Churchwell, Don Wesley
This study examined the relationship between STAR Math gains and TCAP composite scores. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between STAR Math pretest and posttest gains over the course of the 2005-2006 academic year through the use of the STAR Math software program and TCAP math composite scores at…
Kilday, Carolyn R.
This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…
Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.
Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…
Parke, Carol S.
This study investigates relationships between assessment scores and other indicators of math performance. The impetus for the research came from a district's need to better understand high school math achievement. Longitudinal data for a cohort of students were obtained, including math scores from their state assessment, TerraNova, and New…
Matejko, Anna A; Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel
Mathematical skills are of critical importance, both academically and in everyday life. Neuroimaging research has primarily focused on the relationship between mathematical skills and functional brain activity. Comparatively few studies have examined which white matter regions support mathematical abilities. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test whether individual differences in white matter predict performance on the math subtest of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT). Grades 10 and 11 PSAT scores were obtained from 30 young adults (ages 17-18) with wide-ranging math achievement levels. Tract based spatial statistics was used to examine the correlation between PSAT math scores, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). FA in left parietal white matter was positively correlated with math PSAT scores (specifically in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior corona radiata, and left corticospinal tract) after controlling for chronological age and same grade PSAT critical reading scores. Furthermore, RD, but not AD, was correlated with PSAT math scores in these white matter microstructures. The negative correlation with RD further suggests that participants with higher PSAT math scores have greater white matter integrity in this region. Individual differences in FA and RD may reflect variability in experience dependent plasticity over the course of learning and development. These results are the first to demonstrate that individual differences in white matter are associated with mathematical abilities on a nationally administered scholastic aptitude measure.
Craig, Jason W.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a mid-cycle examination on the effects of a nonprofit organization's middle school intervention program on sixth grade math TAKS scores at a suburban middle school in Houston, Texas. This study examined the effectiveness of two of the project goals in the first year of a two-year implementation: Increased…
Loewen, David Allen
This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test score…
Bumgarner, Erin; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of…
Fourth grade math scores stagnated for the first time in two decades on a prominent nationwide test, prompting calls for new efforts to improve teacher content knowledge and stirring discussion of the potential benefits of setting more-uniform academic standards across states. The results on the National Assessment of Educational Progress,…
Henry, Denfield L.
English language learners (ELLs) at a south Florida elementary school have consistently struggled with the mathematics segment of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test. Examining the relationship between ELLs' mathematics scores and English proficiency might provide local educators with ideas for reversing a downward trend in ELLs' mathematics…
Henry, Denfield L.; Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate
Multiple studies propose that English proficiency dictates English language learners' (ELLs) performances on mathematics assessments. The current study investigates the predictive power of English proficiency on mathematics scores, while controlling for gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and grade level among ELLs at a south Florida elementary…
Garcy, Anthony M.
This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…
There has been a decline of math and science assessment scores consecutively over the past 2 years at a local middle school. This mixed method study incorporated a sequential qualitative-quantitative explanatory strategy with the intent of enhancing and altering the instructional process to increase student achievement. The qualitative portion of the study explored the process of differentiated instruction and perceptions of those who were involved within the development of a nontraditional approach to instruction in the 7th grade content areas of math and science. For the quantitative portion of the study, assessment data were collected for 2010 and 2011 for the 7th grade math and science content areas. Constructivism served as the theoretical foundation for the study. The results of the qualitative analysis suggested that the majority of the participants believed that differentiated instruction positively impacts student scores for the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP). The result of an independent t test indicated that students receiving differentiated instruction had higher math and science TCAP test scores for Grade 7 One recommendation is for future research to be conducted regarding differentiated instruction's impact on student achievement so that the gap in scientific research in this area may be bridged. Implications for social change include the potential for enhancing the instructional process that could result in improved student achievement.
Carvajal, Howard; And Others
Examined relationships between American College Testing Program (ACT) academic test and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and 1986 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (Binet IV). Thirty college students for whom ACT scores were available took other tests. Concluded…
Porecki, Daniel; Vandergoot, David
The Hand Test was administered to 107 maximum-security prison inmates. The Acting Out Score (AOS) was computed, and one year later, actual acting out for the same inmates was recorded. Determined that the Hand Test AOS is useful in identifying inmates who have potential for acting out. (Author)
Pane, Natalia E.
This report shows significant gains in math achievement by Hispanic fourth- and eighth-graders across the nation--the equivalent of one grade level in the last ten years (2003-3013). Using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, Child Trends reviewed and compared fourth and eighth grade math scores in the nation, states, large…
Abakwue, Chimaeze Ikechi
The purpose of this study was to determine if there were a significant difference in math and reading academic achievement scores between eighth-grade students attending year-round calendar schools and eighth-grade students attending traditional calendar schools based on the TCAP. In addition, this study investigated math and reading achievement…
Standardized tests, although unpopular, are required for a multitude of reasons. One of these tests is the ACT. The ACT is a college readiness test that many high school juniors take to gain college admittance. Students throughout the United States are unprepared for this assessment. The average high school junior is three points behind twenty-four, the ACT recommended score, for the science section. The science section focuses on reading text and, interpreting graphs, charts, tables and diagrams with an emphasis on experimental design and relationships among variables. For students to become better at interpreting and understanding scientific graphics they must have vast experience developing their own graphics. The purpose of this study was to provide students the opportunity to generate their own graphics to master interpretation of them on the ACT. According to a t-test the results show that students who are continually exposed to creating graphs are able to understand and locate information from graphs at a significantly faster rate.
Ramsey, Whitney J.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in standardized test scores, expressed as percentage passing, in math, reading-language arts, science, and social studies by comparing 6th grade students in K--8 schools with those in 6--8 schools. The data were gathered from an analysis of 6th grade students' scores on the 2006--2007 TCAP standardized assessment test in the state of Tennessee. The relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient, proficient, or advanced level in each subject area was examined. The analysis was based on 5 research questions. A t-test for independent samples was used to identify the relationships between the independent variables, configuration of the school (K--8 or 6--8), and the dependent variables, the percent of students scoring below proficient, proficient, or advanced. A chi square analysis was used to identify the relationship between the proportion of K--8 schools meeting AYP versus the proportion of 6--8 schools meeting AYP. The study showed no relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient level in math, reading-language arts, and social studies. Similarly, there was not a significant difference between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the proficient level in math and reading-language arts and the advanced level in math, reading-language arts, and science. However, there was a significant relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient level and the proficient level in science and the percent of 6th grade students scoring at the proficient level and advanced level in social studies. In science, a lower percentage of 6th grade students in K--8 schools scored below proficient than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. In science, a higher
Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana
The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…
This report focuses on the initial development of the predicted score paths for ACT Aspire reporting. The paths provide predicted score ranges for the next two years--as well as predicted ACT score ranges for tests administered at grades 9 and 10. Longitudinal ACT Aspire data for students tested in spring 2013 and spring 2014, as well as…
The relationship between beginning college chemistry achievement and prior knowledge, number of college mathematics courses completed, GPA of college mathematics courses completed, levels of Piagetian intellectual development, mathematics ACT score, science ACT score, and composite ACT score
Barthel, Margaret Gorjanc
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between achievement in Chem 33 (a third semester general chemistry course) and the following predictor variables: prior knowledge (Chem 32 grade), level of Piagetian intellectual development, number of college mathematics courses previously completed, grades received in prior college mathematics courses, science ACT scores, mathematics ACT scores, and composite ACT scores. During the winter semester of the 1994--1995 school year, the students who were enrolled in two sections of Chem 33, taught by the same professor, were given the TOLT test. In addition, their student records were examined in order to determine the grade they received in Chem 32, the number of mathematics courses Completed in college, the GPA for the mathematics courses completed in college, the science ACT score, mathematics ACT score, and the composite ACT score. A Pearson Correlation was performed on these variables to determine to what extent they were able to predict the student's achievement, measured by the grade in Chem 33. What was found in respect to achievement in Chem 33 was: prior knowledge was r = 0.67, GPA of mathematics courses completed in college was r = 0.58, mathematics ACT was r = 0.50, composite ACT was r = 0.40, and TOLT was r = 0.33. A stepwise multiple regression was also performed to see what interactions could be found between the variables themselves. There was no single predictor variable that adequately serves as a dominant predictor variable for success in Chem 33. It can be concluded that the Chem 32 grade (prior knowledge) coupled with the GPA of the college mathematics courses completed in college as well as the mathematics ACT score are the best predictors for achievement in Chem 33.
The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement
Urbina, Josue N.
There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…
Xu, Bo; Liu, Dongfang
Due to increased college admission requirements and a 20-year flat-lined trend in ACT scores, it is imperative for education leaders across the nation to implement effective strategies to increase ACT composite scores. High school principals, as instructional leaders and decision makers, are the major stakeholders who are vested in the outcomes of…
Yin, Ping; Brennan, Robert L.; Kolen, Michael J.
The use of educational tests in practical situations often requires that tests that are built to different content and/or statistical specifications be statistically linked. When equating methods are applied to tests that differ in content, difficulty, and/or reliability, the resulting scores cannot be used interchangeably. This study examined…
Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer
Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…
Hartel, R. W.; Adem, M.
A math review exam, written and administered in conjunction with the Quantitative Assessment Program at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, is used at the beginning of the 1st food engineering course to evaluate math skills needed for successful completion of the course. Students who do not score well on the math exam are targeted for individual…
Turner, Sherry L.
Thirteen percent of the 2008-2009 senior class in one southeastern state did not pass the science portion of the state's high school graduation test. Another 5% failed to pass the math portion of the graduation test, leaving these students unable to obtain a high school diploma. The purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative research study was…
Montague, Marjorie; Penfield, Randall D; Enders, Craig; Huang, Jia
The purpose of this article is to discuss curriculum-based measurement (CBM) as it is currently utilized in research and practice and to propose a new approach for developing measures to monitor the academic progress of students longitudinally. To accomplish this, we first describe CBM and provide several exemplars of CBM in reading and mathematics. Then, we present the research context for developing a set of seven curriculum-based measures for monitoring student progress in math problem solving. The rationale for and advantages of using statistical equating methodology are discussed. Details of the methodology as it was applied to the development of these math problem solving measures are provided.
Grinstead, Mary L.
This study explores the relationship between specific advanced mathematics courses and college readiness (as determined by ACT score). The ACT organization has found a consistent relationship between taking a minimum core number of mathematics courses and higher ACT scores (mathematics and composite) (ACT, Inc., 2012c). However, the extent to…
LeMay, Jeffrey W.
This quasi-experimental post-test only control group designed quantitative study examined whether or not members of an experimental group of participants who utilized two metacognitive strategy training regimens experienced a significant increase in their ACT mathematics sub-test scores compared to a group of students who did not utilize either of…
Hackmann, Donald G.; Hecht, Janet E.; Harmston, Matt T.; Pliska, Ann-Maureen; Ziomek, Robert L.
