relationships are organized within low-income Latino families (n = 24) with and without a daughter who attempted suicide. Based on a family-level analysis approach, we present a framework that categorizes relationships as reciprocal, asymmetrical, or detached. Clear differences are identified: Families of non-attempters primarily cluster in reciprocal families, whereas families with an adolescent suicide attempter exhibit characteristics of asymmetrical or detached families. Our results highlight the need for detailed clinical attention to family communication patterns, especially in Latino families. Clinicians may reduce the likelihood of an attempt or repeated attempts by raising mutual, reciprocal exchanges of words and support between parents and daughter. PMID:27330263

  3. Health Care Aides' Struggle to Build and Maintain Relationships with Families in Complex Continuing Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGilton, Katherine S.; Guruge, Sepali; Librado, Ruby; Bloch, Lois; Boscart, Veronique

    2008-01-01

    Research on the relationships between health care aides (HCAs) and families of clients has been situated mainly in long-term care settings and includes scant findings about the perceptions of HCAs. Based on the findings of a larger qualitative study using a grounded theory approach, this paper addresses the topic of HCA-family relationships in…

  4. Marital Relationship in Greek Families: Raising a Child with a Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsibidaki, Assimina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The target of the study is to examine important aspects of the marital relationship: marital satisfaction, spouse's representation of the marital relationship, roles and boundaries in families raising a child with a severe disability. Also, this study compares families with a child with a severe disability to those with children…

  5. Understanding Campus and Community Relationships through Marriage and Family Metaphors: A Town-Gown Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Fox, Michael; Martin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that the scholarship on marriages and families provides invaluable insights into town-gown relationships. Marital typologies are used to generate insights into what happens between campus and community relationships over time, and a line of family scholarship provides some additional illumination about the ways in which…

  6. Parents' Experiences of Discrimination and Family Relationship Qualities: The Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Mothers and fathers in 156 African American families reported on racial discrimination experiences, gendered traits, and warmth and conflict in family relationships. Discrimination was linked with relationship quality, but links differed for mothers and fathers. More expressive parents and less instrumental fathers had more positive relationships…

  7. Continuity and Discontinuity in Perceptions of Family Relationships from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kim M.; Telzer, Eva H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The present 8-year longitudinal study examined how multiple aspects of family relationships change across the transition from adolescence (M[subscript age] = 15 years) to young adulthood (M[subscript age] = 22 years) among 821 individuals. Results showed that there was more discontinuity than continuity in family relationships across this…

  8. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  9. Parental Alcohol Use, Family Relationship Quality, Self-Esteem, and Depression in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan; Christensen, Sue A.

    1995-01-01

    Family relationship quality, not parental alcohol use, predicted levels of depression and self-esteem in 201 college students. Witnessing spousal abuse related to increased depression in adult children of alcoholics, whole poorer family relationship quality was associated with lower self-esteem, suggesting the experience of paternal alcoholism is…

  10. CHILD-REARING AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS OF THE VERY POOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHILMAN, CATHERINE S.

    STUDIES ON THE POOR'S PATTERNS OF CHILD-REARING AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS ARE SUMMARIZED AND COMPARED WITH STUDIES ON IDEAL PATTERNS OF CHILD-READING AND LIFE. EDUCATIONALLY ACHIEVING FAMILIES GIVE THE CHILD FREEDOM WITHIN CONSISTENT LIMITS AND A WIDE RANGE OF PARENT-GUIDED EXPERIENCES. VERY POOR FAMILIES LIMIT FREEDOM FOR EXPLORATION AND HAVE A…

  11. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  12. Patterns of Interaction in Family Relationships and the Development of Identity Exploration in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Cooper, Catherine R.

    1985-01-01

    Developed a model of individuation in family relationships focused on communicative processes. Expressions of four dimensions of the model (self-esteem, separateness, permeability, and mutuality) were predicted to be positively associated with identity exploration in adolescents. Analysis of observations of families in a Family Interaction Task…

  13. Family Roles as Moderators of the Relationship between Schedule Flexibility and Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Soo Jung; Zippay, Allison; Park, Rhokeun

    2012-01-01

    Employer initiatives that address the spillover of work strain onto family life include flexible work schedules. This study explored the mediating role of negative work-family spillover in the relationship between schedule flexibility and employee stress and the moderating roles of gender, family workload, and single-parent status. Data were drawn…

  14. Relationship between Work Interference with Family and Parent-Child Interactive Behavior: Can Guilt Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eunae; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its theoretical and practical importance, behavioral consequences of work-family conflict that reside in the family domain rarely have been examined. Based on two studies, the current research investigated the relationship of work-interference-with-family (WIF) with parent-child interactive behavior (i.e., educational, recreational, and…

  15. Incorporating Family Work into Individual Counseling: Establishing a Relationship with Families. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David M.; Cole, Melody J.

    This digest provides an overview of basic family counseling concepts for counselors whose specialty is in an area other than marriage and family counseling. The author notes that there are two pivotal areas the counselor and client must address upon deciding to involve a family in the client's counseling sessions: how to get the family to come…

  16. The Family Law Act (No. 60 of 1988), 8 July 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Major provisions of this Newfoundland, Canada Act relating to the matrimonial home, matrimonial assets, family support, domestic contracts, and domestic violence are as follows: 1) notwithstanding the manner in which the matrimonial home is held, each spouse has a 1/2 interest in the home and has the same right to use, possession, and management as the other spouse; 2) no spouse may dispose of or mortgage an interest in the matrimonial home unless that spouse obtains the consent of the other spouse, the other spouse has released his or her rights to the home by means of a separation agreement or marriage contract, or a court has authorized such a disposition of the home; 3) child care, household management, and financial support are joint responsibilities of the spouses and the joint contribution by each of the spouses entitles each spouse to an equal division of matrimonial assets acquired during the marriage; 4) a court may make an unequal division of matrimonial assets if it determines that an equal division would be grossly unjust or unconscionable; 5) when making a division of assets, a court shall not take into account the allegation of misconduct on the part of either spouse; 6) every spouse has an obligation to support himself or herself and the other spouse and minor and unmarried children, in accordance with need, to the extent that he or she is capable of doing so; 7) upon application, a court may determine support and may review, vary, and discharge support orders when there has been a material change in circumstances, when a party has not taken sufficient steps to improve self-sufficiency, when a spouse has entered into a course of conduct so unconscionable as to constitute a gross repudiation of the relationship, or when new evidence has become available; 8) a man and woman who intend to marry or have married each other or are cohabiting or intend to cohabit may enter into agreements with respect to their rights and responsibilities during marriage or

  17. Family Relationships and Parent-Child Discussion about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    Research has shown that parents may influence the sexual attitudes and behaviors of their late adolescent children. Family sexual communication and the quality of general family communication are two variables that seem to be related to aspects of adolescent sexuality. To examine this issue, college students (N=95) and their parents were…

  18. Social relationships and health: the relative roles of family functioning and social support.

    PubMed

    Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G

    1992-04-01

    The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and

  19. Using Individual-oriented Relationship Education to Prevent Family Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship aggression has negative effects on adults, children, and on our society that cannot be overstated. In this paper, we first outline the benefits of using relationship education programs that are delivered to individuals (rather than couples) in preventing relationship aggression and co-occurring relationship aggression toward children. Next, we briefly review one such program, Within My Reach, and related research on its effectiveness in preventing relationship aggression. Implications of this research for future research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed. PMID:21603076

  20. Families created through surrogacy arrangements: parent-child relationships in the 1st year of life.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Murray, Clare; Jadva, Vasanti; MacCallum, Fiona; Lycett, Emma

    2004-05-01

    Findings are presented of a study of families created through surrogacy arrangements. Forty-two surrogacy families were compared with 51 egg-donation families and 80 natural-conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, the quality of parent-child relationships, and infant temperament. The differences that were identified between the surrogacy families and the other family types indicated greater psychological well-being and adaptation to parenthood by mothers and fathers of children born through surrogacy arrangements than by the natural-conception parents. PMID:15122966

  1. The Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Family Planning among Girls and Young Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Cappa, Claudia; Petrowski, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and family planning among adolescent girls and young women in formal unions in the Philippines. Analyzing a sample (n =1,566) from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, logistic regression models were separately run for current contraception use and unmet need for family planning on recent physical violence (yes/no), recent sexual violence (yes/no), and recent emotional (yes/no). Findings revealed that the odds of using contraception were significantly higher among girls and young women who reported recent physical IPV (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.13, 2.99; p<0.05) and sexual IPV (OR=2.18; 95% CI=1.17, 4.06; p<0.05). No significant relationship between recent emotional IPV and contraception use was found. Having an unmet need for family planning showed no significant relationship to IPV. The study adds to a growing body of literature revealing a positive association between IPV and contraception use. Findings hold implications for the provision of family planning services for adolescents and young women in response to the recent passage of landmark legislation pertaining to reproductive health in the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act. PMID:27157175

  2. Sharpening Our Focus on "Family Life Education": Evidence-Based Curricula for Strengthening Close Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In the past 40 years, individuals' close relationships, marriages, and families have undergone dramatic changes. The development and maintenance of strong interpersonal relationships, particularly close romantic relationships, are known to associate strongly and positively with physiological and psychological measures of well-being across the…

  3. Adolescent Sibling Relationships in Mexican American Families: Exploring the Role of Familism

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Delgado, Melissa Y.

    2008-01-01

    To address a significant gap in the literature on normative processes in minority families, the authors studied adolescents’ sibling relationships in two-parent Mexican American families and explored connections between sibling relationship characteristics and familism. Participants were 246 adolescent Mexican American sibling pairs who participated in (a) home interviews during which adolescents described their sibling relationships and familism values and (b) a series of 7 nightly phone calls during which adolescents reported their daily activities, including time spent with siblings and family members. Siblings described their relationships as both intimate and conflictual, and daily activity data revealed that they spent an average of 17.2 hr per 7 days in shared activities. Sibling relationship qualities were linked to familism values and practices, and stronger patterns of association emerged for sisters than brothers. Discussion highlights the significance of studying the processes that underlie within-group variations among families of different cultural backgrounds. PMID:16402866

  4. 78 FR 35310 - Implementation of the Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Privacy Act System of Records, Family Self...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) in each study site. SYSTEMS EXEMPTED FROM CERTAIN..., Family Self-Sufficiency Program Demonstration Data AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... regarding its Family Self-Sufficiency Program Demonstration Data. This study will allow the Department,...

  5. 76 FR 57619 - Delegation Under Section 2(A) of the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act Presidential Determination No. 2011-15 of September 13, 2011-- Continuation of the Exercise of Certain Authorities Under the Trading With the Enemy... September 12, 2011 Delegation Under Section 2(A) of the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen...

  6. A Guide to Postsecondary Institutions for Implementation of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 as Amended.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, Washington, DC.

    This document provides guidance to postsecondary institutions for implementation of and compliance with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 as amended. It is intended to serve all institutional components that possess and maintain education records about students. The historical background of the act is reviewed and descriptions…

  7. Relationships among organizational family support, job autonomy, perceived control, and employee well-being.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia A; Prottas, David J

    2006-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 3,504) to investigate relationships among availability of formal organizational family support (family benefits and alternative schedules), job autonomy, informal organizational support (work-family culture, supervisor support, and coworker support), perceived control, and employee attitudes and well-being. Using hierarchical regression, the authors found that the availability of family benefits was associated with stress, life satisfaction, and turnover intentions, and the availability of alternative schedules was not related to any of the outcomes. Job autonomy and informal organizational support were associated with almost all the outcomes, including positive spillover. Perceived control mediated most of the relationships.

  8. Cooperative Education Student Rights and Responsibilities: Federal Family Educational Rights Act and Privacy Act of 1974 [and] Michigan Employee Right to Know Act of 1978. Legal Modules for Vocational Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo.

    This module deals with cooperative education student rights and responsibilities as they are specified in the Federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 and the Michigan Employee Right to Know Act of 1978. Designed to be a self-paced instructional package, the module includes a pre-test, answer key, scoring instructions, a…

  9. Family Law Amendment Act 1987 (No. 181 of 1987), 26 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The 1987 Family Law Amendment Act of Australia 1) gives the Family Court jurisdiction over exnuptial children transferred by the states of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia; 2) removes most references to children indicating the marital status of their parents; 3) sets forth rebuttable presumptions of parentage arising from the marriage of parents, the cohabitation of parents, an entry in a register of births, court findings, and acknowledgement in writing by the father; 4) authorizes court-ordered medical procedures to determine parentage; and 5) provides for the registration of agreements in matters of custody, guardianship, access, or other matters affecting the welfare of a child. In addition, the Act contains provisions on child and spousal maintenance including those which recognize that the maintenance of children is the duty of the natural parent but which assign to a stepparent the duty of secondary support if the stepparent is the guardian or custodian of the child or the court determines that such a duty is proper. In setting the level of contributions, a court is to consider not only the actual income and resources of the parties but also the capacity to derive income from assets. Moreover, a court is to subtract from resources available to pay maintenance only expenditures necessary to support the parent and any other person that the parent has a duty to support. Also, any entitlement of the child to an income-tested pension, allowance, or benefit is to be disregarded. For determining spousal maintenance, the Act provides similar rules with respect to the amount that can be subtracted from available resources and entitlement to an income-tested pension, allowance, or benefit. The Act also authorizes a Court to order a specific transfer or settlement of property as maintenance. In addition, the Act reduces the ability of the spouses to enter into maintenance agreements by authorizing a court to entertain a request for spousal

  10. Family Relationships and Adolescent Well-Being: Are Families Equally Protective for Same-Sex Attracted Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests that sexual minority youth experience lower levels of well-being, in part because they perceive less social support than heterosexual youth. Sexual minority youth with strong family relationships may demonstrate resilience and increased well-being; however, it is also possible that the experience of sexual stigma may…

  11. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations.

  12. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. PMID:25555643

  13. [The relationship between depressive symptoms and family functioning in institutionalized elderly].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Simone Camargo; dos Santos, Ariene Angelini; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of quantitative character. A total of 107 institutionalized elderly were assessed using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Geriatric Depression Scale (to track depressive symptoms) and the Family APGAR (to assess family functioning). The correlation coefficient of Pearson's, the chi-square test and the crude and adjusted logistic regression were used in the data analysis with a significance level of 5 %. The institutionalized elderly with depressive symptoms were predominantly women and in the age group of 80 years and older. Regarding family functioning, most elderly had high family dysfunctioning (57 %). Family dysfunctioning was higher among the elderly with depressive symptoms. There was a significant correlation between family functioning and depressive symptoms. The conclusion is that institutionalized elderly with dysfunctional families are more likely to have depressive symptoms. PMID:24676110

  14. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development.

  15. Intergenerational Connections: Fiction Books Dealing with Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Alice A.

    2005-01-01

    Grandparents play an integral role in a child's life. In recent years these functions have been expanded due to longer life spans, access to better health care, and changing family dynamics. President Jimmy Carter designated Sunday, September 9th, 1979, as the first formal Grandparents Day, and the first Sunday following Labor Day in each…

  16. The Family Connection Program: Strengthening Relationships between Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Rife, Dannelle; Tronick, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Rachel attended the Family Connection Program (FCP) with her 9-month-old son to learn about infant development so she could her overcome the relational deficits of severe postpartum depression. The FCP fostered connections between Rachel, her son, and other participants through presentations about communication and interaction techniques and about…

  17. Family and Provider/Teacher Relationship Quality: Director Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The director measure is intended for use with program directors in center-based, family child care, and Head Start/Early Head Start settings for children from birth through five years old. This measure asks respondents general questions about the early childhood education environment, the children enrolled in the program, and how the program…

  18. [The perceptions of families with children having chronic diseases and their relationships with healthcare professionals].

    PubMed

    Baltor, Marja Rany Rigotti; de Matos, Ana Paula Keller; Wernet, Monika; Ferreira, Noeli Marchioro Liston Andrade; Dupas, Giselle

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic disease in childhood has increased, placing families in constant contact with health professionals. In such situations the relationship with health professionals has an important role. Few scientific studies address this theme, in spite of its being highlighted as fundamental for effective interaction. The aim of this study was to characterize how the family of a child with a chronic disease perceives its relationship with health professionals. Twenty caregivers for children with chronic diseases were interviewed. The theoretical and methodological frameworks were, respectively, symbolic interactionism and thematic content analysis. The analytical process revealed four themes: role of the caregiver, stressful relationships, services and professionals, and seeking welcoming relationships. The outcomes of this interactional process, which show an incongruity of expectations and behaviors between professionals and families, are poor and generate feelings of abandonment. These can be eased through listening and understanding by other families in similar situations.

  19. Mothers' work–family conflict and enrichment: associations with parenting quality and couple relationship

    PubMed Central

    Cooklin, A R; Westrupp, E; Strazdins, L; Giallo, R; Martin, A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background Employment participation of mothers of young children has steadily increased in developed nations. Combining work and family roles can create conflicts with family life, but can also bring enrichment. Work–family conflict and enrichment experienced by mothers may also impact children's home environments via parenting behaviour and the couple relationship, particularly in the early years of parenting when the care demands for young children is high. Methods In order to examine these associations, while adjusting for a wide range of known covariates of parenting and relationship quality, regression models using survey data from 2151 working mothers of 4- to 5-year-old children are reported. Results/Conclusion Results provided partial support for the predicted independent relationships between work–family conflict, enrichment and indicators of the quality of parenting and the couple relationship. PMID:24673505

  20. Associations between Family Relationships and Symptoms/Strengths at Kindergarten Age: What Is the Role of Children's Parental Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Perren, Sonja; von Wyl, Agnes; von Klitzing, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Background: The quality of the family relationships plays an important role in the development of children's psychopathology and in their socio-emotional development. This longitudinal study aims to investigate whether family relationships are related to children's symptoms/strengths at kindergarten, and whether family relationships are predictors…

  1. The relationship between family functioning and child and adolescent overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Halliday, J A; Palma, C L; Mellor, D; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that family functioning is linked to childhood overweight and obesity, and that both of these are associated with health-related behaviours and adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents. This paper systematically examines the peer-reviewed evidence regarding the relationship between child and adolescent overweight and obesity and family functioning. Peer-reviewed literature published between 1990 and 2011 hosted in Scopus, Pub Med or Psyc INFO were searched, in addition to the reference lists of included papers. Twenty-one studies met the selection criteria. Of the 17 identified cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, 12 reported significant associations between family functioning and childhood overweight and obesity. The instruments used to measure family functioning in the identified studies were heterogeneous. Poor family functioning was associated with increased risk of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents, and obese children and adolescents were more likely to come from families with poor family functioning. Aspects of family functioning which were associated with increased risk of child and adolescent obesity included poor communication, poor behaviour control, high levels of family conflict and low family hierarchy values. Half (2/4) of the identified intervention studies showed a significant relationship between family functioning and changes in child weight. The results demonstrate that family functioning is linked to obesity; however, higher level evidence and greater understanding of the mechanisms behind this relationship are required. The results indicate a need for a standardised family functioning measure applicable across populations. The results provide evidence of the value of considering family functioning in childhood obesity research and intervention.

  2. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Assets and Family Stress among Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, David W.; Han, Chang-Keun

    2010-01-01

    The "hard times" resulting from the 2008 Great Recession represent an opportunity to re-examine the theoretical framework for how families use economic resources to manage stress. M. Sherraden's (1991) theory of assets and H. I. McCubbin and J. Patterson's (1983) family adjustment and adaptation response model informed this study of how assets…

  4. Adoption status and family relationships during the transition to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Walkner, Amy J; Rueter, Martha A

    2014-12-01

    Although adoptive family research has increased, most has focused on childhood and adolescence. Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Using the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study was to build on previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence (range: 14.50-18.49 years) and young adulthood (range:18.50-22.49 years), and analyzed using within-subjects repeated measures. Although adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators than nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types. Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process.

  5. Adoption status and family relationships during the transition to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Walkner, Amy J; Rueter, Martha A

    2014-12-01

    Although adoptive family research has increased, most has focused on childhood and adolescence. Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Using the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study was to build on previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence (range: 14.50-18.49 years) and young adulthood (range:18.50-22.49 years), and analyzed using within-subjects repeated measures. Although adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators than nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types. Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process. PMID:25221972

  6. Adoption Status and Family Relationships During the Transition to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Walkner, Amy J.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    While adoptive family research has increased, most has focused on childhood and adolescence. Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Utilizing the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study is to build upon previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence (14.50–18.49 years) and young adulthood (18.50–22.49 years), and analyzed using within subjects repeated measures. While adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators compared to nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types. Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process. PMID:25221972

  7. Relationships between the Sociodemographic and Family Characteristics, Street Life Experiences and the Hopelessness of Street Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyan, Veli

    2005-01-01

    Throughout its history, street children have been a major concern of Turkish society and have lately been uppermost on social workers agenda. This study examines the relationships between sociodemographic and family characteristics, family relations, street life experiences and the hopelessness of street children. The study focuses on a population…

  8. Children's Perceived Parent-Child Relationships and Family Functioning in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Shams, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare Children's Perceived Parent-Child Relationships (PCR) and family functioning in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a general population sample. Method: A total of 49 ADHD subjects and 51 subjects without any psychiatric disorder were matched for age, sex, educational level, family income, level…

  9. The Family in an Aging Society: A Matrix of Latent Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Matilda White

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the influence of increased longevity on the kinship structure. Today's kinship structure can be viewed as continually shifting linkages that provide the potential for activating and intensifying close family relationships, raising issues such as the need for special approaches to family research and practice. (JAC)

  10. Amistades: The Development of Relationships between Preservice Teachers and Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutterby, John A.; Rubin, Renee; Abrego, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Preservice teachers from a Hispanic-serving university and Latino families reflected on their interactions during an after-school children's tutoring program conducted at an elementary school. This paper focuses on issues that both preservice teachers and families found important to communication and relationship building. These issues were…

  11. A GUIDE FOR TEACHING PERSONAL AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS, A BOOK OF TEACHING PLANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PIERETTI, GENEVIEVE

    UNIT PLANS AND TEACHING SUGGESTIONS IN THIS GUIDE ARE FOR USE BY JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL HOMEMAKING TEACHERS IN PLANNING LESSONS ON FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS FOR GRADES 8-12. THE MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS IN A 2-WEEK COURSE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA. THE UNITS ARE--(1) INCREASING UNDERSTANDING OF SELF, FAMILY, AND…

  12. Family Relationships during Infancy and Later Mother and Father Vocabulary Use with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erica; Roe, Jacqueline R.

    2008-01-01

    Very little previous research has considered the contributions of family relationships and interactions on the language input of mothers and fathers to their young children. This study examined the contributions of marital love and conflict, and broader family-level conflict, cohesion, and expressiveness to mother and father vocabulary in triadic…

  13. The Family of Origin Parachute Model: Landing Safely in Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Gardner, Brandt C.; Taniguchi, Narumi

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the family of origin parachute model in predicting longitudinal outcomes for couples in romantic relationships. This conceptual model contains common family variables that are theoretically and empirically related to later adult functioning and are believed to influence attitudes that adult children develop…

  14. Longitudinal Relationships between Family Functioning and Identity Development in Hispanic Adolescents: Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family…

  15. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  16. Reflecting on the Father: Childhood Family Structure and Women's Paternal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krampe, Edythe M.; Newton, Rae R.

