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Sample records for act lump-sum death

  1. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...

  2. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...

  3. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...

  4. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...

  5. 20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...

  6. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...

  7. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...

  8. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...

  9. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...

  10. 20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...

  11. 5 CFR 831.2003 - Eligibility for lump-sum payment upon death or retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... death or retirement. 831.2003 Section 831.2003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2003 Eligibility for lump-sum payment upon death or retirement. (a) If there is no survivor who is entitled to...

  12. 20 CFR 404.392 - Who is entitled to the lump-sum death payment when there is no widow(er) who was living in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is entitled to the lump-sum death payment...-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance Benefits; Period of Disability Lump-Sum Death Payment § 404.392 Who is entitled to the lump-sum death payment when there is no widow(er) who was...

  13. 20 CFR 404.461 - Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien... Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.461 Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months. Where an individual dies outside the United States after January 1957 and no...

  14. 20 CFR 404.391 - Who is entitled to the lump-sum death payment as a widow or widower who was living in the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... years after the date of the insured's death. You need not apply again if, in the month prior to the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is entitled to the lump-sum death payment...-Age, Disability, Dependents' and Survivors' Insurance Benefits; Period of Disability Lump-Sum...

  15. 20 CFR 404.461 - Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien... Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.461 Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months. Where an individual dies outside the United States after January 1957 and no...

  16. 20 CFR 404.461 - Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months. 404.461 Section 404.461 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits §...

  17. 20 CFR 404.461 - Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months. 404.461 Section 404.461 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits §...

  18. 20 CFR 404.461 - Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpayment of lump sum after death of alien outside United States for more than 6 months. 404.461 Section 404.461 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Deductions; Reductions; and Nonpayments of Benefits §...

  19. 20 CFR 222.31 - Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by the employee's widow or widower after the employee's death); or (3) The equitably adopted child of... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum... THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.31 Relationship as...

  20. 29 CFR 4050.8 - Automatic lump sum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determined under § 4050.5(a)(1) (mandatory lump sum) or § 4050.5(a)(2) (de minimis lump sum). (a) General... the deemed distribution date, to the missing participant's estate. (b) De minimis annuity alternative... under § 4050.5(a)(2) (de minimis lump sum) (or the guaranteed benefit form for a beneficiary of such...

  1. 29 CFR 4050.8 - Automatic lump sum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determined under § 4050.5(a)(1) (mandatory lump sum) or § 4050.5(a)(2) (de minimis lump sum). (a) General... the deemed distribution date, to the missing participant's estate. (b) De minimis annuity alternative... under § 4050.5(a)(2) (de minimis lump sum) (or the guaranteed benefit form for a beneficiary of such...

  2. 22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...

  3. 22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...

  4. 29 CFR 4044.75 - Other lump sum benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sum benefits. The value of a lump sum benefit which is not covered under § 4044.73 or § 4044.74 is equal to— (a) The value under the qualifying bid, if an insurer provides the benefit; or (b) The present value of the benefit as of the date of distribution, determined using reasonable actuarial...

  5. 29 CFR 4050.9 - Annuity or elective lump sum-living missing participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interest on the missed payments (at the plan rate up to the deemed distribution date and thereafter at the... § 4050.5(a)(3) (no lump sum) or § 4050.5(a)(4) (elective lump sum) and who is living on the date as of... the deemed distribution date. The PBGC will pay the benefit of a missing participant whose benefit...

  6. 5 CFR 847.702 - Lump-sum payments and refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lump-sum payments and refunds. 847.702... payments and refunds. (a) Employee contributions with interest which are transferred to the Fund under subpart E of this part are included in any lump-sum credit or unexpended balance payable to the...

  7. 5 CFR 837.602 - Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions... retirement deductions. If an annuitant reemployed subject to the provisions of this part dies while so... retirement deductions withheld during the period of reemployment will be paid in a lump sum to the...

  8. 5 CFR 837.602 - Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions... retirement deductions. If an annuitant reemployed subject to the provisions of this part dies while so... retirement deductions withheld during the period of reemployment will be paid in a lump sum to the...

  9. 5 CFR 837.602 - Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions... retirement deductions. If an annuitant reemployed subject to the provisions of this part dies while so... retirement deductions withheld during the period of reemployment will be paid in a lump sum to the...

  10. 5 CFR 837.602 - Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions... retirement deductions. If an annuitant reemployed subject to the provisions of this part dies while so... retirement deductions withheld during the period of reemployment will be paid in a lump sum to the...

  11. 5 CFR 837.602 - Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lump-sum payment of retirement deductions... retirement deductions. If an annuitant reemployed subject to the provisions of this part dies while so... retirement deductions withheld during the period of reemployment will be paid in a lump sum to the...

  12. 5 CFR 550.1206 - Refunding a lump-sum payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section. (c) An employee who is reemployed in a position that has no leave system to which annual leave... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Lump-Sum Payment for Accumulated and Accrued Annual Leave § 550.1206 Refunding a lump... leave under 5 U.S.C. 5551 is reemployed in the Federal service prior to the end of the period covered...

  13. 24 CFR 570.513 - Lump sum drawdown for financing of property rehabilitation activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the letter of credit in a lump sum to establish a rehabilitation fund in one or more private financial... recipient's rehabilitation program administrative costs and the administrative costs of the financial... recipient shall execute a written agreement with one or more private financial institutions for...

  14. 5 CFR 831.2005 - Designation of beneficiary for lump-sum payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of beneficiary for lump-sum payment. 831.2005 Section 831.2005 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED.... (e) A change of beneficiary may be made at any time and without the knowledge or consent of...

  15. 5 CFR 838.1010 - Court orders or decrees preventing payment of lump sums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Court orders or decrees preventing payment of lump sums. 838.1010 Section 838.1010 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1010 Court orders or decrees preventing payment of...

  16. 5 CFR 831.2002 - Eligibility for lump-sum payment upon filing an Application for Refund of Retirement Deductions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... date of filing an application for refund is eligible for a refund for the total lump-sum credit to...

  17. Annuity and lump-sum decisions in defined benefit plans: the role of plan rules.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2013-01-01

    Amidst growing concerns about workers outliving their retirement savings, a key question-both as a matter of national retirement policy and understanding the potential role of plan design and education in influencing individual decision-making-is how many retiring workers actually choose to annuitize (to take a stream of lifetime income) vs. opting for a lump-sum payment. The key finding of this study is that differences in defined benefit (DB) plan rules or features result in very different annuitization rates in DB plans. In fact, the results show that the rate of annuitization varies directly with the degree to which plan rules restrict the ability to choose a partial or lump-sum distribution. This study shows that annuitization rates vary significantly across these different plan types, which makes any attempt to combine the annuitization rates across these different plan types uninformative. Combining all the plans across the years 2005-2010, workers who made their payout decision between ages 50 and 75 had a minimum job tenure of five years, a minimum account balance of $5,000, and had an annuitization rate of 65.8 percent. But within this group of workers, those who had no plan restrictions on a lump-sum distribution had an annuitization rate of only 27.3 percent. In all the years studied, plans with no lump-sum distribution (LSD) options have the highest annuitization rates, very close to 100 percent. Traditional defined benefit and cash balance plans with no restrictionson LSDs had the lowest annuitization rates. In 2010, the annuitization rate for all plans combined was 65.5 percent, while for plans with no LSD option it was 98.8 percent, but the annuitization rate for defined benefit plans with no restrictions on LSDs was 44.3 percent, while for cash balance plans with no restrictions on LSDs it was 22.3 percent. For older workers across most plan types, annuitization rates increase steadily with account balance, but this is not the case for younger

  18. 20 CFR 725.521 - Commutation of payments; lump sum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Payment of Benefits Benefit Rates § 725.521... probability of the death of the disabled miner and/or other persons entitled to benefits before the...

  19. 20 CFR 725.521 - Commutation of payments; lump sum awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Payment of Benefits Benefit Rates § 725.521... probability of the death of the disabled miner and/or other persons entitled to benefits before the...

  20. 42 CFR 411.47 - Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of a workers' compensation claim. 411.47 Section 411.47 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations on Medicare Payment for Services Covered Under Workers' Compensation § 411.47 Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim....

  1. 42 CFR 411.47 - Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a workers' compensation claim. 411.47 Section 411.47 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations on Medicare Payment for Services Covered Under Workers' Compensation § 411.47 Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim....

  2. 42 CFR 411.47 - Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a workers' compensation claim. 411.47 Section 411.47 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations on Medicare Payment for Services Covered Under Workers' Compensation § 411.47 Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim....

  3. 42 CFR 411.47 - Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a workers' compensation claim. 411.47 Section 411.47 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations on Medicare Payment for Services Covered Under Workers' Compensation § 411.47 Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim....

  4. 42 CFR 411.47 - Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apportionment of a lump-sum compromise settlement of a workers' compensation claim. 411.47 Section 411.47 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations...

  5. 36 CFR 223.64 - Appraisal on a lump-sum value or rate per unit of measure basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... costs or selling values subsequent to the rate redetermination which reduce conversion value to less... or rate per unit of measure basis. 223.64 Section 223.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.64 Appraisal on a lump-sum value or rate per unit of measure...

  6. 29 CFR 4044.73 - Lump sums and other alternative forms of distribution in lieu of annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lieu of annuities. (a) Valuation. (1) The value of the lump sum or other alternative form of distribution is the present value of the normal form of benefit provided by the plan payable at normal... sum benefit, the present value shall be determined as if the participant were alive on the date...

  7. 5 CFR 842.708 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 842.708 Section 842.708... of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a... 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1994, the lump-sum credit payable under § 842.705 is payable to...

  8. 5 CFR 842.708 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 842.708 Section 842.708... of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a... 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1994, the lump-sum credit payable under § 842.705 is payable to...

  9. 5 CFR 842.708 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 842.708 Section 842.708... of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a... 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1994, the lump-sum credit payable under § 842.705 is payable to...

  10. 5 CFR 842.708 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 842.708 Section 842.708... of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a... 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1994, the lump-sum credit payable under § 842.705 is payable to...

  11. 5 CFR 842.708 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 842.708 Section 842.708... of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a... 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1994, the lump-sum credit payable under § 842.705 is payable to...

  12. 20 CFR 222.31 - Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by the employee's widow or widower after the employee's death); or (3) The equitably adopted child of... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship as child for annuity and lump... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.31 Relationship...

  13. 20 CFR 222.31 - Relationship as child for annuity and lump-sum payment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by the employee's widow or widower after the employee's death); or (3) The equitably adopted child of... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship as child for annuity and lump... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.31 Relationship...

  14. Retaining experienced personnel in the natural resources industry: have you considered a lump sum distribution with continuing employment

    SciTech Connect

    Langstraat, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    A discussion of two recent private letter rulings suggests favorable tax consequences for retirement plan participants who have the choice of taking a lump sum distribution at normal retirement age, while continuing employment. Employers may wish to consider amending their qualified plans to provide for this type of election as a tool to retain experienced personnel. The participant has the choice of keeping the funds and paying current taxes under special calculations (such as capital gains or 10-year averaging) or transferring the funds to an individual retirement account in a tax-free rollover.

  15. 20 CFR 217.10 - Application filed after death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application filed after death. 217.10 Section... APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.10 Application filed after death. (a) A survivor... expenses dies before applying for the lump-sum death payment under part 234 of this chapter....

  16. 20 CFR 217.10 - Application filed after death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application filed after death. 217.10 Section... APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.10 Application filed after death. (a) A survivor... expenses dies before applying for the lump-sum death payment under part 234 of this chapter....

  17. 20 CFR 217.10 - Application filed after death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application filed after death. 217.10 Section... APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.10 Application filed after death. (a) A survivor... expenses dies before applying for the lump-sum death payment under part 234 of this chapter....

  18. 20 CFR 217.10 - Application filed after death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application filed after death. 217.10 Section... APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.10 Application filed after death. (a) A survivor... expenses dies before applying for the lump-sum death payment under part 234 of this chapter....

  19. 20 CFR 217.10 - Application filed after death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application filed after death. 217.10 Section... APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.10 Application filed after death. (a) A survivor... expenses dies before applying for the lump-sum death payment under part 234 of this chapter....

  20. 29 CFR 4050.10 - Annuity or elective lump sum-beneficiary of deceased missing participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., under which reduced payments (at the 50 percent level) are made only after the death of the missing participant during the life of the spouse (and not after the death of the spouse during the missing... assumptions) of the death benefit payable on the annuity starting date, plus interest (at the...

  1. 29 CFR 4050.10 - Annuity or elective lump sum-beneficiary of deceased missing participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., under which reduced payments (at the 50 percent level) are made only after the death of the missing participant during the life of the spouse (and not after the death of the spouse during the missing... assumptions) of the death benefit payable on the annuity starting date, plus interest (at the...

  2. 42 CFR 137.65 - May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum advance payment? 137.65 Section 137.65 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.65 May a Self-Governance...

  3. 41 CFR 302-5.18 - May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I retain any balance... Expenses § 302-5.18 May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is... than adequate to cover your househunting expenses any balance belongs to you....

  4. 41 CFR 302-6.203 - May I retain any balance left over from my TQSE lump sum payment if such payment is more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I retain any balance... TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES Lump Sum Payment § 302-6.203 May I retain any balance left over from... more than adequate to cover your actual TQSE expenses, any balance belongs to you. (E.g., if...

  5. 41 CFR 302-6.203 - May I retain any balance left over from my TQSE lump sum payment if such payment is more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I retain any balance... TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES Lump Sum Payment § 302-6.203 May I retain any balance left over from... more than adequate to cover your actual TQSE expenses, any balance belongs to you. (E.g., if...

  6. 41 CFR 302-5.18 - May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I retain any balance... Expenses § 302-5.18 May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is... than adequate to cover your househunting expenses any balance belongs to you....

  7. 41 CFR 302-6.203 - May I retain any balance left over from my TQSE lump sum payment if such payment is more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I retain any balance... TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES Lump Sum Payment § 302-6.203 May I retain any balance left over from... more than adequate to cover your actual TQSE expenses, any balance belongs to you. (E.g., if...

  8. 41 CFR 302-5.18 - May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I retain any balance... Expenses § 302-5.18 May I retain any balance left over from my househunting reimbursement if my lump sum is... than adequate to cover your househunting expenses any balance belongs to you....

  9. 26 CFR 20.2039-4 - Lump sum distributions from “qualified plans;” decedents dying after December 31, 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regard to the election described in section 402(e)(4)(B). The distribution of an annuity contract is not...)/403(a) taxation election described in paragraph (c) of this section. For purposes of this section, an... filed (as determined under § 20.2039-3(d)), it is payable as a lump sum distribution at the election...

  10. 26 CFR 11.402(e)(4)(A)-1 - Lump sum distributions in the case of an employee who has separated from service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distributions in the case of an employee who has separated from service. (a) Balance to the credit of an employee. Section 402(e)(4)(A) provides that in order for a distribution or payment from a qualified plan to be a lump sum distribution, the distribution or payment must represent the employee's...

  11. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  12. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  13. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  14. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  15. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  16. VETERANS BENEFITS: Veterans Have Mixed Views on a Lump Sum Disability Payment Option

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    payment invested in stocks could be substantially reduced if the market falls, monthly payments could be routinely squandered. It was also pointed out...of this report to the Honorable Hershel W. Gober , Acting Secretary of Veterans Affairs, appropriate congressional committees, and other interested

  17. 20 CFR 10.410 - Who is entitled to compensation in case of death, and what are the rates of compensation payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... death, marriage, or reaching age 18. Regarding entitlement after reaching age 18, refer to § 10.417. ... remarriage before reaching age 55. Upon remarriage, the surviving spouse will be paid a lump sum equal to 24... age 55 or older, the lump-sum payment will not be paid and compensation will continue until death....

  18. 20 CFR 10.410 - Who is entitled to compensation in case of death, and what are the rates of compensation payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... death, marriage, or reaching age 18. Regarding entitlement after reaching age 18, refer to § 10.417. ... remarriage before reaching age 55. Upon remarriage, the surviving spouse will be paid a lump sum equal to 24... age 55 or older, the lump-sum payment will not be paid and compensation will continue until death....

  19. 75 FR 69026 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations; Uniformed Services Accounts; Death...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Elections and Contribution Allocations; Uniformed Services Accounts; Death Benefits; Thrift Savings Plan... participant must either transfer his or her TSP death benefit payment to another eligible employer plan or... participant to retain a lump sum death benefit payment in the TSP, subject to certain restrictions...

  20. 5 CFR 843.212 - Lump-sum payments which include contributions made to a retirement system for employees of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 843.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  1. 5 CFR 843.212 - Lump-sum payments which include contributions made to a retirement system for employees of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 843.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  2. 20 CFR 10.410 - Who is entitled to compensation in case of death, and what are the rates of compensation payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... entitled to receive death benefits until death, marriage, or reaching age 18. Regarding entitlement after... monthly pay until death or remarriage before reaching age 55. Upon remarriage, the surviving spouse will... remarriage. If remarriage occurs at age 55 or older, the lump-sum payment will not be paid and...

  3. Debating death: religion, politics, and the Oregon Death With Dignity Act.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2012-06-01

    In 1994, Oregon passed the Oregon Death With Dignity Act, becoming the first state in the nation to allow physician-assisted suicide (PAS). This paper compares the public discussion that occurred in 1994 and during the Act's implementation in 1997 and examines these debates in relation to health care reform under the Obama administration. I argue that the 1994 and 1997 Oregon PAS campaigns and the ensuing public debate represent the culmination of a growing lack of deference to medical authority, concerns with the doctor-patient relationship, and a desire for increased patient autonomy over decisions during death. The public debate over PAS in Oregon underscored the conflicts among competing religious, political, and personal interests. More visible and widespread than any other American debate on PAS, the conflict in Oregon marked the beginning of the now nationwide problem of determining if and when a terminally ill person can choose to die.

  4. Debating Death: Religion, Politics, and the Oregon Death With Dignity Act

    PubMed Central

    Purvis, Taylor E.

    2012-01-01

    In 1994, Oregon passed the Oregon Death With Dignity Act, becoming the first state in the nation to allow physician-assisted suicide (PAS). This paper compares the public discussion that occurred in 1994 and during the Act’s implementation in 1997 and examines these debates in relation to health care reform under the Obama administration. I argue that the 1994 and 1997 Oregon PAS campaigns and the ensuing public debate represent the culmination of a growing lack of deference to medical authority, concerns with the doctor-patient relationship, and a desire for increased patient autonomy over decisions during death. The public debate over PAS in Oregon underscored the conflicts among competing religious, political, and personal interests. More visible and widespread than any other American debate on PAS, the conflict in Oregon marked the beginning of the now nationwide problem of determining if and when a terminally ill person can choose to die. PMID:22737056

  5. Gonzales versus Oregon:the Oregon Death with Dignity Act Meets the Controlled Substances Act.

    PubMed

    Rich, Ben A

    2007-01-01

    The decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Gonzales v. Oregon represents the most recent battle in a long war of attrition waged by the opponents of the practice of physician-assisted suicide in general and the Oregon Death with Dignity Act in particular. The history of the Oregon law and the many challenges to it provide pertinent background to understanding important elements of the majority and dissenting opinions in this case and suggest where this seemingly intractable societal debate may be headed.

  6. 75 FR 5499 - Claims for Compensation; Death Gratuity Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Part 10 RIN 1215-AB66 Claims for Compensation; Death... interim final rule in order to administer the death gratuity created by section 1105 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, Public Law 110-181. Section 1105 provides a death...

  7. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act: The Right to Live or the Right to Die?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westefeld, John S.; Doobay, Alissa; Hill, Jennifer; Humphreys, Clare; Sandil, Riddhi; Tallman, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred six individuals were surveyed concerning their views about the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, which allows for physician-assisted suicide under certain conditions. Results indicated extensive heterogeneity and strong opinions concerning the act. Implications are discussed. (Contains 2 tables.)

  8. A Critical Analysis of Criticisms of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Wineberg, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This article critically examines the validity of common criticisms of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, primarily through reviewing published research and analyses. After summarizing the law and recent developments, 11 areas of concerns are examined: (a) the amount of data collected, (b) the availability of the data, (c) the reporting process,…

  9. Mortality, or Probability of Death, from a Suicidal Act in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Harry; Kohn, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The probability of death resulting from a suicidal act as a function of age is explored. Until recently, data on suicide attempts in the United States were not available, and therefore the relationship between attempts and completed suicide could not be systematically investigated. Now, with new surveillance of self-harm data from the Centers for…

  10. 76 FR 60372 - Application for Annuity or Lump Sum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... alternative signature methods in addition to the traditional pen-and-ink or ``wet'' signature in order to... amends Sec. 217.17 of its regulations in order to allow signature alternatives to the traditional...

  11. 76 FR 31262 - Application for Annuity or Lump Sum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... to amend its regulations to allow alternative signature methods in addition to the traditional pen... section 217.17 of its regulations in order to allow signature alternatives to the traditional...

  12. Lump Sum Alternatives to Current Veterans’ Disability Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY, CHRONIC, FAR ADVANCED, INACTIVE 6724 TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY, CHRONIC, INACTIVE, ADVANCEMENT UNSPECIFIED 6732 PLEURISY ...TUBERCULOUS 6801 SILICOSIS 6802 PNEUMOCONIOSIS, UNSPECIFIED 6809 ABCESS OF LUNG 6810 PLEURISY , SEROFIBRINOUS 6811 PLEURISY , PURULENT

  13. Attenuation of cadmium-induced necrotic cell death by necrostatin-1: Potential necrostatin-1 acting sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, T.-S.; Yang, P.-M.; Tsai, J.-S.; Lin, L.-Y.