This study examined the relationship between school scheduling format and average composite scores on the ACT Assessment after controlling for lifestyle factors, gender, school enrollment levels, number of examinees, and years under the scheduling model. The participants were 38,089 high schools seniors in 568 public high schools in Iowa and…
ACT, Inc., 2008
Postsecondary institutions often consider students' high school grades and ACT scores when making admission decisions. This issue brief summarizes ACT research on the relative weights of ACT scores and high school grades for predicting college persistence as well as selected indicators of academic success in college. (Contains 1 table and 3…
Nimmer, Donald N.; Shakiba-Nejad, Hadi
The study was conducted to provide formulae by which College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examination scores may be predicted from scores earned on the American College Test (ACT) Assessment. Five basic areas of liberal arts achievement are measured by the CLEP General Examinations: English Composition, Humanities, Mathematics, Natural…
Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…
An argument based on the content fit among a college course, the American College Testing Program (ACT) Assessment tests, and students' high school course work is described to justify use of ACT scores and self-reported high school grades for placement of college freshmen in undergraduate remedial education. A utility-based approach to quantifying…
Kim, Doo Hwan; Law, Helen
In many industrialised societies, women remain underrepresented in the sciences, which can be predicted by the gender gap in math achievement at school. Using PISA 2006 data, we explore the role of family background and single-sex schooling in girls' disadvantage in maths in South Korea and Hong Kong. This disadvantage is found to be associated…
Hamilton, Kirkland D.
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative is the latest effort by educational leaders to improve educational outcomes of American students. The standards are intended to bring uniformity in educational content of what is being taught in schools across the nation in order to promote rigor and academic portability. Proponents claimed the new…
Bailey, Anne Lowrey
Charles Pine, CASE's Professor of the Year, is a professor who gets students to know and love math and physics and who has emerged as a leading teacher of math teachers. It started when Pine found that his students couldn't do the math involved in his physics classes. (MLW)
Cantrell, Martha Ely
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the changes in Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) scores and the changes in Per Pupil Expenditures (PPE) after the enactment of "First to the Top Act of 2010" and the receipt of $501,000,000 in federal Race to the Top (RTTT) grant monies. Half of that…
Schremmer, A. G.
This experiment attempted to teach abstract mathematics fo college freshmen with A.C.T. scores less than 15 in a three semester terminal course sequence. The course content included a formal mathematical language, set theory, Boolean Algebra, relations and functions, operations, cardinals and ordinals, the rational numbers, and college algebra.…
Woodruff, David J.
The Educational Planning and Assessment System (EPAS) of the American College Testing Program consists of three testing programs: EXPLORE, PLAN, and the ACT Assessment Program (ACT). EXPLORE is administered in the 8th grade, PLAN in the 10th grade, and the ACT in the 11th or 12th grade. This study investigated relationships among the composite…
Smith, Barriett Jackson
The participating school system's minority population, notably African Americans, ranked in the top five school systems in academic performance in reading and math when compared to other states and other African American populations across the United States. These measurements were taken from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).…
Mathis, Anita Cannon
The research literature on computer based (assisted) instruction is mixed. Some researchers say it improves and motivates student achievement. Some researchers say it has no effect on learning. Alarmingly, the data on eighth grade performance in math is low across the United States. In the state of Georgia there are gaps in the performance of…
McIntosh, Ronald D.
Professional learning communities (PLCs) are designed to increase and improve the time teachers spend working with one another planning curriculum for mathematics, reading, writing, history, English, and other disciplines offered by their school. These meetings help to improve test scores in math and English. Teachers have coupled their subject…
Ramirez, Gerardo; Chang, Hyesang; Maloney, Erin A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
Even at young ages, children self-report experiencing math anxiety, which negatively relates to their math achievement. Leveraging a large dataset of first and second grade students' math achievement scores, math problem solving strategies, and math attitudes, we explored the possibility that children's math anxiety (i.e., a fear or apprehension about math) negatively relates to their use of more advanced problem solving strategies, which in turn relates to their math achievement. Our results confirm our hypothesis and, moreover, demonstrate that the relation between math anxiety and math problem solving strategies is strongest in children with the highest working memory capacity. Ironically, children who have the highest cognitive capacity avoid using advanced problem solving strategies when they are high in math anxiety and, as a result, underperform in math compared with their lower working memory peers.
This study examined the impact of high school students' graphing calculator usage on their math achievement over time. Achievement growth was measured using nationally-recognized standardized test scores from EXPLORE, PLAN, and ACT. Two groups of students were used in this study; one group had graphing calculators integrated beginning in…
Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.
Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…
Lambeth, Cathryn Colley
The current study investigated variability in student performance on a concurrent verbalization measure based on a grade-level sample math word problem and sought to determine to what extent the variability in verbalization scores is related to scores on a reliable measure of reading (DIBELS Next) and math (easyCBM) and to student factors (e.g.…
Achieve, Inc., 2013
Far too many students in the U.S. give up on math early because it does not come easy and they believe only students with innate ability can really be "good" at mathematics, a notion that is all too often reinforced by adults who believe the same thing. There is a serious gap between how Americans value math generally and how they value math for…
De Felice, Rachele; Deane, Paul
This study proposes an approach to automatically score the "TOEIC"® Writing e-mail task. We focus on one component of the scoring rubric, which notes whether the test-takers have used particular speech acts such as requests, orders, or commitments. We developed a computational model for automated speech act identification and tested it…
Four decades ago following Russia's Sputnik satellite launching, the nation embraced "new" math as part of its commitment not to fall behind its global neighbors. Issues addressed in "new-new" math include equal access to challenging learning, problem solving, reasoning and proof, communications, multiple ways to solve…
Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…
O'Brien, Thomas C.
Parrot math (memorization) seeks to control children through external rewards and punishments, rather than harness their intelligence and curiosity. Recent standardized test results document parrot math's failure. Activities-based approaches, supported by a constructivist philosophy (involving classifying, inferring, generalizing, and…
Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L
Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.
Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie
This study compared the effectiveness of ACT[R] Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours earned), degree completion, and cumulative grade point average (GPA) at 150% of normal time to degree…
Grosse-Sundrup, Martina; Henneman, Justin P; Sandberg, Warren S; Bateman, Brian T; Uribe, Jose Villa; Nguyen, Nicole Thuy; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Martinez, Elizabeth A; Kurth, Tobias
Objective To determine whether use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during general anesthesia increases the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. Design Prospective, propensity score matched cohort study. Setting General teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 2006-10. Participants 18 579 surgical patients who received intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during surgery were matched by propensity score to 18 579 reference patients who did not receive such agents. Main outcome measures The main outcome measures were oxygen desaturation after extubation (hemoglobin oxygen saturation <90% with a decrease in oxygen saturation after extubation of >3%) and reintubations requiring unplanned admission to an intensive care unit within seven days of surgery. We also evaluated effects on these outcome variables of qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular transmission (train-of-four ratio) and reversal of neuromuscular blockade with neostigmine to prevent residual postoperative neuromuscular blockade. Results The use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents was associated with an increased risk of postoperative desaturation less than 90% after extubation (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.51) and reintubation requiring unplanned admission to an intensive care unit (1.40, 1.09 to 1.80). Qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular transmission did not decrease this risk and neostigmine reversal increased the risk of postoperative desaturation to values less than 90% (1.32, 1.20 to 1.46) and reintubation (1.76, 1.38 to 2.26). Conclusion The use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during anesthesia was associated with an increased risk of clinically meaningful respiratory complications. Our data suggest that the strategies used in our trial to prevent residual postoperative neuromuscular blockade should be revisited. PMID:23077290
What Works Clearinghouse, 2011
"Accelerated Math"[TM], published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool used to customize assignments and monitor progress in math for students in grades 1-12. The "Accelerated Math"[TM] software creates individualized assignments aligned with state standards and national guidelines, scores student work, and generates…
Kettler, Ryan J.; Niebling, Bradley C.; Mroch, Andrew A.; Feldman, Elizabeth S.; Newell, Markeda L.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Bolt, Daniel M.
This study examined the effects of testing accommodations on the mathematics and reading test scores of a sample of 119 fourth graders and 78 eighth graders. The sample included 49 fourth-grade students diagnosed with a disability and 39 eighth-grade students diagnosed with a disability. All students were tested under two conditions (i.e.,…
Many experts give the nation's schools a poor grade for their approach to teaching mathematics and for their preparation of mathematics teachers. While many policymakers make much of data that suggest children in the United States lag behind many other advanced countries in math, many experts call for a change in mathematics education,…
Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas
Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…
Discussion in maths lessons has always been something encouraged by ATM but can be difficult to initiate for non-specialist and inexperienced teachers who may feel they need material in books to get them going. In this article, the author describes resources aimed at encouraging discussion among primary mathematicians. These resources include: (1)…
Tobias, Sheila; Donady, Bonnie
Describes the rationale and mode of operations for a Math Clinic at Wellesley University and Wesleyan College where counselors and math specialists work together to combat "math anxiety," particularly in female students. (HMV)
Wu, Sarah S; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod
Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure for assessing math anxiety in second and third graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II). Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were strongly correlated with Mathematical Reasoning scores, which involves more complex verbal problem solving. SEMA scores were weakly correlated with Numerical Operations which assesses basic computation skills, suggesting that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. We also found that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement
Woodruff, David; Traynor, Anne; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu
Professional standards for educational testing recommend that both the overall standard error of measurement and the conditional standard error of measurement (CSEM) be computed on the score scale used to report scores to examinees. Several methods have been developed to compute scale score CSEMs. This paper compares three methods, based on…
Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L
Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.
"When am I ever going to use this?" This question is heard or thought in every middle-level math class across the land. Teachers struggle to apply math lessons to everyday life and make math meaningful and useful for their students. This author, too, struggled with this problem, until she read the book "Math Curse" by Jon Scieszka (Viking Books,…
Hoyt, Cathy Fillmore
This book features a comprehensive review of the Math Sense series and is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers;…
As a public school English teacher, the author observes standardized testing season each year with a sort of grim fascination. "So this is it," she thinks as she paces around her silent classroom, peering over kids' shoulders at articles about parasailing. Line graphs tracking the rainfall in Tulsa. Parts of speech. Functions of "x." "These are…
Bouma, Craig E.
Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a national priority and the call to modernize secondary science has been heard. A Physics First (PF) program with the curriculum sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology (PCB) driven by inquiry- and project-based learning offers a viable alternative to the…
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.
Brown, Jayna Nicole
Although traditional college students are more prepared for college-level math based on college admissions tests, little data have been collected on nontraditional adult learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between math placement tests and community college students' success in math courses and persistence to degree or certificate completion. Guided by Tinto's theory of departure and student retention, the research questions addressed relationships and predictability of math Computer-adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System (COMPASS) test scores and students' performance in math courses, persistence in college, and degree completion. After conducting correlation and regression analyses, no significant relationships were identified between COMPASS Math test scores and students' performance (n = 234) in math courses, persistence in college, or degree completion. However, independent t test and chi-squared analyses of the achievements of college students who tested into Basic Math (n = 138) vs. Introduction to Algebra (n = 96) yielded statistically significant differences in persistence (p = .039), degree completion (p < .001), performance (p = .008), and progress ( p = .001), indicating students who tested into Introduction to Algebra were more successful and persisted more often to degree completion. In order to improve instructional methods for Basic Math courses, a 3-day professional development workshop was developed for math faculty focusing on current, best practices in remedial math instruction. Implications for social change include providing math faculty with the knowledge and skills to develop new instructional methods for remedial math courses. A change in instructional methods may improve community college students' math competencies and degree achievement.