    2012-01-01

    The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants' evaluations of…

  17. Evolutionary and Functional Relationships in the Truncated Hemoglobin Family

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Juan P.; Radusky, Leandro; Boechi, Leonardo; Estrin, Darío A.; ten Have, Arjen; Martí, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting function from sequence is an important goal in current biological research, and although, broad functional assignment is possible when a protein is assigned to a family, predicting functional specificity with accuracy is not straightforward. If function is provided by key structural properties and the relevant properties can be computed using the sequence as the starting point, it should in principle be possible to predict function in detail. The truncated hemoglobin family presents an interesting benchmark study due to their ubiquity, sequence diversity in the context of a conserved fold and the number of characterized members. Their functions are tightly related to O2 affinity and reactivity, as determined by the association and dissociation rate constants, both of which can be predicted and analyzed using in-silico based tools. In the present work we have applied a strategy, which combines homology modeling with molecular based energy calculations, to predict and analyze function of all known truncated hemoglobins in an evolutionary context. Our results show that truncated hemoglobins present conserved family features, but that its structure is flexible enough to allow the switch from high to low affinity in a few evolutionary steps. Most proteins display moderate to high oxygen affinities and multiple ligand migration paths, which, besides some minor trends, show heterogeneous distributions throughout the phylogenetic tree, again suggesting fast functional adaptation. Our data not only deepens our comprehension of the structural basis governing ligand affinity, but they also highlight some interesting functional evolutionary trends. PMID:26788940

  18. Evolutionary and Functional Relationships in the Truncated Hemoglobin Family.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juan P; Radusky, Leandro; Boechi, Leonardo; Estrin, Darío A; Ten Have, Arjen; Martí, Marcelo A

    2016-01-01

    Predicting function from sequence is an important goal in current biological research, and although, broad functional assignment is possible when a protein is assigned to a family, predicting functional specificity with accuracy is not straightforward. If function is provided by key structural properties and the relevant properties can be computed using the sequence as the starting point, it should in principle be possible to predict function in detail. The truncated hemoglobin family presents an interesting benchmark study due to their ubiquity, sequence diversity in the context of a conserved fold and the number of characterized members. Their functions are tightly related to O2 affinity and reactivity, as determined by the association and dissociation rate constants, both of which can be predicted and analyzed using in-silico based tools. In the present work we have applied a strategy, which combines homology modeling with molecular based energy calculations, to predict and analyze function of all known truncated hemoglobins in an evolutionary context. Our results show that truncated hemoglobins present conserved family features, but that its structure is flexible enough to allow the switch from high to low affinity in a few evolutionary steps. Most proteins display moderate to high oxygen affinities and multiple ligand migration paths, which, besides some minor trends, show heterogeneous distributions throughout the phylogenetic tree, again suggesting fast functional adaptation. Our data not only deepens our comprehension of the structural basis governing ligand affinity, but they also highlight some interesting functional evolutionary trends.

  19. Family physicians' awareness and knowledge of the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA).

    PubMed

    Laedtke, Amanda L; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Vogel, Kristen J

    2012-04-01

    Historically, physicians have expressed concern about their patients' risk of genetic discrimination, which has acted as a barrier to uptake of genetic services. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) is intended to protect patients against employer and health insurance discrimination. Physicians' awareness and knowledge of GINA has yet to be evaluated. In 2009, we mailed surveys to 1500 randomly selected members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Questions measured physicians' current knowledge of GINA and their level of concern for genetic discrimination. In total, 401 physicians completed the survey (response rate 26.9%). Approximately half (54.5%) of physicians had no awareness of GINA. Of physicians who reported basic knowledge of GINA, the majority were aware of the protections offered for group health insurance (92.7%), private health insurance (82.9%), and employment (70.7%). Fewer physicians were aware of GINA's limitations regarding life insurance (53.7%) and long-term care insurance (58.8%). Physicians demonstrated highest levels of concern for health insurance, life insurance, and long-term care insurance discrimination, with less concern for employer and family/social discrimination. Level of concern for the risk of genetic discrimination did not correlate significantly with awareness of GINA. Approximately 17 months after GINA was signed into federal law, physicians' knowledge remained limited regarding the existence of this legislation and relevant details. Physicians who are aware of GINA continue to have significant concerns regarding the risk of genetic discrimination. This study reveals the need to further educate physicians about the existence of GINA and the protections offered.

  20. Interorganizational relationships among family support organizations and child mental health agencies.

    PubMed

    Acri, Mary C; Palinkas, Larry; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Shen, Sa; Schoonover, Diana; Reutz, Jennifer Rolls; Landsverk, John

    2014-07-01

    This study examined: (1) qualitative aspects of close working relationships between family support organizations and child mental health agencies, including effective and ineffective characteristics of the relationship and aspects that they would change, and (2) the impact of the working relationship upon the family support organization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 directors of family support organizations characterized as having a close working relationship with a child mental health agency. Three main themes emerged regarding the quality of the working relationship: (a) interactional factors, including shared trust, communication, collaboration and service coordination; (b) aspects of the inner context of the family support organization, mental health agency, or both, including alignment of goals and values and perceptions of mental health services; and (c) outer contextual factors external to the organizations, such as financial and county regulations. Responses to the perceived impact of the relationship was divided into two themes: positive impacts (e.g. gained respect, influence and visibility), and negative impacts (e.g. lack of trust). This study lays the foundation for future research to better understand the mechanisms underlying interorganizational relationships in communities among different types of providers to create a more seamless continuum of services for families of children with mental health conditions.

  1. The relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and work outcomes for older working women.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Judith R; Whelan-Berry, Karen S; Hamilton, Elizabeth A

    2007-10-01

    This article examines the relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and four work outcomes for 489 working women over the age of 50. Survey results from two U.S. health care organizations and one U.S. financial services organization indicate that older working women experience differing amounts of work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, work-to-family enhancement, and family-to-work enhancement. Hypotheses relating organizational work-family culture to work-family conflict and enhancement were partially supported, and hypotheses relating conflict and enhancement to four work outcomes were partially supported. Work-to-family conflict and work-to-family enhancement partially mediate the relationship between organizational work-family culture and selected work outcomes. Implications for theory and practice, limitations of this study, and directions for future research are also presented.

  2. Creativity: Its Relationship to Single Parent Family Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.

    The insecurities generated in children by stressful environmental changes can compromise their receptivity to learning and their attitude toward school. Studies examining divorce outcomes focus primarily on two cognitive indicators: achievement and intelligence. This study explored the relationship between creative thinking components and family…

  3. Experience of Parenthood, Couple Relationship, Social Support, and Child-Rearing Goals in Planned Lesbian Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…

  4. Developing effective therapeutic relationships with children, young people and their families.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jane; Fenton, Gaynor; Barnard, Michaela

    2015-05-01

    It is imperative that nurses caring for children, young people and their families develop and maintain effective, trusting and collaborative therapeutic relationships that sit within the scope of professional boundaries. This relationship is the nurse's responsibility and should be positive and mutually acceptable to all stakeholders. A unique challenge for children's nurses is to address and prioritise the child's care needs, while meeting the needs of, and empowering, the family. The 6Cs--care, compassion, competence, communication, courage, commitment--should underpin care and enable nurses to overcome challenges such as time pressures, acute situations or disturbed family expectation. Confidentiality and safeguarding should always be observed.

  5. 48 CFR 33.205 - Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pub. L. 85-804. 33.205 Section 33.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804. (a) Requests for relief under Pub. L. 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431-1435... available only under Pub. L. 85-804; i.e., legal entitlement to rescission or reformation for mutual...

  6. 48 CFR 33.205 - Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pub. L. 85-804. 33.205 Section 33.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804. (a) Requests for relief under Pub. L. 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431-1435... available only under Pub. L. 85-804; i.e., legal entitlement to rescission or reformation for mutual...

  7. 48 CFR 33.205 - Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pub. L. 85-804. 33.205 Section 33.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Relationship of the Act to Pub. L. 85-804. (a) Requests for relief under Pub. L. 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431-1435... available only under Pub. L. 85-804; i.e., legal entitlement to rescission or reformation for mutual...

  8. Early Career Development among Child and Family Development Professionals: The Role of Professor and Peer Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Harriet Watkins; Endsley, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated mentor-protege and peer-peer relationships during graduate school and postgraduate employment. Data from 64 family and child development doctoral students and graduates indicated that both mentor and peer relationships were related to career success and that influence of various psychosocial dimensions varied by both type of…

  9. Happily Ever after? Religion, Marital Status, Gender and Relationship Quality in Urban Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Nicholas H.; Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have found that religious participation is correlated with marital satisfaction. Less is known about whether religion also benefits participants in nonmarital, intimate relationships or whether religious effects on relationships vary by gender. Using data from the first three waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we…

  10. Some Things Are Better Left Unsaid: Topic Avoidance in Family Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Laura K.; Afifi, Walid A.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that adolescents avoid discussing negative experiences and dating experiences more with parents than siblings, and avoid discussing sexual matters with opposite-sex family members. Finds that female dyads practice the least avoidance on topics involving relationship issues or friendships, while males avoid discussing relationship issues,…

  11. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  12. Relationships between Parental Attachment, Work and Family Roles, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Webb, L. Kay; Jackson, Z. Vance

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental attachment and satisfaction with work and family roles, as well as the relationship of these variables to life satisfaction. Results from a multiple regression analysis indicated that satisfaction with work and marriage, but not parenting satisfaction or parental…

  13. The Exchange Relationship between Work-Family Enrichment and Affective Commitment: the Moderating Role of Gender.

    PubMed

    Marques, António Manuel; Chambel, Maria José; Pinto, Inês

    2015-06-03

    Workers' perception that their job experience enriches their family life has been considered a mechanism that explains their positive attitudes toward the organization where they work. However, because women and men live their work and family differently, gender may condition this relationship between the work-family enrichment and workers' attitudes. With a sample of 1885 workers from one Portuguese bank, with 802 women, the current study investigated the relationship between work-family enrichment and organizational affective commitment as well as the role of sex as a moderator of this relationship. The hypotheses were tested by using regression analysis. The results indicated that the perception held by workers that their work enriches their family is positively correlated with their affective commitment toward the organization. Furthermore, the data revealed that this relationship is stronger for women than for men. Study results have implications for management, particularly for human resource management, enhancing their knowledge about the relationship of work-family enrichment and workers' affective commitment toward organization.

  14. Hostile behavior links negative childhood family relationships to heart rate reactivity and recovery in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; Roubinov, Danielle S

    2012-05-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that vulnerability to stress is influenced by early life experiences. This study evaluates the impact of negative childhood family relationships on cardiovascular stress reactivity in young adulthood. Participants (age 18-22) from families characterized by negative (n=39) or positive relationships (n=36) engaged in a role-play conflict task. Hostile/aggressive verbal behaviors during the task were observed, and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses were measured before, during, and after the task. Participants from negative families engaged in more hostile/aggressive verbal behavior during the task and showed attenuated HR reactivity. Hostile/aggressive verbal behavior predicted attenuated HR reactivity and recovery. Path analyses linked negative family relationships to more hostile verbal behavior during the task, and attenuated HR reactivity and recovery. These results support the development of hostile/aggressive behavior in social situations as a pathway linking childhood adversity to stress vulnerability across the lifespan.

  15. Early Parenting, Represented Family Relationships, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay A.

    2015-01-01

    Through assessment of 173 preterm infants and their mothers at hospital discharge and at 9, 16, 24, 36, and 72 months, the study examined early parenting, attachment security, effortful control, and children’s representations of family relationships in relation to subsequent externalizing behavior problems. Less intrusive early parenting predicted more secure attachment, better effortful control skills, and fewer early behavior problems, although it did not directly relate to the structural or content characteristics of children’s represented family relationships. Children with higher effortful control scores at 24 months had more coherent family representations at 36 months. Moreover, children who exhibited less avoidance in their family representations at 36 months had fewer mother-reported externalizing behavior problems at 72 months. The study suggests that early parenting quality and avoidance in children’s represented relationships are important for the development of externalizing behavior problems in children born preterm. PMID:24580068

  16. More Family Physicians or More Primary Care? An Analysis of the Family Practice Act (S. 3418). Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series No. D.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, George E., Jr.

    The crisis in primary care has long been discussed and the dismal litany of statistics is now familiar. The G.P. is vanishing from the medical scene. Over one-third of the active general practitioners are now over 60. In 1970 the U.S. Congress responded to the declining availability of primary health care by passing the Family Practice Act. The…

  17. The European "clinical trial" regulation; relationship with the Jardé Act: a Giens workshop.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, François; Marchenay, Brigitte; Chassany, Olivier; Barthélémy, Philippe; Bouzzagou, Mohamed; Comet, Denis; Delval, Cécile; Dubray, Claude; Fouret, Cécile; Frija-Orvoen, Elisabeth; Gambotti, Laetitia; Lamarque, Véronique; d'Orsay, Geneviève; Plattner, Valérie; Sibenaler, Claire; Roux, Jacques; Thoby, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    In May 2014, the European Union Parliament and Council published a new regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which is designed to replace Directive 2001/20/EC. It will not come into effect until 2016. Nevertheless, it is essential to examine its relationship with national legislation, i.e. the Jardé Act, whose implementation has been delayed pending publication of the European regulation. The Giens workshop identified and examined the various issues that this relationship is bound to raise. In particular, it looked at trial methodology assessment procedures, the working relationship between the French National Agency of Drug Safety and Health Products (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé, ANSM) and ethics committees during the authorization application evaluation phase, review of post-authorization/registration studies on medicinal products and medical devices, and data transparency.

  18. Family and College Environmental Exposures Mediate the Relationship between Parental Education and Depression among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanjie; Sun, Hailian; Pan, Hui; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Sui, Hong; Wang, Wenbo; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Ban, Bo; He, Changzhi

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is a major health concern for college students due to its substantial morbidity and mortality. Although low parental education has been identified as a factor in depression in college students, the mechanisms through which parental educational achievement affects students’ depression are not well understood. We tested whether adverse family and college environments mediate the relationship between parental educational level and depression among Chinese college students. Methods A total of 5180 respondents were selected using a cross-sectional survey. We examined the association of parental education, adverse family and college environments with depression in college students using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory and socio-demographic questionnaires. Results Lower parental educational level is significantly correlated with depression in college students in our sample. Additionally, low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, having been scolded and beaten by parents, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends, heavy course load and failure in selection processes are also associated with parental education. Low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends and heavy course load mediated the relationship between parental education and depression in college students. Conclusions Adverse family and college environments could explain the influence of parental educational level on depression in college students. PMID:26991783

  19. Thermodynamic Relationships with Processivity in Serratia marcescens Family 18 Chitinases.

    PubMed

    Hamre, Anne Grethe; Jana, Suvamay; Holen, Matilde Mengkrog; Mathiesen, Geir; Väljamäe, Priit; Payne, Christina M; Sørlie, Morten

    2015-07-30

    The enzymatic degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides is accomplished by synergistic enzyme cocktails of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and accessory enzymes. Many GHs are processive which means that they remain attached to the substrate in between subsequent hydrolytic reactions. Chitinases are GHs that catalyze the hydrolysis of chitin (β-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine). Previously, a relationship between active site topology and processivity has been suggested while recent computational efforts have suggested a link between the degree of processivity and ligand binding free energy. We have investigated these relationships by employing computational (molecular dynamics (MD)) and experimental (isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)) approaches to gain insight into the thermodynamics of substrate binding to Serratia marcescens chitinases ChiA, ChiB, and ChiC. We show that increased processive ability indeed corresponds to more favorable binding free energy and that this likely is a general feature of GHs. Moreover, ligand binding in ChiB is entropically driven; in ChiC it is enthalpically driven, and the enthalpic and entropic contributions to ligand binding in ChiA are equal. Furthermore, water is shown to be especially important in ChiA-binding. This work provides new insight into oligosaccharide binding, getting us one step closer to understand how GHs efficiently degrade recalcitrant polysaccharides.

  20. Recreating Family: Parents Identify Worker-Client Relationships as Paramount in Family Preservation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gockel, Annemarie; Russell, Mary; Harris, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Although existing family preservation program research has focused on identifying the components of effective treatment, we remain far from fully developing empirically supported interventions (Barth, Chamberlain, Reid, Rolls, Hurlburt, Farmer, James, McCabe, & Kohl, 2005; Dufour, Chamberland, & Trocme, 2003). The current longitudinal study…

  1. Longitudinal Relationships Between Family Functioning and Identity Development in Hispanic Adolescents: Continuity and Change.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Mason, Craig A; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family functioning. Significant variability over time and across individuals emerged in identity confusion, but not in identity coherence. As a result, the present analyses focused on identity confusion. Changes in adolescent-reported, but not parent-reported, family functioning were significantly related to changes in identity confusion. Follow-up analyses suggested that family functioning primarily influences identity confusion in early adolescence, but that identity confusion begins to exert a reciprocal effect in middle adolescence. Exploratory latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) analyses produced three classes of adolescents based on their baseline values and change trajectories in identity confusion. The potential for family-strengthening interventions to affect identity development is discussed.

  2. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability

    PubMed Central

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  3. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability.

    PubMed

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  4. Retailer Adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers’ adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. Results We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, “light” cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Conclusion Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions. PMID:23557638

  5. Structure-function relationships of family GH70 glucansucrase and 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes, and their evolutionary relationships with family GH13 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangfeng; Gangoiti, Joana; Bai, Yuxiang; Pijning, Tjaard; Van Leeuwen, Sander S; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce large amounts of α-glucan exopolysaccharides. Family GH70 glucansucrase (GS) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of these α-glucans from sucrose. The elucidation of the crystal structures of representative GS enzymes has advanced our understanding of their reaction mechanism, especially structural features determining their linkage specificity. In addition, with the increase of genome sequencing, more and more GS enzymes are identified and characterized. Together, such knowledge may promote the synthesis of α-glucans with desired structures and properties from sucrose. In the meantime, two new GH70 subfamilies (GTFB- and GTFC-like) have been identified as 4,6-α-glucanotransferases (4,6-α-GTs) that represent novel evolutionary intermediates between the family GH13 and "classical GH70 enzymes". These enzymes are not active on sucrose; instead, they use (α1 → 4) glucans (i.e. malto-oligosaccharides and starch) as substrates to synthesize novel α-glucans by introducing linear chains of (α1 → 6) linkages. All these GH70 enzymes are very interesting biocatalysts and hold strong potential for applications in the food, medicine and cosmetic industries. In this review, we summarize the microbiological distribution and the structure-function relationships of family GH70 enzymes, introduce the two newly identified GH70 subfamilies, and discuss evolutionary relationships between family GH70 and GH13 enzymes.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships and systematic position of the families Cortrematidae and Phaneropsolidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea).

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Sitko, Jiljí; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2014-12-01

    The systematic position and phylogenetic relationships of the family Cortrematidae Yamaguti, 1958 have always been controversial. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships of this family and its constituent genera and families within the superfamily Microphalloidea were evaluated using previously published and newly obtained sequences of 28S rDNA of Cortrema magnicaudata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1950) (Cortrematidae), Phaneropsolus praomydis Baer, 1971 and Microtrema barusi Sitko, 2013 (Phaneropsolidae). Results clearly demonstrate that the genus Cortrema Tang, 1951 is closest to Gyrabascus Macy 1935, both genera forming one of the clades within the family Pleurogenidae in the superfamily Microphalloidea and sharing several important morphological features. Thus, the family Cortrematidae should be considered among synonyms of the Pleurogenidae. Based on the analysis of morphology, C. corti Tang, 1951, C. testilobata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1953) and C. niloticus Ashour, Ahmed et Lewis, 1994 are considered junior synonyms of C. magnicaudata. The phylogenetic position of P. praomydis as a family-level branch not showing close relationships with other families of the Microphalloidea, supports the status of the Phaneropsolidae as an independent family. The genus Parabascus Looss, 1907 previously considered within the Phaneropsolidae clearly belongs to the Pleurogenidae. In addition, the molecular phylogeny has demonstrated that the recently described phaneropsolid Microtrema barusi belongs to the microphallid genus Microphallus Ward, 1901. Therefore, Microtrema Sitko, 2013 is considered a junior synonym of Microphallus. Our analysis has also confirmed the status of Collyriclidae as a family within the Microphalloidea. Not yet sequenced representatives of other families within the Microphalloidea (e.g. Anenterotrematidae, Eumegacetidae, Renschtrematidae, Stomylotrematidae, etc.) need to be included in future molecular phylogenetic studies to better unravel

  7. Examining relationship/family planning factors and sexual relationship power among immigrant Latino couples in the United States.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yui; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Knafl, George J; Worthington, Everett L; Jallo, Nancy; Corona, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    The ability to influence partners' actions within an intimate relationship (sexual relationship power [SRP]) is a key concept in achieving optimum family planning (FP) among U.S. Latinos. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between relationship/FP factors and SRP. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to analyze data for 40 couples. Both men's and women's sexual communications were positively associated with SRP, only women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with SRP, women's general communication was negatively associated with men's SRP, and men's contraception attitudes were negatively associated with SRP. Couples interventions are needed, which account for SRP and gender differences. These findings provide direction for developing targeted interventions to achieve better FP for Latino couples.

  8. Income, Relationship Quality, and Parenting: Associations with Child Development in Two-Parent Families

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; McLanahan, Sara S.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests considerable heterogeneity in the advantages of living in a two-parent family. Specifically, children living with married biological parents exhibit more favorable outcomes than children living with cohabiting biological parents and with married and cohabiting stepparents. To explain these differences, researchers have focused almost exclusively on differences in the levels of factors such as income, parental relationship quality, and parenting quality across family types. In this paper, we examined whether differences in the benefits associated with these factors might also account for some of the variation in children’s cognition and social-emotional development. Focusing on children at the time they enter kindergarten, we found only weak evidence of differences in benefits across family types. Rather, we found that children living in stepfather families experienced above average levels of parental relationship quality and parenting quality which, in turn, played a protective role vis-à-vis their cognitive and social-emotional development. PMID:26339104

  9. FDA's misplaced priorities: premarket review under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Jenson, Desmond; Lester, Joelle; Berman, Micah L

    2016-05-01

    Among other key objectives, the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act was designed to end an era of constant product manipulation by the tobacco industry that had led to more addictive and attractive products. The law requires new tobacco products to undergo premarket review by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be sold. To assess FDA's implementation of its premarket review authorities, we reviewed FDA actions on new product applications, publicly available data on industry applications to market new products, and related FDA guidance documents and public statements. We conclude that FDA has not implemented the premarket review process in a manner that prioritises the protection of public health. In particular, FDA has (1) prioritised the review of premarket applications that allow for the introduction of new tobacco products over the review of potentially non-compliant products that are already on the market; (2) misallocated resources by accommodating the industry's repeated submissions of deficient premarket applications and (3) weakened the premarket review process by allowing the tobacco industry to market new and modified products that have not completed the required review process. PMID:27068243

  10. Understanding Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Caseloads after Passage of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavetti, LaDonna; Rosenberg, Linda; Derr, Michelle K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine how policy and structural changes states made in response to the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (DRA) may influence the level and composition of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) caseload. This paper grew out of a 50-state survey Mathematica Policy Research conducted on diversion programs which…

  11. Guidelines for Postsecondary Institutions for Implementation of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 as Amended. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, Washington, DC.