    2009-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) induces necrotic death in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells and we have established the responsible signaling pathway. Reportedly, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) rescues cells from necrotic death by mediating through the death domain receptor (DR) signaling pathway. We show here that Nec-1 also effectively attenuates necrotic death triggered by Cd. Two other treatments that cause necrotic cell death, one can (z-VAD-fmk/TNF-{alpha} on U937 cells) and the other cannot (etherynic acid (EA) on DLD-1 cells) be rescued by Nec-1, were also studied in parallel for comparison. Results show that Nec-1 is ineffectual in modulating intracellular calcium contents, calpain activity (a downstream protease), or reactive oxygen species production. It can counteract the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) caused by treating CHO K1 or U937 cells with necrosis-inducing agent. However, this effect was not found in EA-treated DLD-1 cells. Notably, Nec-1 elevates NF-{kappa}B activity in the presence or absence of necrosis-inducing agents. Our study shows that, in addition to DR-mediated necrosis, Nec-1 is effective in attenuating Cd-induced necrosis. It rescues cells with reduced MMP implying that mitochondrion is its major acting site.

  14. A novel cell death gene acts to repair patterning defects in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kentaro M; Takahashi, Aya; Fuse, Naoyuki; Takano-Shimizu-Kouno, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Cell death is a mechanism utilized by organisms to eliminate excess cells during development. Here, we describe a novel regulator of caspase-independent cell death, Mabiki (Mabi), that is involved in the repair of the head patterning defects caused by extra copies of bicoid in Drosophila melanogaster. Mabiki functions together with caspase-dependent cell death mechanisms to provide robustness during development.

  15. 20 CFR 404.1301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) The Social Security Act (Act), under section 217, provides for noncontributory wage credits to.... The Act also provides for noncontributory wage credits to certain individuals who served in the active... uniformed service, to determine entitlement to, and the amount of, benefits and the lump-sum death...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) The Social Security Act (Act), under section 217, provides for noncontributory wage credits to.... The Act also provides for noncontributory wage credits to certain individuals who served in the active... uniformed service, to determine entitlement to, and the amount of, benefits and the lump-sum death...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) The Social Security Act (Act), under section 217, provides for noncontributory wage credits to.... The Act also provides for noncontributory wage credits to certain individuals who served in the active... uniformed service, to determine entitlement to, and the amount of, benefits and the lump-sum death...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The Social Security Act (Act), under section 217, provides for noncontributory wage credits to.... The Act also provides for noncontributory wage credits to certain individuals who served in the active... uniformed service, to determine entitlement to, and the amount of, benefits and the lump-sum death...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) The Social Security Act (Act), under section 217, provides for noncontributory wage credits to.... The Act also provides for noncontributory wage credits to certain individuals who served in the active... uniformed service, to determine entitlement to, and the amount of, benefits and the lump-sum death...

  20. Intrauterine death at term in a cocaine user detained under the Mental Health Act.

    PubMed

    Petrosellini, Chiara; Hameed, Aisha

    2015-12-09

    We report the case of a 31-year-old woman who presented at 23 weeks gestation following a mixed overdose of medication. She was detained under the Mental Health Act 1983/2007 for ongoing suicidal ideation and heavy cocaine use. She had a normal nuchal scan, and unremarkable anomaly and growth scans at 19, 29, 32 and 34 weeks. At 40 weeks, an ultrasound scan confirmed fetal demise. A macerated male stillborn was delivered by forceps. Women with mental health and substance misuse problems may have reduced awareness of fetal movements, and they may be poor historians or frequent attenders for non-specific symptoms. It is crucial that these factors do not influence the ability of clinicians to thoroughly investigate symptoms and promptly identify obstetric complications.

  1. Death Tax Repeal Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Boozman, John [R-AR

    2013-07-31

    07/31/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6129) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  3. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  4. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  6. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.017010 63 0.018685 64 0.020517 65 0.022562 66 0.024847 67 0.027232 68 0.029634 69 0.032073 70 0... 0.568365 105 0.616382 106 0.668696 107 0.725745 108 0.786495 109 0.852659 110 0.924666 111 1.000000 ... Rates Age x qx 12 0.000000 13 0.000000 14......

  7. 24 CFR 84.82 - Provisions applicable only to lump sum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... payments. HUD shall not require more than an original and two copies of these forms. (i) SF-270, Request for Advance or Reimbursement. HUD has adopted the SF-270 as a standard form for all nonconstruction programs when electronic funds transfer or predetermined advance methods are not used. The SF-270...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 122 12-1-03 1-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 123 1-1-04 2-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00... (where y is an integer and 0 n 1 + n 2), interest rate i 3 shall apply from the valuation date for a... annuities (percent) i 1 i 2 i 3 n 1 n 2 1 11-1-93 12-1-93 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 2 12-1-93 1-1-94 4.25...

  9. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....00 4.00 4.00 7 8 123 1-1-04 2-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 124 2-1-04 3-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8....25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 2 12-1-93 1-1-94 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 3 1-1-94 2-1-94 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 4 2-1-94 3-1-94 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 5 3-1-94 4-1-94 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 6 4-1-94 5-1-94...

  10. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....00 4.00 4.00 7 8 123 1-1-04 2-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 124 2-1-04 3-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8....25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 2 12-1-93 1-1-94 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 3 1-1-94 2-1-94 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 4 2-1-94 3-1-94 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 5 3-1-94 4-1-94 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 6 4-1-94 5-1-94...

  11. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 122 12-1-03 1-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 123 1-1-04 2-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00... (where y is an integer and 0 n 1 + n 2), interest rate i 3 shall apply from the valuation date for a... annuities (percent) i 1 i 2 i 3 n 1 n 2 1 11-1-93 12-1-93 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 2 12-1-93 1-1-94 4.25...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....00 4.00 4.00 7 8 123 1-1-04 2-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 124 2-1-04 3-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8....25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 2 12-1-93 1-1-94 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 3 1-1-94 2-1-94 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 4 2-1-94 3-1-94 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 5 3-1-94 4-1-94 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 6 4-1-94 5-1-94...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 122 12-1-03 1-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 123 1-1-04 2-1-04 3.25 4.00 4.00... (where y is an integer and 0 n 1 + n 2), interest rate i 3 shall apply from the valuation date for a... annuities (percent) i 1 i 2 i 3 n 1 n 2 1 11-1-93 12-1-93 4.25 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 2 12-1-93 1-1-94 4.25...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 15 1-1-95 2-1-95 6.00 5.25 4.00 4.00 7 8 16 2-1-95 3-1-95 6.00 5.25 4.00 4.00 7 8 17 3-1-95 4-1-95 6... 37 11-1-96 12-1-96 5.00 4.25 4.00 4.00 7 8 38 12-1-96 1-1-97 4.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 39 1-1-97 2-1-97....75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 148 2-1-06 3-1-06 2.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 149 3-1-06 4-1-06 2.75......

  15. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....00 7 8 14 12-1-94 1-1-95 6.25 5.50 4.25 4.00 7 8 15 1-1-95 2-1-95 6.00 5.25 4.00 4.00 7 8 16 2-1-95 3... 8 26 12-1-95 1-1-96 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 27 1-1-96 2-1-96 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 28 2-1-96 3-1... 4.00 7 8 149 3-1-06 4-1-06 2.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 150 4-1-06 5-1-06 2.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 151...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix C to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for Private-Sector Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 15 1-1-95 2-1-95 6.00 5.25 4.00 4.00 7 8 16 2-1-95 3-1-95 6.00 5.25 4.00 4.00 7 8 17 3-1-95 4-1-95 6... 37 11-1-96 12-1-96 5.00 4.25 4.00 4.00 7 8 38 12-1-96 1-1-97 4.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 39 1-1-97 2-1-97....75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 148 2-1-06 3-1-06 2.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 149 3-1-06 4-1-06 2.75......

  17. 29 CFR Appendix B to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Interest Rates for PBGC Payments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....00 7 8 14 12-1-94 1-1-95 6.25 5.50 4.25 4.00 7 8 15 1-1-95 2-1-95 6.00 5.25 4.00 4.00 7 8 16 2-1-95 3... 8 26 12-1-95 1-1-96 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 27 1-1-96 2-1-96 4.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 28 2-1-96 3-1... 4.00 7 8 149 3-1-06 4-1-06 2.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 150 4-1-06 5-1-06 2.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 7 8 151...

  18. 29 CFR 4050.10 - Annuity or elective lump sum-beneficiary of deceased missing participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... participant's life). (iii) Time of benefit. The PBGC will pay the survivor benefit beginning at the time... survivor benefit in the form of a single life annuity. Each monthly (or other periodic) benefit payment... monthly (or other periodic) joint and 50 percent survivor annuity beginning on the annuity starting...

  19. Acetylated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Act as Antagonists against Glutamate-Induced PC12 Cell Death via Bcl-2/Bax Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Cui; Gao, Lixia; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Wei; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), depolymerized products of chitosan composed of β-(1→4) d-glucosamine units, have broad range of biological activities such as antitumour, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. In this study, peracetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (PACOs) and N-acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (NACOs) were prepared from the COSs by chemcal modification. The structures of these monomers were identified using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. Their antagonist effects against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with the PACOs markedly inhibited glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The PACOs were better glutamate antagonists compared to the COSs and the NACOs, suggesting the peracetylation is essential for the neuroprotective effects of chitosan oligosaccharides. In addition, the PACOs pretreatment significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species production. It also attenuated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies indicated that the PACOs inhibited glutamate-induced cell death by preventing apoptosis through depressing the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that PACOs might be promising antagonists against glutamate-induced neural cell death. PMID:25775423

  20. Mn porphyrin in combination with ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant and mediates caspase-independent cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Evans, Myron K; Tovmasyan, Artak; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Devi, Gayathri R

    2014-03-01

    Resistance to therapy-mediated apoptosis in inflammatory breast cancer, an aggressive and distinct subtype of breast cancer, was recently attributed to increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression, glutathione (GSH) content, and decreased accumulation of reactive species. In this study, we demonstrate the unique ability of two Mn(III) N-substituted pyridylporphyrin (MnP)-based SOD mimics (MnTE-2-PyP(5+) and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+)) to catalyze oxidation of ascorbate, leading to the production of excessive levels of peroxide, and in turn cell death. The accumulation of peroxide, as a consequence of MnP+ascorbate treatment, was fully reversed by the administration of exogenous catalase, showing that hydrogen peroxide is essential for cell death. Cell death as a consequence of the action of MnP+ascorbate corresponded to decreases in GSH levels, prosurvival signaling (p-NF-κB, p-ERK1/2), and in expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, the most potent caspase inhibitor. Although markers of classical apoptosis were observed, including PARP cleavage and annexin V staining, administration of a pan-caspase inhibitor, Q-VD-OPh, did not reverse the observed cytotoxicity. MnP+ascorbate-treated cells showed nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, suggesting the possibility of a mechanism of caspase-independent cell death. Pharmacological ascorbate has already shown promise in recently completed phase I clinical trials, in which its oxidation and subsequent peroxide formation was catalyzed by endogenous metalloproteins. The catalysis of ascorbate oxidation by an optimized metal-based catalyst (such as MnP) carries a large therapeutic potential as an anticancer agent by itself or in combination with other modalities such as radio- and chemotherapy.

  1. ERK1/2 acts as a switch between necrotic and apoptotic cell death in ether phospholipid edelfosine-treated glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Melo-Lima, Sara; Lopes, Maria C; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is characterized by constitutive apoptosis resistance and survival signaling expression, but paradoxically is a necrosis-prone neoplasm. Incubation of human U118 glioblastoma cells with the antitumor alkylphospholipid analog edelfosine induced a potent necrotic cell death, whereas apoptosis was scarce. Preincubation of U118 cells with the selective MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, which inhibits MEK1/2-mediated activation of ERK1/2, led to a switch from necrosis to caspase-dependent apoptosis following edelfosine treatment. Combined treatment of U0126 and edelfosine totally inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and led to RIPK1 and RelA/NF-κB degradation, together with a strong activation of caspase-3 and -8. This apoptotic response was accompanied by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway with mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, Bcl-xL degradation and caspase-9 activation. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation also led to a dramatic increase in edelfosine-induced apoptosis when the alkylphospholipid analog was used at a low micromolar range, suggesting that ERK phosphorylation acts as a potent regulator of apoptotic cell death in edelfosine-treated U118 cells. These data show that inhibition of MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway highly potentiates edelfosine-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma U118 cells and switches the type of edelfosine-induced cell death from necrosis to apoptosis.

  2. Can the Americans With Disabilities Act Reduce the Death Toll From Police Encounters With Persons With Mental Illness?

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2015-10-01

    A substantial proportion of people shot by police have mental disorders, and many of these killings appear to have been avoidable. One tool to encourage better police training and more cautious behavior is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). However, police groups oppose application of the ADA to arrests, fearing limits on their discretion, and the U.S. Supreme Court appears to favor that view. When the Court declined a recent opportunity to decide the question, it left open a window of opportunity during which the ADA can be leveraged to improve how police officers deal with persons with mental illness.

  3. DPL-1 DP, LIN-35 Rb and EFL-1 E2F act with the MCD-1 zinc-finger protein to promote programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Reddien, Peter W; Andersen, Erik C; Huang, Michael C; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-04-01

    The genes egl-1, ced-9, ced-4, and ced-3 play major roles in programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that have more subtle activities, we sought mutations that confer strong cell-death defects in a genetically sensitized mutant background. Specifically, we screened for mutations that enhance the cell-death defects caused by a partial loss-of-function allele of the ced-3 caspase gene. We identified mutations in two genes not previously known to affect cell death, dpl-1 and mcd-1 (modifier of cell death). dpl-1 encodes the C. elegans homolog of DP, the human E2F-heterodimerization partner. By testing genes known to interact with dpl-1, we identified roles in cell death for four additional genes: efl-1 E2F, lin-35 Rb, lin-37 Mip40, and lin-52 dLin52. mcd-1 encodes a novel protein that contains one zinc finger and that is synthetically required with lin-35 Rb for animal viability. dpl-1 and mcd-1 act with efl-1 E2F and lin-35 Rb to promote programmed cell death and do so by regulating the killing process rather than by affecting the decision between survival and death. We propose that the DPL-1 DP, MCD-1 zinc finger, EFL-1 E2F, LIN-35 Rb, LIN-37 Mip40, and LIN-52 dLin52 proteins act together in transcriptional regulation to promote programmed cell death.

  4. 77 FR 44698 - Agency Forms Submitted for OMB Review, Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... for. To collect the information, the RRB uses Forms AA-11a, Designation for Change of Beneficiary for Residual Lump-Sum; AA-21, Application for Lump-Sum Death Payment and Annuities Unpaid at Death; AA-21cert...: Application for Survivor Death Benefits. OMB Control Number: 3220-0031. Form(s) submitted: AA-11a,...

  5. 77 FR 31898 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ..., the RRB uses Forms AA-11a, Designation for Change of Beneficiary for Residual Lump-Sum; AA-21, Application for Lump-Sum Death Payment and Annuities Unpaid at Death; AA-21cert, Application Summary and...) (hours) AA-11a 100 10 17 AA-21cert (with assistance)...... 4,500 20 1,500 AA-21 (without...

  6. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Act Extension, 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Child and Human Development of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session, on S. 2523, March 1, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    This document presents the hearings before the Subcommittee on Child and Human Development on the enactment of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Act Extension of 1978. The purpose of the hearing was to determine the effectiveness of the SIDS program which was established by Public Law 93-270, to determine how it can be improved or expanded,…

  7. Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk = 2.62; 95% confidence interval = 1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health. PMID:21527447

  8. Neonatal Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... cope with your baby’s death. What is neonatal death? Neonatal death is when a baby dies in ...

  9. 22 CFR 192.52 - Disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... guidelines: (1) Permanent total disability rate. A lump-sum payment equal to two year's salary of the Principal at the time of the qualifying incident. (2) Temporary total disability rate. A lump-sum...

  10. 20 CFR 234.42 - How the employee may designate beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How the employee may designate beneficiaries... RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.42 How the employee may designate... any Board office. The employee may specify the share that each beneficiary is to receive. Also,...

  11. 20 CFR 234.42 - How the employee may designate beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How the employee may designate beneficiaries... RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.42 How the employee may designate... any Board office. The employee may specify the share that each beneficiary is to receive. Also,...

  12. 20 CFR 234.42 - How the employee may designate beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How the employee may designate beneficiaries... RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.42 How the employee may designate... any Board office. The employee may specify the share that each beneficiary is to receive. Also,...

  13. 20 CFR 234.42 - How the employee may designate beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true How the employee may designate beneficiaries... RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.42 How the employee may designate... any Board office. The employee may specify the share that each beneficiary is to receive. Also,...

  14. 20 CFR 234.42 - How the employee may designate beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How the employee may designate beneficiaries... RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.42 How the employee may designate... any Board office. The employee may specify the share that each beneficiary is to receive. Also,...

  15. Voodoo death.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly writing on voodoo death is reviewed. Criticisms that voodoo deaths in indigenous societies have never been well documented are refuted with cases medically documented in developed nations. The work of Cannon and Richter on sudden death in animals is reviewed and dismissed as irrelevant for understanding voodoo death. The role of starvation and dehydration is discussed, and it is suggested that the given-up/giving-up hypothesis best fits the phenomenon of voodoo death. Hypotheses for future research are suggested.

  16. Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  17. Development of a cyclometalated iridium complex with specific intramolecular hydrogen-bonding that acts as a fluorescent marker for the endoplasmic reticulum and causes photoinduced cell death.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Soumik; Poria, Dipak K; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Ray, Partho Sarothi; Gupta, Parna

    2014-12-14

    Cyclometalated iridium complexes have important applications as phosphorescent probes for cellular imaging due to their photophysical properties. Moreover, these properties also make them potential candidates as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors and skin diseases. Treatment of MCF7 breast carcinoma cells with a heteroleptic phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex C2 followed by confocal imaging indicates that the complex selectively localizes and exhibits high fluorescence in the endoplasmic reticulum. In an unprecedented approach, systematic alteration of functional groups or the metal core in C2 to synthesize a series of iridium(III) complexes (C1–C10) and an organometallic rhenium complex C11 with an imidazolyl modified phenanthroline ligand has indicated the functional groups and their interactions that are responsible for this selective localization. Remarkably, the exposure of the cells treated with C2 to irradiation at 405 nm for one hour led to membrane blebbing and cell death, demonstrating a photosensitizing property of the compound.

  18. TLR4 acts as a death receptor for ultraviolet radiation (UVR) through IRAK-independent and FADD-dependent pathway in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Harberts, Erin; Fishelevich, Rita; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2016-12-01

    UVR-induced apoptosis in cutaneous antigen presenting cells (APC) causes systemic immune suppression and is dependent on TLR4/MyD88 signalling, but the apoptotic signalling pathways have not been defined. Macrophages pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were unresponsive to subsequent LPS treatment, however, but were susceptible to UVR-induced apoptosis. Macrophage survival and apoptotic events after UVR were also unaffected by treatment with TLR4 antagonists, a blocking IgG or a TLR4 analog antagonist, suggesting that UVR cell death is independent of a soluble ligand. After UVR, IRAK4(KDKI) (catalytically inactive IRAK4) and wild-type (WT) macrophages show equivalent levels of survival, as measured by MTT assay, and apoptosis, as measured by cleaved caspase-3. Furthermore, in macrophages from both mice, UVR activated caspase-8 and PARP, while inactivating Rip3. This finding is supported by a lack of IRAK1 degradation after UVR, compared to treatment with TLR2 or TLR4 agonists. UVR induced association of MyD88 with FADD, an extrinsic apoptotic pathway protein, but not IRAK4. UVR-induced migration of FADD to the cell membrane of WT macrophages, but not MyD88(-/-) macrophages, was observed (confocal microscopy). Co-immunoprecipitation using an epitope-tagged MyD88 revealed that FADD, but not TRADD, was recruited to MyD88 within 30 minutes of UVR exposure. UVR engages TLR4/MyD88 as a death signalling complex, rather than the classical inflammatory signalling pathway triggered by PAMP recognition of TLR4. These studies provide the rationale for the future development of topical TLR4 modulating therapies to interfere with this UVB-mediated apoptosis and the associated negative consequences of immune suppression.

  19. TaMDAR6 acts as a negative regulator of plant cell death and participates indirectly in stomatal regulation during the wheat stripe rust-fungus interaction.

    PubMed

    Abou-Attia, Mohamed Awaad; Wang, Xiaojie; Nashaat Al-Attala, Mohamed; Xu, Qiang; Zhan, Gangming; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-03-01

    We identified a new monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) gene from wheat, designated TaMDAR6, which is differentially affected by wheat-Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) interactions. TaMDAR6 is a negative regulator of plant cell death (PCD) triggered by the Bax gene and Pst. Transcript levels of TaMDAR6 are significantly upregulated during a compatible wheat-Pst interaction, indicating that TaMDAR6 may contribute to plant susceptibility. In addition, H2 O2 production and PCD are significantly induced and initial pathogen development is significantly reduced in the TaMDAR6 knocked-down plants upon Pst infection. Thus, the suppression of TaMDAR6 enhances wheat resistance to Pst. Besides, the suppression of TaMDAR6 during an incompatible interaction induces a change in the morphology of stomata, which leads to poor stoma recognition and as a consequence to reduced infection efficiency. The percentage of infection sites that develop substomatal vesicles decreases in the TaMDAR6 knocked-down plants during the incompatible interaction presumably due to the increase in ROS accumulation, which is likely to activate other resistance mechanisms that have a negative effect on substomatal vesicle formation. TaMDAR6 can therefore be considered a negative regulator of PCD and of wheat defense to Pst.

  20. Invariant death.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death's scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death's curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death's invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death's scaling of time. Variability in death rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes.

  1. 20 CFR 638.513 - Death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death. 638.513 Section 638.513 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.513 Death. In each case of student death,...

  2. 20 CFR 638.513 - Death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death. 638.513 Section 638.513 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.513 Death. In each case of student death,...

  3. 20 CFR 638.513 - Death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death. 638.513 Section 638.513 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.513 Death. In each case of student death,...

  4. 40 CFR 35.938-3 - Type of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.938-3 Type of contract. Each contract shall be a fixed price (lump sum or unit price or a combination of the...

  5. 40 CFR 35.938-3 - Type of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.938-3 Type of contract. Each contract shall be a fixed price (lump sum or unit price or a combination of the...