Moss, Gary L.; Chippendale, Ene Kaja; Mershon, Clark W.; Carney, Trisha
The role of standardized tests in general and college admission tests in particular is a hot topic for educators, administrators and others evaluating the outcomes of educational institutions. The importance of the test scores for both students and institutions is acknowledged, and the test preparation industry has spawned into a multi-billion…
Swanson, H. Lee; Jerman, Olga; Zheng, Xinhua
This article synthesizes some of the published literature that selectively compares the cognitive functioning of children with math disabilities (MDs) with average-achieving children and poor readers (children with reading disabilities [RDs] or comorbid disabilities [RDs + MDs]). All studies in the synthesis report reading, IQ, and math scores for…
Karp, Karen; Shakeshaft, Charol
The gender gap in math Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, attributable to course avoidance, lack of confidence, and unbalanced classroom instruction, can have serious consequences for young women, such as limited university selection, limited career choices, and lower lifetime salaries. Solutions include hiring math specialists, establishing role…
Achieve, Inc., 2013
The equation is simple: No matter their background, students who take challenging math courses in high school get better jobs and earn more money throughout their entire lives. This paper stresses that: (1) Higher-level math opens doors for any and all postsecondary programs and keeps it open for advancement beyond entry-level jobs; and (2)…
Concern about students' math achievement is nothing new, and debates about the mathematical training of the nation's youth date back a century or more. In the early 20th century, American high-school students were starkly divided, with rigorous math courses restricted to a college-bound elite. At midcentury, the "new math" movement sought,…
Math education consultant Marilyn Burns finds that teachers ask her the same three questions so often she's named them "The Big Three": What can I do with students who finish their math work more quickly?, How can I free up time to work with kids who need extra help?, and How can I differentiate math learning experiences? Burns, who…
The purpose of this quantitative multiple regression study was to determine whether a relationship existed between Maryland State Assessment (MSA) reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, age, and MSA science scores. Also examined was if MSA reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, and age can be used in combination or alone…
Bitner, Betty L.
The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to compare reasoning level, American College Test (ACT) science, process skills, and physical science misconceptions of preservice elementary and secondary science teachers and to investigate gender differences. The stratified randomly drawn sample (n=68) consisted of preservice elementary and…
Petrović, Ivana B.; Vukelić, Milica; Čizmić, Svetlana
Researchers are still searching for the ways to identify different categories of employees according to their exposure to negative acts and psychological experience of workplace bullying. We followed Notelaers and Einarsen’s application of the ROC analysis to determine the NAQ-R cut-off scores applying a “lower” and “higher” threshold. The main goal of this research was to develop and test different gold standards of personal and organizational relevance in determining the NAQ-R cut-off scores in a specific cultural and economic context of Serbia. Apart from combining self-labeling as a victim with self-perceived health, the objectives were to test the gold standards developed as a combination of self-labeling with life satisfaction, self-labeling with intention to leave and a complex gold standard based on self-labeling, self-perceived health, life satisfaction and intention to leave taken together. The ROC analysis on Serbian workforce data supports applying of different gold standards. For identifying employees in a preliminary stage of bullying, the most applicable was the gold standard based on self-labeling and intention to leave (score 34 and higher). The most accurate identification of victims could be based on the most complex gold standard (score 81 and higher). This research encourages further investigation of gold standards in different cultures. PMID:28119652
Guthrie, Janice Marie
Statistics indicate that students in conservative Christian schools earn higher standardized test scores in mathematics, reading, science, and writing compared to their public school counterparts, while many are criticized for using curricular materials deemed inferior in quality and for employing uncertified and ill-trained teachers. This study investigates the effectiveness of Christian-published science textbooks in preparing students for college-level science courses as measured by the Science Reasoning subtest of the ACT college entrance examination. A questionnaire was sent to conservative Christian high schools in five Midwest states which are affiliated with the American Association of Christian Schools, Association of Christian Schools International, and Oral Roberts University Educational Fellowship. Information gathered on the schools, teachers, facilities, and ACT Science Reasoning scores and the resulting descriptive statistics provide a sketch of the typical Midwest Christian high school. Hypothesis testing resulted in acceptance of the Null Hypothesis: There is no difference between the mean ACT Science Reasoning scores of Midwest Christian high schools using Christian-published science textbooks as compared to those using secular-published science textbooks. Multiple regression analysis on the two publishers represented by the sample statistics, A Beka and Bob Jones University Press, showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of one publisher over the other. Analysis of the one open-ended question asking why each school chooses to use the type of publisher it does led to the issues of worldview instruction and academic rigor as the deciding factors for the selection of one type of publisher over the other.
Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS. PMID:26648893
Blume, Joseph; Garcia, Kristi; Mullinax, Kelly; Vogel, Kelly
This report describes the effect of integrating math and science and employing technology to bridge the gap. The targeted population consisted of primary and secondary students in a diverse, blue-collar, rural community located in northeast central Illinois. The problem of low-test scores and errors on assignments in mathematics was evident and…
Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C
People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.
Zwerling, L. Steven
Describes the Math Learning Center at Palm Beach Junior College which offers 21 courses of study, including all math courses through trigonometry and 11 general education math courses. Examines the implementation process and various program features. (DR)
Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.
Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000
Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L
Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.
Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Wurtz
Using a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark, we show that the immigrant concentration in the school influences reading and math skills for both immigrant children and native children. Overall, children in schools with a high immigrant concentration score lower on reading and math test scores. The negative effects associated with…
Hoff, David J.; Cavanagh, Sean
Improving K-12 instruction and student achievement in mathematics and science is at the heart of separate bills intended to bolster America's economic standing that won overwhelming approval in both houses of Congress last week. The House on April 24 approved the 10,000 Teachers, 10 Million Minds Science and Math Scholarship Act by a vote of…
Gao, Niu; Adan, Sara
Last year, the California Legislature passed a new law--the California Mathematics Placement Act--to address widespread concern over equity in the math placement process. The law is aimed at improving the measurement of student performance in order to move more students successfully through the high school curriculum. In this context, researchers…
This article recounts the battle in the "math wars" that took place in Massachusetts, United States in 1999-2000 over the scope, content and teaching of the state's K-12 mathematics curriculum. Harsh controversies arose between the partisans of a "reform-math" movement stressing an undefined "conceptual understanding"…
Stone, James R., III
This article presents a study, Building Academic Skills in Context: Testing the Value of Enhanced Math Learning in Career and Technical Education, which focused on areas where mathematics concepts logically occurred in the technical and career field being studied and emphasized the math skills students must learn to understand those concepts in…
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Louwerse, Jolien; Straatemeier, Marthe; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Klinkenberg, Sharon; Van der Maas, Han L. J.
It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a computer-adaptive program. A total of 207 children (grades 3-6)…
Tuttle, Harry Grover
Technology can support the study of math in a variety of ways. Through class Web sites, blogs or wikis, teachers can communicate the math standards, the goals needed to achieve the standards, homework assignments, projects, tests, and helpful Web sites for parents and students. The online site becomes an extension of the class. There are plenty of…
Baldwin, Anna; And Others
This publication contains materials used in the three phases of the reading and mathematics components of work-specific classes. Each section begins with an overview of developments in that phase. Section 1 focuses on Phase 1 during which math and reading were taught as separate components. It contains a math placement appraisal, worksheets and…
The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…
The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.
Betz, Nancy E.
While much progress has been made in treating math anxiety, little is yet known about its causes, correlates or effects. The present study examined factors related to the prevalence and intensity of math anxiety in college students and the extent to which math anxiety is predictive of math course grades. The 655 subjects were obtained from two…
Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz
One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…
Rowe, Ellen W.; Miller, Cristin; Ebenstein, Lauren A.; Thompson, Dawna F.
This study investigated the predictive power of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), the General Ability Index (GAI), and the WISC-IV index score composites on subsequent reading and math standardized test scores among high-achieving students. The sample consisted of 84 elementary-age students…
Over the past five years, both DC Public Schools (DCPS) and public charter schools (PCS) have seen significant growth in secondary reading and math scores on the state test known as the District of Columbia Comprehensive Assessment System (DC CAS). However, scores have not improved as much at the elementary level. Reading and math scores for DCPS…
Presents number loop pattern activities and games designed to interest elementary students in mathematics and encourage computational skills. The activities work as games and cooperative activities and invite math exploration. (SM)
Negron, Maggie; Breindel, Matthew
This assessment of placement test scores in reading, math, and sentence skills from incoming students at College of the Desert (California) shows that students are overwhelmingly underprepared for study at the college. Only 15% of students were prepared in sentence skills, 27% in reading skills, 7% in math skills; only 3% were prepared in all 3…
Algebra Readiness Outcomes of Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Measured Math Ability Compared to Sixth-Grade Boys and Girls Placed in Challenge Math Based on Teachers' Recommendations
Hemphill, David C.
The first pretest-posttest hypothesis was tested using the dependent t test. Null hypotheses for test score improvement over time were rejected for the end of fifth-grade pretest compared to ending sixth-grade posttest math Essential Learner Outcome scores converted to standard scores for randomly selected sixth-grade girls meeting measured test…
Marten, Dawn M.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…
Taylor-Cox, Jennifer; Oberdorf, Christine
Why should schools have a Family Math Night? It helps students learn essential math concepts. It gives parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence. It promotes math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry out of…
Gold, Alanna B; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Cirino, Paul; Fuchs, Lynn S; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M
Cognitive assessments and behavioral ratings of attention were used to examine the relation of inattention to math performance in children. Third grade students with math difficulties (MD; n = 17) and math and reading difficulties (MDRD; n = 35) were administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT), as well as achievement and intelligence measures. Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior-IV (SWAN-IV) Inattention ratings were collected from teachers. Two comparison groups were also recruited: a typically achieving group (n = 23) and a group that responded to a math-tutoring intervention (responders; n = 54). On the ANT, children with MD and MDRD did not perform significantly different than typically achieving children or responders on measures of alerting and orienting attention and executive control. All subgroups did demonstrate performance patterns that were expected on the ANT. However, performance across blocks of the task was inconsistent, suggesting poor reliability. There were no relations between ANT performance and SWAN-IV behavioral inattention scores, though behavioral ratings of inattention correlated significantly with math performance. Children with MD and MDRD may have more difficulty with distraction and attention to detail in contextual situations, as opposed to impulsive responding in these settings. The lack of relation between cognitive attention and math performance may suggest that either the ANT does not assess the relevant attention constructs associated with math difficulties or may parallel studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in which cognitive and behavioral assessments are weakly related.
Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L
Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.
Markey, Sean M.
This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationship between visual-spatial reasoning abilities, as measured by the matrix reasoning and block design subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), and geometry and math performance, as measured by geometry and overall math scores from the Massachusetts…
Núñez-Peña, M. Isabel; Guilera, Georgina; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena
This study examined whether the Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale (SIMA), based on the item suggested by Ashcraft, provided valid and reliable scores of mathematical anxiety. A large sample of university students (n = 279) was administered the SIMA and the 25-item Shortened Math Anxiety Rating Scale (sMARS) to evaluate the relation between the scores…
Brown, Clayton D.