    This publication is designed to provide guidance, clarification of intent, and suggested implementation processes and procedures for officials of postsecondary educational institutions concerning the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA), as Amended in 1988 and 1993. FERPA's purpose is to ensure certain student rights…

  12. Connecting the Dots...: Information Sharing by Post-Secondary Educational Institutions under the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard; Hall, Richard; Gilmer, W. Gerry

    2008-01-01

    Misunderstanding of privacy laws and regulations impedes appropriate information sharing by post-secondary educational institutions under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 ("FERPA"). Post-Virginia Tech regulatory amendments allow institutions to "connect the dots" regarding a student's behavior and to be proactive in problem…

  13. 75 FR 13241 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... its provisions to the regulation promulgated by FDA in 1996 (61 FR 44396, August 28, 1996) (1996 final... Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... advertising of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA...

  14. The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act and Permissive Disclosure: What Information Are Post-Secondary Institutions Disclosing and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Christine Glah

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the response of universities to the permissive disclosure clauses of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). FERPA has been amended nine times; some of these amendments permit universities to disclose personally identifiable information without the permission of students. The purpose of this study is to…

  15. Privacy versus Safety: Uses and Interpretations of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in the Wake of Campus Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act has sometimes caused confusion among higher education professionals since the legislation was introduced by Senator James Buckley in 1974. Reasons for this confusion range from the fact that it became a law without the usual congressional considerations to the belief that FERPA was never intended to…

  16. The Relationship between Core Self-Evaluations and Work and Family Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyar, Scott L.; Mosley, Donald C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on work and family outcomes and explores the influence of core self-evaluations (CSE) among these relationships. CSE is comprised of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and general self-efficacy. CSE was found to be negatively related to work interfering…

  17. Modeling psychological well-being and family relationships among retired older people in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hui-Hsun; Chien, Li-Hui; Lin, Jie-Siang; Yeh, Yi-Hui; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2013-02-01

    Well-being is an important indicator of an individual's quality of life, especially for retired people. In the present study, we investigated the psychological well-being (PWB) of retired Taipei (Taiwan) older people and its associations with sex, family relationships, and health status. A structured questionnaire was used to measure demographics, family relationships, and perceived health status, as well as Ryff's PWB Scales. Data were analyzed from 268 retired olderpeople recruited from social service centres and public parks from September to November 2010. The Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model demonstrated a very good fit of Ryff's PWB Scales and their relations to sex, family relationships, and perceived health status. The link with PWB was stronger for family relationships than for perceived health. The Mandarin translation of Ryff's PWB Scales was found to be suitable and easy to administer to Taiwanese olderpeople. The findings suggest that nurses should note that improving family relations will facilitate the PWB of retired olderpeople, which results in better outcomes of care.

  18. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454

  19. New insights into family relationships within the avian superfamily Sylvioidea (Passeriformes) based on seven molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The circumscription of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea is a matter of long ongoing debate. While the overall inclusiveness has now been mostly agreed on and 20 families recognised, the phylogenetic relationships among the families are largely unknown. We here present a phylogenetic hypothesis for Sylvioidea based on one mitochondrial and six nuclear markers, in total ~6.3 kbp, for 79 ingroup species representing all currently recognised families and some species with uncertain affinities, making this the most comprehensive analysis of this taxon. Results The resolution, especially of the deeper nodes, is much improved compared to previous studies. However, many relationships among families remain uncertain and are in need of verification. Most families themselves are very well supported based on the total data set and also by indels. Our data do not support the inclusion of Hylia in Cettiidae, but do not strongly reject a close relationship with Cettiidae either. The genera Scotocerca and Erythrocercus are closely related to Cettiidae, but separated by relatively long internodes. The families Paridae, Remizidae and Stenostiridae clustered among the outgroup taxa and not within Sylvioidea. Conclusions Although the phylogenetic position of Hylia is uncertain, we tentatively support the recognition of the family Hyliidae Bannerman, 1923 for this genus and Pholidornis. We propose new family names for the genera Scotocerca and Erythrocercus, Scotocercidae and Erythrocercidae, respectively, rather than including these in Cettiidae, and we formally propose the name Macrosphenidae, which has been in informal use for some time. We recommend that Paridae, Remizidae and Stenostiridae are not included in Sylvioidea. We also briefly discuss the problems of providing a morphological diagnosis when proposing a new family-group name (or genus-group name) based on a clade. PMID:22920688

  20. Maintaining Student Records and Meeting Confidentiality Requirements under the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (504). A Primer for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copenhaver, John

    2006-01-01

    An important federal statute impacting student records is the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), enacted to ensure student/parent access to education records and to limit disclosures to others for unauthorized purposes. FERPA Regulations set forth the basic federal records retention and destruction requirements. The records of…

  1. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. PMID:22845631

  2. Exploring the role of computers in sex and relationship education within British families.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Triece; van Schaik, Paul; van Wersch, Anna

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify the impact that computers can have in relation to sex and relationship education, as well as to provide a communication model that can be used within British families. We used a mixed-methods approach to explore the factors that influence communication of sexual matters within British families. Twenty families from the northeast of England were recruited through purposive sampling. First, semistructured interviews were conducted to identify how sexual matters were discussed within families. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then analyzed using the grounded theory approach. The second part of the research involved identifying the impact of using a computer program on knowledge and confidence within families to enhance communication about sexual matters. Although the majority of parents and their children were found to discuss sexual matters, the computer program was found to increase knowledge and confidence, which led to greater communication within families. The results highlighted the beneficial role that computer programs can have when educating and increasing communication within families. Future research needs to focus on improving access to information relating to sex and relationship education for parents so they can educate and talk openly about sexual matters with their children. A resource that does exactly this is www.safecoolsex.com.

  3. Family relationships as an explanatory variable in childhood dental caries: a systematic review of measures.

    PubMed

    Duijster, D; O'Malley, L; Elison, S; Van Loveren, C; Marcenes, W; Adair, P M; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that parental beliefs (self-efficacy) about oral health and parental oral health-related behaviours play a fundamental role in the establishment of preventative behaviours that will mitigate against the development of childhood dental caries. However, little attention has been given to the wider perspective of family functioning and family relationships on child oral health. For oral health researchers, exploration of this association requires the use of reliable, valid and appropriate assessment tools to measure family relationships. In order to promote methodologically sound research in oral health, this systematic review aims to provide a guide on self-report psychometric measures of family functioning that may be suitable to utilize when exploring childhood dental caries. This systematic review has identified 29 self-report measures of family functioning and evaluated them in terms of their psychometric support, constructs measured and potential utility for oral health research. The majority of the measures reported adequate levels of reliability and construct validity. Construct evaluation of the measures identified five core domains of family functioning, namely 'communication', 'cohesion/engagement', 'control', 'involvement' and 'authoritative/rigid parenting style'. The constructs were subsequently evaluated with respect to their potential relevance to child oral health. Herewith this review provides a framework to guide future research to explore family functioning in furthering our understanding of the development of childhood dental caries. PMID:24107605

  4. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  5. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  6. Trans-acting small RNA determines dominance relationships in Brassica self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Shiba, Hiroshi; Iwano, Megumi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Go; Watanabe, Masao; Isogai, Akira; Takayama, Seiji

    2010-08-19

    A diploid organism has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. The expression of two inherited alleles is sometimes biased by the effects known as dominant/recessive relationships, which determine the final phenotype of the organism. To explore the mechanisms underlying these relationships, we have examined the monoallelic expression of S-locus protein 11 genes (SP11), which encode the male determinants of self-incompatibility in Brassica. We previously reported that SP11 expression was monoallelic in some S heterozygotes, and that the promoter regions of recessive SP11 alleles were specifically methylated in the anther tapetum. Here we show that this methylation is controlled by trans-acting small non-coding RNA (sRNA). We identified inverted genomic sequences that were similar to the recessive SP11 promoters in the flanking regions of dominant SP11 alleles. These sequences were specifically expressed in the anther tapetum and processed into 24-nucleotide sRNA, named SP11 methylation inducer (Smi). Introduction of the Smi genomic region into the recessive S homozygotes triggered the methylation of the promoter of recessive SP11 alleles and repressed their transcription. This is an example showing sRNA encoded in the flanking region of a dominant allele acts in trans to induce transcriptional silencing of the recessive allele. Our finding may provide new insights into the widespread monoallelic gene expression systems. PMID:20725042

  7. Culture Loss: American Indian Family Disruption, Urbanization, and the Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kelly; Puig, Maria Elena; Byers, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Examined views of urban American Indian parents regarding foster care and American Indian family issues. Addressed themes of: (1) discouragement from working within foster care system; (2) role of culture in caregiving; (3) differing definitions of family; and (4) effects of historical pain due to past family disruption. Formulated guidelines for…

  8. Relationships Between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health Among Homeless Families

    PubMed Central

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and trauma exposure among homeless families, in order to better serve the needs of this vulnerable population. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between caregiver exposure to violence, caregiver depression, and youth depression and behavioral problems among homeless families. Preliminary findings indicate that among this sample of homeless families, caregiver violence exposure has statistically significant relationships with both youth behavioral problems and youth depression symptoms, as mediated by caregiver depression. These findings indicate that youth behavioral health is associated with caregiver mental health, which, in turn, is associated with caregiver trauma exposure. This highlights the importance of taking into account adult mental health while treating youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors and ensuring that caregivers, too, have access to adequate treatment and supports. Furthermore, this treatment should be trauma informed, given the link between trauma and mental health. PMID:26420978

  9. Synchronization in Ratings of Pubertal Maturity and Faulty Beliefs about Family Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; Micka, Jill C.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the possibility that the degree of synchronization between parent and adolescent ratings of pubertal maturity is related to faulty beliefs about interpersonal relationships in the family. Results indicated that adolescent-parent synchrony affected adolescents' faulty beliefs. Mothers' endorsement of faulty beliefs was related to…

  10. The Relationship between Parenting Style and Maternal Employment in Families with Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kelly; And Others

    The relationship between maternal employment and maternal and paternal parenting styles is investigated in this study. Subjects included 117 two-parent families with elementary school children. Responses were obtained from 111 mothers and 24 fathers. The survey was conducted by a telephone interview lasting 10-15 minutes in duration. Questions…

  11. Support after Brain Tumor Means Different Things: Family Caregivers’ Experiences of Support and Relationship Changes

    PubMed Central

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Goadby, Elizabeth; Chambers, Suzanne Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Shorter hospital stays and greater emphasis on outpatient care means that family members have the primary responsibility for supporting a person with brain tumor to manage the physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional effects of the illness and its treatment. Given the integral role of family caregivers, it is essential to understand their experience of the impact of brain tumor and their own support needs. Accordingly, this qualitative study aimed to investigate family caregivers’ experiences of support and relationship changes in the context of brain tumor. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 family caregivers (8 spouse/partner, 3 parents) of people with malignant or benign tumor. A thematic analysis of interview transcripts identified two major themes, namely, “Meanings of Support” and “Relationship Impacts.” The Meanings of Support theme was characterized by intertwined and distinct support needs, varied expectations of support and factors influencing support expectations. The Relationship Impacts theme depicted mixed experiences of strengthened, maintained, and strained relations with the person with brain tumor. Overall, the findings highlight that there is considerable variability in caregivers’ experiences and expectations of support and the impact of brain tumor on relationships. The implications of these findings for the provision of caregiver support are discussed. PMID:25729740

  12. Attending to Relationships: Attachment Formation within Families of Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Samantha L.

    2009-01-01

    The child-caregiver relationship has long been recognized as crucial to social-emotional functioning and later development. Specifically, the consistency with which caregivers interact with young children in warm, supportive ways is related to optimal early development. This may be especially critical in the families formed by international…

  13. The Impact of Japanese Corporate Transnationalism on Men's Involvement in Family Life and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuike, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which Japanese corporate transnationalism affects husbands' involvement in family life and marital relationships primarily from a perspective of wives. It is based on interviews with 22 Japanese wives and 4 husbands. Studies of Japanese corporate transnationalism treat men as mere supervisors to local workers or…

  14. Video Technology: A Vehicle for Educators to Enhance Relationships with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Nicki McCullough

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted in an urban Buffalo Public School to improve communication and relationships with families. Based on the research of Ruby Payne (2001), Canisius College and Early Childhood Center #17 (ECC#17) collaborated to create a school video. A copy was distributed to every student in the school. All students, faculty, and staff…

  15. Family Meals among New Zealand Young People: Relationships with Eating Behaviors and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Robinson, Elizabeth; Fleming, Terry; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Grant, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between family meals and nutrition behaviors of adolescents. Design: Secondary analysis of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey. Setting: Secondary schools in New Zealand. Participants: Randomly selected adolescents (aged 13-17 years, n = 9,107) completed a multimedia and anonymous survey about their…

  16. Sexually Active Adolescent Women: Assessing Family and Peer Relationships Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saftner, Melissa Ann; Martyn, Kristy Kiel; Lori, Jody Rae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore family and peer relationships (including support and influence on risk behavior) among sexually active European American and African American adolescent girls in the context of risk behaviors documented on retrospective event history calendars (EHCs) and in interviews. The EHCs were completed by…

  17. The Relationship between Adolescents' Experience of Family Violence and Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Lise; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra J.; Chamberland, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether experiences of familial victimization and aggression are potential risk factors for dating violence in male and female teenage relationships. The authors compare 471 adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the care of a youth protection agency and from a community sample. Results show that adolescents carry negative childhood…

  18. Predictors of Coparenting Relationship Quality in African American Single Mother Families: An Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, Emma; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Nonmarital coparents, or adults who assist mothers with childrearing, play a significant role in the lives of African American single mothers and their children. Yet relatively little research has examined correlates of the quality of the coparenting relationship in these families. Using a broad ecological framework, the current study examined…

  19. Relationships between Perceptions of Personal and Family Functioning, Defensive Functioning, and Working Models of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Steven A.; And Others

    Current psychological literature suggests that positive representations of self and others are associated with sensitivity of caregiving. This study was designed to examine the relationship among self-perceptions, perceptions of family functioning, and caregiving schemata in 618 undergraduates (437 females, 181 males) enrolled in Introductory…

  20. [[A study of family patterns and psychological aspects of the relationship between parent and child

    PubMed

    Seo, M; Hong, M

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics between family characteristics and the psychological relationship of parents and children. The data are from a survey of 118 primary school students and their mothers in the Republic of Korea. The implications of the study for population policy developments are considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  1. Strengthening Low-Income Families: A Research Agenda for Parenting, Relationship, and Fatherhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers need to decide how to invest in strengthening the most basic foundation for early childhood development: family relationships. The challenges: (1) help parents provide the responsive and stimulating environments that will prepare young children for school; and (2) support fathers' engagement with their children regardless of whether…

  2. The Father-Child Relationship, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Carrano, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The father-child relationship and father's parenting style are examined as predictors of first delinquency and substance use, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, Rounds 1 to 3 (N = 5,345), among adolescents in intact families. Discrete time logistic regressions indicate that a more positive father-child relationship…

  3. Relationship Enhancement Couples and Family Outcome Research of the Last 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accordino, Michael P.; Guerney, Bernard G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty years of outcome research conducted on Relationship Enhancement (RE) couples and family therapy are reviewed. Studies testing RE with premarital and marital couples as well as special populations are included. Effect sizes are included to provide further information on the comparison of treatment to control groups. Implications for…

  4. Applying the Nominal Response Model within a Longitudinal Framework to Construct the Positive Family Relationships Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Parral, Skye N.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Ibrahim, Sirena M.; Delany, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A psychometric analysis was conducted using the nominal response model under the item response theory framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships scale. Using data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, this scale was constructed within a long-term longitudinal framework spanning middle childhood through adolescence. Items tapping…

  5. Bridging the Acculturation Gap: Parent-Child Relationship Quality as a Moderator in Mexican American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Parke, Ross D.; Kim, Young; Coltrane, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the degree to which disparities in parent and child acculturation are linked to both family and child adjustment. With a sample of 1st- and 2nd-generation Mexican American children, acculturation and parent-child relationship quality at 5th grade, and parent-child conflict, child internalizing, and child externalizing at 7th…

  6. Gender and Family as Moderators of the Relationship between Music Video Exposure and Adolescent Sexual Permissiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strouse, Jeremiah S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined family environment and gender as moderators of an hypothesized relationship between exposure to rock music videos and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Results of a survey of 214 adolescents revealed a stronger association between permissive sexual attitudes and behavior and reported exposure to music videos for females than for…

  7. The Relationship of Parent Alcoholism and Family Dysfunction to Stress among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kathy E.; Kittleson, Mark; Ogletree, Roberta; Welshimer, Kathleen; Woehlke, Paula; Benshoff, John

    2000-01-01

    Investigated relationships between collegiate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children from dysfunctional families (ACDFs) to determine whether they were at greater risk of stress than non-ACOA and non-ACDF students. Evaluations of students indicated that substantial numbers were ACOAs, ACDFs, or both, and the groups overlapped.…

  8. Sibling Relationships among Eilat Families with at Least One Gifted Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Hanna; Gil, Mali; Raviv, Idit

    2009-01-01

    A most common belief is that giftedness is the cause of problems in sibling relationships when the family is "mixed", has at least one gifted child, and at least one non-gifted one. This belief has been accepted not only by parents and educators of the gifted, but also by researchers in the area of gifted education in general and counseling the…

  9. Does Parental Homework Involvement Mediate the Relationship between Family Background and Educational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Hanna; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Neumann, Marko; Niggli, Alois; Schnyder, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This research examines whether parental homework involvement mediates the relationship between family background and educational outcomes such as academic achievement and academic self-concept. Data from two studies in which grade 8 students (N = 1274 and N = 1911) described their parents' involvement in the homework process were reanalyzed via…

  10. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Nonmarital Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e., breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a nonmarital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of…

  11. Maternal Relationship Instability Influences on Children's Emotional and Behavioral Functioning in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Heather J.; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated associations between maternal relationship instability patterns and children's behavioral and emotional functioning in middle childhood in a representative sample of low-income urban families (N = 891). Data from the "Three-City Study" tracked maternal partnerships through the child's life, assessing total marital…

  12. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera. PMID:26156243

  13. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships in the coral family acroporidae, reassessed by inference from mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Fukami, H; Omori, M; Hatta, M

    2000-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the dominant reef coral family Acroporidae were inferred from the mitochondrial genes cytochrome b and ATPase 6. The rate of nucleotide substitution in the genes gave proper resolution to deduce genetic relationships between the genera in this family. The molecular phylogeny divided this family into three major lineages: the genera Astreopora, Montipora and Acropora. The genus Anacropora was included in the same clade as the genus Montipora, suggesting its recent speciation from Montipora. The subgenus Isopora was significantly distant from the subgenus Acropora. Taken together with morphological and reproductive differences, we propose that these two subgenera be classified as independent genera. The divergence times deduced from the genetic distances were consistent with the fossil record for the major genera. The results also suggest that the extant reef corals speciated and expanded very recently, probably after the Miocene, from single lineage which survived repeated extinction by climate changes during the Cenozoic era. PMID:18517306

  15. Positive family relationships and religious affiliation as mediators between negative environment and illicit drug symptoms in American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene R

    2010-07-01

    The present study tests how positive family relationships and religious affiliation mediate between negative familial and social environments, and adolescent illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. The theoretical framework is based on an integration of two theories: the ecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and the social development model (Hawkins & Weis, 1985). We used a stratified random sample of 401 American Indian adolescents. A path analysis tested the integrative theoretical model. Findings showed that positive family relationships mediated the negative impact of addicted family members, violence victimization, and negative school environment on illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. Religious affiliation mediated the negative effect of deviant peers on positive family relationships. Intervention and prevention efforts may benefit from promoting positive family relationships and religious affiliation to reduce the impact of complex familial and social problems on illicit drug symptoms.

  16. Relationship-Relevant and Family-Friendly eHealth: Innovations in Interactive Health Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    ROBERTS, LINDA J.; JAPUNTICH, SANDRA

    2012-01-01

    As the reach of the Internet grows, eHealth is fast becoming a major adjunct to traditional delivery of health information and support worldwide. Existing Interactive health communication systems, however, typically target individual users, focus on individual rather than on relational health, and neglect the relational and familial context of individual health issues. Reviewing developments primarily in the United States, this article applies a “marriage and family lens” to examine web-based technologies for health and well-being and suggests innovations to make eHealth both relationship relevant and family friendly. Although recent innovations offer great promise for supporting the relational “fabric” of family life, specific cautions and the need for research on effectiveness are underscored. PMID:23144519

  17. Perception of transgenerational family relationships: Comparison of eating-disordered patients and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Józefik, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbances in various elements of transgenerational family functioning patterns are not uncommon in studies of eating disorders. We examined the relationship between patients’ perception of autonomy and intimacy in their families of origin and that of their parents in their own families of origin. Material/Methods The sample consisted of 112 girls who had a diagnosis of an eating disoder and their parents; 54 of the girls were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa restrictive subtype, 22 as anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype, and 36 were diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. We had 2 control groups: 1 group consisted of 36 girls diagnosed with a depressive episode, dysthymia, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood and the other group was 85 female students from schools in Cracow, Poland and their parents. We used the the Family of Origin Scale to assess perception of family relationships. Statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0.PL; Chicago, IL, USA). Results There was a significant association between daughters’ and fathers’ perceptions of autonomy in their families of origin in all groups. There was no significant association between daughters’ and mothers’ perceptions in all groups. The strongest correlation was between the non-clinical sample of girls and their fathers and for the bulimic group. Conclusions We did not detect any link indicating the specificity of transgenerational transmission of autonomy and intimacy in eating disorders. The results point to the importance of the father figure in studies of family systems, including the context of family transmission. PMID:24309425

  18. Family relationships during infancy and later mother and father vocabulary use with young children

    PubMed Central

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erica; Roe, Jacqueline R.