  6. A continued debate about hastened death.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, G A H

    2000-06-01

    Oregon's Death with Dignity Act has changed the nature of the discussion and debate surrounding hastened death. After considering how the Act has been implemented, the clinical, policy, and research implications of physician-assisted suicide or physician-assisted death are introduced. This brief article, and the special theme issue of Psychology, Public Policy, and the Law, present the opposing viewpoints on this issue.

  7. [Brain death diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Escudero, Dolores

    2009-05-01

    Brain death has been recognized by the scientific community as the person's death, and accepted in the legislation of different countries. Brain death is defined as the irreversible ending of the functions of all the intracranial neurological structure in both the brain and brain stem. This clinical situation appears when intracranial pressure exceeds the patient's systolic blood pressure, leading to brain circulatory arrest. The most frequent are cerebral hemorrhage and cranioencephalic trauma. Clinical diagnostic must be done by doctors with expertise in neurocritical patient treatment. This diagnosis is based on a systematic, complete and extremely rigorous clinical examination that confirms a non-reactive coma, absence of brain stem reflex, and absence of spontaneous breathing. Instrumental tests may be obligatory in some cases, this depending on each country. Electroencephalogram and evoked potentials are the electrophysiological tests used. In patients treated with sedative drugs, cerebral blood flow evaluation tests, such as cerebral angiography, transcranial Doppler or 99Tc-HMPAO scintigraphy, will be used. More than 92% of the transplants performed in Spain are performed with brain death donor organs. Brain death confirmation is a high responsibility act, with medical, ethical and legal significance since it requires removal of all artificial support, or organs extraction for transplant. Extensive knowledge on its diagnostic and correct decision making avoid unnecessary use of resources and improves management of organs for transplant.

  8. Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2014-09-15

    09/15/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1447, which became Public Law 113-242 on 12/18/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Federal Death Penalty Abolition Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Edwards, Donna F. [D-MD-4

    2013-12-12

    01/27/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Federal Death Penalty Abolition Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Feingold, Russell D. [D-WI

    2009-03-19

    03/19/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3560-3563) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Death foretold.

    PubMed

    Biderman, A; Herman, J

    2000-01-01

    We briefly trace the history of a belief in the possibility that a person in apparent good health may accurately predict his or her own demise. The phenomenon is referred to as death foretold and we present presumed examples of it from the Bible, world literature, medical writings and newspaper reports without pretending to completeness. In two widely quoted scientific papers, death foretold is subsumed under the wider heading of decease due to psychic stress. We speculate on a possible link between the two, taking into consideration the fact that most people who prophesy their end are of an advanced age.

  12. 5 CFR 842.707 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hypertension with hypertensive encephalopathy. (K) Cardiac aneurysm not amenable to surgical treatment. (L) Agranulocytosis. (M) Severe hepatic failure. (N) Severe hypoxic brain damage. (O) Severe portal hypertension...

  13. 5 CFR 842.707 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hypertension with hypertensive encephalopathy. (K) Cardiac aneurysm not amenable to surgical treatment. (L) Agranulocytosis. (M) Severe hepatic failure. (N) Severe hypoxic brain damage. (O) Severe portal hypertension...

  14. 5 CFR 831.2207 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Severe cardiomyopathy—Class IV. (I) Aplastic anemia. (J) Uncontrolled hypertension with hypertensive... failure. (N) Severe Hypoxic brain damage. (O) Severe portal hypertension with esophageal varices. (P)...

  15. 5 CFR 842.707 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hypertension with hypertensive encephalopathy. (K) Cardiac aneurysm not amenable to surgical treatment. (L) Agranulocytosis. (M) Severe hepatic failure. (N) Severe hypoxic brain damage. (O) Severe portal hypertension...

  16. 5 CFR 831.2207 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Severe cardiomyopathy—Class IV. (I) Aplastic anemia. (J) Uncontrolled hypertension with hypertensive... failure. (N) Severe Hypoxic brain damage. (O) Severe portal hypertension with esophageal varices. (P)...

  17. 5 CFR 831.2207 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Severe cardiomyopathy—Class IV. (I) Aplastic anemia. (J) Uncontrolled hypertension with hypertensive... failure. (N) Severe Hypoxic brain damage. (O) Severe portal hypertension with esophageal varices. (P)...

  18. 5 CFR 831.2208 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 831.2208 Section 831.2208... annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, if the annuity of a retiree commences after December 2, 1989, and before...

  19. 5 CFR 831.2208 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 831.2208 Section 831.2208... annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, if the annuity of a retiree commences after December 2, 1989, and before...

  20. 5 CFR 831.2208 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 831.2208 Section 831.2208... annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, if the annuity of a retiree commences after December 2, 1989, and before...

  1. 5 CFR 831.2208 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 831.2208 Section 831.2208... annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, if the annuity of a retiree commences after December 2, 1989, and before...

  2. 5 CFR 831.2208 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... credit if annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. 831.2208 Section 831.2208... annuity commences after December 2, 1989, and before October 1, 1995. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, if the annuity of a retiree commences after December 2, 1989, and before...

  3. 26 CFR 20.2039-4 - Lump sum distributions from “qualified plans;” decedents dying after December 31, 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-term capital gain under section 402(a)(2). However, a recipient's election under this paragraph (c... include the individual's name, address, social security number, the name of the decedent, and a...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2039-4 - Lump sum distributions from “qualified plans;” decedents dying after December 31, 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-term capital gain under section 402(a)(2). However, a recipient's election under this paragraph (c... include the individual's name, address, social security number, the name of the decedent, and a...

  5. 5 CFR 842.707 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Alternative Forms of Annuities § 842.707 Partial deferred payment... failure. (D) Respiratory failure. (E) Cor pulmonale with respiratory failure. (F) Emphysema with respiratory failure. (G) (H) Severe cardiomyopathy—Class IV. (I) Aplastic anemia. (J)...

  6. 5 CFR 831.2207 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Aortic stenosis (severe). (C) Class IV cardiac disease with congestive heart failure. (D) Respiratory...) Severe cardiomyopathy—Class IV. (I) Aplastic anemia. (J) Uncontrolled hypertension with...

  7. 5 CFR 831.2207 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Aortic stenosis (severe). (C) Class IV cardiac disease with congestive heart failure. (D) Respiratory...) Severe cardiomyopathy—Class IV. (I) Aplastic anemia. (J) Uncontrolled hypertension with...

  8. 5 CFR 842.707 - Partial deferred payment of the lump-sum credit if annuity commences after January 3, 1988, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inoperable neoplasms. (B) Aortic stenosis (severe). (C) Class IV cardiac disease with congestive heart... hypertension with hypertensive encephalopathy. (K) Cardiac aneurysm not amenable to surgical treatment....

  9. When Brain Death Belies Belief.

    PubMed

    Yanke, Greg; Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-12-01

    The case of Jahi McMath has reignited a discussion concerning how society should define death. Despite pronouncing McMath brain dead based on the American Academy of Neurology criteria, the court ordered continued mechanical ventilation to accommodate the family's religious beliefs. Recent case law suggests that the potential for a successful challenge to the neurologic criteria of death provisions of the Uniform Determination of Death Act are greater than ever in the majority of states that have passed religious freedom legislation. As well, because standard ethical claims regarding brain death are either patently untrue or subject to legitimate dispute, those whose beliefs do not comport with the brain death standard should be able to reject it.

  10. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families.

  11. [Accompany death].

    PubMed

    Salvador Borrell, Montserrat

    2010-11-01

    One of the roles of nursing is to take care of the patients in terminal situation. The time, the experience, the formation, and the personal and professional attitudes that the nurse has will propitiate that taking care of moribund patients might turn into one of the more rewarding human experiences in life. There for, it is indispensable that nurses assume death as a natural and inevitable reality to achieve. The principal aim of the study is to evaluate the competence of confrontation and the autoefficiency of the welfare among nurses who work with adult patients at the end of the life. Descriptive study realized in the units of Oncology, Hametology and Palliative Care of the following centers: La Fe, Clínico, Dr. Peset, H. General, Arnau de Vilanova and Dr. Moliner de Portacoelli in Valencia (Spain). The following instruments were used: the Bugen Scale of confrontation of the Death (1980-1981) and the Robbins Scale of Autoefficiency (1992). Data suggests that major coping gives major autoeffciency and vice versa. The realized study opens numerous questions, specially related with training and the burden of preparation along the whole professional career, in order to achieve competence for coping and autoefficiency.

  12. Invariant death

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death’s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death’s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death’s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death’s scaling of time. Variability in death rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes. PMID:27785361

  13. Encountering Death: Structured Activities for Death Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ira David; And Others

    This book is intended to be used as a supplement to standard textbooks on death and dying for college students. Chapter 1 "Encountering Death in the Self" builds the foundation for increased self-awareness for the study of death and dying. Chapter 2 "Encountering Death in the Family" provides activities which are appropriate for a wide variety of…

  14. 38 CFR 12.21 - Action upon death of veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action upon death of..., Amending the Act of June 25, 1910 (24 U.s.c. 136) § 12.21 Action upon death of veteran. Upon the death of a... to that left at the place of death; similar action will be taken when the death of such a...

  15. 38 CFR 12.21 - Action upon death of veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Action upon death of..., Amending the Act of June 25, 1910 (24 U.s.c. 136) § 12.21 Action upon death of veteran. Upon the death of a... to that left at the place of death; similar action will be taken when the death of such a...

  16. 38 CFR 12.21 - Action upon death of veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Action upon death of..., Amending the Act of June 25, 1910 (24 U.s.c. 136) § 12.21 Action upon death of veteran. Upon the death of a... to that left at the place of death; similar action will be taken when the death of such a...

  17. 38 CFR 12.21 - Action upon death of veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action upon death of..., Amending the Act of June 25, 1910 (24 U.s.c. 136) § 12.21 Action upon death of veteran. Upon the death of a... to that left at the place of death; similar action will be taken when the death of such a...

  18. 38 CFR 12.21 - Action upon death of veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action upon death of..., Amending the Act of June 25, 1910 (24 U.s.c. 136) § 12.21 Action upon death of veteran. Upon the death of a... to that left at the place of death; similar action will be taken when the death of such a...

  19. Privacy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  20. Aging and Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Margaret M.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The elderly death rate is somewhat higher than the death rate in general. Numbers of schools with gerontological curricula and frequency of death education courses are positively related to elderly death rates. The contention that elderly deaths have less social impact is not supported. (JAC)

  1. 20 CFR 10.903 - Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is the death gratuity payment applicable...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.903 Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively? An employee's death qualifies for the death gratuity if the employee died on or after October 7, 2001,...

  2. 20 CFR 10.903 - Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Is the death gratuity payment applicable...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.903 Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively? An employee's death qualifies for the death gratuity if the employee died on or after October 7, 2001,...

  3. 20 CFR 10.903 - Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is the death gratuity payment applicable...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.903 Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively? An employee's death qualifies for the death gratuity if the employee died on or after October 7, 2001,...

  4. 20 CFR 10.903 - Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Is the death gratuity payment applicable...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.903 Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively? An employee's death qualifies for the death gratuity if the employee died on or after October 7, 2001,...

  5. 20 CFR 10.903 - Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is the death gratuity payment applicable...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.903 Is the death gratuity payment applicable retroactively? An employee's death qualifies for the death gratuity if the employee died on or after October 7, 2001,...

  6. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  7. Sudden infant death syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Crib death; SIDS ... However, SIDS is still a major cause of death in infants under 1 year old. Thousands of ... affects boys more often than girls. Most SIDS deaths occur in the winter. The following may increase ...

  8. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  9. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  10. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  11. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  12. 38 CFR 10.28 - Proof of death evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of death evidence... COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.28 Proof of death evidence. Evidence required in establishing proof of death under the act, as amended, shall conform with the requirements set forth in...

  13. [Unobserved death of an infant: cot death?].

    PubMed

    van Wouwe, J P; Dandachli, T H; Huber, J

    1999-10-02

    Three children, two girls aged 8 and 12 months and one boy aged 7 weeks, were found dead unexpectedly. Autopsy revealed pneumonia in two children, following which the diagnosis of 'natural, explained death' was made; one child showed no abnormalities and the diagnosis read 'natural, unexplained death' (cot death). Autopsy may currently only be performed with parental permission or, in case of doubt about unnatural cause of death, by order of the public prosecutor. The authors propose routine performance of a protocolled autopsy by GP, pediatrician, pathologist and medical examiner in order to avoid subsequent and possibly incorrect doubt about the cause of death.

  14. Capital Punishment: An Overview of Federal Death Penalty Statutes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-05

    Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 made further modifications and additions to the list of federal capital crimes. On June 25, 2002...civilian offenses. Further changes to the list of federal capital punishment statutes resulted from the passage of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death ...offenses. The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, P.L. 104-132, CRS-4 3The offense is set forth generally in 18 U.S.C. § 32, while the

  15. Brain Death Determination.

    PubMed

    Spinello, Irene M

    2015-09-01

    In the United States, each year 1% to 2% of deaths are brain deaths. Considerable variation in the practice of determining brain death still remains, despite the publication of practice parameters in 1995 and an evidence-based guideline update in 2010. This review is intended to give bedside clinicians an overview of definition, the causes and pitfalls of misdiagnosing brain death, and a focus on the specifics of the brain death determination process.

  16. 29 CFR 4006.4 - Determination of unfunded vested benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... because of the circumstance that the participant is living, in the case of the following death benefits... lump-sum death benefit (other than a benefit described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section) is not... (QPSA) upon the death of a participant who has five years of service, at no charge to the...

  17. 29 CFR 4006.4 - Determination of unfunded vested benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... because of the circumstance that the participant is living, in the case of the following death benefits... lump-sum death benefit (other than a benefit described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section) is not... (QPSA) upon the death of a participant who has five years of service, at no charge to the...

  18. 29 CFR 4006.4 - Determination of unfunded vested benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... because of the circumstance that the participant is living, in the case of the following death benefits... lump-sum death benefit (other than a benefit described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section) is not... (QPSA) upon the death of a participant who has five years of service, at no charge to the...

  19. 29 CFR 4006.4 - Determination of unfunded vested benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... because of the circumstance that the participant is living, in the case of the following death benefits... lump-sum death benefit (other than a benefit described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section) is not... (QPSA) upon the death of a participant who has five years of service, at no charge to the...

  20. 75 FR 78877 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations; Uniformed Services Accounts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Allocations; Uniformed Services Accounts; Methods of Withdrawing Funds From the Thrift Savings Plan; Death... participant must either transfer his or her TSP death benefit payment to another eligible employer plan or... participant to retain a lump sum death benefit payment in the TSP. This final rule conforms the...

  1. 76 FR 55213 - Technical Amendments to Federal Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Conversion Factors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... convert a lump sum basic employee death benefit under 5 U.S.C. 8442(b) to 36 installment payments. That change inadvertently stated that the revised factor would apply to deaths occurring on or after October 1, 2004. The revised factor, however, applies to deaths occurring on or after October 1, 2011....

  2. Whither brain death?

    PubMed

    Bernat, James L

    2014-01-01

    The publicity surrounding the recent McMath and Muñoz cases has rekindled public interest in brain death: the familiar term for human death determination by showing the irreversible cessation of clinical brain functions. The concept of brain death was developed decades ago to permit withdrawal of therapy in hopeless cases and to permit organ donation. It has become widely established medical practice, and laws permit it in all U.S. jurisdictions. Brain death has a biophilosophical justification as a standard for determining human death but remains poorly understood by the public and by health professionals. The current controversies over brain death are largely restricted to the academy, but some practitioners express ambivalence over whether brain death is equivalent to human death. Brain death remains an accepted and sound concept, but more work is necessary to establish its biophilosophical justification and to educate health professionals and the public.

  3. Respiratory medications and risk of asthma death

    PubMed Central

    Lanes, S; Garcia, R; Huerta, C

    2002-01-01

    Background: The effect of respiratory medications on risk of asthma death in the UK was studied using the General Practice Research Database. Methods: A total of 96 258 individuals with a diagnosis of asthma were identified, 43 of whom had died as a result of their asthma. For each case 20 controls were selected. Relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed for each respiratory drug category controlling for effects of age, sex, body mass index, smoking, frequency of visits to the GP, hospital admissions for asthma, and visits to a specialist. Results: The strongest associations were found for at least 13 prescriptions of short acting ß agonists during the previous year (RR=51.6, 95% CI 7.9 to 345) and 7–12 prescriptions of short acting ß agonists (RR=16.2, 95% CI 2.6 to 101). Short acting ß agonists and inhaled steroids tended to be prescribed most frequently to the same patients. In patients who received more than one prescription per month of short acting ß agonists during the previous year, regular use of inhaled steroids was associated with a 60% reduced risk of asthma death (RR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.0). Conclusions: Regular use of inhaled steroids is associated with a decreased risk of asthma death, and excessive use of short acting ß agonists is associated with a markedly increased risk of asthma death. PMID:12149527

  4. AIDS and the death receptors.

    PubMed

    Peter, M E; Ehret, A; Berndt, C; Krammer, P H

    1997-01-01

    Activation-induced cell death (AICD) of T cells involves the CD95 receptor/ligand system. T cell activation through the T cell receptor results in expression of the CD95 ligand (CD95L) that acts on CD95+ cells by direct binding and in a paracrine or autocrine fashion. In AIDS, upregulation of CD95L in T cells is accelerated by two viral gene products, HIV-1 Tat and gp120. The CD95 signaling pathway is, therefore, likely to represent an important road to cell death of the CD4+ T cells in AIDS. Recently, the early events in the CD95 signaling pathway have been identified. A key role hereby plays a receptor-interacting member of the interleukin 1 beta-converting enzymes (ICE), FLICE, that could be a target for therapeutic intervention. In addition to CD95, the role of other members of the TNF receptor superfamily in AIDS is discussed.

  5. Are Death Anxiety and Death Depression Distinct Entities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Katherine A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Death Anxiety Scale and Death Depression Scale to 200 individuals. Two scales correlated 0.55. Factor analysis of combined 32 items revealed factors: "death anxiety" having highest factor loadings with Death Anxiety Scale, "death depression" having highest factor loadings with Death Depression Scale, "death of…

  6. Children's Experience with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeligs, Rose

    Children's concepts of death grow with their age and development The three-year-old begins to notice that living things move and make sounds. The five-year-old thinks that life and death are reversable, but the six-year-old knows that death is final and brings sorrow. Children from eight through ten are interested in the causes of death and what…

  7. Retinoic acids acting through retinoid receptors protect hippocampal neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-mediated cell death by inhibition of c-jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Y; Sato, Y; Koizumi, S; Ohno, Y; Nagao, T; Inoue, K

    2007-06-15

    Retinoic acids (RAs), including all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA), play fundamental roles in a variety of physiological events in vertebrates, through their specific nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). Despite the physiological importance of RA, their functional significance under pathological conditions is not well understood. We examined the effect of ATRA on oxygen/glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/Rep)-induced neuronal damage in cultured rat hippocampal slices, and found that ATRA significantly reduced neuronal death. The cytoprotective effect of ATRA was observed not only in cornu ammonis (CA) 1 but also in CA2 and dentate gyrus (DG), and was attenuated by selective antagonists for RAR or RXR. By contrast, in the CA3 region, no protective effects of ATRA were observed. The OGD/Rep also increased phosphorylated forms of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) and p38 (P-p38) in hippocampus, and specific inhibitors for these kinases protected neurons. ATRA prevented the increases in P-JNK and P-p38 after OGD/Rep, as well as the decrease in NeuN and its shrinkage, all of which were inhibited by antagonists for RAR or RXR. These findings suggest that the ATRA signaling via retinoid receptors results in the inhibition of JNK and p38 activation, leading to the protection of neurons against OGD/Rep-induced damage in the rat hippocampus.

  8. The Federal Employees' Compensation Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Willis J.

    1991-01-01

    The 1916 Federal Employees' Compensation Act is still the focal point around which the federal workers compensation program works today. The program has gone through many changes on its way to becoming a modern means of compensating workers for job-related injury, disease, and death. (Author)

  9. Infant death scene investigation.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations.

  10. 38 CFR 3.1001 - Hospitalized competent veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a running award under § 3.551(b) which are payable in a lump sum after the veteran's death. (a... defined in § 3.1000(d)(1); (2) The veteran's children (in equal shares), as defined in § 3.57 but without... within 5 years after the death of the veteran. If, however, any person otherwise entitled is under...

  11. 38 CFR 3.1001 - Hospitalized competent veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a running award under § 3.551(b) which are payable in a lump sum after the veteran's death. (a... defined in § 3.1000(d)(1); (2) The veteran's children (in equal shares), as defined in § 3.57 but without... within 5 years after the death of the veteran. If, however, any person otherwise entitled is under...

  12. [The diagnosis of death].

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Carlos; Goic, Alejandro; Lavados, Manuel; Quintana, Carlos; Rojas, Alberto; Serani, Alejandro; Vacarezza, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    This paper undertakes an analysis of the scientific criteria used in the diagnosis of death and underscores the importance of intellectual rigor in the definition of medical concepts, particularly regarding such a critical issue as the diagnosis of death. Under the cardiorespiratory criterion, death is defined as "the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole", and the tests used to confirm this criterion (negative life-signs) are sensitive and specific. In this case, cadaverous phenomena appear immediately following the diagnosis of death. On the other hand, doubts have arisen concerning the theoretical and the inner consistency of the criterion of brain death, since it does not satisfy the definition of "the irreversible cessation of the functioning of an organism as a whole", nor the requirement of "total and irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem". There is evidence to the effect that the tests used to confirm this criterion are not specific enough. It is clear that brain death marks the beginning of a process that eventually ends in death, though death does not occur at that moment. From an ethical point of view, the conflict arises between the need to provide an unequivocal diagnosis of death and the possibility of saving a life through organ transplantation. The sensitive issue of brain death calls for a more thorough and in-depth discussion among physicians and the community at large.

  13. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  14. Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through Proteasome Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through Proteasome Inhibition PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven R Schwarze...SUBTITLE Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Proteasome Inhibition 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0392 5c...proteasome inhibition can act as an anti-neoplastic agent in vivo by sensitizing cancer cells to cell death ligands in the tumor microenvironment

  15. 20 CFR 325.5 - Death of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death of employee. 325.5 Section 325.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.5 Death of employee. If an employee dies before...