It is widely publicized that student attitudes and achievement in math in the United States require improvement. U.S. students have shown lackluster mathematics achievement scores compared to their international peers in other developed countries. As a former high school math instructor, this author observed that the attitude of many high school…
Abraham, Reni A.; Slate, John R.; Saxon, D. Patrick; Barnes, Wally
In this investigation, we examined the college readiness in math of Texas community college students using archival data from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Data analyzed were the rate of all first-time in college (FTIC) developmental education students who scored below the Texas college readiness standards in math and the rates of…
Although critical to functioning in the workforce, mathematics proficiency is low in the United States compared to other economically-developed countries. Researchers have shown that students begin to demonstrate weaknesses in math skills at the onset of pre-algebraic courses, usually during middle school years. In Alabama, low math scores are…
Mills, Jeremy Ryan
A single-subject withdrawal design paired with content quizzes was used to examine the effect of clickers on three dependent variables (student engagement, math quiz scores, and inappropriate behavior) with students diagnosed with high-incidence disabilities in a secondary grade level resource math class and a secondary grade level inclusive math…
Methe, Scott A.; Briesch, Amy M.; Hulac, David
At present, it is unclear whether math curriculum-based measurement (M-CBM) procedures provide a dependable measure of student progress in math computation because support for its technical properties is based largely upon a body of correlational research. Recent investigations into the dependability of M-CBM scores have found that evaluating…
Bottge, Brian A.; Cho, Sun-Joo
This study compared how students with learning difficulties in math (MLD) who were randomly assigned to two instructional conditions answered items on problem solving tests aligned to the Common Core State Standards Initiative for Mathematics. Posttest scores showed improvement in the math performance of students receiving Enhanced Anchored…
Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee
Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality.
Holdener, J.; Milnikel, R.
In this article we present three group activities designed for math students: a balloon-twisting workshop, a group proof of the irrationality of p, and a game of Math Bingo. These activities have been particularly successful in building enthusiasm for mathematics and camaraderie among math faculty and students at Kenyon College.
Gross, Fred E.; Elkind, CavidEpstein, Ann S.; Copley, Juanita V.; Haugen, Ginny; Haugen, Kirsten
Presents five articles addressing numbers and math instruction for young children: "Math Talk with Young Children: One Parent's Experience" (Fred E. Gross); "How Children Build Their Understanding of Numbers" (David Elkind); "Early Math: It's More than Numbers" (Ann S. Epstein); "Assessing Mathematical Learning: Observing and Listening to…
This book is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include algebra and geometry. Lessons are organized around four strands: (1) skill lessons…
... because she is blue and not pink. Most newborn infants have Apgar scores greater than 7. Because their ... between 8 and 10. A small percentage of newborns have Apgar scores of less than ... low scores than infants with normal births. These scores may reflect difficulties ...
Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L; Hart, Sara A; Lyons, Ian M; Thompson, Lee A; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A
The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. In the current studies, we aimed to address the lack of attention given to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math-learning literature by exploring the relations among math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. In two samples-young adolescent twins and adult college students-results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with high intrinsic math motivation and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing participants' nonsymbolic and symbolic number-estimation ability. These findings may help advance the understanding of mathematics-learning processes and provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics-learning experiences and mathematical skills.
Roettinger, Theresa Marie
Kindergarten, first and second grade teachers play an important role in the development of a student's understanding of mathematics. Consequently, in order to improve student achievement in mathematics, it is important to investigate the relationships that may exist among primary teachers' math profile, math teaching efficacy, and math pedagogy…
This study examined the mathematics beliefs of students who attained mastery, as indicated by earning an A, in their introductory math class in fall, 2008. This study addressed the following research questions: do students who attain mastery in introductory college math courses differ in their math beliefs from students who pass introductory math…
Drum, Jean, Ed.
This theme issue discusses education of gifted students in the areas of math and science. The issue contains several articles, an editorial, a program description, and a profile of an educator. "Our Most Important Investment for the Future: The Education of Our Youth" (Marian C. Diamond) describes educational programs of the Lawrence…
Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen
In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…
The March issue of "Mathematics Teaching" included an article by Alice Onion about Bowland Maths, focussing on the nature and use of the Professional Development modules that the Bowland Trust has developed--there are now seven such CPD modules on the Bowland website. The article also mentioned that the Bowland Trust had recently…
Hintz, Allison; Kazemi, Elham
By simply asking students how they got the answer to a problem, math teachers can open the door to stimulating discussions in class. But how can they make sure those discussions promote mathematical understanding? Allison Hintz and Elham Kazemi explain that teachers need to know what the goal is for a discussion and plan accordingly. The authors…
Switzer, J. Matt
Too often, the experiences that middle school students have in math do not connect to what they experience in elementary school. Although middle school teachers often have a sense of the content that students have learned in elementary school, the school structure and other factors can inhibit communication between elementary school and middle…
In the first part (AA 527 718) of this two part article math expression was discussed as well as student difficulty with translating written symbols into easily verbalized sentences. In this second part comprehension problems are examined and activities are offered to help students overcome these reading difficulties. (Editor/RK)
Since 1990, the January issue of "Teaching Pre K-8" has highlighted a school visit by the president of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. This article discusses Cathy Seeley's visit to a 6th grade classroom at the J. E. Pearce Middle School in Austin, Texas, where she participated in a math activity from the Connected…
Maida, Paula J.
Integrating mathematics across the curriculum offers students the opportunity to link ideas in a natural, impactive way. In this article, the author shares some interactive math activities that she used in a fourth-grade class on "Cinco de Mayo," a holiday honoring Mexican independence. These fun activities not only allowed connections to be made…
Blum, Christopher O.
Asserts that when college mathematics is taught as one of the liberal arts, Euclid's Elements of Geometry, which is one of the oldest math textbooks, may still be the best, because it helps students understand what is "lovely about mathematics". Suggests that "Elements of Geometry" promotes the mental exercise that comes from…
Eubanks-Turner, Christina; Hajj, Najat
In this article, Christina Eubanks-Turner and Najat Hajj describe a planning process that they used to create a fun-filled eighth-grade math activity that focused on parade planning. The activity was designed to enhance and supplement the eighth-grade algebra curriculum on linear equations and functions, help students use mathematical habits of…
Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.
The teacher's guide for the remedial text-workbook "Understanding Math" discusses instruction of the deaf student. An answer key for workbooks 1 and 2, a section with masters for transparencies to be used for games and activities and for teaching fractions, and two patterns for making geometric solids are included in the guide. For workbooks 1 and…
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…
Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha
A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting nonlinguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or "formal" math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6-12 years old), 14 adolescents (13-17 years old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development.
... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...
Achieve, Inc., 2013
This fact sheet explains that to thrive in today's world, all students will need to graduate with very strong math skills. That can only mean one thing: advanced math courses are now essential math courses. Highlights of this paper include: (1) Advanced math equals college success; (2) Advanced math equals career opportunity; and (3) Advanced math…
Rouse, Julie A.
Deficiencies in mathematics standardized test scores prompted school district policymakers to consider implementing a program designed to increase students' basic multiplication fact skills. This study was an evaluation of the Math Factual Operations for Understanding program. The program, marketed with a martial arts theme, was intended to…
Within diverse classrooms, sometimes teachers need extra assistance to reach all students. This quantitative research design was used to determine the affects of math intervention on student achievement. Students in this study were selected by their "Not Met" PASS scores from their 3rd grade year. A survey assessing student attitudes…
Pyo, Katrina A.
A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.
Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.
The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.
Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.
Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID
Shapiro, Edward S; Dennis, Minyi Shih; Fu, Qiong
The purpose of the study was to compare the use of a Computer Adaptive Test and Curriculum-Based Measurement in the assessment of mathematics. This study also investigated the degree to which slope or rate of change predicted student outcomes on the annual state assessment of mathematics above and beyond scores of single point screening assessments (i.e., the computer adaptive test or the CBM assessment just before the administration of the state assessment). Repeated measurement of mathematics once per month across a 7-month period using a Computer Adaptive Test (STAR-Math) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM, AIMSweb Math Computation, AIMSweb Math Concepts/Applications) was collected for a maximum total of 250 third, fourth, and fifth grade students. Results showed STAR-Math in all 3 grades and AIMSweb Math Concepts/Applications in the third and fifth grades had primarily linear growth patterns in mathematics. AIMSweb Math Computation in all grades and AIMSweb Math Concepts/Applications in Grade 4 had decelerating positive trends. Predictive validity evidence showed the strongest relationships were between STAR-Math and outcomes for third and fourth grade students. The blockwise multiple regression by grade revealed that slopes accounted for only a very small proportion of additional variance above and beyond what was explained by the scores obtained on a single point of assessment just prior to the administration of the state assessment.
Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels
Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals. PMID:26539137
Achieve, Inc., 2013
Minority and low-income students are less likely to have access to, enroll in and succeed in higher-level math courses in high school than their more advantaged peers. Under these circumstances, higher-level math courses function not as the intellectual and practical boost they should be, but as a filter that screens students out of the pathway to…
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…
Lucas, David M.; Fugitt, Jamie
By means of a qualitative research method known as folknography, a concerted effort was made to discern perceptions of math and math education in the rural Midwest. A community that will be referred to as Midville, located in the state of Illinois, was chosen as the target population for this study. The community and surrounding region stands over…
Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine
The widespread concern about mathematics achievement has drawn extensive research attention to what skills predict later academic achievement. There is clear and consistent evidence that math achievement at school entry is the strongest predictor of later school success and educational attainment. Early childhood math achievement can thus have…
This study examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive abilities were seven areas identified by Stratum II of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities, in addition to the eighth area of Working Memory. Math performance was assessed via math calculation and math reasoning tasks. Instruments include the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Participants were 158 college students with a diagnosed LD in math. Multiple regression analyses found that Processing Speed and Working Memory were related to Math Calculation scores and that Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, and Working Memory were related to Math Reasoning. Implications for the assessment of math LD in the college populations are discussed.
Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L
It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music.
Parrott-Robbins, Rebecca Jon
The purpose of this study was to investigate--by utilizing data obtained from the Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) PeopleSoft database-- whether the American College Testing (ACT) assessment was a predictor of student success for students who had graduated from respiratory, radiography, and nursing programs at Southeast…
NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase) The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.
Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.
Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…
The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of a brief assessment for the selection of an effective instruction to increase fluency performance on computation math problems. Participants were four general education third-grade students who performed below the median score on a classwide administered multiple math skills probe. Students…
Sparks, Sarah D.
Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…
Mokashi, Neelima A.
This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…
IDRA Newsletter, 1998
This newsletter theme issue includes six articles on improving math and science education, particularly for poor, Limited-English-Proficient (LEP), and female students. "Effective Math and Science Instruction--The Project Approach for LEP Students" (Joseph Vigil) describes how hands-on science projects can increase student motivation,…
This article presents the author's story, as a teacher, about building a Math Matters club and discusses why her students arrived at school before first bell to participate enthusiastically. The author's students seemed to have a negative attitude about math. In giving that stirring motivational speech, she apparently overlooked one important…
In this article, the author relates how a math-assessment software has allowed his school to track the academic progress of its students. The author relates that in the first year that the software was deployed, schoolwide averages in terms of national standing on the math ITBS rose from the 42nd to 59th percentile. In addition, a significant…
MacDonald, Lucy; Caverly, David C.
Reviews the evolution of math software from the 1980s to the present. Discusses how current notions of learning styles have changed software applications and how critical thinking and problem solving have impacted software development. Addresses the overall effect of technology on math anxiety and explores what new technology tools are available…
An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…
Ready, Patricia M.