    2009-01-01

    Very little previous research has considered the contributions of family relationships and interactions on the language input of mothers and fathers to their young children. This study examined the contributions of marital love and conflict, and broader family-level conflict, cohesion, and expressiveness to mother and father vocabulary in triadic interactions with their young children in 70 dual-earner families. It was found that after controlling for parent sensitivity and parent directive behavior, marital love and family conflict when children were 12 months of age were significant predictors of both father vocabulary and mother vocabulary to children at 24 months of age. In families with higher levels of marital love when children were 12 months of age, mothers and fathers used a more diverse vocabulary with their 24 month-old children. In families with lower levels of family conflict when children were 12 months of age, mothers and fathers used a more diverse vocabulary with their 24 month-old children. PMID:19169439

  19. The enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: The relationship between internalizing symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9–11 years old

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) – a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology. PMID:25983698

  20. 75 FR 12557 - Office of Family Assistance; Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Partnerships to provide supporting parties with information to promote a national discourse on responsible... information to promote a national discourse on responsible fatherhood and healthy families. ROUTINE USES...

  1. The family as the health producer--when spouses act strategically.

    PubMed

    Bolin, Kristian; Jacobson, Lena; Lindgren, Björn

    2002-05-01

    The Grossman model has been extended recently in order to take account of the fact that most people lead their lives in a family--using frameworks in which family members, respectively, (a) have common preferences and (b) are Nash-bargainers. These models, however, do not consider individual incentives for behaving strategically. In the model presented in this paper, spouses interact strategically both in the production of own health and in the production of health of other family members. We analyse, inter alia, the impact on the distribution of health of changes in family policies, such as child allowance and custody rules. PMID:12022269

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among the family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Sakai, M; Ichii, T; Chow, S

    2012-09-01

    Squids of the family Ommastrephidae are distributed worldwide, and the family includes many species of commercial importance. To investigate phylogenetic relationships among squid species of the family Ommastrephidae, partial nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial gene loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [1277bp] and 16S rRNA [443bp]) of 15 ommastrephid species and two outgroup species from the families Loliginidae and Enoploteuthidae were determined and used to construct parsimony and distance based phylogenetic trees. The molecular data provided several new phylogenetic inferences. The monophyletic status of three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae and Ommastrephinae) was well supported, although phylogenetic relationships between the subfamilies were not resolved. Inclusion of a problematic species, Ornithoteuthis volatilis, to Todarodinae was indicated. Within Todarodinae, the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was observed to have much closer relationship to the species of the genus Nototodarus than to its congener (Todarodes filippovae). These results indicate that re-evaluation of several morphological key characters for ommastrephid taxonomy may be necessary.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.15 - Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... furnish services to the United States through the use of “service employees,” that certain safety and... the United States or District of Columbia for construction, alteration, and/or repair, including...., 41 CFR 1-1.208. Section 2(e) of the Service Contract Act of 1965 requires as a condition of...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.15 - Relationship to the Service Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... furnish services to the United States through the use of “service employees,” that certain safety and... the United States or District of Columbia for construction, alteration, and/or repair, including...., 41 CFR 1-1.208. Section 2(e) of the Service Contract Act of 1965 requires as a condition of...

  5. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  6. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  7. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  8. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  9. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family...

  10. An Empirical Examination of the Indian Child Welfare Act and Its Impact on Cultural and Familial Preservation for American Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limb, G.E.; Chance, T.; Brown, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cultural and familial ties are crucial for the overall well-being of children. Extant research and permanency planning practices support the reunification of children with their families when possible. In 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was enacted to promote cultural and familial preservation for Indian children, but sparse…

  11. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  12. Relationship between Family-of-Origin Functioning and Self-Perceived Correlates of Eating Disorders among Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Patricia C.; Johnson, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between family-of-origin functioning and eating-disordered behavior among female college students. Findings from 372 undergraduate sorority members revealed statistically significant inverse relationship between several family-of-origin characteristics and several eating-disordered attitudes and behaviors. Women who perceived…

  13. Quality indicators for family support services and their relationship to organizational social context.

    PubMed

    Olin, S Serene; Williams, Nate; Pollock, Michele; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Kutash, Krista; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality measurement is an important component of healthcare reform. The relationship of quality indicators (QIs) for parent-delivered family support services to organizational social contexts known to improve quality is unexamined. This study employs data collected from 21 child mental health programs that deliver team-based family support services. Performance on two levels of QIs-those targeting the program and staff-were significantly associated with organizational social context profiles and dimensions. High quality program policies are associated with positive organizational cultures and engaging climates. Inappropriate staff practices are associated with resistant cultures. Implications for organizational strategies to improve service quality are discussed. PMID:23709286

  14. Quality indicators for family support services and their relationship to organizational social context.

    PubMed

    Olin, S Serene; Williams, Nate; Pollock, Michele; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Kutash, Krista; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality measurement is an important component of healthcare reform. The relationship of quality indicators (QIs) for parent-delivered family support services to organizational social contexts known to improve quality is unexamined. This study employs data collected from 21 child mental health programs that deliver team-based family support services. Performance on two levels of QIs-those targeting the program and staff-were significantly associated with organizational social context profiles and dimensions. High quality program policies are associated with positive organizational cultures and engaging climates. Inappropriate staff practices are associated with resistant cultures. Implications for organizational strategies to improve service quality are discussed.

  15. Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

    2013-10-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

  16. Transforming Teacher-Family Relationships: Shifting Roles and Perceptions of Home Visits through the Funds of Knowledge Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Kristin Lyn; Karabon, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Education has embraced the idea of an "asset approach" to working with families and children, creating a focus on developing collaborative relationships with families by building on what they bring to the table. In this paper we explore what happened when early childhood teachers entered homes to learn from families and identify their…

  17. A new group of exo-acting family 28 glycoside hydrolases of Aspergillus niger that are involved in pectin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Martens-Uzunova, Elena S.; Zandleven, Joris S.; Benen, Jaques A. E.; Awad, Hanem; Kools, Harrie J.; Beldman, Gerrit; Voragen, Alphons G. J.; Van Den Berg, Johan A.; Schaap, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    The fungus Aspergillus niger is an industrial producer of pectin-degrading enzymes. The recent solving of the genomic sequence of A. niger allowed an inventory of the entire genome of the fungus for potential carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. By applying bioinformatics tools, 12 new genes, putatively encoding family 28 glycoside hydrolases, were identified. Seven of the newly discovered genes form a new gene group, which we show to encode exoacting pectinolytic glycoside hydrolases. This group includes four exo-polygalacturonan hydrolases (PGAX, PGXA, PGXB and PGXC) and three putative exo-rhamnogalacturonan hydrolases (RGXA, RGXB and RGXC). Biochemical identification using polygalacturonic acid and xylogalacturonan as substrates demonstrated that indeed PGXB and PGXC act as exo-polygalacturonases, whereas PGXA acts as an exo-xylogalacturonan hydrolase. The expression levels of all 21 genes were assessed by microarray analysis. The results from the present study demonstrate that exo-acting glycoside hydrolases play a prominent role in pectin degradation. PMID:16822232

  18. Family demographic profiles and their relationship with the quality of executive functioning subcomponents in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Loren; Verschueren, Karine; Ceulemans, Eva; De Smedt, Bert; De Roover, Kim; Baeyens, Dieter

    2016-06-01

    Executive functioning (EF), needed for goal-oriented behaviour, thoughts, and emotions, is important for various life domains. This study examined the relationship between family demographics and EF subcomponents. A kindergarten sample was tested on subcomponents of working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. Parents provided information on demographic variables. For 78 children both EF and demographic data were available. First, demographic profiles were identified within the sample. Two profiles were found: A low-risk profile of mainly two-biological-parent, high-income families with a highly educated mother who did not smoke during pregnancy and a high-risk profile of low-income families with a young, low-educated mother who more often smoked during pregnancy. Second, children with different demographic profiles were compared on EF subcomponents. Results indicate differential relations between family demographics and EF subcomponents: Whereas for most EF subcomponents no association with family demographics was found, high-risk children performed better on response shifting and tended to perform worse on verbal memory than low-risk children. Parenting stress decreased performance only for high-risk children. Although this study found limited impact of family demographics for EF, further longitudinal research can provide nuanced insights about which factors influence specific EF subcomponents during which developmental periods and guide targeted prevention of EF difficulties.

  19. An exploratory study of how occupational therapists develop therapeutic relationships with family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Clark, C A; Corcoran, M; Gitlin, L N

    1995-01-01

    Family members, who provide 70% to 80% of all long-term care, have often been perceived by occupational therapists as a barrier to, rather than a partner in, effective care for elderly persons. This perception suggests that in order to build effective partnerships to manage complex issues, occupational therapists working with elderly persons must develop effective strategies for involving family members in the therapeutic process. This article describes a pilot study that examined how occupational therapists engage family caregivers of elderly persons receiving home care services. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to explore the behaviors demonstrated by two occupational therapists when working with family caregivers. The findings point to four primary types of occupational therapist-caregiver interaction, categorized as: caring, partnering, informing, and directing. These interaction styles were compared with current literature describing state-of-the-art occupational therapy practices with older adults and family caregivers. An emphasis was placed on examining how therapeutic interactions can evoke different caregiver responses and influence the development and maintenance of collaborative therapeutic relationships. The results of this pilot study can serve as a framework for further exploration of interactive strategies that promote caregiver empowerment and ultimately influence the ability of families to assume responsibility for the long-term care required by many chronically disabled older adults. PMID:7573329

  20. Mother–Grandmother Coparenting Relationships in Families with Incarcerated Mothers: A Pilot Investigation

    PubMed Central

    BAKER, JASON; McHALE, JAMES; STROZIER, ANNE; CECIL, DAWN

    2010-01-01

    Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother’s jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers’ release and community reentry. Forty mother–grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother–grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for under-standing mother–grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children’s functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:20594205

  1. Relationship-Specific Investments, Family Chaos, and Cohabitation Dissolution Following a Non-marital Birth.

    PubMed

    Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2011-12-01

    Predictors of two types of cohabitation dissolution, dissolution with a continued romantic relationship and without (i.e. breakup), were examined using data from mothers cohabiting at the time of a non-marital birth in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 1624). Life tables indicated 64% of unions dissolved within 5 years; of these, 76% broke-up. Black mothers had the highest rates of dissolution. Maximum likelihood discrete-time event history results revealed that younger mothers were more likely to experience cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Fewer relationship-specific investments and more family chaos were also associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution into a breakup. Mothers' multipartnered fertility and fewer relationship-specific investments were associated with greater risk of cohabitation dissolution with a continued romantic relationship. Post-dissolution, mothers who maintained a romantic relationship were more likely to reenter a union with their former partner while mothers whose union broke-up most often remained so.

  2. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of An Arab Version of the Family Peer Relationship Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Edythe S.; Templin, Thomas N.; Kaskiri, Eleni A.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about parent and peer relationships in immigrant adolescents due to a dearth of culturally sensitive measures. We adapted the Family Peer Relationship Questionnaire (FPRQ) for Arab immigrant mothers and their adolescents. Mothers and adolescents completed parallel versions of the Arab FPRQ and measures of child behavior problems, child social relations, and maternal depression. Data analyses included confirmatory factor analysis and concurrent validity. The proposed four-factor structure was replicated in both the mother and child forms. Scores from the Arab FPRQ subscales and the other measures provided evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity, suggesting that the Arab FPRQ is a viable assessment tool. PMID:18389498

  3. Beyond Denomination: The Relationship between Religion and Family Planning in Rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, Sara E; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2008-10-24

    Despite the centrality of religion and fertility to life in rural Africa, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. The study presented here uses unique integrated individual and congregational level data from rural Malawi to examine religious influences on contraceptive use. In this religiously diverse population, we find evidence that the particular characteristics of a congregation-leader's positive attitudes toward family planning and discussion of sexual morality, which do not fall along broad denominational lines-are more relevant than denominational categories for predicting women's contraceptive use. We further find evidence for a relationship between religious socialization and contraceptive behavior.

  4. Decline in the Quality of Family Relationships Predicts Escalation in Children's Internalizing Symptoms from Middle to Late Childhood.

    PubMed

    Brock, Rebecca L; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-10-01

    An integration of family systems perspectives with developmental psychopathology provides a framework for examining the complex interplay between family processes and developmental trajectories of child psychopathology over time. In a community sample of 98 families, we investigated the evolution of family relationships, across multiple subsystems of the family (i.e., interparental, mother-child, father-child), and the impact of these changing family dynamics on developmental trajectories of child internalizing symptoms over 6 years, from preschool age to pre-adolescence. Parent-child relationship quality was observed during lengthy sessions, consisting of multiple naturalistic, carefully scripted contexts. Each parent completed reports about interparental relationship satisfaction and child internalizing symptoms. To the extent that mothers experienced a steeper decline in interparental relationship satisfaction over time, children developed internalizing symptoms at a faster rate. Further, symptoms escalated at a faster rate to the extent that negative mother-child relationship quality increased (more negative affect expressed by both mother and child, greater maternal power assertion) and positive mother-child relationship quality decreased (less positive affect expressed by both mother and child, less warmth and positive reciprocity). Time-lagged growth curve analyses established temporal precedence such that decline in family relationships preceded escalation in child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that family dysfunction, across multiple subsystems, represents a driving force in the progression of child internalizing symptoms.

  5. Decline in the Quality of Family Relationships Predicts Escalation in Children's Internalizing Symptoms from Middle to Late Childhood.

    PubMed

    Brock, Rebecca L; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-10-01

    An integration of family systems perspectives with developmental psychopathology provides a framework for examining the complex interplay between family processes and developmental trajectories of child psychopathology over time. In a community sample of 98 families, we investigated the evolution of family relationships, across multiple subsystems of the family (i.e., interparental, mother-child, father-child), and the impact of these changing family dynamics on developmental trajectories of child internalizing symptoms over 6 years, from preschool age to pre-adolescence. Parent-child relationship quality was observed during lengthy sessions, consisting of multiple naturalistic, carefully scripted contexts. Each parent completed reports about interparental relationship satisfaction and child internalizing symptoms. To the extent that mothers experienced a steeper decline in interparental relationship satisfaction over time, children developed internalizing symptoms at a faster rate. Further, symptoms escalated at a faster rate to the extent that negative mother-child relationship quality increased (more negative affect expressed by both mother and child, greater maternal power assertion) and positive mother-child relationship quality decreased (less positive affect expressed by both mother and child, less warmth and positive reciprocity). Time-lagged growth curve analyses established temporal precedence such that decline in family relationships preceded escalation in child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that family dysfunction, across multiple subsystems, represents a driving force in the progression of child internalizing symptoms. PMID:25790794

  6. Decline in the Quality of Family Relationships Predicts Escalation in Children’s Internalizing Symptoms from Middle to Late Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    An integration of family systems perspectives with developmental psychopathology provides a framework for examining the complex interplay between family processes and developmental trajectories of child psychopathology over time. In a community sample of 98 families, we investigated the evolution of family relationships, across multiple subsystems of the family (i.e., interparental, mother-child, father-child), and the impact of these changing family dynamics on developmental trajectories of child internalizing symptoms over 6 years, from preschool age to pre-adolescence. Parent–child relationship quality was observed during lengthy sessions, consisting of multiple naturalistic, carefully scripted contexts. Each parent completed reports about interparental relationship satisfaction and child internalizing symptoms. To the extent that mothers experienced a steeper decline in interparental relationship satisfaction over time, children developed internalizing symptoms at a faster rate. Further, symptoms escalated at a faster rate to the extent that negative mother-child relationship quality increased (more negative affect expressed by both mother and child, greater maternal power assertion) and positive mother-child relationship quality decreased (less positive affect expressed by both mother and child, less warmth and positive reciprocity). Time-lagged growth curve analyses established temporal precedence such that decline in family relationships preceded escalation in child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that family dysfunction, across multiple subsystems, represents a driving force in the progression of child internalizing symptoms. PMID:25790794

  7. Examining the Relationships between Family Drug Court Program Compliance and Child Welfare Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Child, Holly; McIntyre, Dara

    2015-01-01

    Although the evidence is accumulating to substantiate the successes of Family Drug Courts (FDC), there is little research on the relationship between parent compliance and successful reunification of children with their parent(s). This study looked at data from 206 families participating in a FDC in Sacramento County, California. Four compliance measures were examined individually and collectively, after controlling for participant characteristics, using logistic regression models to determine how FDC participation benchmarks impact child reunification. This study found the best predictors of reunification was participation in support group meetings and negative tests for substance use. These findings indicate that initiatives designed to address the needs of families affected by child maltreatment and substance use should take into account and support engagement in informal, community-based activities as well as formal, clinically focused interventions. PMID:26827465

  8. Alternative families in recovery: fictive kin relationships among residents of sober living homes.

    PubMed

    Heslin, Kevin C; Hamilton, Alison B; Singzon, Trudy K; Smith, James L; Anderson, Nancy Lois Ruth

    2011-04-01

    Sober living homes are group residences for people attempting to maintain abstinence from alcohol and drugs in a mutually supportive setting. Residents typically develop strong psychological and economic ties and have been referred to as "alternative families," thus evoking the anthropological concept of fictive kinship. We analyzed data from seven focus groups with sober living home residents to assess the prevalence and functions of fictive kinship in these settings. Results suggest that residents created kinship by exchanging various types of support, and by incorporating other residents into existing family relationships, particularly in homes where there were children. Residents perceived fictive kin as more supportive than actual kin, encouraging them toward greater individuation, in contrast with family backgrounds that were sometimes described as stifling. These accounts of the therapeutic qualities of fictive kin in sober living homes could inform the work of fair housing advocates and other community stakeholders.

  9. Examining the Relationships between Family Drug Court Program Compliance and Child Welfare Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Child, Holly; McIntyre, Dara

    2015-01-01

    Although the evidence is accumulating to substantiate the successes of Family Drug Courts (FDC), there is little research on the relationship between parent compliance and successful reunification of children with their parent(s). This study looked at data from 206 families participating in a FDC in Sacramento County, California. Four compliance measures were examined individually and collectively, after controlling for participant characteristics, using logistic regression models to determine how FDC participation benchmarks impact child reunification. This study found the best predictors of reunification was participation in support group meetings and negative tests for substance use. These findings indicate that initiatives designed to address the needs of families affected by child maltreatment and substance use should take into account and support engagement in informal, community-based activities as well as formal, clinically focused interventions.

  10. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, family environment, and caregiver coping in families of children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.

  11. Breast-feeding and family planning: a review of the relationships between breast-feeding and family planning.

    PubMed

    Brown, R E

    1982-01-01

    A number of interrelated factors must be considered when breast-feeding is introduced as a concern for family planning programs: the number of pregnancies and births experienced, age at each pregnancy and birth, duration of the intervals between conceptions, lactation including duration and type, health and nutritional services available to meet the demands of pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care. The dietary intake of the mother and her health and disease status have an effect on the duration of breast-feeding, and lactation has an effect on her ovulation and birth spacing. Those at particularly high risk include adolescent girls, older grand-multipara women, and families living in poverty. An historical relationship between the reduction in infant and childhood mortality and the falling off of births can be documented. The straightforward benefits on nutritional status of breast-fed infants, the conjunction with the antibody protection afforded by breast milk, served to reduce infant mortality and indirectly served to reduce birth rates. In addition, the prolongation of postpartum anovulatory cycles in breast-feeding women, coupled with sexual mores that postpone sexual relations while a women is breast-feeding in certain groups, will serve to prolong the interbirth intervals. Populations where breast-feeding is customary have been shown to have fewer births than populations where the women do not breast-fed and where infants are artificially fed. PMID:7039292

  12. Relationships of family functioning, self-esteem, and resourceful coping of Thai adolescents with asthma.

    PubMed

    Preechawong, Sunida; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Heinzer, Marjorie M V; Musil, Carol M; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Aswinanonh, Rungtiwa

    2007-01-01

    Within the context of Rosenbaum's theory of learned resourcefulness, this correlational study examined the relationships among family functioning, self-esteem, and resourceful coping in Thai adolescents with asthma. A convenience sample of 132 Thai adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with asthma was recruited from the outpatient asthma clinics of four hospitals in Bangkok. Self-administered questionnaires included an assessment of demographic information and asthma status, the revised Family APGAR, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Children's Self-Control Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships among variables. Effective family functioning had a significant positive effect on self-esteem (beta = .27, p < .01) and resourceful coping (beta = .30, p < .01), controlling for gender and age. However, self-esteem was not significantly correlated with resourceful coping (beta = .15, p = .08). The findings suggest that nursing interventions should take into account the role of family functioning in promoting self-esteem and resourceful coping in Thai adolescents with asthma. Recommendations for future research include replication of the study with a larger sample of adolescents with asthma and with adolescents with other chronic illnesses.