  16. 20 CFR 325.5 - Death of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death of employee. 325.5 Section 325.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.5 Death of employee. If an employee dies before...

  17. 20 CFR 325.5 - Death of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Death of employee. 325.5 Section 325.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.5 Death of employee. If an employee dies before...

  18. 20 CFR 325.5 - Death of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Death of employee. 325.5 Section 325.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.5 Death of employee. If an employee dies before...

  19. 20 CFR 325.5 - Death of employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death of employee. 325.5 Section 325.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.5 Death of employee. If an employee dies before...

  20. A good death.

    PubMed

    2011-10-26

    Definitions of a good death often include being at home. Dying at home may be optimal for the patient but could place a significant burden on families and leave them with traumatic memories. Death in hospital should not mean that it is a 'bad death'. How someone dies is more important than where they die and nurses should be taught to provide good end of life care in all settings.

  1. [The extraordinary death].

    PubMed

    Plattner, Thomas; Zollinger, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    The examination of a deceased person is an important duty for physicians. It comprises the certification of death, the certification of the identity of the deceased, a thorough examination of the body, an estimation of the moment of death and ends with the decision, if death was caused by a certain or possible violent cause in which case it must be reported to the authorities. Problems and pitfalls are discussed on the basis of practical case presentations.

  2. Programmed cell death in plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, H M; Cheun, A Y

    2000-10-01

    Reproductive development is a rich arena to showcase programmed cell death in plants. After floral induction, the first act of reproductive development in some plants is the selective killing of cells destined to differentiate into an unwanted sexual organ. Production of functional pollen grains relies significantly on deterioration and death of the anther tapetum, a tissue whose main function appears to nurture and decorate the pollen grains with critical surface molecules. Degeneration and death in a number of anther tissues result ultimately in anther rupture and dispersal of pollen grains. Female sporogenesis frequently begins with the death of all but one of the meiotic derivatives, with surrounding nucellar cells degenerating in concert with embryo sac expansion. Female tissues that interact with pollen undergo dramatic degeneration, including death, to ensure the encounter of compatible male and female gametes. Pollen and pistil interact to kill invading pollen from an incompatible source. Most observations on cell death in reproductive tissues have been on the histological and cytological levels. We discuss various cell death phenomena in reproductive development with a view towards understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes.

  3. The Effects of Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David

    Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…

  4. 77 FR 27065 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 440,000 deaths annually. Smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Moreover, cigarette smoking costs more than $193 billion; $97... Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) in 2009, the FDA is legally mandated...

  5. Programmed cell death

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  6. Death Writ Large

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  7. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-01-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

  8. The Sociology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    When we start to look at the issues associated with dying and death, we must do so in terms of the broadest parameters imaginable. Presented at the Conference on Death and Dying: Education, Counseling, and Care, December 1-3, 1976, Orlando, Florida. (Author)

  9. Facing Up to Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  10. Death Acceptance through Ritual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the author's original research, which sought to discover the elements necessary for using death-related ritual as a psychotherapeutic technique for grieving people who experience their grief as "stuck," "unending," "maladaptive," and so on. A "death-related ritual" is defined as a ceremony, directly involving at least 1…

  11. Conflicting Thoughts about Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on children's conception of death has probed their understanding of its biological aspects: its inevitability, irreversibility and terminal impact. Yet many adults subscribe to a religious conception implying that death marks the beginning of a new life. Two recent empirical studies confirm that in the course of development, children…

  12. Education for Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puolimatka, Tapio; Solasaari, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Death is an unavoidable fact of human life, which cannot be totally ignored in education. Children reflect on death and raise questions that deserve serious answers. If an educator completely evades the issue, children will seek other conversation partners. It is possible to find arguments both from secular and religious sources, which alleviate…

  13. Physician-assisted death.

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Physician-assisted death includes both euthanasia and assistance in suicide. The CMA urges its members to adhere to the principles of palliative care. It does not support euthanasia and assisted suicide. The following policy summary includes definitions of euthanasia and assisted suicide, background information, basic ethical principles and physician concerns about legalization of physician-assisted death. PMID:7632208

  14. Death Obsession in Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Al-Arja, Nahida S.; Abdalla, Taysir

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N=601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha…

  15. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  16. The Psychology of Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, B. Celestine

    1976-01-01

    Forty-eight black men and women living and/or attending school in the St. Louis and Washington, D.C. areas responded to questionnaires concerning feelings, attitudes, emotions, etc. towards death and dying. It is concluded that blacks see death as a very significant happening; and that although in some areas blacks have become Americanized in…

  17. Brain Death and Islam

    PubMed Central

    Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.

    2014-01-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  18. Death, Children, and Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Robin L.

    The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of death and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward death that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…

  19. Death in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M

    1990-01-01

    Does it matter that the hearts of 'brainstem dead' patients may persist in beating spontaneously? Hostile reactions, to the Danish inclusion of cardiac criteria in the determination of death, betray reductionist views of human life at the core of 'brainstem' conceptions of death. Such views (whether centred on neurological function or on abstractions concerning 'personhood') supplant the richness of human life and death with the poverty of essentialism: and mask the lethal nature of beating-heart organ retrieval. The affirmation of cardiac criteria for death is not an alternative form of essentialism as some critics suppose, but part of an understanding of human life and death which rejects essentialism altogether. The spontaneously persistent heartbeat does not constitute human life, but most certainly counts for it. PMID:2287015

  20. Life and Death Decision Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    LIFE SMOKING: CANCER, EMPHYSEMA, SHORTENED LIFE BATHING: FALLING, ELECTROCUTION CONTRACEPTION: DEATH , ILLNESS PREGNANCY: DEATH , ILLNESS ABORTION ...economic effect is the one with the highest probability of causing my death . -13- EXPECTED NET SYSTEM DESIGN BENEFIT TO ME DEATH DEATH (r A(excluding death ...0-AO81 424 STANFORD UNIV CALIF DEPT OF ENGtNEERING-ECONOM!C SYSTEMS F/6 12/1 LIFE ANDI DEATH DECISION ANALYSIS.CU) DEC 79 R A HOWARD N0OOIN-79-C-0036

  1. Brain death is not death: a critique of the concept, criterion, and tests of brain death.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Ari R

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests that there are insurmountable problems for brain death as a criterion of death. The following are argued: (1) brain death does not meet an accepted concept of death, and is not the loss of integration of the organism as a whole; (2) brain death does not meet the criterion of brain death itself; brain death is not the irreversible loss of all critical functions of the entire brain; and (3) brain death may, however rarely, be reversible. I conclude that brain death, while a devastating neurological state with a dismal prognosis, is not death.

  2. Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    For some administrators and planners, designing and building education facilities may sometimes seem like a circus act--trying to project a persona of competence and confidence while juggling dozens of issues. Meanwhile, the audience--students, staff members and taxpayers--watch and wait with anticipation in hopes of getting what they paid for and…

  3. [Death experience. Antidote against fear to death].

    PubMed

    Fericgla, Josep M

    2003-12-01

    Fortunately, anthropology has brought to our modern society a higher interest for mankind's cultural dimension and the values which each people employ in order to make sense out of the changes which occur during our lives. It is this cultural dimension which permits men to develop our innate capacities and to become humans. However, in order to achieve this, we need experiences which are codified and interpreted by a values system which each individual has made his/her own. Some of these experiences take place inside cultural mores constructed expressly so that they are useful for one's lifestyle; these are known as rites. A rite, therefore, is an experience which leaves an impression, which implies social and biographical changes, which provides meaning to human beings' universal interests. Nonetheless, since rites usually are organized by diverse religions, it is convenient, as we enter the 21st Century, to speak about Experiences which Activate Structures as means to approach, to come to grasp with, some of the great causes of anxiety in humans: death and insanity. These Experiences which Activate Structures allow us to subjectively experiment, to conquer our fears and to be more conscious of our here and our now. Workshops on the Living Integration of One's Own Death are included in this context as an appropriate forum through which to approach death with knowledge and serenity, inducing changes in our own lifestyle as well and helping us to overcome situations of existential blockage.

  4. Neuronal death or dismemberment mediated by Sox14

    PubMed Central

    Osterloh, Jeannette M; Freeman, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    The pruning of unneeded axons and dendrites is crucial for circuitry maturation, but poorly understood on the molecular level. During Drosophila metamorphosis, the transcription factor Sox14 acts as a context-dependent mediator of death, axonal or dendritic pruning. Its transcriptional target Mical acts specifically in dendrite pruning. PMID:19935724

  5. Unusual sudden death.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to usual sudden death seen in the course of coronary artery disease, individuals dying suddenly from other causes form a complex array of situations. In some the causes are readily identifiable. No simple pattern is available to identify the potential candidate, but on review of the many causes some moves by the physician may be helpful. For example, a more complete physical evaluation of young individuals participating in competitive athletics is in order. This is particularly true if the athlete reports an episode of unexplained syncope. This may well be the warning of a propensity towards sudden death under physical and emotional stress. Knowledge of the specific problems in underwater swimming and diving, in high altitude exposure and in various circumstances such as certain weight reduction diets and industrial exposures may lead to control of some types of unusual sudden death. Clearly, more studies are needed to give answers in so called crib death. As the incidence of usual sudden death falls, these unusual forms of sudden death will represent a more important fraction of sudden death in general. PMID:6537674

  6. The deaths of a cell: how language and metaphor influence the science of cell death.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew S

    2014-12-01

    Multicellular development and tissue maintenance involve the regular elimination of damaged and healthy cells. The science of this genetically regulated cell death is particularly rich in metaphors: 'programmed cell death' or 'cell suicide' is considered an 'altruistic' act on the part of a cell for the benefit of the organism as a whole. It is also considered a form of 'social control' exerted by the body/organism over its component cells. This paper analyzes the various functions of these metaphors and critical discussion about them within the scientific community. Bodies such as the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) have been charged with bringing order to the language of cell death to facilitate scientific progress. While the NCCD recommends adopting more objective biochemical terminology to describe the mechanisms of cell death, the metaphors in question retain an important function by highlighting the broader context within which cell death occurs. Scientific metaphors act as conceptual 'tools' which fulfill various roles, from highlighting a phenomenon as of particular interest, situating it in a particular context, or suggesting explanatory causal mechanisms.

  7. Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.

    1980-01-01

    Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

  8. Death and Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, emotions, and spirit. People might notice or show ...

  9. Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

  10. Hitler's Death Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

  11. Preparation for Death

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Preparation for death is a physical, psychosocial and spiritual process needing the active participation of both patient and physician. Physicians' denial of death leads to unrelieved symptoms, inappropriate treatment, and poor communication in the care of the terminally ill. This paper discusses strategies to minimize the effect of denial describing a goal-setting approach to terminal care and the use of quality of life indices. Several principles are presented on how to tell bad news to patients. PMID:21289837

  12. Sudden Unexpected Death Data Enhancement and Awareness Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH

    2014-07-31

    07/31/2014 Referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.669, which became Public Law 113-236 on 12/18/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Foreign Service Line of Duty Death Gratuity Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. West, Allen B. [R-FL-22

    2011-09-09

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Sudden Unexpected Death Data Enhancement and Awareness Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Lautenberg, Frank R. [D-NJ

    2013-02-13

    02/13/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.669, which became Public Law 113-236 on 12/18/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Funerals against death

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Tara; Walter, Tony

    2016-01-01

    While anthropological studies in non-Western societies show how funerals protect the community from the threat of death, sociological studies of British funerals have so far focused on meanings for the private family. The article reports on results from a Mass Observation directive – the first British study to focus specifically on the entire funeral congregation – and shows how attendees experience the contemporary life-centred funeral as a symbolic conquest of death. While the eulogy’s accuracy is important, even more so – at least for some – is its authenticity, namely that the speaker has personal knowledge of the deceased. Whereas Davies analyses the power of professionally delivered ritual words against death, our data reveals how admired is the courage exercised by non-professionals in speaking against death, however faltering their words. Further, the very presence of a congregation whose members have known the deceased in diverse ways embodies a configurational eulogy, which we term relationships against death. We thus argue that funerals symbolically conquer death not only through words delivered by ritual specialists, but also through those who knew the deceased congregating and speaking. PMID:27019605

  16. Dictyostelium cell death

    PubMed Central

    Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; de Chastellier, Chantal; Blanton, Richard L.; Golstein, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Cell death in the stalk of Dictyostelium discoideum, a prototypic vacuolar cell death, can be studied in vitro using cells differentiating as a monolayer. To identify early events, we examined potentially dying cells at a time when the classical signs of Dictyostelium cell death, such as heavy vacuolization and membrane lesions, were not yet apparent. We observed that most cells proceeded through a stereotyped series of differentiation stages, including the emergence of “paddle” cells showing high motility and strikingly marked subcellular compartmentalization with actin segregation. Paddle cell emergence and subsequent demise with paddle-to-round cell transition may be critical to the cell death process, as they were contemporary with irreversibility assessed through time-lapse videos and clonogenicity tests. Paddle cell demise was not related to formation of the cellulose shell because cells where the cellulose-synthase gene had been inactivated underwent death indistinguishable from that of parental cells. A major subcellular alteration at the paddle-to-round cell transition was the disappearance of F-actin. The Dictyostelium vacuolar cell death pathway thus does not require cellulose synthesis and includes early actin rearrangements (F-actin segregation, then depolymerization), contemporary with irreversibility, corresponding to the emergence and demise of highly polarized paddle cells. PMID:12654899

  17. Classification of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Vandenabeele, P; Abrams, J; Alnemri, ES; Baehrecke, EH; Blagosklonny, MV; El-Deiry, WS; Golstein, P; Green, DR; Hengartner, M; Knight, RA; Kumar, S; Lipton, SA; Malorni, W; Nuñez, G; Peter, ME; Tschopp, J; Yuan, J; Piacentini, M; Zhivotovsky, B; Melino, G

    2009-01-01

    Different types of cell death are often defined by morphological criteria, without a clear reference to precise biochemical mechanisms. The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) proposes unified criteria for the definition of cell death and of its different morphologies, while formulating several caveats against the misuse of words and concepts that slow down progress in the area of cell death research. Authors, reviewers and editors of scientific periodicals are invited to abandon expressions like ‘percentage apoptosis’ and to replace them with more accurate descriptions of the biochemical and cellular parameters that are actually measured. Moreover, at the present stage, it should be accepted that caspase-independent mechanisms can cooperate with (or substitute for) caspases in the execution of lethal signaling pathways and that ‘autophagic cell death’ is a type of cell death occurring together with (but not necessarily by) autophagic vacuolization. This study details the 2009 recommendations of the NCCD on the use of cell death-related terminology including ‘entosis’, ‘mitotic catastrophe’, ‘necrosis’, ‘necroptosis’ and ‘pyroptosis’. PMID:18846107

  18. Death obsession in Palestinians.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Al-Arja, Nahida S; Abdalla, Taysir

    2006-04-01

    The authors explored death obsession level and correlates among a sample (N = 601) of Palestinians living in the city of Beit Jala, the village of Al-Khader, and the Aida refugee camp in the Bethlehem area. They live in war conditions; the houses of half of them have been demolished. The Death Obsession Scale (DOS) was administered. Its alpha reliability was .92, denoting high internal consistency. Among women, it yielded 1 factor, (General Death Obsession), whereas among men it yielded 3 factors: Death Rumination, Death Dominance, and Death Idea Repetition. Palestinian men and women attained significantly lower DOS mean scores than participants from 4 Arab countries: Egypt, Kuwait, Syria, and Lebanon in 7 out of 8 comparisons. However, Palestinian women had significantly higher DOS mean score than their Spanish, American and British counterparts, whereas Palestinian men had significantly higher mean DOS score than Spanish peers. The low DOS scores of Palestinians, in proportion to other Arab samples, may reflect their adaptation to strife and violence.

  19. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to...

  20. 20 CFR 10.911 - How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is the death gratuity payment process initiated? 10.911 Section 10.911 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.911 How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?...

  1. 20 CFR 10.911 - How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How is the death gratuity payment process initiated? 10.911 Section 10.911 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.911 How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?...

  2. 20 CFR 10.911 - How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true How is the death gratuity payment process initiated? 10.911 Section 10.911 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.911 How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?...

  3. 20 CFR 10.911 - How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How is the death gratuity payment process initiated? 10.911 Section 10.911 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.911 How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?...

  4. 20 CFR 10.911 - How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the death gratuity payment process initiated? 10.911 Section 10.911 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.911 How is the death gratuity payment process initiated?...

  5. 20 CFR 25.101 - How is compensation for death paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is compensation for death paid? 25.101... EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT COMPENSATION FOR DISABILITY AND DEATH OF NONCITIZEN FEDERAL EMPLOYEES OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES The Special Schedule of Compensation § 25.101 How is compensation for death paid?...

  6. 20 CFR 340.7 - Deduction in computation of death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deduction in computation of death benefit... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.7 Deduction in computation of death benefit. In computing... as benefits accrued to the individual but not paid at death....

  7. 38 CFR 3.904 - Effect of forfeiture after veteran's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... after veteran's death. 3.904 Section 3.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... § 3.904 Effect of forfeiture after veteran's death. (a) Fraud. Whenever a veteran has forfeited his or...)) (b) Treasonable acts. Death benefits may be paid as provided in paragraph (a) of this section...

  8. 20 CFR 340.7 - Deduction in computation of death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Deduction in computation of death benefit. 340... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.7 Deduction in computation of death benefit. In computing... as benefits accrued to the individual but not paid at death....

  9. 38 CFR 3.904 - Effect of forfeiture after veteran's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... after veteran's death. 3.904 Section 3.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... § 3.904 Effect of forfeiture after veteran's death. (a) Fraud. Whenever a veteran has forfeited his or...)) (b) Treasonable acts. Death benefits may be paid as provided in paragraph (a) of this section...

  10. 20 CFR 209.6 - Employers' notice of death of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employers' notice of death of employees. 209... RETIREMENT ACT RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.6 Employers' notice of death of employees. Each employer shall notify the Board immediately of the death of an employee who, prior to...

  11. 38 CFR 3.904 - Effect of forfeiture after veteran's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... after veteran's death. 3.904 Section 3.904 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... § 3.904 Effect of forfeiture after veteran's death. (a) Fraud. Whenever a veteran has forfeited his or...)) (b) Treasonable acts. Death benefits may be paid as provided in paragraph (a) of this section...

  12. 38 CFR 11.116 - Death of veteran before final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death of veteran before... Death of veteran before final settlement. If the veteran dies after making application under the... death occurs after the application is filed but before payment is received under this Act, or if...

  13. 20 CFR 340.7 - Deduction in computation of death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction in computation of death benefit... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.7 Deduction in computation of death benefit. In computing... as benefits accrued to the individual but not paid at death....

  14. 38 CFR 11.116 - Death of veteran before final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death of veteran before... Death of veteran before final settlement. If the veteran dies after making application under the... death occurs after the application is filed but before payment is received under this Act, or if...

  15. 20 CFR 25.101 - How is compensation for death paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is compensation for death paid? 25.101... EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT COMPENSATION FOR DISABILITY AND DEATH OF NONCITIZEN FEDERAL EMPLOYEES OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES The Special Schedule of Compensation § 25.101 How is compensation for death paid?...

  16. 20 CFR 340.7 - Deduction in computation of death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Deduction in computation of death benefit. 340... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.7 Deduction in computation of death benefit. In computing... as benefits accrued to the individual but not paid at death....

  17. 20 CFR 209.6 - Employers' notice of death of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employers' notice of death of employees. 209... RETIREMENT ACT RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.6 Employers' notice of death of employees. Each employer shall notify the Board immediately of the death of an employee who, prior to...

  18. 20 CFR 209.6 - Employers' notice of death of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employers' notice of death of employees. 209... RETIREMENT ACT RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.6 Employers' notice of death of employees. Each employer shall notify the Board immediately of the death of an employee who, prior to...

  19. 38 CFR 11.116 - Death of veteran before final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death of veteran before... Death of veteran before final settlement. If the veteran dies after making application under the... death occurs after the application is filed but before payment is received under this Act, or if...

  20. 20 CFR 340.7 - Deduction in computation of death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deduction in computation of death benefit... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.7 Deduction in computation of death benefit. In computing... as benefits accrued to the individual but not paid at death....

  1. 38 CFR 11.116 - Death of veteran before final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Death of veteran before final settlement. If the veteran dies after making application under the... death occurs after the application is filed but before payment is received under this Act, or if the application is filed after death occurs but before the maturity of the certificate and before payment is...

  2. 38 CFR 11.116 - Death of veteran before final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Death of veteran before final settlement. If the veteran dies after making application under the... death occurs after the application is filed but before payment is received under this Act, or if the application is filed after death occurs but before the maturity of the certificate and before payment is...

  3. 20 CFR 10.414 - What reports of dependents are needed in death cases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... death cases? 10.414 Section 10.414 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Compensation and Related Benefits Compensation for Death § 10.414 What reports of dependents are needed in death cases? If a beneficiary is receiving compensation benefits on account of...

  4. 20 CFR 10.414 - What reports of dependents are needed in death cases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... death cases? 10.414 Section 10.414 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Compensation and Related Benefits Compensation for Death § 10.414 What reports of dependents are needed in death cases? If a beneficiary is receiving compensation benefits on account of...

  5. Death Anxiety as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Levels among Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Erin

    2004-01-01

    Because the onset of a spinal cord injury may involve a brush with death and because serious injury and disability can act as a reminder of death, death anxiety was examined as a predictor of posttraumatic stress levels among individuals with disabilities. This cross-sectional study used multiple regression and multivariate multiple regression to…

  6. 20 CFR 410.458 - Irrebuttable presumption of death due to pneumoconiosis-survivor's claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrebuttable presumption of death due to... FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.458 Irrebuttable presumption of death due to...

  7. 20 CFR 410.471 - Conclusion by physician regarding miner's disability or death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disability or death. 410.471 Section 410.471 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.471 Conclusion by physician regarding miner's disability or death....