The life cycle of "new math" is fertile ground for the study of the diffusion of an innovation. New math arrived in 1958 to save the day for America after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first successful space flight in 1957. In a period of 16 years an entire diffusion cycle was completed throughout the entire educational system…
Differential Effects on Student Demographic Groups of Using ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite Score, Act Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average for Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (5)
Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie
In this study, we evaluated the differential effects on racial/ethnic, family income, and gender groups of using ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours…
The task seemed straightforward enough: Students taking part in a recent international test were asked to review drawings of five triangles with varying angles and midpoints. Then those teenagers were to read over a paragraph describing the characteristics of a particular triangle and, finally, choose the triangle that fit the description. Of the…
Price, Gavin R; Fuchs, Lynn S
This study investigated the relation between symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing abilities with 2 standardized measures of math competence (WRAT Arithmetic and KeyMath Numeration) in 150 3rd-grade children (mean age 9.01 years). Participants compared sets of dots and pairs of Arabic digits with numerosities 1-9 for relative numerical magnitude. In line with previous studies, performance on both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing was related to math ability. Performance metrics combining reaction and accuracy, as well as weber fractions, were entered into mediation models with standardized math test scores. Results showed that symbolic magnitude processing ability fully mediates the relation between nonsymbolic magnitude processing and math ability, regardless of the performance metric or standardized test.
Price, Gavin R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.
This study investigated the relation between symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing abilities with 2 standardized measures of math competence (WRAT Arithmetic and KeyMath Numeration) in 150 3rd- grade children (mean age 9.01 years). Participants compared sets of dots and pairs of Arabic digits with numerosities 1–9 for relative numerical magnitude. In line with previous studies, performance on both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude processing was related to math ability. Performance metrics combining reaction and accuracy, as well as weber fractions, were entered into mediation models with standardized math test scores. Results showed that symbolic magnitude processing ability fully mediates the relation between nonsymbolic magnitude processing and math ability, regardless of the performance metric or standardized test. PMID:26859564
Soni, Akanksha; Kumari, Santha
The present study investigated the antecedents and consequences of children's math anxiety and math attitude. A total of 595 students aged 10 to 15 years (5th to 10th grades) and 1 parent of each (mother or father) participated in the study. The study was conducted in India, with the study sample drawn from schools in South-West Punjab. Math…
Stahl, Gerry; Çakir, Murat Perit; Weimar, Stephen; Weusijana, Baba Kofi; Ou, Jimmy Xiantong
The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT) service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams of people to discuss math and to work collaboratively on math problems or explore interesting mathematical micro-worlds together. The VMT Project studies…
In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…
Since most elementary school teachers do not hold a degree in mathematics, teaching math may be a daunting task for some. Following are a few techniques to help make teaching and learning math easier and less stressful. First, know that math is a difficult subject to teach--even for math teachers. The subject matter itself is challenging. Second,…
In many elementary classrooms, math tends to be individualized work with repetitive paper-and-pencil assignments. This research project attempted to generate more interest in math, reduce math anxiety, and make math more enjoyable for students. Through the use of cooperative learning, students practiced and developed social skills needed to…
Allen, K. Eileen; And Others
These three colloqium papers focus on math readiness and the young child, the use of games in teaching basic math skills, and the teaching of math concepts through informal day care activities. The first paper discusses notions about math readiness. It points out that mental age has little to do with readiness to learn basic concept skills and…
Kay, Cynthia; Charles, Jim
Emphasizes the need to integrate math and writing and shows how writing can assist in understanding math concepts or processes. Suggests activities that encourage writing in mathematics, and suggests how to combine math and writing to create such activities. Provides examples of children's literature that can be used as an introduction into math.…
Wilkey, Eric D; Cutting, Laurie E; Price, Gavin R
The development of math skills is a critical component of early education and a strong indicator of later school and economic success. Recent research utilizing population-normed, standardized measures of math achievement suggest that structural and functional integrity of parietal regions, especially the intraparietal sulcus, are closely related to the development of math skills. However, it is unknown how these findings relate to in-school math learning. The present study is the first to address this issue by investigating the relationship between regional differences in grey matter (GM) volume and performance in grade-level mathematics as measured by a state-wide, school-based test of math achievement (TCAP math) in children from 3rd to 8th grade. Results show that increased GM volume in the bilateral hippocampal formation and the right inferior frontal gyrus, regions associated with learning and memory, is associated with higher TCAP math scores. Secondary analyses revealed that GM volume in the left angular gyrus had a stronger relationship to TCAP math in grades 3-4 than in grades 5-8 while the relationship between GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus and TCAP math was stronger for grades 5-8. These results suggest that the neuroanatomical architecture related to in-school math achievement differs from that related to math achievement measured by standardized tests, and that the most related neural structures differ as a function of grade level. We suggest, therefore, that the use of school-relevant outcome measures is critical if neuroscience is to bridge the gap to education.
Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel
Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.
Anobile, Giovanni; Stievano, Paolo; Burr, David C
In this study, we investigated in school-age children the relationship among mathematical performance, the perception of numerosity (discrimination and mapping to number line), and sustained visual attention. The results (on 68 children between 8 and 11 years of age) show that attention and numerosity perception predict math scores but not reading performance. Even after controlling for several variables, including age, gender, nonverbal IQ, and reading accuracy, attention remained correlated with math skills and numerosity discrimination. These findings support previous reports showing the interrelationship between visual attention and both numerosity perception and math performance. It also suggests that attentional deficits may be implicated in disturbances such as developmental dyscalculia.
Denson, Bettina Coley
This study sought to determine whether a relationship existed between teacher-assigned classroom grades and high-stakes test scores. The study examined teacher-assigned math grades in correlation to the student scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment test (FCAT) in a selected Florida high school. It also sought to determine the relationship…
Tamir, Pinchas; Doran, Rodney L.
Scoring guidelines are given for four forms of the practical skills tests of the Second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Improvement Science Study conducted in the following countries in the 1980s: (1) Hungary; (2) Japan; (3) Korea; (4) Singapore; (5) Israel; and (6) the United States. (SLD)
Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety.
Hart, Sara A; Logan, Jessica A R; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A
Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated five groupings of individuals representing different patterns of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety, coupled with differing degrees of familial transmission. These results suggest that there may be distinct profiles of math achievement, numerosity and anxiety; particularly for students who struggle in math.
Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A.R.; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A.
Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated five groupings of individuals representing different patterns of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety, coupled with differing degrees of familial transmission. These results suggest that there may be distinct profiles of math achievement, numerosity and anxiety; particularly for students who struggle in math. PMID:26957650
Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen; Traverso, Laura; De Franchis, Valentina
This longitudinal study analyzes whether selected components of executive function (EF) measured during the preschool period predict several indices of math achievement in primary school. Six EF measures were assessed in a sample of 5-year-old children (N = 175). The math achievement of the same children was then tested in Grades 1 and 3 using both a composite math score and three single indices of written calculation, arithmetical facts, and problem solving. Using previous results obtained from the same sample of children, a confirmatory factor analysis examining the latent EF structure in kindergarten indicated that a two-factor model provided the best fit for the data. In this model, inhibition and working memory (WM)-flexibility were separate dimensions. A full structural equation model was then used to test the hypothesis that math achievement (the composite math score and single math scores) in Grades 1 and 3 could be explained by the two EF components comprising the kindergarten model. The results indicate that the WM-flexibility component measured during the preschool period substantially predicts mathematical achievement, especially in Grade 3. The math composite scores were predicted by the WM-flexibility factor at both grade levels. In Grade 3, both problem solving and arithmetical facts were predicted by the WM-flexibility component. The results empirically support interventions that target EF as an important component of early childhood mathematics education.
May, Lola J.
Daily newspapers can be used to teach mathematics skills in a variety of ways. Students can analyze sports scores and averages, practice using the index, assemble imaginary stock portfolios, find numbers in articles, and complete puzzles. (MDM)
Tong, Liping; Yang, Jie; Han, Xue; Velasquez, Loren
The card game 24 is a mathematical game that traditionally engages elementary students to practice their mental computational skills. In this paper, we use probability to formulate and explore the game. We create score of difficulty level for solvable card combination set under various setup of game rules. Based on our findings, we create new playing rules and provide suggestions for different levels of players. Our results may serve as guidelines on introducing the game 24 into the practice of math education.
Grizenko, Natalie; Cai, Emmy; Jolicoeur, Claude; Ter-Stepanian, Mariam; Joober, Ridha
Objectif : Examiner les effets à court terme (aigus) du méthylphénidate (MPH) sur la performance en mathématique chez des enfants souffrant du trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH), et quels facteurs prédisent une amélioration de la performance en math. Méthode : Cent quatre-vingt-dix-huit enfants souffrant du TDAH ont participé à un essai de MPH croisé, randomisé, à double insu et contrôlé avec placebo. La réponse du MPH en math a été déterminée par l’administration de problèmes de math ajustés à leur niveau scolaire durant la Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS). Les tests t de Student ont été menés afin d’évaluer le changement de la performance en math avec les psychostimulants. La corrélation entre le changement à la RASS et le changement de la performance en math a aussi été examinée. Une régression linéaire a été exécutée pour déterminer les variables prédictives. Résultats : Les enfants souffrant du TDAH se sont améliorés significativement en math avec le MPH (P < 0,001). Le degré d’amélioration à la RASS (qui évalue l’activité motrice et l’orientation dans les tâches) et dans la performance en math avec MPH était hautement corrélé. L’âge de l’enfant au départ et les scores normaux au départ au Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) – des opérations numériques représentaient 15 % des variances d’amélioration aiguë en math. Conclusions : Le MPH améliore la performance aiguë en mathématique chez les enfants souffrant du TDAH. Les enfants plus jeunes qui ont de moins bons scores en math (évalué par le WIAT) ont surtout amélioré leurs scores en math lorsqu’ils ont reçu des psychostimulants. Numéro d’enregistrement d’essai clinique : NCT00483106.
Haist, Frank; Wazny, Jarnet H.; Toomarian, Elizabeth; Adamo, Maha
A central question in cognitive and educational neuroscience is whether brain operations supporting non-linguistic intuitive number sense (numerosity) predict individual acquisition and academic achievement for symbolic or “formal” math knowledge. Here, we conducted a developmental functional MRI study of nonsymbolic numerosity task performance in 44 participants including 14 school age children (6–12 years-old), 14 adolescents (13–17 years-old), and 16 adults and compared a brain activity measure of numerosity precision to scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Math index of math academic achievement. Accuracy and reaction time from the numerosity task did not reliably predict formal math achievement. We found a significant positive developmental trend for improved numerosity precision in the parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) specifically. Controlling for age and overall cognitive ability, we found a reliable positive relationship between individual math achievement scores and parietal lobe activity only in children. In addition, children showed robust positive relationships between math achievement and numerosity precision within ventral stream processing areas bilaterally. The pattern of results suggests a dynamic developmental trajectory for visual discrimination strategies that predict the acquisition of formal math knowledge. In adults, the efficiency of visual discrimination marked by numerosity acuity in ventral occipital-temporal cortex and hippocampus differentiated individuals with better or worse formal math achievement, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that two different brain systems for nonsymbolic numerosity acuity may contribute to individual differences in math achievement and that the contribution of these systems differs across development. PMID:25327879
Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara
Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence.