  13. Trajectories of adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior and family climate: Longitudinal implications for young adult romantic relationship competence.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as key individual and family level factors that may forecast later romantic relationship functioning. Guided by a family systems framework, we evaluated the reciprocal influences of adolescent hostility and family climate, to provide a more comprehensive picture of the etiology of romantic relationship functioning. We drew on a large sample (N = 974) of young adults (mean age = 19.5) that were followed starting in the fall of 6th grade, and subsequently in spring of 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th grades prior to the young adult assessment. Using a latent difference score cross-lag model (McArdle, 2009), our results indicated that a more positive family climate was associated with decreases in HAB, but HAB was not associated with changes in family climate. Further, the influence of the family climate on HAB was consistent across all time points. HAB and family climate had different predictions for young adult romantic relationships: Increasing HAB over adolescence predicted relationship violence, while maintenance in family climate was a key predictor of relationship problem-solving skills. The only predictor of love and connection in relationships was early family functioning. Implications for developmental theory and prevention science are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337516

  14. Development of a structure-validated Family Relationship Questionnaire (FRQ) with Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liuxi; Xu, Kai; Fu, Lingyun; Xu, Shaofang; Gao, Qianqian; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Consistent results have shown a relationship between the psychological world of children and their perceived parental bonding or family attachment style, but to date there is no single measure covering both styles. The authors designed a statement matrix with 116 items for this purpose and compared it with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in a study with 718 university students. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, five factors (scales)--namely, Paternal/Maternal Encouragement (5 items each), Paternal/Maternal Abuse (5 items each), Paternal/Maternal Freedom Release (5 items each), General Attachment (5 items), and Paternal/Maternal Dominance (4 items each)--were defined to form a Family Relationship Questionnaire (FRQ). The internal alphas of the factors ranged from .64 to .83, and their congruency coefficients were .93 to .98 in samples regarding father and mother. Women scored significantly higher on FRQ General Attachment and Maternal Encouragement and lower on Paternal Abuse than men did; only children scored significantly higher on Paternal and Maternal Encouragements than children with siblings did. Women also scored significantly higher on PBI Paternal Autonomy Denial; only children scored significantly higher on Paternal and Maternal Cares and Maternal Autonomy Denial. All intercorrelations between FRQ scales were low to medium, and some correlations between FRQ and PBI scales were medium to high. This study demonstrates that the FRQ has a structure of five factors with satisfactory discriminant and convergent validities, which might help to characterize family relationships in healthy and clinical populations. PMID:26366981

  15. Relationship between Family-Work and Work-Family Conflict with Organizational Commitment and Desertion Intention among Nurses and Paramedical Staff at Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hatam, Nahid; Jalali, Marzie Tajik; Askarian, Mehrdad; Kharazmi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Background: High turnover intention rate is one of the most common problems in healthcare organizations throughout the world. There are several factors that can potentially affect the individuals’ turnover intention; they include factors such as work-family conflict, family-work conflict, and organizational commitment. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between family-work and work-family conflicts and organizational commitment and turnover intention among nurses and paramedical staff at hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) and present a model using SEM. Methods: This is a questionnaire based cross-sectional study among 400 nurses and paramedical staff of hospitals affiliated to SUMS using a random-proportional (quota) sampling method. Data collection was performed using four standard questionnaires. SPSS software was used for data analysis and SmartPLS software for modeling variables. Results: Mean scores of work-family conflict and desertion intention were 2.6 and 2.77, respectively. There was a significant relationship between gender and family-work conflict (P=0.02). Family-work conflict was significantly higher in married participants (P=0.001). Based on the findings of this study, there was a significant positive relationship between work-family and family-work conflict (P=0.001). Also, work-family conflict had a significant inverse relationship with organizational commitment (P=0.001). An inverse relationship was seen between organizational commitment and turnover intentions (P=0.001). Conclusion: Thus, regarding the prominent and preventative role of organizational commitment in employees’ desertion intentions, in order to prevent negative effects of staff desertion in health sector, attempts to make policies to increase people’s organizational commitment must be considered by health system managers more than ever. PMID:27218108

  16. The relationship between the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) and hospital profitability.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa Z

    2006-01-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) reduced the payment for fees for service providers and reduced the subsidy paid by the government for teaching hospitals. Since the passage of such cost containment measures, debates regarding their impact on hospitals, graduate medical education, and access to health care were raised. The need to examine the effect of such payment reduction on hospital profitability was widely ignored. We examined the relationship between the BBA and hospital profitability by using return on assets to measure profitability, by running an ordinary least squares regression for 1996 as pre-BBA and 1999 as post-BBA. We controlled for variables that were not included in previous literature, such as disproportionate share hospital status, critical access hospital status, and graduate medical education, measured by teaching hospitals to measure the effect of BBA cuts on teaching hospitals. Furthermore we incorporated several economic, financial, and utilization variables in the model. We used 1996 and 1999 data in our analysis to bridge potential effects of the BBA. To locate hospitals that changed ownership status we cross-matched the Medicare Cost Report data with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We found that overall hospital profitability declined as a result of the introduction of the BBA; however, small rural hospitals that converted to critical access status enjoyed improvement in financial status over the period of our study. Hospitals that converted to for-profit status did not improve in financial status, and showed a lower earning after the conversation. Our results show that the BBA had a negative effect on hospitals because of cuts in its reimbursement policy, except for critical access hospitals, which show improvement because of their exemption from the prospective payment system. Our study differs from others by using national comprehensive data for years that focus exclusively on the Balanced Budget Act period. We

  17. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  18. Family adversity, positive peer relationships, and children's externalizing behavior: a longitudinal perspective on risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    Criss, Michael M; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Lapp, Amie L

    2002-01-01

    Peer acceptance and friendships were examined as moderators in the link between family adversity and child externalizing behavioral problems. Data on family adversity (i.e., ecological disadvantage, violent marital conflict, and harsh discipline) and child temperament and social information processing were collected during home visits from 585 families with 5-year-old children. Children's peer acceptance, friendship, and friends' aggressiveness were assessed with sociometric methods in kindergarten and grade 1. Teachers provided ratings of children's externalizing behavior problems in grade 2. Peer acceptance served as a moderator for all three measures of family adversity, and friendship served as a moderator for harsh discipline. Examination of regression slopes indicated that family adversity was not significantly associated with child externalizing behavior at high levels of positive peer relationships. These moderating effects generally were not qualified by child gender, ethnicity, or friends' aggressiveness, nor were they accounted for by child temperament or social information-processing patterns. The need for process-oriented studies of risk and protective factors is stressed.

  19. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved.

  20. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  1. Effect of the act on promotion of personal autonomy and care for dependent persons on their family caregivers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The need of home care services is becoming an increasingly common scenario. These cares are mainly provided by the dependents’ relatives specifically, by the women part of the family. This situation might take years, decreasing the physical and psychological health of the caregiver. In Spain, the Act of Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for dependent persons, guarantees those dependent persons and their caregivers to have access to social services or to financial grants. The aim of this study is to Know the possible effects of the benefits provided by this Act in regards to the mental health, the quality of life and use of health services by the family caregivers assisting their relatives in situation of dependency. Methods and design A longitudinal descriptive study following-up a cohort of patients and caregivers. The study shall be carried out in Andalusia. It shall include the baseline assessment of the variables in those caregivers free from the exposure factor (reception of assistance pursuant to the Act). Following, once the benefits have been received, this cohort shall be followed-up. The study shall take three years, and the starting date for its development as well as its funding is January 2011. Discussion The longitudinal assessment of the rate of change of the variables studied shall allow us to know the implications which might be potentially generated as well as the natural evolution of those. PMID:23244337

  2. The relationship between social skill and family problem-solving following very severe closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, H P; Knight, R G; Bishara, S N

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of social skill and family problem-solving behaviour in a group of 18, community dwelling, very severe closed head injury (CHI) patients who had suffered their injury at least 18 months previously, and who were still in contact with rehabilitation services. The main findings of this study were a positive relationship between CHI patients' level of social skill and their rate of positive effect, and an inverse relationship between the CHI patients' level of social skill and the rate of facilitative behaviour displayed by relatives during problem-solving interactions. It is suggested that socially unskilled CHI patients may be more demanding to interact with, and that this may cause a significant burden for their relatives.

  3. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment. PMID:25893573

  4. End-of-Year 2009-10 Progress Report to the California Legislature: Implementation and Impact of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) provide funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act…

  5. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.

  6. Close ties: an exploratory Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map (CEGRM) study of social connections of men in Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC) families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer, while rare compared with other adult solid tumors, is the most common cancer in young men in northern Europe and North America. Risk factors include white race, positive family history, contralateral testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, infertility and testicular microlithiasis. As the genetic causes of familial clusters (Familial Testicular Cancer or FTC) are being sought, it is also important to understand the psycho-social experiences of members of FTC families. Methods This is a cross-sectional examination via the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map (CEGRM) of social connections reported by 49 men in FTC families participating in NCI research study 02-C-178. Results The CEGRM was acceptable and feasible for use with men in FTC families, and valuable in understanding their social connections. These men have largely adjusted to the TC history in themselves and/or their relatives. They have considerable social and emotional support from family and friends, although there is wide variability in sources and types. Conclusions The CEGRM focuses on men's social connections and close emotional bonds in FTC families. This action-oriented process of placing colored symbols on significant relationships uncovered previously under-appreciated emotions accompanying men's social exchanges. Most men in FTC families succeed in re-establishing a sense of normalcy in their lives and social connections, in the aftermath of a testicular cancer diagnosis. PMID:22381132

  7. Acting for the Camera: Horace Poolaw's Film Stills of Family, 1925-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Hadley

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1920s, Kiowa photographer Horace Poolaw began documenting daily life in southwestern Oklahoma with the camera. As Poolaw began making dramatically posed, narrative-rich portraits of family members, historian Lewis Mumford asserted that the modern individual now viewed him or herself "as a public character, "being watched"" by others.…

  8. Acting as Standardized Patients Enhances Family Medicine Residents' Self-Reported Skills in Palliative Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittikariyakul, Pat; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kirshen, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent publications have confirmed the use of standardized patients (SPs) in improving clinical skills and enhancing competency. Little research has studied the benefits residents may themselves gain in palliative care playing the role of SPs. Nineteen Family Medicine residents were recruited as standardized patients (FMR-SPs) for a mandatory…

  9. 76 FR 18254 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... qualitative data obtained provided a detailed anecdotal picture of the workings of the FMLA. The period for... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA95) . This program helps to ensure that required data can be provided in... and to close current data gaps remaining from the previous surveys. To better understand...

  10. Social Acts, Class and the Construction of Personhood in Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Sunil

    2001-01-01

    Observed Hindi-speaking Indian caregivers and their children to examine how caregivers use language to create diverse conceptions of personhood. Distributional analyses examined the proportion of person references and class-based patterns of co-occurrence between particular social acts and person references. Discussion explored ways in which…

  11. 20 CFR 402.15 - Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... “Individuals” and “system of records” are defined in the Privacy Act and in 20 CFR 401.25. (b) Requesting your... defined in the Privacy Act and in 20 CFR 401.25.) If we handle your request under the FOIA and the rules... Act of 1974. 402.15 Section 402.15 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY...

  12. Cigarette Smoking and its Relationship with Perceived Familial Support and Religiosity of University Students in Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdipour, Hamid; Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Abbas; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Nowzari, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking and its relationship to other risk taking behaviors, perceived familial support and religiosity among college students in Tabriz, Iran. Method: In this study, 1837 randomly selected students participated and completed a self-administered questionnaire inquiring demographic characteristics, risk taking behaviors, Aneshensel and Sucoff’s 13-items one-dimensional perceived Parental support scale and 28 - items Kendler’s general religiosity scale. Results: In general, 15.8 % of the students were cigarette smokers. The results indicated that being male (OR = 3.21), living alone or with friends (OR = 2.00), having a part-time job (OR = 1.98), alcohol consumption during the past 30 days (OR = 3.67), hookah use (OR = 5.23), substance abuse (OR = 1.69), familial support (OR = 0.97) and religiosity (OR = 0.98) have statistically significant relationships with cigarette smoking. Conclusion: Our study represents the co-occurrence of risky behaviors. Cultural context in the traditional communities seems to show the crucial role of familial support and religiosity traits with the female gender as predictive factors to not smoke cigarette and perform other risky behaviors. PMID:26877746

  13. Relationship between HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms and familial aggregations of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, S.; Wu, J.; Wu, J.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, L.; Ning, Q.; Hu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We explored the relationship between HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms and familial aggregation of hepatocellular carcinoma (fhcc). Methods Polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers were used to determine HLA-DRB1 genotypes for 130 members of families with 2 or more liver cancer patients and for 130 members of families without any diagnosed cancers. The genotype profiles were then compared to explore the relationship between HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and fhcc. Result Of 11 selected alleles, the frequencies of DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 were significantly lower in the fhcc group than in no-cancer group (p < 0.05; odds ratio: 0.286; 95% confidence interval: 0.091 to 0.901; and odds ratio: 0.493; 95% confidence interval: 0.292 to 0.893). Differences in the frequencies of the other 9 alleles were not statistically significant in the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Our research suggests that if genetic factors play a role in fhcc, the deficiency in the DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles might be the risk factor at work in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, P.R.C. PMID:26966407

  14. The Relationship between Partners’ Family-Size Preferences in Southern Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Sara; Sennott, Christie

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the relative influence of partners’ fertility preferences on behaviors tend to treat preferences as fixed, largely independent traits despite existing theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggesting that they are moving targets that may be jointly developed within relationships. In this study, we use couple-level panel data from married and unmarried young adults in southern Malawi to examine the relationship between partners’ family-size preferences. We find evidence of assortative mating: young Malawians are more likely to partner with individuals who have similar family-size goals. Additionally, although partners’ family-size preferences do not perfectly converge, changes among men’s and women’s preferences are significantly more likely to be “toward” than “away from” those of their partner. Our findings point to a need for studies regarding the relative influence of partners on reproductive outcomes to consider the interdependence of partners’ preferences and the varied ways in which partners can influence shared reproductive behaviors. PMID:25207497

  15. International investigation into the relationship between social expenditure for family and total fertility rate.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Airi; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Declining birth rates are an important social issue worldwide, and allocating resources to benefits for child-rearing households is a necessary countermeasure. In this study, we investigate and compare the relationship between child-related social security costs and total fertility rate internationally.Method In 2011, the ratios of family- and elderly-related social spending to gross domestic product (GDP) were recorded in 34 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries. The former was designated as the percentage allocated to members of the population between the ages of 0 and 14 (young population ratio), and the latter was designated as the percentage allocated to members of the population over the age of 65 (elderly population ratio). We compared these two factors for every country and performed correlation and partial correlation analyses of total fertility rates and family-related social spending to GDP adjusted by population proportion to examine the relationship between the two.Results The comparison of the youth and elderly populations' spending ratios in the total social spending to GDP ratio revealed that OECD countries had an average family-related social spending ratio of 0.13 and an average elderly-related social spending ratio of 0.47. Comparatively, Japan has a family-related social spending ratio of 0.10 and an elderly-related social spending ratio of 0.45. In the correlation analysis for total fertility rates and family-related social spending to GDP ratio, the benefits-in-kind to GDP ratio and total fertility rates indicated a trend toward correlation (r=0.32, P=0.06). In addition, the results for the partial correlation between family-related social spending to GDP ratio and total fertility rates showed a significant correlation between the two. When divided into cash benefits and benefits-in-kind, the partial correlation analysis of the GDP ratios and total fertility rates revealed a significant

  16. International investigation into the relationship between social expenditure for family and total fertility rate.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Airi; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Declining birth rates are an important social issue worldwide, and allocating resources to benefits for child-rearing households is a necessary countermeasure. In this study, we investigate and compare the relationship between child-related social security costs and total fertility rate internationally.Method In 2011, the ratios of family- and elderly-related social spending to gross domestic product (GDP) were recorded in 34 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries. The former was designated as the percentage allocated to members of the population between the ages of 0 and 14 (young population ratio), and the latter was designated as the percentage allocated to members of the population over the age of 65 (elderly population ratio). We compared these two factors for every country and performed correlation and partial correlation analyses of total fertility rates and family-related social spending to GDP adjusted by population proportion to examine the relationship between the two.Results The comparison of the youth and elderly populations' spending ratios in the total social spending to GDP ratio revealed that OECD countries had an average family-related social spending ratio of 0.13 and an average elderly-related social spending ratio of 0.47. Comparatively, Japan has a family-related social spending ratio of 0.10 and an elderly-related social spending ratio of 0.45. In the correlation analysis for total fertility rates and family-related social spending to GDP ratio, the benefits-in-kind to GDP ratio and total fertility rates indicated a trend toward correlation (r=0.32, P=0.06). In addition, the results for the partial correlation between family-related social spending to GDP ratio and total fertility rates showed a significant correlation between the two. When divided into cash benefits and benefits-in-kind, the partial correlation analysis of the GDP ratios and total fertility rates revealed a significant

  17. Current and recollected perceptions of family relationships: the social relations model approach applied to members of three generations.

    PubMed

    Delsing, Marc J M H; Oud, Johan H L; De Bruyn, Eric E J; Van Aken, Marcel A G

    2003-12-01

    Data from 81 three-generation families (comprising 567 participants) were analyzed to assess perceptions of current-family and family-of-origin relationships. The dimensions studied (Restrictiveness, Justice, Affection, and Trust) were derived from the family systems theories as developed by Boszormenyi-Nagy (I. Boszormenyi-Nagy & B. R. Krasner, 1986; I. Boszormenyi-Nagy & G. Spark, 1984; I. Boszormenyi-Nagy & D. N. Ulrich, 1981) and Stierlin (H. Stierlin, 1974, 1978; H. Stierlin, I. Rucker-Embden, N. Wetzel, & M. Wirsching, 1980). The social relations model (SRM) was used to disentangle the perception scores into characteristics of the perceiver (actor component), the target (partner component), and the family as a whole. For both current-family and family-of-origin relationships, significant variances of actor as well as family components were found. Empirical evidence for an association between current-family and (mother's) family-of-origin components was only found on the dimension of Restrictiveness. Clear differences were found between the means of current-family and family-of-origin perceptions, which could be explained by differences between current and past SRM components. PMID:14640796

  18. Molecular and Morphological Analyses Reveal Phylogenetic Relationships of Stingrays Focusing on the Family Dasyatidae (Myliobatiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kean Chong; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chong, Ving Ching; Loh, Kar-Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the current but problematic Dasyatidae (Order Myliobatiformes) was the first priority of the current study. Here, we studied three molecular gene markers of 43 species (COI gene), 33 species (ND2 gene) and 34 species (RAG1 gene) of stingrays to draft out the phylogenetic tree of the order. Nine character states were identified and used to confirm the molecularly constructed phylogenetic trees. Eight or more clades (at different hierarchical level) were identified for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes in the Myliobatiformes including four clades containing members of the present Dasyatidae, thus rendering the latter non-monophyletic. The uncorrected p-distance between these four ‘Dasytidae’ clades when compared to the distance between formally known families confirmed that these four clades should be elevated to four separate families. We suggest a revision of the present classification, retaining the Dasyatidae (Dasyatis and Taeniurops species) but adding three new families namely, Neotrygonidae (Neotrygon and Taeniura species), Himanturidae (Himantura species) and Pastinachidae (Pastinachus species). Our result indicated the need to further review the classification of Dasyatis microps. By resolving the non-monophyletic problem, the suite of nine character states enables the natural classification of the Myliobatiformes into at least thirteen families based on morphology. PMID:25867639

  19. [Early childhood handicaps in French Guyana: an analysis of relationships between families and professionals].

    PubMed

    Gallibour, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The author reiterates that the transfer of public health policies to French Guyana has still not been able to fill in the gap related to delays in development of infrastructure and the lack of personnel in the social and medical establishments. The system of management for handicapped children in this French county is strongly influenced by the increasing immigrant population and by the vulnerability and instability of the administrative and socioeconomic situations of those families. Furthermore, the obstacles that the professionals from the socio-medical sector must confront in their daily practice and activities are described. An analysis of their portrayals and practices permit the author to show and outline their relationships with the immigrant families who are at risk, particularly that of maintaining and suffering from the general air of stigma to which they are objected to in the Guyanese society.

  20. Family Relationships and Parental Monitoring During Middle School as Predictors of Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Stormshak, Elizabeth a.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Winter, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The middle school years are a period of increased risk for youths' engagement in antisocial behaviors, substance use, and affiliation with deviant peers (Dishion & Patterson, 2006). This study examined the specific role of parental monitoring and of family relationships (mother, father, and sibling) that are all critical to the deterrence of problem behavior in early adolescence. The study sample comprised 179 ethnically diverse 6th grade (46% female) students who were followed through 8th grade. Results indicated that parental monitoring and father–youth connectedness were associated with reductions in problem behavior over time, and conflict with siblings was linked with increases in problem behaviors. No associations were found for mother–youth connectedness. These findings did not differ for boys and for girls, or for families with resident or nonresident fathers. PMID:22417193

  1. The Third Rail of Family Systems: Sibling Relationships, Mental and Behavioral Health, and Preventive Intervention in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Sibling relationships are an important context for development, but are often ignored in research and preventive interventions with youth and families. In childhood and adolescence siblings spend considerable time together, and siblings’ characteristics and sibling dynamics substantially influence developmental trajectories and outcomes. This paper reviews research on sibling relationships in childhood and adolescence, focusing on sibling dynamics as part of the family system and sibling influences on adjustment problems, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors and substance use. We present a theoretical model that describes three key pathways of sibling influence: one that extends through siblings’ experiences with peers and school, and two that operate largely through family relationships. We then describe the few existing preventive interventions that target sibling relationships and discuss the potential utility of integrating siblings into child and family programs. PMID:22105663

  2. Inter-familial relationships of the shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) based on nuclear DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Per GP; Envall, Ida; Irestedt, Martin; Norman, Janette A

    2003-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic hypotheses of higher-level relationships in the order Charadriiformes based on morphological data, partly disagree with those based on DNA-DNA hybridisation data. So far, these relationships have not been tested by analysis of DNA sequence data. Herein we utilize 1692 bp of aligned, nuclear DNA sequences obtained from 23 charadriiform species, representing 15 families. We also test earlier suggestions that bustards and sandgrouses may be nested with the charadriiforms. The data is analysed with methods based on the parsimony and maximum-likelihood criteria. Results Several novel phylogenetic relationships were recovered and strongly supported by the data, regardless of which method of analysis was employed. These include placing the gulls and allied groups as a sistergroup to the sandpiper-like birds, and not to the plover-like birds. The auks clearly belong to the clade with the gulls and allies, and are not basal to most other charadriiform birds as suggested in analyses of morphological data. Pluvialis, which has been supposed to belong to the plover family (Charadriidae), represents a basal branch that constitutes the sister taxon to a clade with plovers, oystercatchers and avocets. The thick-knees and sheathbills unexpectedly cluster together. Conclusion The DNA sequence data contains a strong phylogenetic signal that results in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree with many strongly supported internodes. Taxonomically it is the most inclusive study of shorebird families that relies on nucleotide sequences. The presented phylogenetic hypothesis provides a solid framework for analyses of macroevolution of ecological, morphological and behavioural adaptations observed within the order Charadriiformes. PMID:12875664

  3. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how individual symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal data collected across six years of adolescence. Adolescent gender and family relationship variables were tested as predictors of the symptom trajectories (i.e., intercept and slope). Adolescents and their mothers (N = 240) were first evaluated when youth were in grade 6 (M = 11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female) and then annually through grade 12. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed by a clinical interviewer using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R). Mothers and youth also completed measures about their relationship on the Children’s Report of Parent Behavior Inventory and the Family Environment Scale. Results showed that all depressive symptoms increased linearly over time except psychomotor disturbances and problems with concentration and decision making, which were best represented by a quadratic growth model. Sex differences were found such that significantly more rapid increases in worthlessness/guilt were found for girls than boys, and concentration/decision making problems decreased significantly for boys, but not girls. Poor family relationship quality (mother-reported) predicted a significantly faster rate of increase in adolescents’ symptoms of anhedonia, appetite/weight changes, and fatigue. High maternal psychological control (youth-reported) also predicted a faster rate of increase in anhedonia. Study limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25329553

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) from China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiangqun; Gao, Ke; Yuan, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-06-10

    Hesperiidae is one of the largest families of butterflies. Our knowledge of the higher systematics on hesperiids from China is still very limited. We infer the phylogenetic relationships of the subfamilies of Chinese skippers based on three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b (Cytb), the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI)). In this study, 30 species in 23 genera were included in the Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The subfamily Coeliadinae, Eudaminae, Pyrginae and Heteropterinae were recovered as a monophyletic clade with strong support. The subfamily Hesperiinae formed a clade, but support for monophyly was weak. Our results imply that the five subfamilies of Chinese Hesperiidae should be divided into: Coeliadinae, Eudaminae, Pyrginae, Heteropterinae and Hesperiinae. The relationships of the five subfamilies should be as follows: Coeliadinae + (Eudaminae + (Pyrginae + (Heteropterinae + Hesperiinae))).

  5. [Cartographic notes on the work in the Family Health Strategy: relationships between workers and the population].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Matumoto, Silvia; Camargo-Borges, Celiane; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa; Mishima, Silvana Martins; Kawata, Lauren Suemi; Silveira, Fernando; de Oliveira, Nunila Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this intervention study was to map instituted and instituting movements present in the work of the Family Health Strategy in the development of their care practices. The theoretical framework is based on institutional analysis, using the schizoanalytic approach. Group meetings were carried out with the staff to discuss how they provided collective care in continuing health education. The study subjects were professionals from the team and students who were engaged in academic activity in the service. The average attendance was twelve people per meeting, and there were a total of eight meetings from March to July 2010. Data were grouped into two immanent strata: the relationships of the team and the relationship with clients. The strata point to the intersection of education and legal institutions and the social and technical division of labor. Collective thinking in groups appeared to be effective in denaturalizing established processes and interrogating places, knowledge and practices.