  8. 32 CFR 750.48 - Measure of damages in injury or death cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Measure of damages in injury or death cases. 750... GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.48 Measure of damages in injury or death cases. (a) Where an injury or death arises within the United States or its territories, commonwealth,...

  9. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  10. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  11. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  12. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  13. 20 CFR 219.58 - When evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When evidence regarding payment of burial... evidence regarding payment of burial expenses is required. If a person applies for the lump-sum death payment because he or she is responsible for paying the funeral home or burial expenses of the employee...

  14. 20 CFR 725.535 - Reductions; receipt of State or Federal benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... disability or death due to pneumoconiosis only under State or Federal laws relating to workers' compensation... pneumoconiosis under State laws relating to workers' compensation (including compensation for occupational... periodically but not monthly, or in a lump sum as a commutation of or a substitution for periodic benefits,...

  15. 20 CFR 725.535 - Reductions; receipt of State or Federal benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disability or death due to pneumoconiosis only under State or Federal laws relating to workers' compensation... pneumoconiosis under State laws relating to workers' compensation (including compensation for occupational... periodically but not monthly, or in a lump sum as a commutation of or a substitution for periodic benefits,...

  16. 20 CFR 725.535 - Reductions; receipt of State or Federal benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... disability or death due to pneumoconiosis only under State or Federal laws relating to workers' compensation... pneumoconiosis under State laws relating to workers' compensation (including compensation for occupational... periodically but not monthly, or in a lump sum as a commutation of or a substitution for periodic benefits,...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are divided into 22 subparts: (a) Subpart A contains provisions relating to general definitions and... of entitlement and benefit rates. (e) Subpart E contains provisions relating to the reduction and... for establishing a right to lump-sum death payment. (Evidentiary requirements relating to...

  18. 29 CFR 4041.24 - Notices of plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the participant's death and the name of the beneficiary; and (3) The amount and date of any increase... of the interest rate to be used to convert to the lump sum benefit (e.g., the 30-year Treasury rate... pertinent plan provision, and (if known) the applicable interest rate; (iv) An explanation of how...

  19. 29 CFR 4041.24 - Notices of plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the participant's death and the name of the beneficiary; and (3) The amount and date of any increase... of the interest rate to be used to convert to the lump sum benefit (e.g., the 30-year Treasury rate... pertinent plan provision, and (if known) the applicable interest rate; (iv) An explanation of how...

  20. 29 CFR 4041.24 - Notices of plan benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the participant's death and the name of the beneficiary; and (3) The amount and date of any increase... of the interest rate to be used to convert to the lump sum benefit (e.g., the 30-year Treasury rate... pertinent plan provision, and (if known) the applicable interest rate; (iv) An explanation of how...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1406 - Eligibility to railroad retirement benefits as a bar to payment of social security benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program With the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1406... individual in the railroad industry are in employment, no lump-sum death payment or survivor monthly...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1351 - When deemed insured status does not apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... survivor of a World War II veteran, you cannot get a monthly benefit or lump-sum death payment based on the... World War II period was by enlistment in the Philippine Scouts as authorized by the Armed Forces... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When deemed insured status does not...

  3. [Deaths in hotels].

    PubMed

    Risse, Manfred; Weilbächer, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2010-01-01

    There are no verified statistics about deaths occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for deaths in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of death. Among the deaths, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of death could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of death remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of deaths in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations.

  4. Potentiality, irreversibility, and death.

    PubMed

    Lizza, John P

    2005-02-01

    There has been growing concern about whether individuals who satisfy neurological criteria for death or who become non-heart-beating organ donors are really dead. This concern has focused on the issue of the potential for recovery that these individuals may still have and whether their conditions are irreversible. In this article I examine the concepts of potentiality and irreversibility that have been invoked in the discussions of the definition of death and non-heart-beating organ donation. I initially focus on the recent challenge by D. Alan Shewmon to accepting any neurological criterion of death. I argue that Shewmon relies on a problematic and unrealistic concept of potentiality, and that a better, more realistic concept of potentiality is consistent with accepting a neurological criterion for death. I then turn to an analysis of how the concept of irreversibility has been used in discussion of non-heart-beating organ donation. Similarly, I argue that some participants in this discussion have invoked a problematic and unrealistic concept of irreversibility. I then propose an alternative, more realistic account of irreversibility that explains how "irreversibility" should be understood in the definition and criteria of death.

  5. Pediatric brain death determination.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Mudit; Ashwal, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Clinical guidelines for the determination of brain death in children were first published in 1987. These guidelines were revised in 2011 under the auspices of the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Child Neurology Society, and provide the minimum standards that must be satisfied before brain death can be declared in infants and children. After achieving physiologic stability and exclusion of confounders, two examinations including apnea testing separated by an observation period (24 hours for term newborns up to 30 days of age, and 12 hours for infants and children from 31 days up to 18 years) are required to establish brain death. Apnea testing should demonstrate a final arterial PaCO2 20 mm Hg above the baseline and ≥ 60 mm Hg with no respiratory effort during the testing period. Ancillary studies (electroencephalogram and radionuclide cerebral blood flow) are not required to establish brain death and are not a substitute for the neurologic examination. The committee concluded that ancillary studies may be used (1) when components of the examination or apnea testing cannot be completed, (2) if uncertainty about components of the neurologic examination exists, (3) if a medication effect may be present, or (4) to reduce the interexamination observation period. When ancillary studies are used, a second clinical examination and apnea test should still be performed and components that can be completed must remain consistent with brain death.

  6. Perspectives on Death: An Experiential Course on Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefan, Edwin S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a college psychology course on death education (thanatology). Course objectives were to help students become aware of the feelings involved in facing death, encourage discussion on the subject of death, motivate students to change their attitudes about death, and encourage practical planning for funeral arrangements.…

  7. Death Threat and Death Concerns in the College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobacyk, Jerome; Eckstein, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Thanatology students reported significantly lesser death threat and significantly greater death concerns. Trait anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of change in death threat in the Thanatology Group, with lesser anxiety associated with greater decline in death threat. (Author)

  8. Death Depression and Death Anxiety in HIV-Infected Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, Julie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Death Anxiety Scale, Death Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Scale, and questionnaire assessing demographic and life-situation variables to 94 human immunodeficiency virus-infected gay men. Higher death anxiety and death depression were most highly correlated with state anxiety, trait anxiety,…

  9. Cocaine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodriguez, A

    1994-07-15

    Cocaine availability has been increasing in Spain in the past few years. A review of all the toxicological analyses carried out at the Madrid Department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicología, with subjects who had died of drugs from 1990 to 1992, found 533 persons who had cocaine in their blood and/or tissues; 450 (84%) deaths involved cocaine and heroin together whereas 83 (16%) deaths involved cocaine with an absence of heroin. This paper reports the circumstances, cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations in the blood and other toxicological findings for the two major groups of deaths where cocaine was found with an absence of heroin, i.e., possible overdose cases (35 cases) and traffic accidents (23 cases).

  10. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    PubMed

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  11. [Sexuality and death].

    PubMed

    Sapetti, Adrián

    2006-01-01

    It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and Death, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of death, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the death arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments.

  12. Byron on Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    of alienation from other men, but also kinship with identical elements of nature presented in the same sequence: air, earth , water . Add to those...question of the death of the innocent is as important in Heaven and Earth as in Cain. As the waters rise at the end of the later drama, a mother...What is there in this milk of mine, that death Should stir all heaven and earth up to destroy My boy, And roll the waters o’er his placid breath

  13. [The death of Cleopatra].

    PubMed

    Guillemain, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The image of a queen bitten by a snake is controversial and the facts, such as the swiftness of her death and her servants, and scientific experiments are in favour of a deadly poisoning. The author reminds that in the ancient texts the snake had sacred virtues and it was a symbolic image to embellish the suicide of the one who was sentenced to death by the Romans. Octaves set up the myth of a fatal bite which became an iconographic image for the cinema.

  14. [Near death experiences].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Near Death Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia.

  15. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  16. [Death of Napoleon Bonaparte].

    PubMed

    Camici, M

    2003-06-01

    The causa mortis of Napoleon Bonaparte has been vexata quaestio for a long time. The author tries to outline a picture of Napoleon from a sanitary point of view. From the report of doctor Francesco Antonmarchi who performed the autopsy, the author tries to understans the cause of death: gastric perforation due to malignant ulcer and subsequent peritonitis with pulmonary tubercolosis.

  17. Counseling and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, John R.

    Increasingly, helpers are asked to counsel the dying and their relatives. The research and other literature are reviewed for information and ideas that might be helpful to a counselor; for example, research and speculation about fears of death are examined. While an awareness of such information may reassure the counselor who tries to counsel in…

  18. The Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the imposition of the death penalty. Focuses on the controversy concerning capital punishment and stimulates critical thinking in an analysis and discussion of eight hypothetical situations. Includes suggestions for readings, videotapes, and writing assignments. (NL)

  19. Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

    To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

  20. Digital Language Death

    PubMed Central

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  1. Death and Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, emotions, and spirit. People might notice or show grief in several ways: Physical reactions: These might be things like changes in appetite or sleep, an upset stomach, tight chest, crying, tense muscles, ...

  2. Death of a Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    When Issaquah (Washington) superintendent, after battling a brain tumor, entered the hospital for the last time, school district had to develop a crisis plan to deal with the possible death of the superintendent. A contingency planning team developed a telephone tree for school officials to keep in close contact with teachers and administrators.…

  3. Effects of Death Education on Fear of Death and Attitudes towards Death and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviton, Dan; Fretz, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Students in a death education course were compared with students of sex education and introductory psychology. After the death education course, students viewed death as more approachable, and wished to experience death in a more interpersonal as compared to a technological context. (Author)

  4. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  5. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  6. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  7. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  8. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  9. 20 CFR 217.3 - Need to file an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Need to file an application. 217.3 Section 217.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM General § 217.3 Need to file an application. In addition to meeting...

  10. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security... social security application was filed. (3) The applicant asks the Board in a written statement...

  11. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security... social security application was filed. (3) The applicant asks the Board in a written statement...

  12. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security... social security application was filed. (3) The applicant asks the Board in a written statement...

  13. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security... social security application was filed. (3) The applicant asks the Board in a written statement...

  14. 20 CFR 217.7 - Claim filed with the Social Security Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim filed with the Social Security... RETIREMENT ACT APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.7 Claim filed with the Social Security... social security application was filed. (3) The applicant asks the Board in a written statement...

  15. Cell death by autophagy: facts and apparent artefacts.

    PubMed

    Denton, D; Nicolson, S; Kumar, S

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy (the process of self-digestion by a cell through the action of enzymes originating within the lysosome of the same cell) is a catabolic process that is generally used by the cell as a mechanism for quality control and survival under nutrient stress conditions. As autophagy is often induced under conditions of stress that could also lead to cell death, there has been a propagation of the idea that autophagy can act as a cell death mechanism. Although there is growing evidence of cell death by autophagy, this type of cell death, often called autophagic cell death, remains poorly defined and somewhat controversial. Merely the presence of autophagic markers in a cell undergoing death does not necessarily equate to autophagic cell death. Nevertheless, studies involving genetic manipulation of autophagy in physiological settings provide evidence for a direct role of autophagy in specific scenarios. This article endeavours to summarise these physiological studies where autophagy has a clear role in mediating the death process and discusses the potential significance of cell death by autophagy.

  16. Sudden death of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D

    1998-01-01

    Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths.

  17. Death from Nitrous Oxide.

    PubMed

    Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available.

  18. Cell death and tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Wang, Min-Xia; Murrell, George A C

    2003-10-01

    Apoptosis and necrosis are presently recognized as the two major types of physiological and pathological cell death. Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cell deletion process that differs morphologically and biochemically from necrotic cell death. Tendinopathy is defined as a tendon injury that originates from intrinsic and extrinsic etiological factors. Excessive apoptosis has recently been described in degenerative tendon. The increased number of apoptotic tendon cells in degenerative tendon tissue could affect the rate of collagen synthesis and repair. Impaired or dysfunctional protein synthesis may lead to weaker tendon tissue and eventually increase the risk for tendon rupture. Clearly, there are many details to insert into this pathway, but there is hope that if the fine details of the pathway can be fleshed out, then strategies may be able to be developed to break the cycle at one or more points and prevent or treat tendinopathy more effectively.

  19. Atypical autoerotic deaths

    SciTech Connect

    Gowitt, G.T.; Hanzlick, R.L. )

    1992-06-01

    So-called typical' autoerotic fatalities are the result of asphyxia due to mechanical compression of the neck, chest, or abdomen, whereas atypical' autoeroticism involves sexual self-stimulation by other means. The authors present five atypical autoerotic fatalities that involved the use of dichlorodifluoromethane, nitrous oxide, isobutyl nitrite, cocaine, or compounds containing 1-1-1-trichloroethane. Mechanisms of death are discussed in each case and the pertinent literature is reviewed.

  20. From Death to Death Certificate: What do the Dead say?

    PubMed

    Gill, James R

    2017-03-01

    This is an overview of medicolegal death investigation and death certification. Postmortem toxicological analysis, particularly for ethanol and drugs of abuse, plays a large role in the forensic investigation of natural and unnatural deaths. Postmortem drug concentrations must be interpreted in light of the autopsy findings and circumstances. Interpretations of drug and ethanol concentrations are important for death certification, but they also may be important for other stakeholders such as police, attorneys, public health practitioners, and the next-of-kin.

  1. Fear of death.

    PubMed

    Penson, Richard T; Partridge, Rosamund A; Shah, Muhammad A; Giansiracusa, David; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. For many, cancer is synonymous with death. Fearing death is a rational response. For too long, medicine has ignored this primeval fear. Increasingly, clinicians recognize and address end-of-life issues, facing patients' and our own emotional vulnerabilities in order to connect and explore problems and fears. Listening and learning from the patient guides us as we acknowledge much of the mystery that still surrounds the dying process. Rarely is there a simple or right answer. An empathetic response to suffering patients is the best support. Support is vital in fostering the adjustment of patients. A silent presence may prove more helpful than well-meant counsel for many patients. Through an examination of eight caregiver narratives of their patients' experiences, the role of the health care provider in the dying process, particularly in regard to challenging fear, is reviewed.

  2. A Death in the Family: Death as a Zen Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the…

  3. Death Sentences: A Content Analysis of Children's Death Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Devereaux A.; Hupp, Julie M.

    2008-01-01

    A multidimensional concept of death must include biological, sociocultural, and emotional components. Children glean information about death in many ways, one of which is through books. In this study, the authors compared the 3 dimensions of death-related information (irreversibility, inevitability, nonfunctionality) in 24 young children's picture…

  4. Death in Denmark: a reply.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, D

    1991-01-01

    This reply to Martyn Evans's support for a cardiac-centered concept of death attempts to meet some objections to the brainstem definition of death. Evans's appeal to Wittgenstein's philosophy is also criticised. PMID:1870081

  5. UV-Induced cell death in plants.

    PubMed

    Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-14

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD).

  6. On social death: ostracism and the accessibility of death thoughts.

    PubMed

    Steele, Caroline; Kidd, David C; Castano, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Being rejected, excluded, or simply ignored is a painful experience. Ostracism researchers have shown its powerful negative consequences (Williams, 2007), and sociologists have referred to such experiences as social death (Bauman, 1992). Is this is just a metaphor or does being ostracized make death more salient in people's minds? An experiment was conducted in which participants experienced ostracism or inclusion using the Cyberball manipulation, and the accessibility of death-related thoughts was measured via a word-stem completion puzzle. Results showed enhanced death-thought accessibility in the ostracism condition, as well as a negative effect of dispositional self-esteem on the accessibility of death-related thoughts.

  7. Death: Realism in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    In the past, books for children treated death fearfully, morbidly, and didactically, but now children's literature treats death in a more realistic manner and is sensitive to its emotional aspects. Current theories suggest that children perceive death differently at various ages. G. P. Koocher (1973) used J. Piaget's cognitive stages as the basis…

  8. Helping Students Cope with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabough, Tillman

    1980-01-01

    Classroom teachers need to understand the broad differences that exist between a child's perception of death and that of an adult and should be prepared to confront and cope with the effects of death and grief upon students. Children's perceptions of death and ways in which the teacher can help the child with his grief are described. (JN)

  9. Teaching about Death to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Vanderlyn R.; And Others

    Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and death are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with death education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and death at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…

  10. Deaths: Final Data for 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents final 1998 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics such as age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and cause of death. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal…

  11. Eartkquake Death Tolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopoff, Leon; Sornette, Didier

    1995-12-01

    In the risk and insurance literature, the (one-point) distributions of losses in natural disasters have been proposed to be characterized by “fat tail” power laws, i.e. very large destruction may occur with a non-vanishing rate. A naive hypothesis of uncorrelated Poissonian occurrence would suggest that the losses are solely characterized by the properties of the underlying power law distributions, i.e. the longer we wait, the more dramatic will be the largest disaster, which could be as much as a finite fraction of the total population or the total wealth of a country. We find indeed that the numbers Z of deaths in the very largest earthquakes of this century can be described by a power law distribution P(Z)simeq Z^{-(1+δ)} with δ=1.0±0.3, implying an unbounded behavior for the most devastating earthquakes. However, the distribution of the number of deaths per capita in each country in this century has a well-defined maximum value, suggesting that the naive extrapolation of the power law distribution is incorrect and that the understanding of correlations is necessary to ascertain the level of risk from natural disasters. The one-point distributions only provide an upper bound of the expected risk. We propose a speculative model to explain the correlations between deaths in large earthquakes and their countries of occurrence: we suggest that large ancient civilizations that have matured into large present-day populations were the beneficiaries of isolation from marauders due to the relative geographic protection by tectonic processes largely of an orogenic nature.

  12. [Death with dignity - dignity life. A debate].

    PubMed

    Medina Morales, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Since 2010 in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia passed into law ″derechos y garantías de la dignidad de las personas en el proceso de muerte″. At national level, in Spain, it's disputed the need to legalize this delicate aspect therefore already been made some projects for legalization. This advised to review the pros and cons of some legislative implementation experiences and case mix in countries where it has already occurred. This paper undertakes the study of the implementation of the Death with Dignity Act in Oregon and highlight is what were the immediate consequences and risks that has produced a law of this nature.

  13. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  14. Pedagogia de la Participacion: Entering Elena Garro's "Un hogar solido" through the Body. Enacting Death and Politics in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misemer, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Garro's one-act play offers an unusual combination of corpses and animate actors on stage thus combining life and death in the same body. Garro's piece presents students with an approach to "embodying" Mexican culture and its notions of death. The fusion of death and cultural practices in Mexico is a crucial part of the ongoing project for…

  15. 20 CFR 10.914 - What are the responsibilities of the employing agency in the death gratuity payment process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employing agency in the death gratuity payment process? 10.914 Section 10.914 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF... COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.914 What are the responsibilities of the employing agency in the death gratuity payment process? Because some of the...

  16. 20 CFR 10.914 - What are the responsibilities of the employing agency in the death gratuity payment process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employing agency in the death gratuity payment process? 10.914 Section 10.914 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF... COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Death Gratuity § 10.914 What are the responsibilities of the employing agency in the death gratuity payment process? Because some of the...

  17. 20 CFR 25.102 - How is compensation for death of a non-citizen non-resident employee paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... surviving spouse, if there is no child, 30 percent of the monthly pay until his or her death or remarriage... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How is compensation for death of a non-citizen... PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT COMPENSATION FOR DISABILITY AND DEATH...

  18. Sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L

    2015-06-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation. The incidence of SIDS has decreased more than 50% in the past 20 years, largely as a result of the Back to Sleep campaign. The most important risk factors relate to the sleep environment. Prone and side sleeping positions are significantly more dangerous than the supine position. Bed sharing with a parent is strongly correlated with an increased risk of SIDS, especially in infants younger than 12 weeks. Apparent life-threatening events are not a risk factor for SIDS. Parents should place infants on their backs to sleep, should not share a bed, and should avoid exposing the infant to tobacco smoke. Other risk-reducing measures include using a firm crib mattress, breastfeeding, keeping vaccinations up to date, avoiding overheating due to overbundling, avoiding soft bedding, and considering the use of a pacifier during sleep once breastfeeding is established. One consequence of the Back to Sleep campaign is a significant increase in the incidence of occipital flattening. Infants who develop a flat spot should be placed with the head facing alternating directions each time he or she is put to bed. Supervised prone positioning while the infant is awake, avoiding excessive use of carriers, and upright positioning while awake are also recommended.

  19. PDT: death pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David

    2007-02-01

    Cellular targets of photodynamic therapy include mitochondria, lysosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane. PDT can evoke necrosis, autophagy and apoptosis, or combinations of these, depending on the PDT dose, the site(s) of photodamage and the cellular phenotype. It has been established that loss of viability occurs even when the apoptotic program is inhibited. Studies assessing effects of ER or mitochondrial photodamage, involving loss of Bcl-2 function, indicate that low-dose PDT elicited a rapid autophagic response in L1210 cells. This was attributed to the ability of autophagy to recycle photodamaged organelles, and there was partial protection from loss of viability. This effect was not observed in L1210/Atg7, where autophagy was silenced. At higher PDT doses, apoptotic cells were observed within 60 min in both cell lines, but more so in L1210. The ability of L1210 cells to undergo autophagy did not offer protection from cell death at the higher PDT dose. Previous studies had indicated that autophagy can contribute to cell death, since L1210 cells that do not undergo an initial apoptotic response often contain multiple autophagic vacuoles 24 hr later. With L1210/Atg7, apoptosis alone may account for the loss of viability at an LD 90 PDT dose.