Estimating the effect of campus math tutoring support, this study demonstrates the use of propensity score weighted and matched-data analysis and examines the correspondence with results from parametric regression analysis.
Emerson, Robert W; Cantlon, Jessica F
In this study we test the hypothesis that the functional connectivity of the frontal and parietal regions that children recruit during a basic numerical task (matching Arabic numerals to arrays of dots) is predictive of their math test scores (TEMA-3; Ginsburg, 2003). Specifically, we tested 4-11-year-old children on a matching task during fMRI to localize a fronto-parietal network that responds more strongly during numerical matching than matching faces, words, or shapes. We then tested the functional connectivity between those regions during an independent task: natural viewing of an educational video that included math topics. Using this novel natural viewing method, we found that the connectivity between frontal and parietal regions during task-independent free-viewing of educational material is correlated with children's basic number matching ability, as well as their scores on the standardized test of mathematical ability (the TEMA). The correlation between children's mathematics scores and fronto-parietal connectivity is math-specific in the sense that it is independent of children's verbal IQ scores. Moreover, a control network, selective for faces, showed no correlation with mathematics performance. Finally, brain regions that correlate with subjects' overall response times in the matching task do not account for our number- and math-related effects. We suggest that the functional intersection of number-related frontal and parietal regions is math-specific.
Emerson, Robert W.; Cantlon, Jessica F.
In this study we test the hypothesis that the functional connectivity of the frontal and parietal regions that children recruit during a basic numerical task (matching Arabic numerals to arrays of dots) is predictive of their math test scores (TEMA-3; Ginsburg 2003). Specifically, we tested 4- to 11-year-old children on a matching task during fMRI to localize a fronto-parietal network that responds more strongly during numerical matching than matching faces, words, or shapes. We then tested the functional connectivity between those regions during an independent task: natural viewing of an educational video that included math topics. Using this novel natural viewing method, we found that the connectivity between frontal and parietal regions during task-independent free-viewing of educational material is correlated with children's basic number matching ability, as well as their scores on the standardized test of mathematical ability (the TEMA). The correlation between children's mathematics scores and fronto-parietal connectivity is math-specific in the sense that it is independent of children's verbal IQ scores. Moreover, a control network, selective for faces, showed no correlation with mathematics performance. Finally, brain regions that correlate with subjects’ overall response times in the matching task do not account for our number- and math-related effects. We suggest that the functional intersection of number-related frontal and parietal regions is math-specific. PMID:22682903
Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…
Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A.
Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity, and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated 5 groupings of…
Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.
Although math anxiety is associated with poor mathematical knowledge and low course grades (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007), research establishing a connection between math anxiety and math achievement has generally been conducted with young adults, ignoring the emergence of math anxiety in young children. In the current study, we explored whether…
Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal
The Effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness: This randomized trial examined the effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness, as well as math interest and self-efficacy, among rising 8th grade students in California's Silicon Valley. The Elevate Math summer math…
To fairly and accurately interpret candidates’ Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) scores as listed on their official transcripts, it is important to understand how these scores reflect candidates’ performances on cognitive tasks involving the identification, interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of information assumed to have been covered in pre-pharmacy science, math, and general education coursework. This paper attempts to facilitate this understanding by explaining how candidates’ responses to PCAT test items relate to their scaled scores and percentile ranks and how their writing scores reflect their performance. This paper also suggests how differences between candidates’ PCAT subtest scores may reflect different personal experiences, educational backgrounds, and cognitive abilities. PMID:28289307
To model students' math growth trajectory, three conventional growth curve models and three growth mixture models are applied to the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten-Fifth grade (ECLS K-5) dataset in this study. The results of conventional growth curve model show gender differences on math IRT scores. When holding socio-economic…
Jackson, Shirley Faye Jackson
For decades, African American students, nationwide, have consistently scored much lower on math and reading achievement tests than their European counterparts, creating what is known as the "White-Black Achievement Gap". The purpose of the research was to determine if self regulated learning and communal learning contexts, either…
Brantz, Malcolm; Sadowski, Edward B.
As a strategy to promote the Arapahoe Community College Library's collections and services, the Library undertook to brand itself as a math resource center. In promoting one area of expertise, math was selected to help address the problem of a large portion of high school graduates' inability to work at college-level math. A "Math…
After 11 years of teaching, the question the author worries about now is "How do we do this well? How do we engage students in math classes? How do we convince them that math is beautiful, fun and powerful?" For the math department at the author's school, Boston Arts Academy (BAA), the answer has been to infuse creativity into math…
This article reports that two programs for teaching mathematics in the early grades--Math Expressions and Saxon Math--emerged as winners in early findings released last week from a large-scale federal experiment that pits four popular, and philosophically distinct, math curricula against one another. But the results don't promise to end the…
Kangas, Jon; Ma, Tony
A study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC) and San Jose City College (SJCC) to determine persistence rates over 4 academic years for students with no previous college experience who entered arithmetic (Math 310), beginning algebra (Math 12), and intermediate algebra (Math 13) courses in fall 1988. The study sought to determine…
Gavin, M. Katherine; Firmender, Janine M.; Casa, Tutita M.
What is math talent? Ten different educators will most likely provide 10 different answers. Researchers state that one reason mathematical talent is difficult to describe involves the different ways children manifest math talent. Children can display math talent in three different ways: (a) those who reason abstractly and have an "algebraic…
Roman, Harry T.
Teachers and students will find a very practical math application right in a pair of common binoculars. This article describes a procedure to get a bit of math practice and analysis. It presents a math activity with elementary students on taking measurements using the binoculars. (Contains 1 table.)
This book is a teacher's resource guide designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers; decimals and money; fractions, ratios,…
This book is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers and addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Lessons are…
Frechette, Ellen Carley
This book is designed to help adults gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life and work and on standardized tests including the GED. It is expected to help students overcome math anxiety, discover math as interesting and purposeful, and develop good number sense. Lessons are organized around four strands: (1) skill lessons…
Mitchell, Robert P.
This book is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include measurement and data analysis such as measuring distance, space, time, capacity,…
Wescott, Jack W.
A study of 107 graduates of industrial arts teacher education programs found statistically significant relationships between Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores and grade point average (GPA); between SAT scores and major GPA; especially between combined math and verbal scores and major GPA. It was concluded that SAT scores are important factors…
Sen. Snowe, Olympia J. [R-ME
05/24/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3637-3638) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Hart, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M; Purpura, David J
There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.
Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L.; Hart, Sara Ann; Lyons, Ian M.; Thompson, Lee A.; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M.; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A.
The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. Given the lack of attention to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math learning literature, the current study aimed to address this gap via exploring the relations between math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. The current study consisted of two samples. One sample included 262 pairs of young adolescent twins and the other included 237 adult college students. Participants self-reported their math anxiety and math motivation. Math cognition was assessed using a comprehensive battery of mathematics tasks. In both samples, results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in students with high intrinsic math motivation, and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in students with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing student’s nonsymbolic and symbolic number estimation. These findings may help advance our understanding of mathematics learning processes and may provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics learning experiences and mathematical skills. PMID:26518438
Juranić, Martina; Dresselhaus, Thomas
MATH-BTB proteins are known to act as substrate-specific adaptors of cullin3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin E3 ligases to target protein for ubiquitination. In a previous study we reported the presence of 31 MATH-BTB genes in the maize genome and determined the regulatory role of the MATH-BTB protein MAB1 during meiosis to mitosis transition. In contrast to maize, there are only 6 homologous genes in the model plant Arabidopsis, while this family has largely expanded in grasses. Here, we report a phylogenetic analysis of the MATH-BTB gene family in 9 land plant species including various mosses, eudicots, and grasses. We extend a previous classification of the plant MATH-BTB family and additionally arrange the expanded group into 5 grass-specific clades. Synteny studies indicate that expansion occurred to a large extent due to local gene duplications. Expression studies of 3 closely related MATH-BTB genes in maize (MAB1-3) indicate highly specific expression pattern. In summary, this work provides a solid base for further studies comparing genetic and functional information of the MATH-BTB family especially in the grasses.
Juranić, Martina; Dresselhaus, Thomas
MATH-BTB proteins are known to act as substrate-specific adaptors of cullin3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin E3 ligases to target protein for ubiquitination. In a previous study we reported the presence of 31 MATH-BTB genes in the maize genome and determined the regulatory role of the MATH-BTB protein MAB1 during meiosis to mitosis transition. In contrast to maize, there are only 6 homologous genes in the model plant Arabidopsis, while this family has largely expanded in grasses. Here, we report a phylogenetic analysis of the MATH-BTB gene family in 9 land plant species including various mosses, eudicots, and grasses. We extend a previous classification of the plant MATH-BTB family and additionally arrange the expanded group into 5 grass-specific clades. Synteny studies indicate that expansion occurred to a large extent due to local gene duplications. Expression studies of 3 closely related MATH-BTB genes in maize (MAB1–3) indicate highly specific expression pattern. In summary, this work provides a solid base for further studies comparing genetic and functional information of the MATH-BTB family especially in the grasses. PMID:24614623
Describes three simple games that do not involve numbers and that can be used to teach children problem-solving strategies and math skills. The games are Tick-Tack-Toe; Jest, a game that uses a blocking strategy; and Nim, a game that uses a capturing strategy. All three games force students to plan ahead and calculate possible outcomes using…
Achieve, Inc., 2013
No student who hopes to compete in today's rapidly evolving global economy and job market can afford to graduate from high school with weak mathematical skills, which include the ability to use logic, reason, and solve problems. The benefits associated with improving the math performance of American students also extend to the larger U.S. economy.…
Franklin, Teresa; Peng, Li-Wei
The public and educational communities are aware of the continuing crisis in math education in our middle schools and the convergence of technologies for teaching and learning. This paper presents a case study in which iPod Touch[R] was used to help middle school students learn about algebraic equations and, in particular, the concept of slope,…
Rowe, Ellen W; Miller, Cristin; Ebenstein, Lauren A; Thompson, Dawna F
This study investigated the predictive power of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), the General Ability Index (GAI), and the WISC-IV index score composites on subsequent reading and math standardized test scores among high-achieving students. The sample consisted of 84 elementary-age students who received an individual cognitive assessment with the WISC-IV in the previous year as part of the application process for gifted and talented programming through their schools. Although there were no significant differences among the mean WISC-IV index scores, 77% of the individual students evidenced statistically significant WISC-IV index score variability. Thus, intraindividual test score variability appears to be the norm among high-achieving students. In spite of this variability, regression analyses indicated that the FSIQ predicted reading comprehension and mathematics achievement better than, or as well as, the GAI or individual scores for verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning. None of the cognitive variables correlated significantly with achievement scores for Word Reading or Pseudoword Decoding scores, but the FSIQ, GAI, Verbal Comprehension, and Perceptual Reasoning scores predicted reading comprehension. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
This study sought to determine whether GRE subscores (or GMAT) could predict graduation rates in related areas (math-oriented majors for GRE quantitative, etc.) in a sample of over 9,000 graduate students at a major public research university. Because few low quantitative scores were present in math-oriented majors, an attempt was made to…
Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori
An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…
CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008
This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…
IDRA Newsletter, 1995
This theme issue contains six articles on improving math and science education for minority group students, particularly language-minority students. "Accelerating Content Area Gains for English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) describes the Young Scientists Acquiring English project, which seeks to improve the content-area…
Leatham, Keith R.; Hill, Diane S.