  6. Genetic analysis of putative familial relationships in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Renato; Lorenz, Joseph; Beck, Jeanne; Else, James; Bender, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Twelve autosomal dinucleotide repeat loci were analyzed in chimpanzees genomes by DNA amplification using primers designed for analysis of human loci. The markers span the entire length of human chromosomes 21 and 22. Nine markers were polymorphic in chimpanzee as well, with a somewhat comparable level of polymorphism and allele size range. Even in the presence of very limited information and in spite of missing samples, it was possible to reconstruct a complex pedigree and to provide molecular data that corroborate family relationships that were deduced from cage history and behavioral data. The conclusions were further supported by mitochondrial DNA analysis. The data presented in this report show that the extremely abundant source of human markers may be exploited to validate, with molecular evidence, hypotheses on individual relationship or alleged pedigrees, based upon behavioral observations.

  7. The Relationship between Organizational Support, Work-Family Conflict, and the Job-Life Satisfaction of University Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Marlene A.; Sagas, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between organizational support, work-family conflict, and job and life satisfaction among coaches. Data from collegiate head coaches with families (N = 253) were gathered through a mailed questionnaire. Results from a series of covariance structure models indicated that a partially mediated model was the best…

  8. Communications and Relationship Simulation (CARS): A Reality-Based Means for Teaching Courtship, Marriage, and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breci, Michael G.; Klein, Ross A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a set of exercises for students of college courses on courtship, marriage, and the family. The exercises simulate the life of a relationship from dating to marriage and family life. Presents issues related to application of the simulation in the classroom and analyzes student response to its use. (Author/AEM)

  9. Familism as a Predictor of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Developmental Outcomes for Adolescents in Armenian American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Supple, Andrew J.; Plunkett, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated associations between familism, parent-adolescent relationships, and developmental outcomes for a sample of 97 Armenian adolescents in immigrant families. Our results suggested that adolescents emphasizing family needs over their own were more likely to report conformity to parents' wishes, respect for parental authority, and…

  10. Families as Niches during Communism in East Germany: Consequences for Parent-Child Relationships during Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    This study brings together two main theoretical traditions in order to better understand how parent-child relationships are influenced by the societal conditions around the family. The concept of the ecological niche has been used to describe the way in which East German families dealt with government institutions during communism, while we used…

  11. Relationship of Non-Economic Variables to Patterns of Saving of Farm Families in a Puerto Rican County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segarra-Ortiz, Hilda

    This study examined the relationship between income and saving patterns in rural Puerto Rico. It was hypothesized that social and psychological variables are related to saving habits of families. The level of living as measured by a scale based on possessions was found to be significantly (.33) associated with the saving patterns of the family.…

  12. The Relationship among Family Interaction Patterns and Career Indecision and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiston, Susan C.

    1996-01-01

    Undergraduate women with higher levels of organization and control in their families experienced less career indecision but not higher career self-efficacy. Males and females whose families had intellectual/cultural orientation had higher self-efficacy in using occupational information. An inverse relationship appeared between this type of…

  13. Using a CBT-Based Therapeutic Community Program to Facilitate Healthy Relationships among Military Veterans and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush-Ossenbeck, Marilyn; West-Olatunji, Cirecie

    2014-01-01

    The authors propose a CBT-based Therapeutic Community (TC) program designed to facilitate healthy relationships between military veterans and their families. In many military veteran families, there is a struggle to maintain a healthy and balanced life both outside and inside the household. This struggle affects both spouses and children and is…

  14. Stressed out and Overcommitted! The Relationships between Time Demands and Family Rules and Parents' and Their Child's Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Sevcik, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to determine the relationship between parent time demands and presence and enforcement of family rules and parent/child dyad weight status. Method. In dyads of one child/parent per family (N = 681 dyads) in Twin Cities, Minnesota, 2007-2008, height and weight were measured, and a survey of demographics, time demands,…

  15. Relationship between Family Functioning and Parenting Beliefs and Feelings among Women Who Have a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…

  16. The Relationship between Frequency of Family Dinner and Adolescent Problem Behaviors after Adjusting for Other Family Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Bisakha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary…

  17. 12 CFR 563f.9 - Interlocking relationships permitted pursuant to Federal Deposit Insurance Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Federal Deposit Insurance Act. 563f.9 Section 563f.9 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... permitted pursuant to Federal Deposit Insurance Act. A management official or prospective management... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation pursuant to section 13(k)(1)(A)(v) of the Federal Deposit...

  18. 12 CFR 563f.9 - Interlocking relationships permitted pursuant to Federal Deposit Insurance Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Federal Deposit Insurance Act. 563f.9 Section 563f.9 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... permitted pursuant to Federal Deposit Insurance Act. A management official or prospective management... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation pursuant to section 13(k)(1)(A)(v) of the Federal Deposit...

  19. 45 CFR 5.4 - Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Privacy Act of 1974. (a) Coverage. The FOIA and this rule apply to all HHS records. The Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a, applies to records that are about individuals, but only if the records are in a system of... under those provisions, we will also consider your request under the FOIA and this rule, and we...

  20. Positive relationships that support elder health and well-being are grounded in midlife/adolescent family.

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda G; Bell, David C

    2012-01-01

    Family is potentially a major support system for people of all ages. It can become particularly important for elders. On the basis of a 25-year longitudinal study, this article explores the contributions of family system functioning at parents' midlife to elderly parents' physical and mental health. Findings support the significant influence of the quality of the midlife/adolescent family life cycle stage on later life relationships between elderly parents and their adult children. Positive relationships with their adult children were important for both elderly parents' well-being. Frequency of contact with children was important for fathers-both for their well-being and for their physical health. PMID:22929374

  1. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Mesoamerican endemic freshwater fish family Profundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes: Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Felipe; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Mesoamerican endemic freshwater fish family Profundulidae (Cyprinodontiformes: Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Felipe; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes of Profundulidae, which until now was composed of two subgenera, represent one of the few extant fish families endemic to Mesoamerica. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the eight recognized extant species (from 37 populations) of Profundulidae using three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene markers (∼2.9 Kbp). We applied a Bayesian species delimitation method as a first approach to resolving speciation patterns within Profundulidae considering two different scenarios, eight-species and twelve-species models, obtained in a previous phylogenetic analysis. Based on our results, each of the two subgenera was resolved as monophyletic, with a remarkable molecular divergence of 24.5% for mtDNA and 7.8% for nDNA uncorrected p distances, and thus we propose that they correspond to separate genera. Moreover, we propose a conservative taxonomic hypothesis with five species within Profundulus and three within Tlaloc, although both eight-species and twelve-species models were highly supported by the bayesian species delimitation analysis, providing additional evidence of higher taxonomic diversity than currently recognized in this family. According to our divergence time estimates, the family originated during the Upper Oligocene 26 Mya, and Profundulus and Tlaloc diverged in the Upper Oligocene or Lower Miocene about 20 Mya. PMID:26364972

  3. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  4. Act No. 87-010 setting forth the Family Code, 1 August 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1987 Family Code of Zaire relating to a married woman's name, the registration of vital statistics, the legal domicile of a married woman, the definition of a minor, and the emancipation of a minor upon marriage. Also included are the sections of Title 1 (marriage) which provide the general characteristics of marriage; protect the freedom to marry; cover general provisions relating to engagement; describe the formation of marriage in terms of the goal of marriage, the consent to marry, dowries, marriage procedures, penalties relating to the conditions of marriage, the effects of marriage (in general, regarding the household, and nonproperty effects), and the three matrimonial regimes which apply to marital property; and the dissolution of marriage by death or divorce. PMID:12289658

  5. Huprines as a new family of dual acting trypanocidal–antiplasmodial agents

    PubMed Central

    Defaux, Julien; Sala, Marta; Formosa, Xavier; Galdeano, Carles; Taylor, Martin C.; Alobaid, Waleed A.A.; Kelly, John M.; Wright, Colin W.; Camps, Pelayo; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego

    2011-01-01

    A series of 19 huprines has been evaluated for their activity against cultured bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Moreover, cytotoxicity against rat myoblast L6 cells was assessed for selected huprines. All the tested huprines are moderately potent and selective trypanocidal agents, exhibiting IC50 values against T. brucei in the submicromolar to low micromolar range and selectivity indices for T. brucei over L6 cells of approximately 15, thus constituting interesting trypanocidal lead compounds. Two of these huprines were also found to be active against a chloroquine-resistant strain of P. falciparum, thus emerging as interesting trypanocidal–antiplasmodial dual acting compounds, but they exhibited little selectivity for P. falciparum over L6 cells. PMID:21315611

  6. Relationship between Individual Quality of Life and Family Quality of Life for People with Intellectual Disability Living in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelli, M.; Bianco, A.; Rossi, M.; Scuticchio, D.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is substantial literature investigating quality of life (QoL) of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). QoL of families of people with ID is emerging as an important field of research. Despite this, there is a lack of studies regarding their relationship. Aim: The present paper aimed to study the relationship between QoL…

  7. The Relationships between Childhood Depression, Perceptions of Family Functioning and Perceptions of Classroom Social Climate: Implications for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Todd T.; Russell, Debra K.

    This study investigated the relationships between children's levels of depression, their perceptions of their classroom social climate, and their perceptions of their families' functioning. The three self-report instruments employed were the Reynolds Child Depression Scale (RCDS), the relationship dimension of the Classroom Environment Scale…

  8. Ontogenetic development of intestinal length and relationships to diet in an Australasian fish family (Terapontidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the most widely accepted ecomorphological relationships in vertebrates is the negative correlation between intestinal length and proportion of animal prey in diet. While many fish groups exhibit this general pattern, other clades demonstrate minimal, and in some cases contrasting, associations between diet and intestinal length. Moreover, this relationship and its evolutionary derivation have received little attention from a phylogenetic perspective. This study documents the phylogenetic development of intestinal length variability, and resultant correlation with dietary habits, within a molecular phylogeny of 28 species of terapontid fishes. The Terapontidae (grunters), an ancestrally euryhaline-marine group, is the most trophically diverse of Australia’s freshwater fish families, with widespread shifts away from animal-prey-dominated diets occurring since their invasion of fresh waters. Results Description of ontogenetic development of intestinal complexity of terapontid fishes, in combination with ancestral character state reconstruction, demonstrated that complex intestinal looping (convolution) has evolved independently on multiple occasions within the family. This modification of ontogenetic development drives much of the associated interspecific variability in intestinal length evident in terapontids. Phylogenetically informed comparative analyses (phylogenetic independent contrasts) showed that the interspecific differences in intestinal length resulting from these ontogenetic developmental mechanisms explained ~65% of the variability in the proportion of animal material in terapontid diets. Conclusions The ontogenetic development of intestinal complexity appears to represent an important functional innovation underlying the extensive trophic differentiation seen in Australia’s freshwater terapontids, specifically facilitating the pronounced shifts away from carnivorous (including invertebrates and vertebrates) diets evident across the

  9. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants. PMID:27625661

  10. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants.

  11. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants. PMID:27625661

  12. Working it out together: family caregivers' perceptions of relationship-building with in-home service providers.

    PubMed

    Gantert, Thomas W; McWilliam, Carol L; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Allen, Natalie

    2009-09-01

    Provision of in-home services to seniors involves the contributions of numerous professional and paraprofessional health-care providers but is largely dependent upon the involvement of caregiver networks consisting of friends and family members. Therefore, in-home provider/family caregiver relationships have become an essential component of care provision. However, evidence suggests that provider/family caregiver interactions often are lacking or are ambiguous and characterized by tension and power struggles.The purpose of this study was to explore family caregivers' perceptions of their relationships with in-home care providers. Applying interpretive phenomenology, the authors conducted in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of family caregivers and used an immersion/crystallization analysis strategy to elicit the findings. The findings reveal that family caregivers perceive their relationship-building with in-home providers as a dynamic process with facilitators and barriers encountered at both individual and system levels.The interpretive findings afford several insights into building provider/family caregiver relationships within the in-home context.

  13. Maternal Employment and Parent-Child Relationships in Single-Parent Families of Low-Birth-Weight Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Youngblut, JoAnne M.; Singer, Lynn T.; Madigan, Elizabeth A.; Swegart, Leslie A.; Rodgers, Willard L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The influence of premature birth of an infant in female-headed, single-parent families together or in conjunction with family environment factors, such as employment of the mother, on the mother-premature child relationship has not been considered in past studies. Objectives To explore differences in parent-child and family relationships for employed and nonemployed single mothers of low–birth-weight (LBW) and full-term preschool children and to describe the relationships of the mothers employment status, employment history, and employment attitude-behavior consistency to parent-child and family relationships. Methods Single mothers with LBW (n = 60) and full-term (n = 61) preschool children provided data on their employment situation, the Parenting Stress Index, the Feetham Family Functioning Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. Results Employed mothers had more positive perceptions and provided more enriching home environments for their children. Greater attitude-behavior consistency was associated with more positive perceptions of the parental role. Conclusion Thus, in single-parent families, employment and consistency are positive influences on the mother-child relationship. PMID:9536195

  14. Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Malcolm S.; Hill, April L.; Lopez, Jose; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pomponi, Shirley; Diaz, Maria C.; Thacker, Robert W.; Adamska, Maja; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Cárdenas, Paco; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Danka, Elizabeth; De Laine, Bre-Onna; Formica, Dawn; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Klontz, Sarah; Morrow, Christine C.; Patel, Jignasa; Picton, Bernard; Pisani, Davide; Pohlmann, Deborah; Redmond, Niamh E.; Reed, John; Richey, Stacy; Riesgo, Ana; Rubin, Ewelina; Russell, Zach; Rützler, Klaus; Sperling, Erik A.; di Stefano, Michael; Tarver, James E.; Collins, Allen G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap, Haploscleromorphap (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlaviap. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosap and Myxospongiaep to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorphap+Spongillidap+Democlaviap. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillidap) are sister to Haploscleromorphap rather than part of Democlaviap. Within Keratosap, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiaep, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlaviap, Tetractinellidap, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlaviap. Within Tetractinellidap, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. Conclusions/Significance These results, using an

  15. Work-based resources as moderators of the relationship between work hours and satisfaction with work-family balance.

    PubMed

    Valcour, Monique

    2007-11-01

    This study reports an investigation of the relationships of work hours, job complexity, and control over work time to satisfaction with work-family balance. Based on data from a sample of 570 telephone call center representatives, a moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed that work hours were negatively related to satisfaction with work-family balance, consistent with the resource drain perspective. Job complexity and control over work time were positively associated with satisfaction with work-family balance. Control over work time moderated the relationship such that as work hours rose, workers with low control experienced a decline in work-family balance satisfaction, while workers with high control did not. Results encourage greater research attention to work characteristics, such as job complexity and control over work time, and skills that represent resources useful to the successful integration of work and family demands.

  16. Parents' work-family experiences and children's problem behaviors: The mediating role of the parent-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Distinct families of cis-acting RNA replication elements epsilon from hepatitis B viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Augustine; Brown, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The hepadnavirus encapsidation signal, epsilon (ε), is an RNA structure located at the 5′ end of the viral pregenomic RNA. It is essential for viral replication and functions in polymerase protein binding and priming. This structure could also have potential regulatory roles in controlling the expression of viral replicative proteins. In addition to its structure, the primary sequence of this RNA element has crucial functional roles in the viral lifecycle. Although the ε elements in hepadnaviruses share common critical functions, there are some significant differences in mammalian and avian hepadnaviruses, which include both sequence and structural variations.   Here we present several covariance models for ε elements from the Hepadnaviridae. The model building included experimentally determined data from previous studies using chemical probing and NMR analysis. These models have sufficient similarity to comprise a clan. The clan has in common a highly conserved overall structure consisting of a lower-stem, bulge, upper-stem and apical-loop. The models differ in functionally critical regions—notably the two types of avian ε elements have a tetra-loop (UGUU) including a non-canonical UU base pair, while the hepatitis B virus (HBV) epsilon has a tri-loop (UGU). The avian epsilon elements have a less stable dynamic structure in the upper stem. Comparisons between these models and all other Rfam models, and searches of genomes, showed these structures are specific to the Hepadnaviridae. Two family models and the clan are available from the Rfam database. PMID:22418844

  18. The CRP/MLP/TLP family of LIM domain proteins: acting by connecting.

    PubMed

    Weiskirchen, Ralf; Günther, Kalle

    2003-02-01

    In vertebrates, members of the cysteine-rich protein (CRP) family are characterized by the presence of two LIM domains linked to short glycine-rich repeats. These proteins mediate protein-protein interactions and are of fundamental importance for cell differentiation, cytoskeletal remodeling, and transcriptional regulation. To date, a vast amount of information about vertebrate CRPs has become available, including their biological functions, interacting partners, and three-dimensional structures. Compatible with a molecular adapter role, structural data reveal that the LIM domains within these proteins represent completely independent folded units bridged by flexible linker regions. The physiological roles for individual CRPs was determined by targeted gene disruption analysis and by identification of common and specific binding partners by means of yeast and mammalian two-hybrid screens. Several CRP-like LIM domain proteins with close structural and sequence similarity were identified in arthropods, protozoas and plants, supporting the notion that this subset of LIM domain proteins has been highly conserved over the span of evolution thereby emphasizing the importance of their function.

  19. Chytrid fungus acts as a generalist pathogen infecting species-rich amphibian families in Brazilian rainforests.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Aguilar, Anyelet; Ruano-Fajardo, Gustavo; Lambertini, Carolina; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Mott, Tamí

    2015-05-11

    The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is among the main causes of declines in amphibian populations. This fungus is considered a generalist pathogen because it infects several species and spreads rapidly in the wild. To date, Bd has been detected in more than 100 anuran species in Brazil, mostly in the southern portion of the Atlantic forest. Here, we report survey data from some poorly explored regions; these data considerably extend current information on the distribution of Bd in the northern Atlantic forest region. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that Bd is a generalist pathogen in this biome. We also report the first positive record for Bd in an anuran caught in the wild in Amazonia. In total, we screened 90 individuals (from 27 species), of which 39 individuals (from 22 species) were Bd-positive. All samples collected in Bahia (2 individuals), Pernambuco (3 individuals), Pará (1 individual), and Minas Gerais (1 individual) showed positive results for Bd. We found a positive correlation between anuran richness per family and the number of infected species in the Atlantic forest, supporting previous observations that Bd lacks strong host specificity; of 38% of the anuran species in the Atlantic forest that were tested for Bd infection, 25% showed positive results. The results of our study exemplify the pandemic and widespread nature of Bd infection in amphibians. PMID:25958806

  20. Chytrid fungus acts as a generalist pathogen infecting species-rich amphibian families in Brazilian rainforests.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Aguilar, Anyelet; Ruano-Fajardo, Gustavo; Lambertini, Carolina; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Mott, Tamí

    2015-05-11

    The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is among the main causes of declines in amphibian populations. This fungus is considered a generalist pathogen because it infects several species and spreads rapidly in the wild. To date, Bd has been detected in more than 100 anuran species in Brazil, mostly in the southern portion of the Atlantic forest. Here, we report survey data from some poorly explored regions; these data considerably extend current information on the distribution of Bd in the northern Atlantic forest region. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that Bd is a generalist pathogen in this biome. We also report the first positive record for Bd in an anuran caught in the wild in Amazonia. In total, we screened 90 individuals (from 27 species), of which 39 individuals (from 22 species) were Bd-positive. All samples collected in Bahia (2 individuals), Pernambuco (3 individuals), Pará (1 individual), and Minas Gerais (1 individual) showed positive results for Bd. We found a positive correlation between anuran richness per family and the number of infected species in the Atlantic forest, supporting previous observations that Bd lacks strong host specificity; of 38% of the anuran species in the Atlantic forest that were tested for Bd infection, 25% showed positive results. The results of our study exemplify the pandemic and widespread nature of Bd infection in amphibians.

  1. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities. PMID:21690316

  2. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  3. Ras-association domain family 10 acts as a novel tumor suppressor through modulating MMP2 in hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W; Wang, J; Wang, L; Qian, C; Qian, Y; Xuan, H; Zhuo, W; Li, X; Yu, J; Si, J

    2016-01-01

    Ras-Association Domain Family 10 (RASSF10) is the last identified member of the RASSF family. The functional characteristics of this new gene in human cancers remain largely unclear. Here, we examined RASSF10 for the biological functions and related molecular mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that RASSF10 is expressed in normal human liver tissue, but is silenced or down-regulated in 62.5% (5/8) of HCC cell lines. The mean expression level of RASSF10 was significantly lower in primary HCCs compared with their adjacent normal tissues (P<0.005, n=52). The promoter methylation contributes to the inactivation of RASSF10 as demonstrated by bisulfite genomic sequencing and demethylation treatment analyses. Transgenic expression of RASSF10 in silenced HCC cell lines suppressed cell viability, colony formation and inhibited tumor growth in nude mice (QGY7703, P<0.01; HepG2, P<0.05). Furthermore, RASSF10 was shown to induce the cell accumulation in G1 phase with the increase of p27, as well as the decrease of cyclinD1 and CDK2/CDK4. Over-expression of RASSF10 also inhibited HCC cells migration (P<0.01) or invasion (P<0.05). Adhesion genes array revealed that Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was a downstream effector of RASSF10. RASSF10 acting as a tumor suppressor to inhibit HCC invasion partially mediated by Focal Adhesion Kinase or p38 MAPK to decrease the accumulation of MMP2. Our study suggests that RASSF10 acts as a tumor suppressor for HCC. PMID:27348267

  4. The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

    2012-01-01

    There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

  5. The MscS and MscL families of mechanosensitive channels act as microbial emergency release valves.

    PubMed

    Booth, Ian R; Blount, Paul

    2012-09-01

    Single-celled organisms must survive exposure to environmental extremes. Perhaps one of the most variable and potentially life-threatening changes that can occur is that of a rapid and acute decrease in external osmolarity. This easily translates into several atmospheres of additional pressure that can build up within the cell. Without a protective mechanism against such pressures, the cell will lyse. Hence, most microbes appear to possess members of one or both families of bacterial mechanosensitive channels, MscS and MscL, which can act as biological emergency release valves that allow cytoplasmic solutes to be jettisoned rapidly from the cell. While this is undoubtedly a function of these proteins, the discovery of the presence of MscS homologues in plant organelles and MscL in fungus and mycoplasma genomes may complicate this simplistic interpretation of the physiology underlying these proteins. Here we compare and contrast these two mechanosensitive channel families, discuss their potential physiological roles, and review some of the most relevant data that underlie the current models for their structure and function.