  20. A Death at School: What School Leaders Should Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garran, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    All school leaders at some point will find themselves confronted by the need to shepherd their school communities through emotionally draining experiences. Death requires school leaders to act with compassion, care, and awareness that they are modeling for young people how to grieve. Few better examples of servant leadership exist. Communication…

  1. Ah, sweet mystery of death! Galectins and control of cell fate.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Joseph D; Baum, Linda G

    2002-10-01

    Control of cell death is critical in eukaryotic development, immune system homeostasis, and control of tumorigenesis. The galectin family of lectins is implicated in all of these processes. Other families of molecules function as death receptors or death effectors, but galectins are uniquely capable of acting both extracellularly and intracellularly to control cell death. Extracellularly, galectins cross-link glycan ligands to transduce signals that lead directly to death or that influence other signals regulating cell fate. Intracellular expression of galectins can modulate other signals controlling cell viability. Individual galectins can act on multiple cell types, and multiple galectins can act on the same cell. Understanding how galectins regulate cell viability and function will broaden our knowledge of the roles of galectins in basic biological processes and facilitate development of therapeutic applications for galectins in autoimmunity, transplant-related disease, and cancer.

  2. Ars Moriendi Tradition and Visualization of Death in Roman Baroque Sculpture: Death Education in the Seventeenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westin, Robert H.

    1980-01-01

    The tradition of the Ars Moriendi influenced art by creating a new reality in which the dead could appear eternally alive. A good death was seen as an act of faith. The literature of Ars Moriendi influenced baroque sculpture which today is viewed as almost bizarre. (JAC)

  3. Dead Cert: Measuring Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Marfell, Brooke J; Scott, Adrian P; Boughaba, Jeanne A; Chojnowski, Grace; Christensen, Melinda E; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-12-01

    Many cells in the body die at specific times to facilitate healthy development or because they have become old, damaged, or infected. Defects in cells that result in their inappropriate survival or untimely death can negatively impact development or contribute to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, AIDS, autoimmune disorders, and chronic infection. Cell death may also occur following exposure to environmental toxins or cytotoxic chemicals. Although this is often harmful, it can be beneficial in some cases, such as in the treatment of cancer. The ability to objectively measure cell death in a laboratory setting is therefore essential to understanding and investigating the causes and treatments of many human diseases and disorders. Often, it is sufficient to know the extent of cell death in a sample; however, the mechanism of death may also have implications for disease progression, treatment, and the outcomes of experimental investigations. There are a myriad of assays available for measuring the known forms of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, necroptosis, anoikis, and pyroptosis. Here, we introduce a range of assays for measuring cell death in cultured cells, and we outline basic techniques for distinguishing healthy cells from apoptotic or necrotic cells-the two most common forms of cell death. We also provide personal insight into where these assays may be useful and how they may or may not be used to distinguish apoptotic cell death from other death modalities.

  4. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  5. Death by water intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gardner, John W

    2002-05-01

    With recent emphasis on increased water intake during exercise for the prevention of dehydration and exertional heat illness, there has been an increase in cases of hyponatremia related to excessive water intake. This article reviews several recent military cases and three deaths that have occurred as a result of overhydration, with resultant hyponatremia and cerebral edema. All of these cases are associated with more than 5 L (usually 10-20 L) of water intake during a period of a few hours. The importance of maintaining adequate hydration in exertional heat illness prevention cannot be overemphasized, but excessive fluid intake may lead to life-threatening hyponatremia. Current guidelines provide safety by limiting fluid intake during times of heavy sweating to 1 to 1.5 L per hour.

  6. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Injury Deaths, United States - 2013 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2014 [ ...

  7. A primatological perspective on death.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R

    2011-05-01

    Some questions that arise from observations of responses to dead and dying individuals by nonhuman primates are discussed, focusing on psychological issues. The phenomenon of transport and care of dead infants is reviewed, along with the consequences of the mother dying for orphaned offspring. It is argued that particular attention should be paid to how the context of a death affects individuals, for example, traumatic accidental or predation-induced death versus peaceful death following illness. Some primates kill others of their own or other species, which raises additional questions about death awareness and empathy. Observations from both the field and captivity can contribute toward a better understanding of the psychological meaning of death for primates. Some aspects of death awareness recognized by developmental psychologists might help guide research efforts in this area.

  8. Preoccupations with Death in "Normal" Children: The Relationship to Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Cynthia R.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 101 children (ages 6-12 years) and parents concerning child's behavior, emotions, development, ego functioning, concepts of death, and family history. Approximately 12 percent of children expressed suicidal ideas or acts. Suicidal children had significantly more intense preoccupations with death than did nonsuicidal children. (Includes…

  9. DNA Damage Induced Neuronal Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Experiments are proposed to examine the molecular mechanism by which mustard chemical warfare agents induce neuronal cell death . DNA damage is the...proposed underlying mechanism of mustard-induced neuronal cell death . We propose a novel research strategy to test this hypothesis by using mice with...perturbed DNA repair to explore the relationship between mustard-induced DNA damage and neuronal cell death . Initial in vitro studies (Years 1, 2 & 3

  10. Death anxiety among Lebanese samples.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, A M

    1991-06-01

    An Arabic version of the Templer Death Anxiety Scale was administered to 673 Lebanese volunteer subjects (164 boys, 165 girls in secondary school, 170 men, 174 women undergraduates). Females attained higher mean death anxiety scores than males. The Lebanese samples had either the same or a lower mean score on death anxiety than their Arab peers, that is, Egyptians and Kuwaitians and also US samples. Split-half reliabilities ranged from .57 to .68.

  11. The death of a person.

    PubMed

    Hershenov, David B

    2006-04-01

    Drawing upon Lynne Baker's idea of the person derivatively possessing the properties of a constituting organism, I argue that even if persons aren't identical to living organisms, they can each literally die a biological death. Thus we can accept that we're not essentially organisms and can still die without having to admit that there are two concepts and criteria of death as Jeff McMahan and Robert Veatch do. Furthermore, we can accept James Bernat's definition of "death" without having to insist, as he does, that persons are identical to organisms or that persons can only die metaphorical deaths.

  12. Birthday and date of death.

    PubMed Central

    Angermeyer, M C; Kühn, L; Osterwald, P

    1987-01-01

    The relation between birthday and date of death has so far been studied from two different perspectives: birthdays were either conceived of as emotionally invested deadlines motivating people to ward off their death which causes a 'dip' in death rates before their birthday, or they were considered as stressful events leading to an increase of mortality on or after their birthday. Using a collection of biographies of famous people from the whole world and another of well-known Swiss citizens we tested hypotheses derived from these assumptions. Neither the 'death-dip' hypotheses nor the 'birthday stress' hypothesis was supported by our results. PMID:3655631

  13. [Genetics of sudden unexplained death].

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Oscar; Allegue, Catarina; Brugada, Ramon

    2014-03-20

    Sudden unexplained death is defined by death without a conclusive diagnosis after autopsy and it is responsible for a large percentage of sudden deaths. The progressive interaction between genetics and forensics in post-mortem studies has identified inheritable alterations responsible for pathologies associated with arrhythmic sudden death. The genetic diagnosis of the deceased enables the undertaking of preventive measures in family members, many of them asymptomatic but at risk. The implications of this multidisciplinary translational medical approach are complex, requiring the dedication of a specialized team.

  14. Death Attitudes among Mid-Life Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Virginia; Sands, Roberta

    1987-01-01

    Examined death attitudes among 74 female college reentry students aged 30 through 49. Found relationships between: (1) developmental factors and death concern, death as interpersonal loss, and death as dimension of time; (2) age and death anticipation; and (3) income and death denial. Results suggest importance of considering both developmental…

  15. Interdigital cell death function and regulation: new insights on an old programmed cell death model.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Rocío; Covarrubias, Luis

    2011-02-01

    Interdigital cell death (ICD) is the oldest and best-studied model of programmed cell death (PCD) in vertebrates. The classical view of ICD function is the separation of digits by promotion of tissue regression. However, in addition, ICD can contribute to digit individualization by restricting interdigital tissue growth. Depending on the species, the relative contribution of either regression or growth-restricting functions of ICD to limb morphogenesis may differ. Under normal conditions, most cells appear to die by apoptosis during ICD. Accordingly, components of the apoptotic machinery are found in the interdigits, though their role in the initiation and execution of cell death is yet to be defined. Fgf8 has been identified as a survival factor for the distal mesenchymal cells of the limb such that ICD can initiate following specific downregulation of Fgf8 expression in the ectoderm overlying the interdigital tissue. On the other hand, Bmps may promote cell death directly by acting on the interdigital tissue, or indirectly by downregulating Fgf8 expression in the ectoderm. In addition, retinoic acid can activate ICD directly or through a Bmp-mediated mechanism. Interactions at different levels between these factors establish the spatiotemporal patterning of ICD activation. Defining the regulatory network behind ICD activation will greatly advance our understanding of the mechanisms controlling PCD in general.

  16. Education for Death, or Death Becomes Less a Stranger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviton, Dan

    The purpose of this paper is to describe 1.) the Death Education and Suicide Behavior course offered at the University of Maryland; 2.) the comments of the students both before and after the course as a means of determining any effect of the course; and 3.) some insights gained from teaching taboo topics such as human death and sexuality. The…

  17. Death revisited: rethinking death and the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana Smith; Cherry, Mark J

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, people were recognized as being dead using cardio-respiratory criteria: individuals who had permanently stopped breathing and whose heart had permanently stopped beating were dead. Technological developments in the middle of the twentieth century and the advent of the intensive care unit made it possible to sustain cardio-respiratory and other functions in patients with severe brain injury who previously would have lost such functions permanently shortly after sustaining a brain injury. What could and should physicians caring for such patients do? Significant advances in human organ transplantation also played direct and indirect roles in discussions regarding the care of such patients. Because successful transplantation requires that organs be removed from cadavers shortly after death to avoid organ damage due to loss of oxygen, there has been keen interest in knowing precisely when people are dead so that organs could be removed. Criteria for declaring death using neurological criteria developed, and today a whole brain definition of death is widely used and recognized by all 50 states in the United States as an acceptable way to determine death. We explore the ongoing debate over definitions of death, particularly over brain death or death determined using neurological criteria, and the relationship between definitions of death and organ transplantation.

  18. Children's concept of death and sibling death from trauma.

    PubMed

    Mahon, M M

    1993-10-01

    Factors influencing children's concept of death (their understanding of finality, inevitability, and universality) were examined. A bereaved group of 29 siblings (5 to 12 years of age) of children who died from trauma were interviewed 13 to 17 months after their sibling's death. A comparison group (n = 29) of nonbereaved siblings who had not experienced a sibling's death was matched for age, race, gender, and sociodemographic background. Demographic data, a Piagetian developmental assessment, and a concept of death assessment incorporating vignettes were used to collect data. The experience of sibling death from trauma did not significantly influence acquisition of an accurate concept of death; developmental level (p = 0.0001) and age (p = 0.0003) were significant predictors. Of the 5-year-old subjects in this study, 45.7% had an accurate concept of death, as did > 60% of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old subjects, 100% of 9-, 11-, and 12-year-old subjects, and 90% of 10-year-old subjects. This reflects an understanding of death at a much younger age than reported by previous researchers.

  19. History of brain death as death: 1968 to the present.

    PubMed

    De Georgia, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The concept of brain death was formulated in 1968 in the landmark report A Definition of Irreversible Coma. While brain death has been widely accepted as a determination of death throughout the world, many of the controversies that surround it have not been settled. Some may be rooted in a misconstruction about the history of brain death. The concept evolved as a result of the convergence of several parallel developments in the second half of the 20th century including advances in resuscitation and critical care, research into the underlying physiology of consciousness, and growing concerns about technology, medical futility, and the ethics of end of life care. Organ transplantation also developed in parallel, and though it clearly benefited from a new definition of death, it was not a principal driving force in its creation. Since 1968, the concept of brain death has been extensively analyzed, debated, and reworked. Still there remains much misunderstanding and confusion, especially in the general public. In this comprehensive review, I will trace the evolution of the definition of brain death as death from 1968 to the present, providing background, history and context.

  20. Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-08-01

    Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity λ is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and λ using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures.

  1. The effects of dual-channel coupling on the transition from amplitude death to oscillation death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiangnan; Liu, Weiqing; Zhu, Yun; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-07-01

    Oscillation quenching including amplitude death (AD) and oscillation death (OD) in addition to the transition processes between them have been hot topics in aspect of chaos control, physical and biological applications. The effects of dual-channel coupling on the AD and OD dynamics regimes, and their transition processes in coupled nonidentical oscillators are explored numerically and theoretically. Our results indicate that an additional repulsive coupling tends to shrink the AD domain while it enlarges the OD domain, however, an additional attractive coupling acts inversely. As a result, the transitions from AD to OD are replaced by transitions from oscillation state (OS) to AD or from OS to OD in the dual-channel coupled oscillators with different frequency mismatches. Our results are helpful to better understand the control of AD and OD and their transition processes.

  2. Elderly deaths in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akar, Taner; Karapirli, Mustafa; Akcan, Ramazan; Demirel, Birol; Akduman, Barış; Dursun, Ahmet Zahit; Sari, Serhat; Özkök, Alper

    2014-01-01

    According to World Health Organization, the life expectancy at birth is increasing. An increase in life expectancy might result in increased morbidity and mortality in elderly. The increase in the elderly population also leads to an increase in medico-legal problems, as well. Autopsy is of high importance for determination of cause of death in clinical and forensic cases. The purpose of this study was to find out general characteristics elderly deaths by examining forensic autopsy records. Out of 7033 forensic autopsies performed between years of 2007 and 2011, 1324 were elderly deaths and were included in the scope of the study. The records of public prosecutor office, crime scene investigation and autopsy findings were examined. The majority of victims (70.6%) were male, while 29.4% were female, with a male to female ratio of 2.4/1. Victims' ages ranged between 65 and 96 years, and the mean age was 74.8 years. A great number of presented elderly deaths were due to unnatural causes, followed by natural deaths cases. Out of unnatural deaths, 63.2% were related to accidents, 23.7% were suicides, and remaining 13.1% were homicides. More than half (56.6%) of all suicidal deaths were due to hanging. Of natural deaths, the majority (82.7%) were due to cardiovascular system disease. In the presented series the cause of death was determined in 90.9% of all elderly deaths, which validates the need for a forensic autopsy. Data obtained through autopsy procedures is of high importance for death statistics.

  3. A Good Death.

    PubMed

    Powell, Tia; Hulkower, Adira

    2017-01-01

    A good death is hard to find. Family members tell us that loved ones die in the wrong place-the hospital-and do not receive high-quality care at the end of life. This issue of the Hastings Center Report offers two articles from authors who strive to provide good end-of-life care and to prevent needless suffering. We agree with their goals, but we have substantial reservations about the approaches they recommend. Respect for the decisions of patients and their surrogates is a relatively new and still vulnerable aspect of medical care. For thousands of years, patients and surrogates had no say in medical decision-making. Today, standards support shared decision-making, but these articles both carve out exceptions to those standards, limiting the rights of patients and families in decisions about specific end-of-life treatments. As bioethics consultants in an acute care setting, we frequently confront conflicts similar to those described by Jeffrey Berger and by Ellen Robinson and colleagues. In such cases, our service emphasizes redoubled efforts at communication and mediation. Focusing on goals and values, rather than interventions, produces the best possible collaboration in health care decision-making. Cases in which we would overturn a surrogate's recommendations regarding palliative sedation or do-not-resuscitate orders are rare and require careful processes and clear evidence that the surrogate's choice is contrary to patient values.

  4. Causes of death in Minamata disease: analysis of death certificates.

    PubMed

    Tamashiro, H; Akagi, H; Arakaki, M; Futatsuka, M; Roht, L H

    1984-01-01

    The causes of death in Minamata disease were analyzed and compared with those of control subjects. Of the 1422 Minamata disease patients in the Kumamoto Prefecture, 378 had died by the end of 1980. Of these 378, the first death occurred in 1954 with a peak incidence in 1956 when Minamata disease was officially reported for the first time. The number of deaths increased rapidly after 1972 with a second peak in 1976. The male:female ratio was 1.8:1 and the mean age-at-death was 67.2 years (SD = +/- 18.65). The mean age-at-death was younger in the cases of the initial outbreak than in those recently. There were, on the average, 2.8 causes of death per person. Of these cases, 157 (41.5%) had Minamata disease indicated on the death certificate, though 64 (16.9%) had Minamata disease coded as the underlying cause. Minamata disease and the noninflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) were the main underlying causes of death between 1954 and 1969, while, in the multiple cause data, pneumonia and non-ischemic heart disease were the most prevalent. Cerebrovascular diseases (18.0%) were the main underlying causes of death followed by malignant neoplasms (14.7%), cardiovascular diseases (14.1%) and Minamata disease (14.1%) in 1970 or later, while cardiovascular diseases (18.6%), Minamata disease (14.5%), cerebrovascular diseases (10.4%) and malignant neoplasms (7.1%) were the major multiple causes of death. As compared with the control, the proportions of deaths due to noninflammatory diseases of CNS and pneumonia were higher in the initial outbreak. Although the difference in the causes of death was less apparent recently, malignant neoplasms and hypertensive diseases tended to be lower. These results suggest that there is a need for a long-term follow-up of Minamata disease patients. The data also show the potential value of multiple causes of death coding in analyses of mortality.

  5. Sudden death in Steinert's disease.

    PubMed

    Fayssoil, A; Nardi, O

    2009-08-14

    Steinert's disease is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder. Heart involvement is characterized by conduction system abnormalities, supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with Steinert's disease are reported to have a higher incidence of sudden death. Preventing sudden death is crucial in this disease. It relies on non-invasive and/or invasive approach for risk stratification.

  6. Death: A Part of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.; Harris, Zoanne

    This two-part curriculum unit includes 20 slides depicting Days of the Dead in Mexico and the United States. The unit is designed to help middle school students compare customs and practices associated with death throughout the world in a way that promotes understanding of the values and needs that produce and are reinforced by death rituals and…

  7. Goals in Teaching About Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis; Gordon, Audrey

    This guide provides a set of goals and guidelines for teachers who are introducing "death and dying" into the school curriculum. These goals are: (1) to provide factual information concerning legal, medical, and sociological practices; (2) to give insight into personal feelings and family dynamics when death occurs; (3) to provide consumer…

  8. Individual Defenses against Death Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that death anxiety is related to degree of individuation and self-actualization. Sees concerns about death increasing as people relinquish defenses, reach new levels of differentiation of self, and expand their lives and personal power. Notes that therapeutic progress poses existential dilemma. (Author/NB)

  9. Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

  10. Cancer therapy: Death by magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Jon

    2012-12-01

    A magnetic on/off switch for cell-death signalling in cancer cells is developed using antibodies conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles. The control of cell death in in vivo systems is demonstrated by a tell-tale morphological change within the zebrafish.

  11. Death Outlook and Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feifel, Herman; Schag, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that there is a relationship between outlook on death and orientation toward mercy killing, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Some relationships between death attitudes and perspectives on the social issues emphasized the need to consider specific circumstances as well as abstract concepts. (Author)

  12. Brain death: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Murphy, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    Some of the seminal steps toward the recognition and definition of brain death were European. There is a general consensus on both the medical concept of brain death in Europe as well as the minimum fundamental clinical standards that are required for its diagnosis-the absence of consciousness, brainstem reflexes, and the ability to breathe in the absence of reversible or confounding conditions. Two aspects of brain death determination are addressed in this article. The authors analyze how brain death is diagnosed across Europe, identifying both the similarities and differences that exist between countries (the latter mainly concerning ancillary tests, timing, and the number of physicians involved in the brain death determination). In addition, they describe the very considerable variations in when brain death determinations are made between and within individual European countries, and propose that they are due to differences in the end-of-life care practices in patients with irreversible brain injuries, medical attitudes, and organ donation practices. Although legislation is available to standardize the brain death diagnosis process in most individual European countries, there are still disparities across Europe as a whole. The current variation in practice makes a continental consensus for the definition of brain death imperative.

  13. Estimating risks of perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon C S

    2005-01-01

    The relative and absolute risks of perinatal death that are estimated from observational studies are used frequently in counseling about obstetric intervention. The statistical basis for these estimates therefore is crucial, but many studies are seriously flawed. In this review, a number of aspects of the approach to the estimation of the risk of perinatal death are addressed. Key factors in the analysis include (1) the definition of the cause of the death, (2) differentiation between antepartum and intrapartum events, (3) the use of the appropriate denominator for the given cause of death, (4) the assessment of the cumulative risk where appropriate, (5) the use of appropriate statistical tests, (6) the stratification of analysis of delivery-related deaths by gestational age, and (7) the specific features of multiple pregnancy, which include the correct determination of the timing of antepartum stillbirth and the use of paired statistical tests when outcomes are compared in relation to the birth order of twin pairs.

  14. Electric fences and accidental death.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael; Odell, Morris; Bouwer, Heinrich; Murdoch, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Deaths which occur in association with agricultural electric fences are very rare. In fact, electric fences have undoubtedly saved numerous human and animal lives by safely and reliably keeping livestock confined to their fields and enclosures and thus preventing motor vehicle incidents when livestock get onto roads and highways. Accidental and intentional human contact with electric fences occurs regularly and causes little more than transient discomfort, however, on exceptional occasions, contact with electric fences appears to be directly related to the death of the individual. The precise pathophysiological cause of these deaths is unclear. We present two cases of deaths associated with electric fences, discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms in these cases, and suggest a universal approach to the medico-legal investigation and documentation of these deaths.

  15. The Effects of Selected Death Education Curriculum Models on Death Anxiety and Death Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Don C.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of the effects of didactic and experiential death education curriculums show no decrease in death anxiety from mid- to posttesting for any treatment group. Anxiety was increased from pre- to mid-testing for some students. Results may be due to model deficiencies. Further research is suggested. (JAC)

  16. 20 CFR 702.211 - Notice of employee's injury or death; designation of responsible official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; designation of responsible official. 702.211 Section 702.211 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED... death; designation of responsible official. (a) In order to claim compensation under the Act,...

  17. 20 CFR 702.211 - Notice of employee's injury or death; designation of responsible official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; designation of responsible official. 702.211 Section 702.211 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED... death; designation of responsible official. (a) In order to claim compensation under the Act,...

  18. 20 CFR 702.211 - Notice of employee's injury or death; designation of responsible official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; designation of responsible official. 702.211 Section 702.211 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED... death; designation of responsible official. (a) In order to claim compensation under the Act,...