In this article, the authors discuss some of the dispositions that comprise students' (and teachers') relationships with mathematics--what they call a "mathematical identity." They define "mathematical identity" as an individual's "relationship" with mathematics. They present three reflective tasks that can be used with math students at all levels…
Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…
This article describes the Jaime Escalante Math Program, a system that in 1989 helped an East Los Angeles high school set a record by administering over 450 Advanced Placement exams, having administered only 10 tests in 1978. The article is presented in three sections. The first section describes the program, discussing origins and backgrounds:…
Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)
The material presented in this booklet is designed to provide supplemental information and exercises to aid in the development of basic everyday skills in business math. Seven units are presented with each unit containing basic information on the unit topic, followed by student exercises, and a review section. The seven units are (1) check writing…
Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan
Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…
Khan, Salman; Slavitt, Elizabeth
Summit San Jose is part of the Summit Public Schools network, a group of charter schools in California's Bay Area. In 2011, when Summit San Jose first opened its new high school with a cohort of 9th graders, the teachers decided to pilot Khan Academy. At the time, they had piloted their math resources and platform with five classrooms in Los…
Sherard, Wade H.
The author draws from the literature eight specific guidelines for classroom teachers to help them prevent or ameliorate students' math anxiety. Suggestions include: avoid sex stereotyping; help students develop self-confidence; concentrate on problem solving, spatial skills, and the language of mathematics; and provide a relaxed, supportive…
Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H
Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.
Sparks, Sarah D.
Boosting early retirement in cash-strapped districts does not hurt students' math and reading scores, according to new studies released at the American Economic Association meeting, but pension-incentive programs may cost schools some of their most effective teachers. Separate studies of teachers in California, Illinois, and North Carolina paint a…
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Schmitz, Eva A.; van der Maas, Han L. J.
This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life. PMID:27148122
The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and
Carwell, Tamika L.
The study's focus was to determine whether or not there was a significant statistical relationship between improved student performance scores from the Education Program for Gifted Youth (EPGY) Stanford Math Intervention Program and Discovery Formative Assessment mathematics mean scores of female middle school students. An additional focus of…
What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…
Tan, Tony Xing; Kim, Eun Sook; Baggerly, Jennifer; Mahoney, E Emily; Rice, Jessica
In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children's reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children's math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted). Descriptive data showed no group difference in reading scores at all 3 Waves but adopted children scored lower than nonadopted children in math at Wave 2 (Spring of kindergarten) and Wave 3 (Spring of first grade). However, controlling for 6 covariates, latent growth modeling showed that adoption status was unrelated to Wave 1 reading and math scores or subsequent growth rate. Rather, parents' beliefs on skills needed to succeed in kindergarten were a significant predictor of reading and math performance at Wave 1 and subsequent growth rates, and parents' educational expectation was a significant predictor of growth rate in reading and math. Our findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in adopted children's learning. (PsycINFO Database Record
Kitchens, Vivian D.; Deris, Aaron R.; Simon, Marilyn K.
Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. The study examined the effects of a mathematics intervention known as Cover, Copy, and Compare for learning basic…
Pritchard, Robert R.
The researcher examined the academic performance of low-tracked students (n = 156) using standardized math test scores to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in achievement depending on academic environment, tracked or nontracked. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated, using a paired samples t-test for a…
Ross, Steven M.; Rakow, Ernest A.
Subjects completed a self-paced lesson on math rules in which the number of supporting examples was adapted to pretest scores through program control, selected through learner control, or kept constant (nonadaptive). Program control means were consistently highest while learner control means were lowest. (Author/BW)
Davis-Wiley, Patricia; Miller, Roy V.
Among the reported proven positive results of early world Language (WL) study are improved cognitive abilities and "higher achievement test scores in reading and math" (Stewart: 11), which are expected student performance outcomes for the Common Core Standards. The future viability of Foreign Language in Elementary Schools (FLES)…
West, John; Miller, Mary Lou; Myers, Jim; Norton, Timothy
Purpose, Scope, and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between grade span for ninth grade and gains in math achievement test scores in 10th grade and 12th grade. A quantitative, longitudinal, correlational research design was employed to investigate the research questions. The population was high…
Thomas, Emily; Feng, Jay
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping on the mathematical achievement of students in third grade. Participants were 16 third graders in a self-contained classroom, assigned to either small homogeneous or heterogeneous group for math instruction for 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest scores and growth…
Kitchens, Vivian D.
Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. Using the theoretical framework of behaviorism, the purpose of this quantitative one group pre post test design…
Coyle, Thomas R.; Purcell, Jason M.; Snyder, Anissa C.; Kochunov, Peter
This research examined whether non-"g" residuals of the SAT and ACT subtests, obtained after removing g, predicted specific abilities. Non-"g" residuals of the verbal and math subtests of the SAT and ACT were correlated with academic (verbal and math) and non-academic abilities (speed and shop), both based on the Armed Services…
Bonny, Justin W; Lourenco, Stella F
Humans rely on two main systems of quantification; one is nonsymbolic and involves approximate number representations (known as the approximate number system or ANS), and the other is symbolic and allows for exact calculations of number. Despite the pervasiveness of the ANS across development, recent studies with adolescents and school-aged children point to individual differences in the precision of these representations that, importantly, have been shown to relate to symbolic math competence even after controlling for general aspects of intelligence. Such findings suggest that the ANS, which humans share with nonhuman animals, interfaces specifically with a uniquely human system of formal mathematics. Other findings, however, point to a less straightforward picture, leaving open questions about the nature and ontogenetic origins of the relation between these two systems. Testing children across the preschool period, we found that ANS precision correlated with early math achievement but, critically, that this relation was nonlinear. More specifically, the correlation between ANS precision and math competence was stronger for children with lower math scores than for children with higher math scores. Taken together, our findings suggest that early-developing connections between the ANS and mathematics may be fundamentally discontinuous. Possible mechanisms underlying such nonlinearity are discussed.
MacKinnon McQuarrie, Maureen A.; Siegel, Linda S.; Perry, Nancy E.; Weinberg, Joanne
This study investigated the relationship among working memory, processing speed, math performance, and reactivity to stress in 83 Grade 1 children. Specifically, 39 children with math disability (MD) were compared to 44 children who are typically achieving (TA) in mathematics. It is the first study to use a physiological index of stress (salivary cortisol levels) to measure children’s reactivity while completing tasks that assess the core components of MD: working memory for numbers, working memory for words, digits backward, letter number sequence, digit span forward, processing speed for numbers and words, block rotation, and math tasks. Grade 1 children with MD obtained significantly lower scores on the letter number sequence and quantitative concepts tasks. Higher levels of reactivity significantly predicted poorer performance on the working memory for numbers, working memory for words, and quantitative concepts tasks for Grade 1 children, regardless of math ability. Grade 1 children with MD and higher reactivity had significantly lower scores on the letter number sequence task than the children with MD and low reactivity. The findings suggest that high reactivity impairs performance in working memory and math tasks in Grade 1 children, and young children with high reactivity may benefit from interventions aimed at lowering anxiety in stressful situations, which may improve learning. PMID:23124381
Otts, Cynthia D.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship among math attitudes, self-regulated learning, and course outcomes in developmental math. Math attitudes involved perceived usefulness of math and math anxiety. Self-regulated learning represented the ability of students to control cognitive, metacognitive, and behavioral aspects of…
Fast, Lisa A.; Lewis, James L.; Bryant, Michael J.; Bocian, Kathleen A.; Cardullo, Richard A.; Rettig, Michael; Hammond, Kimberly A.
We examined the effect of the perceived classroom environment on math self-efficacy and the effect of math self-efficacy on standardized math test performance. Upper elementary school students (N = 1,163) provided self-reports of their perceived math self-efficacy and the degree to which their math classroom environment was mastery oriented,…
Chen, Hanwei; Cui, Zhongmin; Zhu, Rongchun; Gao, Xiaohong
The most critical feature of a common-item nonequivalent groups equating design is that the average score difference between the new and old groups can be accurately decomposed into a group ability difference and a form difficulty difference. Two widely used observed-score linear equating methods, the Tucker and the Levine observed-score methods,…
Gardas, Bartlomiej; Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh Behari
Here, we investigate <math>
Greg Tang has a resume that could get his foot in the door to a lot of places. A graduate of Harvard with both a B.A. and M.A. in economics, Tang has found success as a business executive, a speechwriter, a software designer and owner of a Tae Kwon Do school. After the publication of his first best-selling book for children, "The Grapes of Math"…
Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.
Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in those courses wherein the majority of students are in the first semester and have no previous record of college GPA or attendance. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the ACT Mathematics subject exam and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning in predicting success in a major's introductory biology course. A logistic regression was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a combination of scientific reasoning (SR) scores and ACT math (ACT-M) scores to predict student success. In summary, we found that the model—with both SR and ACT-M as significant predictors—could be an effective predictor of student success and thus could potentially be useful in practical decision making for the course, such as directing students to support services at an early point in the semester.
When learning a new math concept, should learners be first taught the concept and its associated procedures and then solve problems, or solve problems first even if it leads to failure and then be taught the concept and the procedures? Two randomized-controlled studies found that both methods lead to high levels of procedural knowledge. However, students who engaged in problem solving before being taught demonstrated significantly greater conceptual understanding and ability to transfer to novel problems than those who were taught first. The second study further showed that when given an opportunity to learn from the failed problem-solving attempts of their peers, students outperformed those who were taught first, but not those who engaged in problem solving first. Process findings showed that the number of student-generated solutions significantly predicted learning outcomes. These results challenge the conventional practice of direct instruction to teach new math concepts and procedures, and propose the possibility of learning from one's own failed problem-solving attempts or those of others before receiving instruction as alternatives for better math learning.
Orosco, Michael J.
Word problems for English language learners (ELLs) at risk for math disabilities are challenging in terms of the constant need to develop precise math language and comprehension knowledge. As a result of this, ELLs may not only need math support but also reading and linguistic support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a…
In an increasingly technological world, developing basic math skills is crucial. Headlines regularly be-moan the international ranking of American students on math proficiency, and students from low-income families do worse in math than their more affluent peers. The federal Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that employment in occupations…
National Math and Science Initiative, 2008
This paper presents the annual report of the National Math and Science Initiative (NMSI) for 2008. Eighteen months ago, the National Math and Science Initiative did not exist. Today NMSI is helping lead the country forward in math and science. In just 18 months, NMSI has rolled out the first round of grants and has implemented programs in 14…
Farnsworth, Donald M., Jr.
While research continues to link increased math anxiety with reduced working memory, the exact nature of the relationship remains elusive. In addition, research regarding the extent of the impact math anxiety has on working memory is contradictory. This research clarifies the directional nature of math anxiety as it pertains to working memory, and…
Arroyo, Ivon; Royer, James M.; Woolf, Beverly P.