  6. Aminopeptidase T of M29 Family Acts as A Novel Intracellular Virulence Factor for Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changyong; Wang, Xiaowen; Dong, Zhimei; Shao, Chunyan; Yang, Yongchun; Fang, Weihuan; Fang, Chun; Wang, Hang; Yang, Menghua; Jiang, Lingli; Zhou, Xiangyang; Song, Houhui

    2015-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes employs a number of virulence determinants including metalloproteases to infect hosts. Here for the first time, we identified an M29 family aminopeptidase T (encoded by lmo1603) from L. monocytogenes that possesses a typical feature to catalyze the cleavage of amino acids from peptide substrates, with a preference for arginine. The purified recombinant Lmo1603 was activated by Fe3+, Zn2+ and Mn2+, but strongly stimulated by Co2+, indicating that Lmo1603 is a cobalt-dependent aminopeptidase. Single mutation at any of the Glu216, Glu281, His308, Tyr315, His327, and Asp329 completely abolished the enzymatic activity of Lmo1603. More importantly, we showed that Lmo1603 was mainly involved in Listeria infection, but not required for growth in rich laboratory medium and minimal defined medium. Disruption of Lmo1603 resulted in almost complete attenuation of Listeria virulence in a mouse infection model. In addition, we demonstrated that Lmo1603 was mainly localized in the bacterial cytosol and required for invasion and survival inside human epithelial cells and murine macrophages. We conclude that Lmo1603 encodes a functional aminopeptidase T of M29 family, which acts as a novel intracellular virulence factor essential in the successful establishment of L. monocytogenes infections in a mouse model. PMID:26610705

  7. Aminopeptidase T of M29 Family Acts as A Novel Intracellular Virulence Factor for Listeria monocytogenes Infection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Changyong; Wang, Xiaowen; Dong, Zhimei; Shao, Chunyan; Yang, Yongchun; Fang, Weihuan; Fang, Chun; Wang, Hang; Yang, Menghua; Jiang, Lingli; Zhou, Xiangyang; Song, Houhui

    2015-11-27

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes employs a number of virulence determinants including metalloproteases to infect hosts. Here for the first time, we identified an M29 family aminopeptidase T (encoded by lmo1603) from L. monocytogenes that possesses a typical feature to catalyze the cleavage of amino acids from peptide substrates, with a preference for arginine. The purified recombinant Lmo1603 was activated by Fe(3+), Zn(2+) and Mn(2+), but strongly stimulated by Co(2+), indicating that Lmo1603 is a cobalt-dependent aminopeptidase. Single mutation at any of the Glu216, Glu281, His308, Tyr315, His327, and Asp329 completely abolished the enzymatic activity of Lmo1603. More importantly, we showed that Lmo1603 was mainly involved in Listeria infection, but not required for growth in rich laboratory medium and minimal defined medium. Disruption of Lmo1603 resulted in almost complete attenuation of Listeria virulence in a mouse infection model. In addition, we demonstrated that Lmo1603 was mainly localized in the bacterial cytosol and required for invasion and survival inside human epithelial cells and murine macrophages. We conclude that Lmo1603 encodes a functional aminopeptidase T of M29 family, which acts as a novel intracellular virulence factor essential in the successful establishment of L. monocytogenes infections in a mouse model.

  8. Behavioral science in family medicine residencies: Part II. Teacher roles, relationships, and rewards. The STFM Task Force on Behavioral Science.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    A survey of members of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine provided information about roles, relationships, and rewards for teachers involved in family medicine residency behavioral science education. Family physicians and behavioral scientists perceive their own roles in behavioral teaching and patient care as greater than is perceived by the other group. All groups of respondents see a continued need for collaborative behavioral teaching, patient care, and research. Interpersonal rewards reported emphasize family physicians learning from behavioral scientists. Frustrations reflect personal style, use of jargon, and a sense that the other group does not understand important aspects of one's work. Income is markedly greater for family physicians than behavioral scientists. Most behavioral scientists responding plan to remain in family medicine teaching.

  9. Associations of collectivism with relationship commitment, passion, and mate preferences: opposing roles of parental influence and family allocentrism.

    PubMed

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2015-01-01

    In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (referred to as family allocentrism), which drove commitment up (Study 2). Along similar lines, Study 1 found that collectivists' greater acceptance of parental influence on mate choice contributed to their reduced relationship passion, whereas Study 2 found that their greater family allocentrism may have enhanced their passion. Study 2 also revealed that collectivists may have reported a smaller discrepancy between their own preferences for mates high in warmth and trustworthiness and their perception of their parents' preferences for these qualities because of their stronger family allocentrism. However, their higher tolerance of parental influence may have also contributed to a smaller discrepancy in their mate preferences versus their perceptions of their parents' preferences for qualities signifying status and resources. Implications for the roles of collectivism, parental influence, and family allocentrism in relationship quality and mate selection will be discussed.

  10. Associations of Collectivism with Relationship Commitment, Passion, and Mate Preferences: Opposing Roles of Parental Influence and Family Allocentrism

    PubMed Central

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2015-01-01

    In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (referred to as family allocentrism), which drove commitment up (Study 2). Along similar lines, Study 1 found that collectivists’ greater acceptance of parental influence on mate choice contributed to their reduced relationship passion, whereas Study 2 found that their greater family allocentrism may have enhanced their passion. Study 2 also revealed that collectivists may have reported a smaller discrepancy between their own preferences for mates high in warmth and trustworthiness and their perception of their parents’ preferences for these qualities because of their stronger family allocentrism. However, their higher tolerance of parental influence may have also contributed to a smaller discrepancy in their mate preferences versus their perceptions of their parents’ preferences for qualities signifying status and resources. Implications for the roles of collectivism, parental influence, and family allocentrism in relationship quality and mate selection will be discussed. PMID:25719563

  11. Structure-function relationships of peptides forming the calcin family of ryanodine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Gurrola, Georgina B; Zhang, Jing; Valdivia, Carmen R; SanMartin, Mario; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Zhang, Liming; Possani, Lourival D; Valdivia, Héctor H

    2016-05-01

    Calcins are a novel family of scorpion peptides that bind with high affinity to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and increase their activity by inducing subconductance states. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure-function relationships of the eight calcins known to date, based on their primary sequence, three-dimensional modeling, and functional effects on skeletal RyRs (RyR1). Primary sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis show high similarity among all calcins (≥78.8% identity). Other common characteristics include an inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) motif stabilized by three pairs of disulfide bridges and a dipole moment (DM) formed by positively charged residues clustering on one side of the molecule and neutral and negatively charged residues segregating on the opposite side. [(3)H]Ryanodine binding assays, used as an index of the open probability of RyRs, reveal that all eight calcins activate RyR1 dose-dependently with Kd values spanning approximately three orders of magnitude and in the following rank order: opicalcin1 > opicalcin2 > vejocalcin > hemicalcin > imperacalcin > hadrucalcin > maurocalcin > urocalcin. All calcins significantly augment the bell-shaped [Ca(2+)]-[(3)H]ryanodine binding curve with variable effects on the affinity constants for Ca(2+) activation and inactivation. In single channel recordings, calcins induce the appearance of a subconductance state in RyR1 that has a unique fractional value (∼20% to ∼60% of the full conductance state) but bears no relationship to binding affinity, DM, or capacity to stimulate Ca(2+) release. Except for urocalcin, all calcins at 100 nM concentration stimulate Ca(2+) release and deplete Ca(2+) load from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum. The natural variation within the calcin family of peptides offers a diversified set of high-affinity ligands with the capacity to modulate RyRs with high dynamic range and potency. PMID:27114612

  12. Structure–function relationships of peptides forming the calcin family of ryanodine receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Liang; Gurrola, Georgina B.; Zhang, Jing; Valdivia, Carmen R.; SanMartin, Mario; Zamudio, Fernando Z.; Zhang, Liming; Possani, Lourival D.

    2016-01-01

    Calcins are a novel family of scorpion peptides that bind with high affinity to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and increase their activity by inducing subconductance states. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure–function relationships of the eight calcins known to date, based on their primary sequence, three-dimensional modeling, and functional effects on skeletal RyRs (RyR1). Primary sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis show high similarity among all calcins (≥78.8% identity). Other common characteristics include an inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) motif stabilized by three pairs of disulfide bridges and a dipole moment (DM) formed by positively charged residues clustering on one side of the molecule and neutral and negatively charged residues segregating on the opposite side. [3H]Ryanodine binding assays, used as an index of the open probability of RyRs, reveal that all eight calcins activate RyR1 dose-dependently with Kd values spanning approximately three orders of magnitude and in the following rank order: opicalcin1 > opicalcin2 > vejocalcin > hemicalcin > imperacalcin > hadrucalcin > maurocalcin >> urocalcin. All calcins significantly augment the bell-shaped [Ca2+]-[3H]ryanodine binding curve with variable effects on the affinity constants for Ca2+ activation and inactivation. In single channel recordings, calcins induce the appearance of a subconductance state in RyR1 that has a unique fractional value (∼20% to ∼60% of the full conductance state) but bears no relationship to binding affinity, DM, or capacity to stimulate Ca2+ release. Except for urocalcin, all calcins at 100 nM concentration stimulate Ca2+ release and deplete Ca2+ load from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum. The natural variation within the calcin family of peptides offers a diversified set of high-affinity ligands with the capacity to modulate RyRs with high dynamic range and potency. PMID:27114612

  13. Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal phylogeny relationship and evolutionary history of the family Felidae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W Q; Zhang, M H

    2013-01-01

    Many mitochondrial DNA sequences are used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and perform molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the continuous development of sequencing technology, numerous mitochondrial sequences have been released in public databases, especially complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Using multiple sequences is better than using single sequences for phylogenetic analysis of animals because multiple sequences have sufficient information for evolutionary process reconstruction. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 14 species of Felidae based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences, with Canis familiaris as an outgroup, using neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference methods. The consensus phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Felidae, and the family could be divided into 2 subfamilies, Felinae and Pantherinae. The genus Panthera and species tigris were also studied in detail. Meanwhile, the divergence of this family was estimated by phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method with a relaxed molecular clock, and the results shown were consistent with previous studies. In summary, the evolution of Felidae was reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genome sequences. The described method may be broadly applicable for phylogenetic analyses of anima taxa. PMID:24065666

  14. Evolution of complex symbiotic relationships in a morphologically derived family of lichen-forming fungi.

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Crespo, Ana; Wedin, Mats; Leavitt, Steven D; Hawksworth, David L; Myllys, Leena; McCune, Bruce; Randlane, Tiina; Bjerke, Jarle W; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Schmitt, Imke; Boluda, Carlos G; Alors, David; Roca-Valiente, Beatriz; Del-Prado, Ruth; Ruibal, Constantino; Buaruang, Kawinnat; Núñez-Zapata, Jano; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rico, Víctor J; Molina, M Carmen; Elix, John A; Esslinger, Theodore L; Tronstad, Inger Kristin K; Lindgren, Hanna; Ertz, Damien; Gueidan, Cécile; Saag, Lauri; Mark, Kristiina; Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Beck, Andreas; Benatti, Michel Navarro; Blanchon, Dan; Candan, Mehmet; Clerc, Philippe; Goward, Trevor; Grube, Martin; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kantvilas, Gintaras; Kirika, Paul M; Lendemer, James; Mattsson, Jan-Eric; Messuti, María Inés; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Nelsen, Matthew; Ohlson, Jan I; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Saag, Andres; Sipman, Harrie J M; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Thell, Arne; Thor, Göran; Truong, Camille; Yahr, Rebecca; Upreti, Dalip K; Cubas, Paloma; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-12-01

    We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi. In all cases, the independent origins occurred c. 24 million yr ago. Further, we show that the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene were key periods when diversification of major lineages within Parmeliaceae occurred, with subsequent radiations occurring primarily during the Oligocene and Miocene. Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the independent origin of lichenicolous fungi associated with climatic shifts at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Moreover, diversification bursts at different times may be crucial factors driving the diversification of Parmeliaceae. Additionally, our study provides novel insight into evolutionary relationships in this large and diverse family of lichen-forming ascomycetes. PMID:26299211

  15. Assessment of Family Functioning and Its Relationship to Quality of Life in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Azmoude, Elham; Tafazoli, Mahin; Parnan, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most important components and health indicators, especially among people with chronic diseases is quality of life. One of the possible factors which may impact on quality of life of diabetic patients is family functioning. This study aimed to determine the relationship between family functioning and quality of life of diabetic and non-diabetic women. Methods: In this correlational cross-sectional study, 180 women (diabetics and non-diabetics) who referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2014-2015 were studied. Data were collected using SF-36 questionnaire and Mc Master Family Assessment Device (FAD). Data were analyzed using descriptive and statistical tests by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The result showed that diabetic women reported family impairment compared with none diabetic women. There was a significant relationship between the family functioning and quality of life in diabetics and non-diabetic women. Based on the results of the stepwise regression model, among factors of family function only the factor of behavioral control was able to predict the quality of life in diabetic women. Conclusion: Regarding the study findings, good family function associated with better quality of life in diabetics and healthy women. Therefore, due to disturbed family function in diabetic’s women implementation of training programs and consulting services could improve their quality of life. PMID:27752489

  16. Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency. "The Family and Delinquency" (LaMar T. Empey) systematically reviews and weighs the evidence to support prominent theories on the origins of…

  17. 25 CFR 700.825 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.825 Relationship to section 106 of the National.... 470f). However, the mere issuance of such a permit does not excuse the Federal Land Manager...

  18. 25 CFR 700.825 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.825 Relationship to section 106 of the National.... 470f). However, the mere issuance of such a permit does not excuse the Federal Land Manager...

  19. 25 CFR 700.825 - Relationship to section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.825 Relationship to section 106 of the National.... 470f). However, the mere issuance of such a permit does not excuse the Federal Land Manager...

  20. Multisystemic Therapy Improves the Patient-Provider Relationship in Families of Adolescents with Poorly Controlled Insulin Dependent Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Ellis, Deborah A.; Chen, Xinguang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Moltz, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive, home and community-based family treatment, significantly improved patient-provider relationships in families where youth had chronic poor glycemic control. Methods One hundred forty-six adolescents with type 1 or 2 diabetes in chronic poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to MST or a telephone support condition. Caregiver perceptions of their relationship with the diabetes multidisciplinary medical team were assessed at baseline and treatment termination with the Measure of Process of Care-20. Results At treatment termination, MST families reported significant improvement on the Coordinated and Comprehensive Care scale and marginally significant improvement on the Respectful and Supportive Care scale. Improvements on the Enabling and Partnership and Providing Specific Information scales were not significant. Conclusions Results suggest MST improves the ability of the families and the diabetes treatment providers to work together. PMID:25940767

  1. Dysfunctional domesticity: female insanity and family relationships among the West Riding poor in the mid-nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Levine-Clark, M

    2000-07-01

    "Dysfunctional domesticity" contributes to the growing reevaluation of the importance of the history of the family to understanding the history of insanity. Using patient case histories from the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, this article examines representations of family life among poor in England in the 1830s and 1840s. Among the so-called moral causes of insanity, family relationships held a prominent place. Female patients more than male patients had their mental illnesses attributed to their domestic circumstances: the poverty of their home lives, grief over a death of friends and family, love and marital relationships gone wrong, and violence in their homes. The case histories reveal that poor women experienced many pressures in the domestic sphere, and insanity may have been one way to escape dysfunctional domesticity.

  2. "I was a dark horse in the eyes of her family": the relationship of cohabiting female couples and their families in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Béres-Deák, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship of female couples with their parents, siblings, and other relatives by exploring various patterns of coming out and family attitudes. After reviewing existing literature in this field, the article explores the extent to which my interviewees are out to their family, the reasons for and the possible complications about staying in the closet. Next the parents' reactions are discussed, which range from complete rejection through not admitting the truth to themselves to acceptance. Parents find it difficult to come out about their daughter to their immediate environment, as they fear prejudice and being blamed for her sexual orientation. This can also lead to conflict and alienation between parents and daughter. Accepting a person's sexual orientation and relationship, however, is only the first step toward her full integration into the family. Full inclusion in the family is only present when the person's same-sex partner is treated as kin to the same extent as an opposite-sex partner would be. This is demonstrated in a variety of ways, such as the names used (especially by the couple's children) and the system of obligations and favors constituting a formative element of kinship. There might be conflicts, however, when the two partners have different backgrounds and thus different expectations of family relations.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genomes elucidate phylogenetic relationships of the deep-sea octocoral families Coralliidae and Paragorgiidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Diego F.; Baco, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, molecular phylogenetic analyses of octocorals have shown that the current morphological taxonomic classification of these organisms needs to be revised. The latest phylogenetic analyses show that most octocorals can be divided into three main clades. One of these clades contains the families Coralliidae and Paragorgiidae. These families share several taxonomically important characters and it has been suggested that they may not be monophyletic; with the possibility of the Coralliidae being a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae. Uncertainty exists not only in the relationship of these two families, but also in the classification of the two genera that make up the Coralliidae, Corallium and Paracorallium. Molecular analyses suggest that the genus Corallium is paraphyletic, and it can be divided into two main clades, with the Paracorallium as members of one of these clades. In this study we sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of five species of Paragorgia and of five species of Corallium to use in a phylogenetic analysis to achieve two main objectives; the first to elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the Paragorgiidae and Coralliidae and the second to determine whether the genera Corallium and Paracorallium are monophyletic. Our results show that other members of the Coralliidae share the two novel mitochondrial gene arrangements found in a previous study in Corallium konojoi and Paracorallium japonicum; and that the Corallium konojoi arrangement is also found in the Paragorgiidae. Our phylogenetic reconstruction based on all the protein coding genes and ribosomal RNAs of the mitochondrial genome suggest that the Coralliidae are not a derived branch of the Paragorgiidae, but rather a monophyletic sister branch to the Paragorgiidae. While our manuscript was in review a study was published using morphological data and several fragments from mitochondrial genes to redefine the taxonomy of the Coralliidae. Paracorallium was subsumed

  4. Do Negative Acts in Italian Academia Have a Quadratic Relationship with Determinants of Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadda, Salvatore; Giorgi, Gabriele; Benitez Muñoz, Juan Luis; Justicia Justicia, Fernando; Solinas, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence of workplace bullying in an Italian university. Design/methodology/approach: More than 200 workers have completed the Italian version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire. Findings: The results show a spread of low to medium negative actions in…

  5. A Molecular Assessment of Phylogenetic Relationships and LineageDiversification Within the Family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata)

    SciTech Connect

    Weisrock, David W.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Macey, J. Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H.; Zhao, Ermi; Larson, Allan

    2005-08-08

    Phylogenetic relationships among species of the salamanderfamily Salamandridae are investigated using nearly 3000 nucleotide basesof newly reported mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the mtDNA genicregion spanning the genes tRNALeu-COI. This study uses nearlycomprehensive species-level sampling to provide the first completephylogeny for the Salamandridae. Deep phylogenetic relationships amongthe three most divergent lineages in the family Salamandrina terdigitata,a clade comprising the "True" salamanders, and a clade comprising allnewts except S. terdigitata are difficult to resolve. However, mostrelationships within the latter two lineages are resolved with robustlevels of branch support. The genera Euproctus and Triturus arestatistically shown to be nonmonophyletic, instead each contains adiverse set of lineages positioned within the large newt clade. The genusParamesotriton is also resolve as a nonmonophyletic group, with the newlydescribed species P. laoensis constituting a divergent lineage placed ina sister position to clade containing all Pachytriton species and allremaining Paramesotriton species. Sequence divergences between P.laoensis and other Paramesotriton species are as great as those comparingP. laoensis and species of the genera Cynops and Pachytriton. Analyses oflineage diversification across the Salamandridae indicate that, despiteits exceptional diversity, lineage accumulation appears to have beenconstant across time, indicating that it does not represent a truespecies radiation.

  6. [Psychotherapeutically-Systemic Acting in the Integrated Family Counseling Presented by the Example of Child-Centered Educational Counseling].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Ines

    2015-01-01

    The article gives an insight into the practice of Integrated Family Counseling and identifies their interfaces with psychotherapeutic approaches. The example of the child-centered educational counseling shows how consultancy, systemic and psychotherapeutic interventions interact in order to meet the parents educational needs defined by the parents. The first part of the article explains the term of Integrated Family Counseling, differentiates the various substantive areas of work and outlines the systematic attitude. The second part describes the psychotherapy-systemic action in the child-centered educational counseling from the perspective of the practice. Main priorities in the course of counseling, including cause-related behavioral and developmental diagnostics, play therapy intervention and parental involvement are presented. Here the systemic approach, major methodological elements as well as their effects are pointed up. The third part is devoted to the reflection of the relationship between counseling and psychotherapy. It becomes clear that in particular the intended effectiveness of an intervention determines their methodological design to a large extent.

  7. Phylogeny of the Vitamin K 2,3-Epoxide Reductase (VKOR) Family and Evolutionary Relationship to the Disulfide Bond Formation Protein B (DsbB) Family.

    PubMed

    Bevans, Carville G; Krettler, Christoph; Reinhart, Christoph; Watzka, Matthias; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2015-07-29

    In humans and other vertebrate animals, vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) family enzymes are the gatekeepers between nutritionally acquired K vitamins and the vitamin K cycle responsible for posttranslational modifications that confer biological activity upon vitamin K-dependent proteins with crucial roles in hemostasis, bone development and homeostasis, hormonal carbohydrate regulation and fertility. We report a phylogenetic analysis of the VKOR family that identifies five major clades. Combined phylogenetic and site-specific conservation analyses point to clade-specific similarities and differences in structure and function. We discovered a single-site determinant uniquely identifying VKOR homologs belonging to human pathogenic, obligate intracellular prokaryotes and protists. Building on previous work by Sevier et al. (Protein Science 14:1630), we analyzed structural data from both VKOR and prokaryotic disulfide bond formation protein B (DsbB) families and hypothesize an ancient evolutionary relationship between the two families where one family arose from the other through a gene duplication/deletion event. This has resulted in circular permutation of primary sequence threading through the four-helical bundle protein folds of both families. This is the first report of circular permutation relating distant a-helical membrane protein sequences and folds. In conclusion, we suggest a chronology for the evolution of the five extant VKOR clades.