  19. 20 CFR 702.211 - Notice of employee's injury or death; designation of responsible official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; designation of responsible official. 702.211 Section 702.211 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED... death; designation of responsible official. (a) In order to claim compensation under the Act,...

  20. Less Guilty by Reason of Adolescence: Developmental Immaturity, Diminished Responsibility, and the Juvenile Death Penalty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Scott, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    The authors use a developmental perspective to examine questions about the criminal culpability of juveniles and the juvenile death penalty. Under principles of criminal law, culpability is mitigated when the actor's decision-making capacity is diminished, when the criminal act was coerced, or when the act was out of character. The authors argue…

  1. The non-death role of metacaspase proteases.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Amit; Megeney, Lynn A

    2012-01-01

    The activation of caspase proteases and the targeting of protein substrates act as key steps in the engagement and conduct of apoptosis/programmed cell death. However, the discovery of caspase involvement in diverse non-apoptotic cellular functions strongly suggests that these proteins may have evolved from a core behavior unrelated to the induction of cell death. The presence of similar proteases, termed metacaspases, in single cell organisms supports the contention that such proteins may have co-evolved or derived from a critical non-death function. Indeed, the benefit(s) for single cell life forms to retain proteins solely dedicated to self destruction would be countered by a strong selection pressure to curb or eliminate such processes. Examination of metacaspase biology provides evidence that these ancient protease forerunners of the caspase family also retain versatility in function, i.e., death and non-death cell functions. Here, we provide a critical review that highlights the non-death roles of metacaspases that have been described thus far, and the impact that these observations have for our understanding of the evolution and cellular utility of this protease family.

  2. Accurate Completion of Medical Report on Diagnosing Death.

    PubMed

    Savić, Slobodan; Alempijević, Djordje; Andjelić, Sladjana

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing death and issuing a Death Diagnosing Form (DDF) represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and is perpetually exposed to the control of the general public. Diagnosing death is necessary so as to confirm true, to exclude apparent death and consequentially to avoid burying a person alive, i.e. apparently dead. These expert-methodological guidelines based on the most up-to-date and medically based evidence have the goal of helping the physicians of the EMS in accurately filling out a medical report on diagnosing death. If the outcome of applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation measures is negative or when the person is found dead, the physician is under obligation to diagnose death and correctly fill out the DDF. It is also recommended to perform electrocardiography (EKG) and record asystole in at least two leads. In the process of diagnostics and treatment, it is a moral obligation of each Belgrade EMS physician to apply all available achievements and knowledge of modern medicine acquired from extensive international studies, which have been indeed the major theoretical basis for the creation of these expert-methodological guidelines. Those acting differently do so in accordance with their conscience and risk professional, and even criminal sanctions.

  3. [Brain death--a certain sign of death].

    PubMed

    Angstwurm, H

    1990-10-01

    Brain death means a complete and irreversible loss of all brain activity during intensive care with mechanical ventilation. On autopsy is seen an ischemic infarct of the whole brain following the stopped blood flow in the intracranial cavity after the elevation of the pressure. With brain death a human being loses two characteristics of its earthly life, the physical base needed for his spirit and his soul in this world, and the integration, the unity as the independent and self-contained organism.

  4. [The death of Ignatius Loyola].

    PubMed

    Huguier, Michel; Lacaine, Francois

    2011-12-01

    A recent examination of a bilioportal fistula led us to suspect a link between this case and the death of Ignatius of Loyola. Realdo Colombo, professor of anatomy, eviscerated Ignatius prior to his embalming In his book De re anatomica, published in 1559, he wrote that he extracted stones from the portal vein of the venerable Ignatius. Before his death, Ignatius suffered from epigastric pain and fever (Monumenta historica societatis Jesu). Colombo latin text is difficult to interpret and the data are meager. Other possible causes of Ignatius' death include gastroduodenal ulcer, tuberculosis and hyperparathyroidism, but despite of rarity bilioportal fistula is the best guess.

  5. Ferroptosis: Death by Lipid Peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan Seok; Stockwell, Brent R

    2016-03-01

    Ferroptosis is a regulated form of cell death driven by loss of activity of the lipid repair enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and subsequent accumulation of lipid-based reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly lipid hydroperoxides. This form of iron-dependent cell death is genetically, biochemically, and morphologically distinct from other cell death modalities, including apoptosis, unregulated necrosis, and necroptosis. Ferroptosis is regulated by specific pathways and is involved in diverse biological contexts. Here we summarize the discovery of ferroptosis, the mechanism of ferroptosis regulation, and its increasingly appreciated relevance to both normal and pathological physiology.

  6. Tryptophanless Death in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Majerfeld, Irene; Barlati, Sergio; Ciferri, Orio

    1970-01-01

    A decline in colony-forming ability is observed in actively growing cultures of a tryptophan arginine auxotroph of Bacillus subtilis after removal of tryptophan (tryptophanless death). This phenomenon can be prevented by simultaneous starvation of the other required amino acid or by chloramphenicol administered in bacteriostatic concentration but not by actinomycin. Addition of tryptophan analogues not only prevents the death but also allows recovery of the cells that have lost the ability to form colonies on solid media. The term tryptophanless death is therefore inappropriate. Chloramphenicol but not actinomycin inhibits the recovery brought about by tryptophan analogues. PMID:4189906

  7. 77 FR 19455 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...This document contains proposed regulations implementing amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA amended the BLBA in two ways. First, it revived a rebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis for certain claims. Second, it reinstituted derivative entitlement to benefits for......

  8. 32 CFR 700.815 - Deaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deaths. 700.815 Section 700.815 National Defense... § 700.815 Deaths. The commanding officer, in the event of the death of any person within his or her command, shall ensure that the cause of death and the circumstances under which death occurred...

  9. 38 CFR 3.211 - Death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Death. 3.211 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.211 Death. Death should be... community where death occurred. (2) A copy of a coroner's report of death or a verdict of a coroner's...

  10. 32 CFR 700.815 - Deaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deaths. 700.815 Section 700.815 National Defense... § 700.815 Deaths. The commanding officer, in the event of the death of any person within his or her command, shall ensure that the cause of death and the circumstances under which death occurred...

  11. 38 CFR 3.211 - Death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death. 3.211 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.211 Death. Death should be... community where death occurred. (2) A copy of a coroner's report of death or a verdict of a coroner's...

  12. 32 CFR 700.815 - Deaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deaths. 700.815 Section 700.815 National Defense... § 700.815 Deaths. The commanding officer, in the event of the death of any person within his or her command, shall ensure that the cause of death and the circumstances under which death occurred...

  13. 38 CFR 3.211 - Death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death. 3.211 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.211 Death. Death should be... community where death occurred. (2) A copy of a coroner's report of death or a verdict of a coroner's...

  14. 38 CFR 3.211 - Death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death. 3.211 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.211 Death. Death should be... community where death occurred. (2) A copy of a coroner's report of death or a verdict of a coroner's...

  15. 32 CFR 700.815 - Deaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deaths. 700.815 Section 700.815 National Defense... § 700.815 Deaths. The commanding officer, in the event of the death of any person within his or her command, shall ensure that the cause of death and the circumstances under which death occurred...

  16. 38 CFR 3.211 - Death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death. 3.211 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.211 Death. Death should be... community where death occurred. (2) A copy of a coroner's report of death or a verdict of a coroner's...

  17. 32 CFR 700.815 - Deaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deaths. 700.815 Section 700.815 National Defense... § 700.815 Deaths. The commanding officer, in the event of the death of any person within his or her command, shall ensure that the cause of death and the circumstances under which death occurred...

  18. Stillbirths: ending preventable deaths by 2030.

    PubMed

    de Bernis, Luc; Kinney, Mary V; Stones, William; Ten Hoope-Bender, Petra; Vivio, Donna; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Gülmezoglu, Metin; Mathai, Matthews; Belizán, Jose M; Franco, Lynne; McDougall, Lori; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Malata, Address; Dickson, Kim E; Lawn, Joy E

    2016-02-13

    Efforts to achieve the new worldwide goals for maternal and child survival will also prevent stillbirth and improve health and developmental outcomes. However, the number of annual stillbirths remains unchanged since 2011 and is unacceptably high: an estimated 2.6 million in 2015. Failure to consistently include global targets or indicators for stillbirth in post-2015 initiatives shows that stillbirths are hidden in the worldwide agenda. This Series paper summarises findings from previous papers in this Series, presents new analyses, and proposes specific criteria for successful integration of stillbirths into post-2015 initiatives for women's and children's health. Five priority areas to change the stillbirth trend include intentional leadership; increased voice, especially of women; implementation of integrated interventions with commensurate investment; indicators to measure effect of interventions and especially to monitor progress; and investigation into crucial knowledge gaps. The post-2015 agenda represents opportunities for all stakeholders to act together to end all preventable deaths, including stillbirths.

  19. Privacy Act Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Any information you provide to the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Suspension and Debarment Program will be governed by the Privacy Act and will be included in the EPA Debarment and Suspension Files, a Privacy Act system of records.

  20. ACTS data center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Ali; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on ACTS Data Center status report are included. Topics covered include: ACTS Data Center Functions; data flow overview; PPD flow; RAW data flow; data compression; PPD distribution; RAW Data Archival; PPD Audit; and data analysis.

  1. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  2. Autism: Why Act Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  3. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  4. Sudden death in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Kainoor, Sunil K; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2014-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of the connective tissue. The most serious complications of this syndrome are defects of the heart valves and aorta. Aneurysms of thoracic aorta are known to develop in Marfan syndrome. Other causes for development of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are trauma, infections, valve and arch anomalies, genetic disorders, and atherosclerosis. These aneurysms upon rupture may lead to sudden deaths. They are usually detected during routine screening or follow-up of such persons suffering from Marfan syndrome and upon death will be certified by the treating physician. Thus, an autopsy surgeon rarely comes across such deaths. One such case of sudden death due to cardiac tamponade consequent upon rupture of dissecting aortic aneurysm in a 33-year-old male who complained of throbbing pains in the chest, radiating to back, became breathless, cyanotic and died on the way to hospital is being presented here.

  5. Genetics of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Bezzina, Connie R; Lahrouchi, Najim; Priori, Silvia G

    2015-06-05

    Sudden cardiac death occurs in a broad spectrum of cardiac pathologies and is an important cause of mortality in the general population. Genetic studies conducted during the past 20 years have markedly illuminated the genetic basis of the inherited cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac death. Here, we review the genetic basis of sudden cardiac death with a focus on the current knowledge on the genetics of the primary electric disorders caused primarily by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, and the cardiomyopathies, which have been attributed to mutations in genes encoding a broader category of proteins, including those of the sarcomere, the cytoskeleton, and desmosomes. We discuss the challenges currently faced in unraveling genetic factors that predispose to sudden cardiac death in the setting of sequela of coronary artery disease and present the genome-wide association studies conducted in recent years on electrocardiographic parameters, highlighting their potential in uncovering new biological insights into cardiac electric function.

  6. Spinal reflexes in brain death.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Yesim; Çiftçi, Yeliz; Incesu, Tülay Kurt; Seçil, Yaprak; Akhan, Galip

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous and reflex movements have been described in brain death and these unusual movements might cause uncertainties in diagnosis. In this study we evaluated the presence of spinal reflexes in patients who fulfilled the criteria for brain death. Thirty-two (22 %) of 144 patients presented unexpected motor movements spontaneously or during examinations. These patients exhibited the following signs: undulating toe, increased deep tendon reflexes, plantar responses, Lazarus sign, flexion-withdrawal reflex, facial myokymia, neck-arm flexion, finger jerks and fasciculations. In comparison, there were no significant differences in age, sex, etiology of brain death and hemodynamic laboratory findings in patients with and without reflex motor movement. Spinal reflexes should be well recognized by physicians and it should be born in mind that brain death can be determined in the presence of spinal reflexes.

  7. Actual innocence: is death different?

    PubMed

    Acker, James R

    2009-01-01

    Supreme Court jurisprudence relies heavily on the premise that "death is different" from other criminal sanctions, and that capital cases entail commensurately demanding standards of reliability. Although invoked most frequently with respect to sentencing, both precedent and logic suggest that heightened reliability applies as well to guilt determination in capital trials. Nevertheless, recurrent and highly visible wrongful convictions in capital cases have affected public opinion, contributed to a precipitous decline in new death sentences, and led to calls for reforms designed to guard against the risk of executing innocent persons. This article examines the implications of the "death is different" doctrine for the problem of wrongful convictions in both capital and non-capital cases. It argues that innovations designed to enhance reliability in the special context of death-penalty prosecutions are important in their own right, but relevant new safeguards also should extend to criminal cases generally, where innocent people are similarly at risk and wrongful convictions are far more prevalent.

  8. Brain death: the Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

    2015-04-01

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests.

  9. Fournier gangrene and unexpected death.

    PubMed

    Bury, Danielle; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Fournier gangrene represents a rare but progressive perineal infection that may result in rapid death. A 70-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and alcohol abuse is reported who was found unexpectedly dead. He had last been contacted the night before his death. At autopsy, the most striking finding was deep necrotic ulceration of the scrotum with exposure of underlying deep muscles and testicles, with blood cultures positive for Escherichia coli. Death was, therefore, attributed to necrotic ulceration/gangrene of the perineum (Fournier gangrene) that was due to E. coli sepsis with underlying contributing factors of diabetes mellitus and alcoholism. In addition there was morbid obesity (body mass index 46.9), cirrhosis of the liver, and marked focal coronary artery atherosclerosis with significant cardiomegaly. Fournier gangrene may be an extremely aggressive condition that can result in rapid death, as was demonstrated by the rapid progression in the reported case.

  10. The dermatology acting internship.

    PubMed

    Stephens, John B; Raimer, Sharon S; Wagner, Richard F

    2011-07-15

    Acting internships are an important component of modern day medical school curriculum. Several specialties outside of internal medicine now offer acting internship experiences to fourth year medical students. We have found that a dermatology acting internship is a valuable experience for fourth year medical students who are interested in pursuing a residency in dermatology. Our experience with the dermatology acting internship over the 2010-2011 academic year is described.

  11. Phenazepam: A review of medico-legal deaths in South Scotland between 2010 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Shearer, K; Bryce, C; Parsons, M; Torrance, H

    2015-09-01

    Phenazepam is a long acting benzodiazepine that is not prescribed in the United Kingdom. In Scotland it has been detected in a large number of post mortem cases, but very little data has been published looking at post mortem concentrations of this drug and indeed concentrations that may be associated with causing death. We looked at all post mortem cases between 2010 and 2014 where phenazepam was found in blood and correlated these with the given cause of death. The data collected shows the variability in reporting of phenazepam deaths and will provide a useful tool for those deciding when phenazepam should or should not be included as a cause of death. Cases discussed include drug related deaths with phenazepam as the sole cause of death (as is), drug related death when the cause of death was noted as being from a combination of phenazepam plus one or more other drugs (range <0.005-0.9mg/L, median 0.10mg/L) and causes of death in non-drug related deaths where phenazepam was detected (hangings range <0.05-0.39mg/L, median 0.09mg/L and deaths due to ischaemic heart disease range 0.05-0.1mg/L, median 0.04mg/L).

  12. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    PubMed

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  13. Programmed Cell Death of Embryonic Motoneurons Triggered through the FAS Death Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Raoul, Cédric; Henderson, Christopher E.; Pettmann, Brigitte

    1999-01-01

    About 50% of spinal motoneurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD) after target contact, but little is known about how this process is initiated. Embryonic motoneurons coexpress the death receptor Fas and its ligand FasL at the stage at which PCD is about to begin. In the absence of trophic factors, many motoneurons die in culture within 2 d. Most (75%) of these were saved by Fas-Fc receptor body, which blocks interactions between Fas and FasL, or by the caspase-8 inhibitor tetrapeptide IETD. Therefore, activation of Fas by endogenous FasL underlies cell death induced by trophic deprivation. In the presence of neurotrophic factors, exogenous Fas activators such as soluble FasL or anti-Fas antibodies triggered PCD of 40–50% of purified motoneurons over the following 3–5 d; this treatment led to activation of caspase-3, and was blocked by IETD. Sensitivity to Fas activation is regulated: motoneurons cultured for 3 d with neurotrophic factors became completely resistant. Levels of Fas expressed by motoneurons varied little, but FasL was upregulated in the absence of neurotrophic factors. Motoneurons resistant to Fas activation expressed high levels of FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-8 activation. Our results suggest that Fas can act as a driving force for motoneuron PCD, and raise the possibility that active triggering of PCD may contribute to motoneuron loss during normal development and/or in pathological situations. PMID:10579724

  14. Signaling pathway for apoptosis: a racetrack for life or death.

    PubMed

    Wang, E; Marcotte, R; Petroulakis, E

    1999-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a gene-directed mechanism activated as a suicidal event to get rid of excess, damaged, or infected cells. The recent astounding pace of research in this area has expanded our horizon of understanding that this mechanism is regulated largely by pro- and anti-apoptosis factors acting for or against the final death event. The driving force behind these factors, either pro-apoptosis or pro-survival, is largely determined by signal transduction pathways, starting with the initiation of a death signal at the plasma membrane, and following through a complex cytoplasmic network before reaching the end point of cell demise. Enmeshed in this intricate cytoplasmic network are many checkpoints, where complexes of pro- and anti-apoptosis factors function to facilitate or deter the death signals. The culmination of the balancing act between these two camps of factors at these signal transduction checkpoints may then result in the final decision to die or to live. Thus, the eventual death of a cell may require successful passage through all the checkpoints, a mechanism Nature has provided as a safeguard to prevent erroneous triggering of death. With the advent of a new biotechnology revolution at the dawn of the new millenium, we look forward to an exciting era when we can gain fuller understanding of the operation of all these checkpoints. Ultimately, this gain will pave the way to control the apoptosis event at the checkpoints, and to support the organism's functionality as long as possible. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppls. 32/33:95-102, 1999.

  15. Ancient euthanasia: 'good death' and the doctor in the graeco-Roman world.

    PubMed

    Van Hooff, Anton J L

    2004-03-01

    This article maps the concept of 'good death' (euthanasia) in the ancient world and explores the marginal role of the doctor at a 'good dying'. His assistance was not needed when the Homeric warrior died as a hero and was expected to accept death with resignation. Later the city-state regarded as heroes the men fallen for the cause of the community, honouring these model citizens as those who died well. In the more individualistic age of Hellenism and the Roman Empire, a death in luxury or without suffering could be styled euthanasia. The doctor had neither a place in those acts of dying nor in cases of natural death. He shunned death as a failure of his art. Sometimes a doctor was called in to assist in voluntary death, a role that was not forbidden by the Hippocratic oath. An appeal to this oath by opponents of euthanasia in the modern sense of the word therefore is mistaken.

  16. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

  17. Avoidable global cancer deaths and total deaths from smoking.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prabhat

    2009-09-01

    On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between 30 and 69 years of age, losing decades of productive life. Cancer and the total deaths due to smoking have fallen sharply in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries, stop smoking before or during middle age. Tripling the taxes on tobacco could rapidly raise cessation rates and deter the initiation of smoking. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking and information for consumers could avoid at least 115 million smoking-associated deaths in the next few decades, including around 25 million cancer deaths.

  18. Forensic Analysis of Parachute Deaths.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael Philip; Chitty, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Deaths associated with parachuting are very uncommon. However, these deaths do tend to be "high profile" in the traditional and social media. When forensic pathologists examine the deceased after a fatal parachuting incident, the anatomical cause of death is usually not in question. For most forensic pathologists, it is usually the case that we will have very limited knowledge of parachuting equipment or the mechanics of a typical successful parachute jump. As such, the investigation of the death should involve a multidisciplinary approach with an appropriate expert providing the formal forensic examination of the parachuting equipment. We have endeavored to describe, in simple terms, the usual components of a typical parachute rig, a précis of the sequence of events in a routine skydive and BASE jump, and the various types of malfunctions that may occur. Last, we present a case report of a BASE jump fatality to illustrate how an expert examination of the BASE jumper's gear aided the medicolegal investigation of the death with some important aspects in the forensic examination of the jumper's equipment.

  19. Life Experience with Death: Relation to Death Attitudes and to the Use of Death-Related Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…

  20. Sudden infant death syndrome: risk factor profiles for distinct subgroups.

    PubMed

    Kohlendorfer, U; Kiechl, S; Sperl, W

    1998-05-15

    The authors investigated risk profiles of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as a function of age at death. A case-control study carried out in the Tyrol region of Austria enrolled 99 infants who died of SIDS between 1984 and 1994 and 136 randomly selected controls. Early and late SIDS (< 120 days of age vs. > or = 120 days) were defined according to the clear-cut bimodal age-at-death distribution. Inadequate antenatal care, low parental social and educational level, and the prone sleeping position were risk conditions that applied to both early and late SIDS. A marked seasonal variation (winter preponderance) was the most outstanding feature of late SIDS. A gestational age of < 37 weeks (odds ratio (OR) = 8.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-26.0), repeated episodes of apnea (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 1.2-27.0), low birth weight (< 2,500 g) (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-11.0), a family history of sudden infant death (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.5), and maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.5) were associated with early SIDS. This study identified two distinct subgroups of SIDS infants characterized by different risk conditions and ages at death. These results underline a multiple-cause hypothesis for SIDS etiology which involves a genetic predisposition, immaturity in the first months of life, and environmental factors acting at various ages.

  1. Experiencing death: an insider's perspective.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Fenwick, Peter; Neal, Mary; Nelson, Kevin; Parnia, Sam

    2014-11-01

    For millennia, human beings have wondered what happens after death. What is the first-person experience of dying and being brought back to life? Technological advances in resuscitation science have now added an intriguing new chapter to the literature of out-of-body or near-death experiences by eliciting detailed and vivid accounts of those who have approached the threshold of death. Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion that included neurologist Kevin Nelson, neuropsychiatrist Peter Fenwick, emergency medicine expert Sam Parnia, and orthopedic surgeon and drowning survivor Mary Neal; they share some remarkable stories and discuss how they analyze such experiences in light of their own backgrounds and training. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion from December 11, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.