  8. Calcium powered phloem protein of SEO gene family "Forisome" functions in wound sealing and act as biomimetic smart materials.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Forisomes protein belongs to SEO gene family and is unique to Fabaceae family. These proteins are located in sieve tubes of phloem and function to prevent loss of nutrient-rich photoassimilates, upon mechanical injury/wounding. Forisome protein is also known as ATP independent, mechanically active proteins. Despite the wealth of information role of forisome in plants are not yet fully understood. Recent reports suggest that forisomes protein can act as ideal model to study self assembly mechanism for development of nanotechnological devices like microfluidic system application in space exploration mission. Improvement in micro instrument is highly demanding and has been a key technology by NASA in future space exploration missions. Based on its physical parameters, forisome are found to be ideal biomimetic materials for micro fluidic system because the conformational shifts can be replicated in vitro and are fully reversible over large number of cycles. By the use of protein engineering forisome recombinant protein can be tailored. Due to its unique ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy forisome has received much attention. For nanotechnological application and handling biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, protein and cell as a whole microfluidic system will be the most powerful technology. The discovery of new biomimetic smart materials has been a key factor in development of space science and its requirements in such a challenging environment. The field of microfludic, particularly in terms of development of its components along with identification of new biomimetic smart materials, deserves more attention. More biophysical investigation is required to characterize it to make it more suitable under parameters of performance. PMID:25763691

  9. Calcium powered phloem protein of SEO gene family "Forisome" functions in wound sealing and act as biomimetic smart materials.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Forisomes protein belongs to SEO gene family and is unique to Fabaceae family. These proteins are located in sieve tubes of phloem and function to prevent loss of nutrient-rich photoassimilates, upon mechanical injury/wounding. Forisome protein is also known as ATP independent, mechanically active proteins. Despite the wealth of information role of forisome in plants are not yet fully understood. Recent reports suggest that forisomes protein can act as ideal model to study self assembly mechanism for development of nanotechnological devices like microfluidic system application in space exploration mission. Improvement in micro instrument is highly demanding and has been a key technology by NASA in future space exploration missions. Based on its physical parameters, forisome are found to be ideal biomimetic materials for micro fluidic system because the conformational shifts can be replicated in vitro and are fully reversible over large number of cycles. By the use of protein engineering forisome recombinant protein can be tailored. Due to its unique ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy forisome has received much attention. For nanotechnological application and handling biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, protein and cell as a whole microfluidic system will be the most powerful technology. The discovery of new biomimetic smart materials has been a key factor in development of space science and its requirements in such a challenging environment. The field of microfludic, particularly in terms of development of its components along with identification of new biomimetic smart materials, deserves more attention. More biophysical investigation is required to characterize it to make it more suitable under parameters of performance.

  10. Strengthening Postabortion Family Planning Services in Ethiopia: Expanding Contraceptive Choice and Improving Access to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Melaku; Fetters, Tamara; Desta, Demeke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Where unmet need for the safest, most effective, and long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is very high, the health system and partners need to implement problem-solving, locally feasible, and comprehensive family planning delivery strategies. Because young and unmarried women are most at risk for unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion due to poor access to contraceptive services, postabortion family planning (PAFP) is a key component in such strategies. In Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region, Ethiopia, Ipas implemented health system strengthening efforts from fiscal year (FY) 2010 (July 2009 to June 2010) to FY 2014 (July 2013 to June 2014) to improve the quality of PAFP services and expand method choice in 101 public facilities. The intervention significantly improved PAFP uptake at the project sites. Specifically, the proportion of abortion clients receiving LARCs progressively improved during the intervention period. The proportion of abortion clients who left the facilities with a contraceptive method increased from 58% in FY 2010 to 83% in FY 2014. The share of method mix for LARCs rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 55% in FY 2014, while the share for condoms, injectables, and oral contraceptives declined from 98% to 45%. Implant use rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 43% in FY 2014, while the use of intrauterine devices increased from 0.1% in FY 2010 to 12% in FY 2014. A larger proportion of PAFP users received LARCs at health centers, where midwives and nurses are the primary providers, than at hospitals (59% versus 37%, respectively). A broader method mix can satisfy clients with a variety of needs, a key factor for higher uptake of more effective methods and program success. Further evidence-based interventions need to be implemented to improve the quality of PAFP in a feasible and replicable strategy that addresses unmet need for modern contraceptive methods. PMID:27540126

  11. Strengthening Postabortion Family Planning Services in Ethiopia: Expanding Contraceptive Choice and Improving Access to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Melaku; Fetters, Tamara; Desta, Demeke

    2016-08-11

    Where unmet need for the safest, most effective, and long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is very high, the health system and partners need to implement problem-solving, locally feasible, and comprehensive family planning delivery strategies. Because young and unmarried women are most at risk for unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion due to poor access to contraceptive services, postabortion family planning (PAFP) is a key component in such strategies. In Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region, Ethiopia, Ipas implemented health system strengthening efforts from fiscal year (FY) 2010 (July 2009 to June 2010) to FY 2014 (July 2013 to June 2014) to improve the quality of PAFP services and expand method choice in 101 public facilities. The intervention significantly improved PAFP uptake at the project sites. Specifically, the proportion of abortion clients receiving LARCs progressively improved during the intervention period. The proportion of abortion clients who left the facilities with a contraceptive method increased from 58% in FY 2010 to 83% in FY 2014. The share of method mix for LARCs rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 55% in FY 2014, while the share for condoms, injectables, and oral contraceptives declined from 98% to 45%. Implant use rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 43% in FY 2014, while the use of intrauterine devices increased from 0.1% in FY 2010 to 12% in FY 2014. A larger proportion of PAFP users received LARCs at health centers, where midwives and nurses are the primary providers, than at hospitals (59% versus 37%, respectively). A broader method mix can satisfy clients with a variety of needs, a key factor for higher uptake of more effective methods and program success. Further evidence-based interventions need to be implemented to improve the quality of PAFP in a feasible and replicable strategy that addresses unmet need for modern contraceptive methods. PMID:27540126

  12. Encouraging Strong Family Relationships. State Policies That Work. Brief Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Social Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The relational well-being of families is an important factor affecting a family's economic success, physical and mental heath, the readiness and success of children in school, and the engagement of youth in positive and productive roles. In short, the strength of family bonds is crucial to a family's capacity to provide, nurture, and care for its…

  13. Parents as Educators of Sex and Relationship Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify how British families discuss sexual matters and to determine if the use of a multimedia computer program increases knowledge to promote communication about sexual topics. Design: A mixed-method approach in which families were interviewed within the family environment. Method: Twenty families from the north east of England…

  14. Surrogacy Families: Parental Functioning, Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Development at Age 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Murray, Clare; Lycett, Emma; Jadva, Vasanti

    2006-01-01

    Background: Findings are presented of the second phase of a longitudinal study of families created through surrogacy. Methods: At the time of the child's 2nd birthday, 37 surrogacy families were compared with 48 egg donation families and 68 natural conception families on standardised interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological…

  15. Surrogacy families 10 years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of their surrogacy origins

    PubMed Central

    Jadva, V.; Blake, L.; Casey, P.; Golombok, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to prospectively examine families created using surrogacy over a 10-year period in the UK with respect to intending parents' and children's relationship with the surrogate mother, parents' decisions over disclosure and children's understanding of the nature of their conception. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were administered by trained researchers to intending mothers, intending fathers and children on four occasions over a 10-year period. Forty-two families (19 with a genetic surrogate mother) participated when the child was 1-year old and by age 10 years, 33 families remained in the study. Data were collected on the frequency of contact with the surrogate mother, relationship with the surrogate, disclosure of surrogacy to the child and the child's understanding of their surrogacy birth. RESULTS Frequency of contact between surrogacy families and their surrogate mother decreased over time, particularly for families whose surrogate was a previously unknown genetic carrier (P < 0.001) (i.e. where they had met through a third party and the surrogate mother's egg was used to conceive the child). Most families reported harmonious relationships with their surrogate mother. At age 10 years, 19 (90%) children who had been informed of the nature of their conception had a good understanding of this and 13 of the 14 children who were in contact with their surrogate reported that they liked her. CONCLUSIONS Surrogacy families maintained good relationships with the surrogate mother over time. Children felt positive about their surrogate mother and their surrogacy birth. The sample size of this study was small and further, larger investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:22814484

  16. The Relationship among Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Practices and Leadership Act in First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    Leadership scholarship has paid increased attention to the connection between personal characteristics, such as emotional intelligence, and leadership. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a relationship exists between emotional intelligence and leadership in first-year college students at a private university in the Midwest. Using The…

  17. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rummel, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P < 0.05) was found between clutch size and age of the female. Twelve-year productivity of the Patuxent geese appeared related to the reproductive success of a specific resident family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among Perissodactyla: secretoglobin 1A1 gene duplication and triplication in the Equidae family.

    PubMed

    Côté, Olivier; Viel, Laurent; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2013-12-01

    Secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB 1A1) is a small anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory protein that is abundantly secreted in airway surface fluids. We recently reported the existence of three distinct SCGB1A1 genes in the domestic horse genome as opposed to the single gene copy consensus present in other mammals. The origin of SCGB1A1 gene triplication and the evolutionary relationship of the three genes amongst Equidae family members are unknown. For this study, SCGB1A1 genomic data were collected from various Equus individuals including E. caballus, E. przewalskii, E. asinus, E. grevyi, and E. quagga. Three SCGB1A1 genes in E. przewalskii, two SCGB1A1 genes in E. asinus, and a single SCGB1A1 gene in E. grevyi and E. quagga were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that the non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions between the different equid genes coded for 17 amino acid changes. Most of these changes localized to the SCGB 1A1 central cavity that binds hydrophobic ligands, suggesting that this area of SCGB 1A1 evolved to accommodate diverse molecular interactions. Three-dimensional modeling of the proteins revealed that the size of the SCGB 1A1 central cavity is larger than that of SCGB 1A1A. Altogether, these findings suggest that evolution of the SCGB1A1 gene may parallel the separation of caballine and non-caballine species amongst Equidae, and may indicate an expansion of function for SCGB1A1 gene products.

  19. Exploring the Recursive Nature of Food and Family Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Linda D.

    2006-01-01

    Family meals act as a barometer to signify the changing nature of family life. The primary objective of this activity is to allow students to experience the many ways in which a recursive relationship exists between the food families eat and the patterns of communication families enact. Through this activity, students experience how food and…

  20. Parenting, Family Processes, Relationships, and Parental Support in Multiracial and Multiethnic Families: An Exploratory Study of Youth Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-race or multiethnic youth are at risk for mental and physical health problems. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 to compare family characteristics of adolescents of a mixed-race or multiethnic background with those of a monoracial or monoethnic background. Mixed-race or multiethnic youth reported feeling less…

  1. Family Economic Success Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S129-130) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Servicemember Family Protection Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Turner, Michael R. [R-OH-3

    2012-03-16

    06/04/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Healthy Families Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2011-05-12

    05/12/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced in Senate: CR S2949-2954) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Healthy Families Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2013-03-20

    03/20/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2030-2035) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Public Support for Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act Point-of-Sale Provisions: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L.; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Methods. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Results. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors’ access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Conclusions. Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment. PMID:26270303

  6. Trefoil factor family peptide 2 acts pro-proliferative and pro-apoptotic in the murine retina.

    PubMed

    Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana N; Franke, Andreas G; Paulsen, Friedrich P; Dünker, Nicole

    2011-05-01

    Although expression of trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides has been reported in the brain, nothing is known about TFF expression in the retina. The aim of this study was to test whether TFF peptides are expressed in the murine retina and have any function here. In contrast to most tissues studied, where TFF1 and TFF3 are the predominant peptides, TFF2 is the only peptide expressed in the murine retina. Immunohistochemical studies on murine retinal sections indicate that cells of the ganglion cell layer are the retinal source for murine TFF2 (Tff2). In organotypic murine retina cell cultures recombinant TFF2 exerted a strong pro-apoptotic and pro-proliferative rather than an anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferating effect described in most human cancer cell lines investigated so far. In blockage experiments we were able to demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic effect of TFF2 is caspase-dependent. Western blot analysis of TFF2 treated retinal wholemount homogenates revealed significant reductions in the phosphorylation level of ERK and STAT3 proteins compared to basal conditions, suggesting that in the developing murine retina survival mechanism are down-regulated upon TFF2 administration. Our results suggest that during retinal cell death periods, requiring a tightly regulated balance between cell survival and cell death, TFF2 acts pro-proliferative and pro-apoptotic at least in developing mouse retinae cultured in vivo.

  7. Research Opportunities Related to Establishing Standards for Tobacco Products Under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Discussion: Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. Conclusions: The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed. PMID:21324834

  8. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1989. Report Together with Minority, Supplemental, Additional, and Individual Views. House of Representatives, 101st Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The House Committee on Education and Labor recommended passage of the Family and Medical Leave Act as amended and submitted the following regarding the legislation: (1) a synopsis of committee action in the 101th, 100th, 99th, and 98th Congresses; (2) background and need for the legislation, based primarily on previous testimony heard by the…

  9. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH...

  10. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH...

  11. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH...

  12. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER...

  13. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER...

  14. Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

    This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems. The…

  15. Primer for Maintaining Accurate Special Education Records and Meeting Confidentiality Requirements When Serving Children with Disabilities--Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copenhaver, John

    This manual is intended to provide schools with guidance in complying with federal laws and regulations regarding record keeping and confidentiality in their services to students with disabilities. Part 1 focuses on requirements of the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), which ensures student/parent access to education records and…

  16. The Implications of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act and How They Relate to the New Roles of College and University Counselors and Support Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Joseph A.

    The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act was passed in 1974 because some legislation was needed in order to discourage the abuse of individual rights due to the personal prejudices and/or disapproval of others. There are thousands of persons in American society who because of advanced educational training and a keen sense of perceptivity, can…

  17. The Relationship among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Alcoholism, Family Environment and Suicidal Behavior in Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yama, Mark F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among childhood sexual abuse and parental alcoholism, retrospective reports of family functioning, and having had a history of either suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Subjects (n=420) were drawn from a sample of undergraduate college women. Results indicate the experiences of childhood sexual abuse and parental…

  18. Does Family Structure Matter in the Relationships between Youth Assets and Youth Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated significant relationships between youth assets and youth alcohol, tobacco, and drug use that differ according to family structure (one- or two-parent households). Data were collected from a randomly sampled inner-city population (n=1,256 teenagers and 1,256 parents of the teenagers) using in-home, in-person interviews.…

  19. Links between Parent-Teacher Relationships and Kindergartners' Social Skills: Do Child Ethnicity and Family Income Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Winn, Donna-Marie C.; Kingsley, Susan J.; Orthodoxou, Yannick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) data to examine the moderating effects of child ethnicity and family income on the links between parent-teacher relationships and kindergartners' social skills. This study includes 481 Caucasian, African American, and Latino children from low-income households. Overall,…

  20. The Relationship between Postsecondary Instrumental Student's Musical Independence and Grade-Level, Instrument Family, Gender, and Instrumental Ensemble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbett, Gordon C.; And Others

    This study analyzed the relationship between MI (musical independence) and placement in college instrumental ensembles, the influence of instrument family and gender on the development of MI in postsecondary students, and identification of those outstanding MI students most at risk of dropping music as their college major. Instrumentalists (N=354)…

  1. Parent-Child Relations and Peer Associations as Mediators of the Family Structure--Substance Use Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988, the authors assess the extent to which adolescents' levels of parental attachment and opportunities for participating in delinquent activities mediate the family structure--substance use relationship. A series of hierarchical regressions supported the hypotheses that high levels…

  2. Problems Accompanied Individuals with Learning Disability and Its Relationship to Gender and Family Economic Status Variables in a Jordanian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Oweidi, Alia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between problems that accompany individuals with learning disability and the variables of gender and family economic status for a selected sample of Jordanians. The sample of the study, which consisted of (239) male and female students, was chosen randomly. To achieve this aim, the…

  3. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Interactional Types: Associations with Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examines patterns of sibling relationship qualities or interactional types and their association with family characteristics, parenting, and the characteristics of 1 of those children. Participants were 65 children (34 boys; Time 1 mean age = 51 months), their mothers, fathers, and Head Start teachers. Approximately…

  4. The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…

  5. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  6. Benefits of Mother Goose: Influence of a Community-Based Program on Parent-Child Attachment Relationships in Typical Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharfe, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 50 to 60% of children from typical families develop secure attachment relationships with their parents (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978; Van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg, 1988); however, intervention research has focused primarily on interventions for high-risk clinical samples (Berlin, Zeanah, & Lieberman, 2008). In this project,…

  7. Individual and Family Perfectionism and Its Relationship to Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Esteem among Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Norma E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual and family perfectionism and mental health functioning among two hundred and seven Latino college students. One aim of this study was to test the factor structure of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001) with Latino college students by…

  8. The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

  9. Strengthening the Role of Families in States' Early Intervention Systems: Policy Guide to Procedural Safeguards for Infants and Toddlers and Their Families under Part H of the Education of the Handicapped Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnim, Ira A.

    This book presents recommended policies and procedural safeguards for programs serving infants, toddlers and their families under Part H of the Education of the Handicapped Act. Policies are presented in five chapters covering: (1) consent to assessment, evaluation and services; (2) notice of parents' rights and of proposed actions; (3) right to…

  10. Strengthening Working Families Act of 2001. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy of the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session on S. 685 (October 11, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This Congressional report contains the testimony and documents presented for the record of a hearing to gather input regarding the Strengthening Working Families Act of 2001, which was drafted to provide the assistance needed by former welfare recipients and other poor working parents to remain employed and advance in the labor market. The…

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of the Fox (Forkhead) gene family in the Bilateria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazet, Francoise; Yu, Jr Kai; Liberles, David A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.

    2003-01-01

    The Forkhead or Fox gene family encodes putative transcription factors. There are at least four Fox genes in yeast, 16 in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 42 in humans. Recently, vertebrate Fox genes have been classified into 17 groups named FoxA to FoxQ. Here, we extend this analysis to invertebrates, using available sequences from D. melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae (Ag), Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce), the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis (Ci) and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae (Bf), from which we also cloned several Fox genes. Phylogenetic analyses lend support to the previous overall subclassification of vertebrate genes, but suggest that four subclasses (FoxJ, L, N and Q) could be further subdivided to reflect their relationships to invertebrate genes. We were unable to identify orthologs of Fox subclasses E, H, I, J, M and Q1 in D. melanogaster, A. gambiae or C. elegans, suggesting either considerable loss in ecdysozoans or the evolution of these subclasses in the deuterostome lineage. Our analyses suggest that the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes had a minimum complement of 14 Fox genes.

  12. Buffering the negative effects of employee surface acting: the moderating role of employee-customer relationship strength and personalized services.

    PubMed

    Wang, Karyn L; Groth, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The impact of emotional labor on customer outcomes is gaining considerable attention in the literature, with research suggesting that the authenticity of emotional displays may positively impact customer outcomes. However, research investigating the impact of more inauthentic emotions on service delivery outcomes is mixed (see Chi, Grandey, Diamond, & Krimmel, 2011). This study explores 2 potential reasons for why the service outcomes of inauthentic emotions are largely inconsistent: the impact of distinct surface acting strategies and the role of service delivery context. Drawing on social-functional theories of emotions, we surveyed 243 dyads of employees and customers from a wide variety of services to examine the links between employee surface acting and customer service satisfaction, and whether this relationship is moderated by relationship strength and service personalization. Our findings suggest that faking positive emotions has no bearing on service satisfaction, but suppressing negative emotions interacts with contextual factors to predict customers' service satisfaction, in line with social-functional theories of emotions. Specifically, customers who know the employee well are less sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions, and customers in highly personalized service encounters are more sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:24079672

  13. Buffering the negative effects of employee surface acting: the moderating role of employee-customer relationship strength and personalized services.

    PubMed

    Wang, Karyn L; Groth, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The impact of emotional labor on customer outcomes is gaining considerable attention in the literature, with research suggesting that the authenticity of emotional displays may positively impact customer outcomes. However, research investigating the impact of more inauthentic emotions on service delivery outcomes is mixed (see Chi, Grandey, Diamond, & Krimmel, 2011). This study explores 2 potential reasons for why the service outcomes of inauthentic emotions are largely inconsistent: the impact of distinct surface acting strategies and the role of service delivery context. Drawing on social-functional theories of emotions, we surveyed 243 dyads of employees and customers from a wide variety of services to examine the links between employee surface acting and customer service satisfaction, and whether this relationship is moderated by relationship strength and service personalization. Our findings suggest that faking positive emotions has no bearing on service satisfaction, but suppressing negative emotions interacts with contextual factors to predict customers' service satisfaction, in line with social-functional theories of emotions. Specifically, customers who know the employee well are less sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions, and customers in highly personalized service encounters are more sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications.

  14. Parenting and the parent-child relationship in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=113) reported more positive discipline and physical punishment but less involvement, less positive parenting, less monitoring, a lower sense of parenting competence, less acceptance of the child, and less closeness to the child than the families of a child with MBID and no accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=71). The parent-child relationship was most strongly associated with externalizing child behavior, over and above parenting behaviors. In addition, the parent-child relationship was found to be associated with parenting behavior, over and above the child's externalizing behavior. Our results highlight the importance of both the parent-child relationship and parenting behavior in connection with the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems on the part of children with MBID. Parenting behavior and the parent-child relationship may thus be promising targets for interventions with this group of children.

  15. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships. PMID:15896922

  16. Parenting and the parent-child relationship in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=113) reported more positive discipline and physical punishment but less involvement, less positive parenting, less monitoring, a lower sense of parenting competence, less acceptance of the child, and less closeness to the child than the families of a child with MBID and no accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=71). The parent-child relationship was most strongly associated with externalizing child behavior, over and above parenting behaviors. In addition, the parent-child relationship was found to be associated with parenting behavior, over and above the child's externalizing behavior. Our results highlight the importance of both the parent-child relationship and parenting behavior in connection with the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems on the part of children with MBID. Parenting behavior and the parent-child relationship may thus be promising targets for interventions with this group of children. PMID:25262097

  17. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  18. Family communication patterns moderate the relationship between psychological reactance and willingness to talk about organ donation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Allison M; Quick, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research has investigated how psychological reactance affects individuals' responses to health promotion messages, but little is known about how family processes might moderate the reactance process. In this study, 301 participants were exposed to a persuasive message about organ donation. The moderating role of family communication patterns in the reactance process was tested using hierarchical regression. We found that family conversation orientation had a direct effect on willingness to talk with family members about being an organ donor and that family conformity orientation and family conversation orientation each interacted with reactance to predict willingness to communicate with family about donation. Theoretically, these results extend psychological reactance theory by considering how interpersonal factors affect the reactance process. Practically, the findings suggest that for optimal impact, family processes should be considered in the design of messages promoting organ donation.

  19. The relationships of family and classroom environments with peer relational victimization: an analysis of their gender differences.

    PubMed

    Jesús Cava, María; Musitu, Gonzalo; Buelga, Sofia; Murgui, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of adolescents' perceptions of their family and classroom environments with peer relational victimization, taking into account that these relationships could be mediated by adolescents' self-esteem, feelings of loneliness, and sociometric status. These relationships, and their possible gender differences, were analyzed in a sample of 1319 Spanish adolescents (48% boys and 52% girls), ages 11 to 16 years (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5). A structural equation modeling was calculated for boys and girls separately. The findings suggested that the adolescents' self-esteem, loneliness, and sociometric status had a significant direct effect on peer relational victimization for boys, and adolescents' loneliness and sociometric status for girls. Their perceptions of family and classroom environments had a significant indirect effect on peer relational victimization for boys and girls, but the paths were different. Overall, findings suggested that a negative classroom environment had a more relevant effect in relational victimization for boys.

  20. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360