  2. [From dualism to multiplicity: seeing BCL-2 family proteins and cell death with new eyes].

    PubMed

    Aouacheria, Abdel

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cell death has many links to the concept of death itself, defined as the opposite of life. Achievements obtained through research on apoptosis have apparently allowed us to transcend this Manichean view. Death is no longer outside, but rather inside living systems, as a constitutive force at work within the living matter. Whereas the death of cells can be positive and breed "creation" (e.g. during morphogenesis), its dysregulation can also cause or contribute to fatal diseases including cancer. It is tempting to apply this biological discourse to illuminate the relations between life and death, taken in general terms, but does this generalization actually hold? Is this discourse not essentially a metaphor? If cell death is considered as a vital aspect of various biological processes, then are we not faced with some vitalistic conception of death? Are there one or more meanings to the word "death"? Does the power to self-destruct act in opposition to other key features of living entities, or rather in juxtaposition to them? In this article, we first describe how the field of cell death has been developed on the basis of perceived and built dichotomies, mirroring the original opposition between life and death. We detail the limitations of the current paradigm of apoptosis regulation by BCL-2 family proteins, which nicely illustrate the problem of binary thinking in biology. Last, we try to show a way out of this dualistic matrix, by drawing on the notions of multiplicity, complexity, diversity, evolution and contingency.

  3. [Pathophysiologic programming of cell death].

    PubMed

    Dobryszycka, W

    1998-01-01

    In multicellular organisms homeostasis depends on a balance between cell proliferation and cell death. In this review principles of the physiology of programmed cell death (apoptosis), i.e. biochemical features, involved genes and proteolytic enzymes, are described. Alterations in apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, inflammation, hematopoietic and immunological system defects (e.g. AIDS), neurodegenerative disorders. Specific effect on regulation of apoptosis might lead to new possibilities for treatment. Methods of quantitative determinations of apoptosis are discussed.

  4. Quantum Measurement Act as a Speech Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jean

    2005-10-01

    I show that the quantum measurement problem can be understood if the measurement is seen as a "speech act" in the sense of modern language theory. The reduction of the state vector is in this perspective an intersubjective -- or, better, a-subjective -- symbolic process. I then give some perspectives on applications to the "Mind-Body Problem".

  5. Activation of a Novel Death Pathway, Targeted Necrosis, by p53 Peptides to Circumvent Apoptotic Resistance in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Virtually all chemotherapy agents, at clinically achievable concentrations, act by inducing cancer cell death via apoptosis, but cancer cells...prostate cancer cells by induction of ?targeted necrosis?. Targeted necrosis has potential clinical utility, since its cell death mechanism retains...Therefore, pretreatment with paclitaxel may prime the cells by induction of Fas ligand so that subsequent exposure to p53p-Ant efficiently activates the Fas/FADD cell death pathway.

  6. Death Perception in People with Suicidal Tendencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Veronique; Dussaucy, Edith

    The perception of death gradually develops in a child's mind, reaching maturity at about 8 or 9 years of age. A mature death concept usually means a definition which includes the perception of death as a natural process, its finality, its irreversibility, and its universality. A study was undertaken to improve knowledge about the death concept.…

  7. Can Suicide Be a Good Death?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    The issue of whether suicide can be a good death was separated into two different questions: (1) can suicide be an appropriate death, and (2) can suicide be a rational death? Several definitions of an "appropriate" death were proposed, and suicide was seen as potentially appropriate. Similarly, several criteria for rationality were proposed and…

  8. Multidimensional Treatment of Fear of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoelter, Jon W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a multidimensional conception of fear of death and provides subscales for measuring suggested dimensions (fear of the dying process, of the dead, of being destroyed, for significant others, of the unknown, of conscious death, for body after death, and of premature death). Evidence for construct validity is provided. (Author/BEF)

  9. Death Education for the Health Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Jeanne Quint, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains seven articles reviewing various death education programs for health professionals. Discusses death education in undergraduate and advanced nursing practice programs; a graduate course focusing on social, psychological, and cultural conditions influencing death; two death education programs in medical schools; and humanistic health care…

  10. Early Childhood Injury Deaths in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starzyk, Patricia M.

    This paper discusses data on the deaths of children aged 1-4 years in Washington State. A two-fold approach was used in the analysis. First, Washington State death certificate data for 1979-85 were used to characterize the deaths and identify hazardous situations. Second, death certificates were linked to birth certificates of children born in…

  11. 38 CFR 3.460 - Death pension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death pension. 3.460..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.460 Death pension. Death pension... individual case in accordance with § 3.451. (b) Section 306 and old-law death pension. Appointment...

  12. 38 CFR 3.460 - Death pension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death pension. 3.460..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.460 Death pension. Death pension... individual case in accordance with § 3.451. (b) Section 306 and old-law death pension. Appointment...

  13. 38 CFR 21.7280 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death benefit. 21.7280... Bill-Active Duty) Approval of Courses § 21.7280 Death benefit. (a) Overview. VA will pay a death benefit under 38 U.S.C. ch. 30 when an individual's death meets the criteria of this section;...

  14. 38 CFR 21.7280 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death benefit. 21.7280... Bill-Active Duty) Approval of Courses § 21.7280 Death benefit. (a) Overview. VA will pay a death benefit under 38 U.S.C. ch. 30 when an individual's death meets the criteria of this section;...

  15. 38 CFR 21.7280 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death benefit. 21.7280... Bill-Active Duty) Approval of Courses § 21.7280 Death benefit. (a) Overview. VA will pay a death benefit under 38 U.S.C. ch. 30 when an individual's death meets the criteria of this section;...

  16. 38 CFR 21.7280 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death benefit. 21.7280... Bill-Active Duty) Approval of Courses § 21.7280 Death benefit. (a) Overview. VA will pay a death benefit under 38 U.S.C. ch. 30 when an individual's death meets the criteria of this section;...

  17. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign... or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for payment, by the employing agency, of a death benefit to the surviving dependents of any eligible...

  18. 38 CFR 3.460 - Death pension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Death pension. 3.460..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.460 Death pension. Death pension... individual case in accordance with § 3.451. (b) Section 306 and old-law death pension. Appointment...

  19. 38 CFR 3.460 - Death pension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death pension. 3.460..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.460 Death pension. Death pension... individual case in accordance with § 3.451. (b) Section 306 and old-law death pension. Appointment...

  20. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign... or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for payment, by the employing agency, of a death benefit to the surviving dependents of any eligible...

  1. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign... or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for payment, by the employing agency, of a death benefit to the surviving dependents of any eligible...

  2. 38 CFR 21.7280 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Death benefit. 21.7280... Bill-Active Duty) Approval of Courses § 21.7280 Death benefit. (a) Overview. VA will pay a death benefit under 38 U.S.C. ch. 30 when an individual's death meets the criteria of this section;...

  3. 38 CFR 3.460 - Death pension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death pension. 3.460..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.460 Death pension. Death pension... individual case in accordance with § 3.451. (b) Section 306 and old-law death pension. Appointment...

  4. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign... or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for payment, by the employing agency, of a death benefit to the surviving dependents of any eligible...

  5. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign... or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for payment, by the employing agency, of a death benefit to the surviving dependents of any eligible...

  6. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  7. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  8. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  9. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  10. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by children; risks of death or injury. 1145.17 Section 1145.17 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.17 Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate...

  11. Reading Guidance: Death and Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alice Gullen

    1989-01-01

    Gives guidelines for the librarian using reading guidance (similar to bibliotherapy). Provides a nine-item annotated bibliography of novels for children and adolescents on the subject of death and grief. Appends an embryo list of categories suitable for content analysis of any file librarians might wish to keep on books suitable for use in this…

  12. Death Penalty Issues Following Atkins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, James R.; Keyes, Denis W.

    2006-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2002 landmark decision in "Atkins v. Virginia," a diagnosis of mild mental retardation has taken on a life and death significance for people who are the most deeply involved in criminal justice. As such, each aspect of the mental retardation definition (American Association on Mental Retardation, 2002) is a…

  13. Death following crude oil aspiration.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M A; Martinez, M C; Martinez-Ruiz, D; Paz Giménez, M; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    1991-07-01

    This is a report on three deaths following oil aspiration by workers in petrol tankers. Lung aspiration was demonstrated by the presence of a yellowish-brown material in the alveolar spaces, which was difficult to identify by optic microscopy. Volatile hydrocarbons from petroleum were identified in lung samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  14. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  15. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  16. [The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida's Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This collection of articles on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), drawn from a southeastern regional symposium on the subject, summarizes much of what is known about the occurrence of SIDS, including current information about its causes. The background of state action in Florida is reviewed, with emphasis on the need for increased public and…

  17. Ordinal Position and Death Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Daniel; Tobacyk, Jerome

    The relationship between birth order and how a person deals with death is investigated. Both theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that birth order influences how a person deals with life tasks. First-borns appear more achievement-oriented than their younger siblings, as exemplified by the fact that disproportionately greater numbers of…

  18. Confidential inquiry into malaria deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Dürrheim, D. N.; Frieremans, S.; Kruger, P.; Mabuza, A.; de Bruyn, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a confidential inquiry into mortality attributed to malaria in South Africa's Mpumalanga Province are being used to guide the design of strategies for improving the management of cases and reducing the probability of deaths from the disease. PMID:10212518

  19. Navigating the valley of death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2014-11-01

    Taking an innovation from the lab to the market is hard in any discipline, but physics start-ups face some unique challenges crossing the so-called "valley of death". James Dacey speaks to scientists and business professionals in the Boston area of the US who have dared to take on this journey.

  20. ACT and College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…

  1. Clean Air Act Text

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  2. [Consensus prevention of crib death. CBO (Central Guidance Organization for Peer Review)].

    PubMed

    van Velzen-Mol, H W; Burgmeijer, R J; Hofkamp, M; den Ouden, A L

    1997-09-13

    The sudden and unforeseen death of a child in the first two years, usually happening during a sleeping period, is known as cot death. As cot death is a very tragic and dramatic experience for the family, it is important to reduce its incidence. In the period between 1972 and 1987, the number of cot deaths initially increased, but during the last decade a substantial reduction could be observed. This fluctuation can be connected with the position in which the baby is put to sleep. From 1970 the prone sleeping position was strongly recommended. Since then, the number of cot death cases increased. From 1987, a causal relationship between the prone sleeping position and cot death was suspected. As a result the prone sleeping position was strongly advised against. A reduction of cot death cases was then observed. By now, the role of many other factors in cot death has been perceived. The risk of cot death is increased if these factors act at the same time. Some of these factors that promote cot death come from the child's environment and can be influenced when kept in mind. Apart from the prone or side sleeping position, heat congestion, unsafe bed material and smoking in the presence of the child substantially increase the risk of cot death. The main recommendations of the committee which drew up the Dutch consensus report on prevention of cot death are therefore aimed at avoiding the above mentioned risk factors. Continuation of research is necessary to further reduce the current number of some 50 cases of cot death which happen yearly in the Netherlands.

  3. Personifications of personal and typical death as related to death attitudes.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Jonathan F; McCann, Polly A; Cate, Kelly L

    2008-01-01

    The present article examined differences in personifications of personal and typical death as a function of attitudes about death. Ninety-eight students enrolled in psychology classes were randomly assigned to personify death as a character in a movie depicting either their own deathbed scene or the deathbed scene of the typical person prior to completing the Death Attitude Profile-Revised. The results supported the conceptual distinction between attitudes about personal death and death in general. Participants in the personal death condition personified death more frequently as a gentle-comforting image and less frequently as a cold-remote image than did participants in the typical death condition. The results also further validated the relation between personifications of death and death attitudes. Across both conditions, participants who selected the grim-terrifying image reported more fear of death and death avoidance; whereas, participants who selected the cold-remote or robot-like images reported more neutral acceptance.

  4. 75 FR 3737 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... includes heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke, is the leading cause of death for women in the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of...

  5. Americans With Disabilities Act.

    PubMed

    Walk, E E; Ahn, H C; Lampkin, P M; Nabizadeh, S A; Edlich, R F

    1993-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act gives all Americans with disabilities a chance to achieve the same quality of life that individuals without disabilities enjoy. This act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disabilities in employment, public services, privately operated public accommodations, services, and telecommunications. The Americans with Disabilities Act is divided into five titles. Title I of the act pertains to discrimination against the disabled in the workplace. Title II prevents discrimination against persons with a disability in state and local government services. Title III prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in places of public accommodations and commercial facilities. Title IV ensures that companies offering telephone services to the general public provide special services for individuals with hearing and speech impairments. Under the enforcement provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act, stringent penalties will be implemented for failure to comply with its provisions.

  6. Religiosity and the Construction of Death in Turkish Death Announcements, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergin, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Death and rituals performed after death reflect and reproduce social distinctions despite death's popular reputation as a great leveler. This study examines expressions of religiosity and constructions of death in Turkish death announcements, paying particular attention to gendered, ethnic, and temporal variations as well as markers of status and…

  7. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response.

    PubMed

    Hounton, Sennen; De Bernis, Luc; Hussein, Julia; Graham, Wendy J; Danel, Isabella; Byass, Peter; Mason, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-02

    Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030).

  8. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030). PMID:23279882

  9. Toll pathway modulates TNF-induced JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Changyan; Dai, Jianli; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yujun; Li, Wenzhe; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xue, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death. Our epistasis analysis suggests that the Toll pathway acts as a downstream modulator for JNK-dependent cell death. In addition, gain of JNK signalling results in Toll pathway activation, revealed by stimulated transcription of Drosomycin (Drs) and increased cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of Dorsal. Furthermore, the Spätzle (Spz) family ligands for the Toll receptor are transcriptionally upregulated by activated JNK signalling in a non-cell-autonomous manner, providing a molecular mechanism for JNK-induced Toll pathway activation. Finally, gain of Toll signalling exacerbates JNK-mediated cell death and promotes cell death independent of caspases. Thus, we have identified another important function for the evolutionarily conserved Toll pathway, in addition to its well-studied roles in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and innate immunity.

  10. Smoke your troubles away: exploring the effects of death cognitions on cannabis craving and consumption.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Maayan; Rabinovitz, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Two studies informed by the terror management health model were conducted to examine the question of how death cognition affects cannabis craving and whether actual cannabis smoking alleviates death cognitions. The first study examined whether priming thoughts of death are associated with subjective cannabis craving among 42 frequent cannabis users randomly assigned to either a mortality salience or control task. When reminded of their death, participants craved cannabis, even though there was no change in their conscious negative mood. The second study examined the effect of cannabis smoking on death cognitions in an exploratory field setting. Fifty frequent cannabis users were randomly assigned to either mortality reminders or control task and completed death-related words accessibility measures before and after smoking cannabis. Results indicate that cannabis served as a buffer and prevented death-related thoughts from entering consciousness, thus acting as a defense mechanism against death anxiety. These findings indicate that death-related concerns may play a hitherto unsuspected role in cannabis craving and consumption. Also discussed are the implications of a terror management perspective in communication of negative health consequences of recreational cannabis smoking and in the use of cannabis for medical purposes among people with terminal illness.

  11. Toll pathway modulates TNF-induced JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Changyan; Dai, Jianli; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yujun; Li, Wenzhe; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death. Our epistasis analysis suggests that the Toll pathway acts as a downstream modulator for JNK-dependent cell death. In addition, gain of JNK signalling results in Toll pathway activation, revealed by stimulated transcription of Drosomycin (Drs) and increased cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of Dorsal. Furthermore, the Spätzle (Spz) family ligands for the Toll receptor are transcriptionally upregulated by activated JNK signalling in a non-cell-autonomous manner, providing a molecular mechanism for JNK-induced Toll pathway activation. Finally, gain of Toll signalling exacerbates JNK-mediated cell death and promotes cell death independent of caspases. Thus, we have identified another important function for the evolutionarily conserved Toll pathway, in addition to its well-studied roles in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and innate immunity. PMID:26202785

  12. Autophagy prevents autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Wei; Feng, Jiang-Nan; Cao, Yi; Meng, Li-Ping; Wang, Shu-Lin

    2015-05-18

    Autophagy is a major cellular pathway used to degrade long-lived proteins or organelles that may be damaged due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cellular stress. Autophagy typically enhances cell survival, but it may also act to promote cell death under certain conditions. The mechanism underlying this paradox, however, remains unclear. We showed that Tetrahymena cells exerted increased membrane-bound vacuoles characteristic of autophagy followed by autophagic cell death (referred to as cell death with autophagy) after exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or 3-methyladenine significantly augmented autophagic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. Blockage of the mitochondrial electron transport chain or starvation triggered activation of autophagy followed by cell death by inducing the production of ROS due to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. This indicated a regulatory role of mitochondrial ROS in programming autophagy and autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena. Importantly, suppression of autophagy enhanced autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena in response to elevated ROS production from starvation, and this was reversed by antioxidants. Therefore, our results suggest that autophagy was activated upon oxidative stress to prevent the initiation of autophagic cell death in Tetrahymena until the accumulation of ROS passed the point of no return, leading to delayed cell death in Tetrahymena.

  13. Brain death determination in Israel: the first two years experience following changes to the brain death law-opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Ashkenazi, T; Katvan, E; Singer, P

    2012-09-01

    To increase support for the concept of brain death, changes accommodating requirements of the religious authorities were made to the Brain Death Act in Israel. These included (1) considering patient wishes regarding brain death determination (BDD); (2) mandatory performance of apnea and ancillary testing; (3) establishment of an accreditation committee and (4) requirement for physician training courses. We describe the first 2 years experience following implementation (2010-2011). During 2010, the number of BDD decreased from 21.9/million population (during the years 2007-2009) to 16.0 (p < 0.001). Reasons included family resistance to brain death testing (27 cases), inability to perform apnea testing (7) and logistic problems related to ancillary testing (26 cases). The number of physicians available to declare brain death also decreased (210 vs. 102). During 2011, BDDs increased to 20.5/million following the introduction of radionuclide angiography as an ancillary test; other reasons for nondetermination persisted (family resistance 26 cases, inability to perform apnea testing 10 cases). Instead of increasing opportunities, many obstacles were encountered following the changes to the Brain Death Act. Although some of these challenges have been met, longer term follow-up is required to assess their complete impact.

  14. Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Kathryn E; Bardi, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction.

  15. Persons and death: what's metaphysically wrong with our current statutory definition of death?

    PubMed

    Lizza, J P

    1993-08-01

    This paper challenges the recommendations of 1981 President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research that all jurisdictions in the United States should adopt the Uniform Determination of Death Act, which endorses a whole-brain, rather than a higher-brain, definition of death. I argue that the Commission was wrong to reject the "personhood argument" for the higher-brain definition on the grounds that there is no consensus among philosophers or the general population as to what constitutes "personhood". I claim that philosophers agree that some potential for cognitive function is necessary for personhood and that, when this is absent in cases of anencephaly and persistent vegetative state (PVS), the individual should be considered dead. I further argue that the lack of consensus among the general population is due in large measure to misunderstandings about the medical reality of PVS and beliefs influenced by feelings for a specific individual in PVS. I also examine and reject two tutorist arguments which have been used to support the Commission's position: that the higher-brain definition would threaten the severely senile and severely retarded, and that there are not currently adequate medical techniques for determining when all higher-brain activities have ceased.

  16. Draconian dress act repealed.

    PubMed

    Mhone, C

    1994-01-01

    The Dress Act was put into place in Malawi by the government of President Kamuzu Banda after the long period of direct colonialism. The act made it illegal for women in Malawi to be seen publicly wearing dresses which did not completely cover their knees or wearing pants; men had to wear their hair short. Police officers even scrutinized women's attire at private house parties and in homes. The autocratic political structure established by Banda, however, was voted out in a referendum June 14, 1993. Pressure by opposition forces such as the United Democratic Front forced a repeal of the act on November 16 of the same year. The repeal was vigorously attacked by female Parliament members as a move which would result in moral degradation and an increase in the level of sexual harassment against women. Other citizens and tourists have generally detested the act. The act has most certainly kept many potential visitors from vacationing in Malawi. Some expert observers think that repeals of the Dress Act, the Forfeiture Act, and legislation which allowed the government to detain opposition figures without trial were done to garner support from the Paris Club for the resumption of balance of payments support suspended due to the country's poor human rights record.

  17. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse.

    PubMed

    Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Luneckaitė, Žydrunė; Peičius, Eimantas; Bagdonaitė, Živilė; Riklikienė, Olga; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2016-01-01

    The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational-logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question "Does a brain death mean death of a human being?" two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death.

  18. Killing Breast Cancer Cells With a VEGF-Triggered Cell Death Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    patients. We are pursuing a totally different approach to targeting VEGF: rather than inhibit VEGF our goal is to convert VEGF to act as a cell death factor...cell lines in vitro. These studies suggest that a receptor such as R2Fas which converts VEGF to act as a cell death factor could yield a new and more aggressive approach to targeting overexpressed VEGF in breast cancer....Toward this aim we created a chimeric receptor (R2Fas) composed of domains from VEGF receptor 2 fused to the intracellular domain of the Fas cell

  19. Death with dignity in the Japanese culture.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Y

    1995-05-01

    In Japanese culture, the concept of death with dignity focuses on enhancing the relationship with significant others (especially with family members) and is expected to continue even after death, unlike the autonomous decision making in Western cultures. Deaths in such relationships are self-worthy, majestic and wished for. The author depicts these traits by describing the worship of sudden death aspiration in a special temple, the death ceremonies repeated even after death which involve even distantly related people, a suicide allusively asking for something, and a joint suicide.

  20. Death: the ultimate social construction of reality.

    PubMed

    Brabant, Sarah

    Using Berger and Luckmann's thesis (1966) on the social construction of reality as rationale, this research analyzes the death drawings of 946 university students enrolled in a Death and Dying course between 1985 and 2004 to investigate the basic constructs elicited by the word "death": dying, moment of death, after death, after life, and bereavement. Consistent with earlier research, gender, race, religion, and religiosity proved to be significant factors. As expected, personal experience with grief was strongly correlated with drawings focused on bereavement. In contrast to earlier studies, fear of death was not significantly related to a particular construct. Implications for research, education, and counseling are discussed.