This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved performance and both…
Center on Education Policy, 2011
This paper profiles North Carolina's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade math test was 351 for non-Title I students and 347 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade math was 354 for non-Title I students and 350 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean scale…
Bozick, Robert; Malchiodi, Alessandro; Miller, Trey
Using a nationally representative sample of 1,189 immigrant youth in American high schools, we examine whether the quality of education in their country of origin is related to post-migration math achievement in the 9th grade. To measure the quality of their education in the country of origin, we use country-specific average test scores from two international assessments: the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). We find that the average PISA or TIMSS scores for immigrant youth's country of origin are positively associated with their performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment. We also find that each year spent in the United States is positively associated with performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment, but this effect is strongest for immigrants from countries with low PISA/TIMSS scores.
Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.
This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…
Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.
This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…
Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica
Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests, while boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in…
Gaspard, Hanna; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Flunger, Barbara; Schreier, Brigitte; Häfner, Isabelle; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin
Expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983) is a prominent approach to explaining gender differences in math-related academic choices, with value beliefs acting as an important explanatory factor. Expectancy-value theory defines 4 value components: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and cost. The present study followed up on…
Lips, Dan; McNeill, Jena Baker
The authors express reservations about additional federal funding for the National Science Foundation, including new funding for science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education programs, provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. For more than 50 years, American political, business, military, and academic leaders…
Mercer, Gary J.
This quantitative study examined the relationship between secondary students with math anxiety and physics performance in an inquiry-based constructivist classroom. The Revised Math Anxiety Rating Scale was used to evaluate math anxiety levels. The results were then compared to the performance on a physics standardized final examination. A simple correlation was performed, followed by a multivariate regression analysis to examine effects based on gender and prior math background. The correlation showed statistical significance between math anxiety and physics performance. The regression analysis showed statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and prior math background, but did not show statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and gender.
Greuel, Dirk; Deeken, Jan; Suslov, Dmitry; Schäfer, Klaus; Schlechtriem, Stefan
The LOX/LH2 Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator (SCORE-D) is part of ESA's Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP). SCORE-D serves as a technology demonstrator in perspective of the development of the High Thrust Engine (HTE), which is designated as a candidate for the main stage engine of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL). To develop and test the SCORE-D engine, ESA investigates configurations of the test benches P3.2 and P5 at DLR test site in Lampoldshausen. For the SCORE-D Hot Combustion Devices (HCD) development, i.e. Pre-burner (PB) and thrust chamber assembly (TCA), the P3.2 test facility has to be modified for further usage. Recently, the first steps in this endeavor have been made with the evaluation of the necessary modifications to the facility. To accommodate the SCORE-D engine, it is foreseen to modify the P5 test facility in the coming years. In the last year, DLR has started the design phase for these modifications. In preparatory test programs at the P8 test facility, Astrium has conducted sub-scale hot combustion devices tests. While Astrium designed and manufactured the sub-scale assembly of the pre-burner and the main combustion chamber (MCC) for SCORE-D, DLR operated the P8 test facility.
When groups engage in math problem solving in an online environment like the VMT (Virtual Math Teams) service, they can face significant challenges from troubles of individual and group understanding that emerge in their problem-solving process. We are interested in how shared understanding is interactionally constructed and accomplished in a…
Schools that are integrating the arts into literacy, math, and other core subjects are dispelling the notion that there's an either-or choice in education--either you focus on literacy and math or you provide a well-rounded curriculum in the arts and other subjects. Crayola grant-recipient schools are demonstrating that you can do both--and end up…
Boyd, Vivian; And Others
Students enrolled in two sections of college algebra (Math 110) at the University of Maryland in spring 1984 were informed about assistance available from the Math Lab. They were also informed that a sticker would be attached to any one of the four semester exams when grades indicated that the student should pursue one or more of the Lab services.…
This report proposes a preliminary basic math program that may help mitigate the student attrition problem at Contra Costa College (California). For the purposes of this proposal, Math 101, 115, and 118 are identified as courses to be included in the program. The essential features of this proposed curriculum are summarized as follows: (1) it…
Miner, Robert; Topping, Paul
This publication reports on resources on the Web for the area of math. A quick look is given at innovative sites under the areas of new resources for students, new ways for teachers and students to interact, new ways of presenting math, and new tools for research. Next, advantages and disadvantages are identified for each of the following…
Teaching PreK-8, 1996
Presents six articles dealing with math and science education: "Sneaker Geometry" (Jack George), "Fairs with a Flair" (Diane McCarty), "Generating Excitement with Math Projects" (Jeffrey Kostecky and Louis Roe), "Playing with Numbers" (Diana Smith), "When Student Teachers Want to Do Hands-On Science" (Betsy Feldkamp-Price), and "Science ala Carte"…
Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer
This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…
Olsen, James R.
After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…
Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof
Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving…
Faulkner, Valerie N.
The Common Core math standards promote several important differences in how math concepts are taught and should be talked about. These changes will make it easier for younger students to comprehend and adapt to more complex concepts in the later grades. This guide should help elementary teachers make changes and adaptations that are in line the…
Students with or without disabilities often experience difficulties with abstract math concepts. This paper is intended to help solve the mystery of math concepts through origami construction, a hands-on activity. Students are involved in constructing and deconstructing concepts by folding and unfolding a piece of paper which eventually leads to a…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2016
"Saxon Math" is a core curriculum for students in grades K-12 that uses an incremental approach to instruction and assessment. This approach limits the amount of new math content delivered to students each day and allows time for daily practice. New concepts are introduced gradually and integrated with previously introduced content so…
Ke, Fengfeng; Grabowski, Barbara
This study investigated the effects of gameplaying on fifth-graders' maths performance and attitudes. One hundred twenty five fifth graders were recruited and assigned to a cooperative Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT), interpersonal competitive or no gameplaying condition. A state standards-based maths exam and an inventory on attitudes towards maths…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
"Saxon Math", published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, is a core curriculum for students in grades K-12. This report includes studies that investigate the potential impact of "Saxon Math" for students in grades 6-8. A distinguishing feature of the curriculum is its use of an incremental approach for instruction and assessment.…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
"Saxon Math," published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, is a core curriculum for students in grades K-5. A distinguishing feature of the curriculum is its use of an incremental approach for instruction and assessment. This approach limits the amount of new math content delivered to students each day and allows time for daily practice. New…
Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary
Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…
Shih, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liu, Yu-Lung
The purposes of this study are to develop and evaluate the instructional model and learning system which integrate ubiquitous learning, computerized adaptive diagnostic testing system and campus math path learning. The researcher first creates a ubiquitous learning environment which is called "adaptive U-learning math path system". This…
This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…
IDRA Newsletter, 1996
This newsletter focuses on efforts to make math and science more attractive, relevant, and accessible to students, especially limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, female, and at-risk students. "TAAS Math Performance" (Linda Cantu) outlines recent statewide results for the controversial Texas Assessment of…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2011
"Saxon Math" is a textbook series covering grades K-12 based on incremental development and continual review of mathematical concepts to give students time to learn and practice concepts throughout the year. A distinguishing feature of "Saxon Math" is its use of a distributed approach--spreading practice and instruction for any…
In math classes, teachers often focus instruction on the formulas and processes needed to solve different types of problems, but neglect to teach the concepts on which these tools are based. In this article, the author argues that before they can do this, teachers themselves need to understand "understanding math." Teaching mathematics with…
Sherman, Laurel Galbraith
Suggestions are made for activities that combine the teaching of math and science. Math concepts include: graphing, estimating, measurement, statistics, geometry, and logic. Science topics include: plant reproduction, solar system, forces, longitude and latitude, Earth's magnetic field, nutrition, and heat. (IAH)
Math historian Morris Kline suggests that math instruction should be made concrete and that teachers should not turn kids off by making intuitively understood concepts complex through the use of fancy language. He advocates using pictorial representations and examples of actual physical occurrences. The dyslexic student has special difficulties in…
Math anxiety affects both sexes, and is not the cause of imbalance in mathematical professions. Attempts to broaden perceptions of mathematics deal only with the symptoms of math anxiety. The principal cause is the methodology used to teach mathematics. Problem-solving processes must be employed. (MNS)
If you want to get the attention of a group of eighth grade math students, tell them they are going to build a life-size cardboard boat. To increase interest, follow up this statement by telling them that two to four of them will actually be rowing this boat across a small pond. Eighth grade math students at Oasis Charter Middle School in…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2004
"Saxon Math" focuses on fundamental mathematics skills, targeting children from kindergarten through grade 12. This report focuses on middle school math, defined as grades 6 through 9. The 6th grade curriculum covers simplifying expressions containing parentheses, graphing functions, and understanding ratios and proportions. The 7th grade…
Edwards, Sharon A.; Maloy, Robert W.; Anderson, Gordon
"Math is language, too," Phyllis and David Whitin (2000) remind everyone in their informative book about reading and writing in the mathematics classroom. This means that students in elementary school math classes are learning two distinct, yet related languages--one of numbers, the other of words. These languages of numbers and words…
The use of online learning tutorials to provide instruction in schools of nursing is growing in popularity; however, the outcomes associated with this method of instruction are not well documented. The focus of this experimental study, conducted at 2 universities in northern California, was to determine the effectiveness of an online interactive multimedia-learning tool versus text only, text and images, and multimedia learning explanations on math achievement, math self-efficacy, and student satisfaction. Compared to students in the control groups, students in the interactive multimedia group demonstrated equal posttest and retest knowledge of math; their math self-efficacy scores were also the same. Interactive multimedia group students were more satisfied with the method of learning, reported the technique to be enjoyable and more interesting, and provided sufficient feedback. An online interactive multimedia-learning tool is a realistic and creative method of teaching medication dosage calculations.
Objective The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), proposed by Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare & Hunt. Method The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian version of AMAS. Results As expected, the two-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than a single factor. Moreover, multi-group analyses showed that this two-factor structure was invariant across sex. Hence, AMAS provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. Conclusions Brief AMAS demonstrates adequate reliability and validity. The AMAS scores can be used to compare symptoms of math anxiety between male and female students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature. PMID:22952521
Wedekind, Kassia Omohundro
Traditionally, small-group math instruction has been used as a format for reaching children who struggle to understand. Math coach Kassia Omohundro Wedekind uses small-group instruction as the centerpiece of her math workshop approach, engaging all students in rigorous "math exchanges." The key characteristics of these mathematical conversations…
Nelson, Barbara Scott; Sassi, Annette
Principals need to get away from traditional beliefs that equate math success solely with rote knowledge of math facts and the ability to calculate. Today, math instruction also is being directed to student understanding of essential concepts. Principals must learn what to look for when they visit math classrooms to make sure it is being taught…
Math is used in many occupations. And, experts say, workers with a strong background in mathematics are increasingly in demand. That equals prime opportunity for career-minded math enthusiasts. This article describes how math factors into careers. The first section talks about some of the ways workers use math in the workplace. The second section…
Waller, Lisa Ivey
This research investigated the relationship of math intervention teachers' (MITs) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and students' math achievement gains in primary math interventions. The Kentucky Center for Mathematics gathered data on the MITs and primary math intervention students included in this study. Longitudinal data were analyzed for a…
Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenwald, Anthony G.
A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) "me" with "male" (gender identity), (b) "male" with "math" (math-gender stereotype), and (c) "me" with "math" (math self-concept). Two findings emerged.…
Founded in 2006 by Jonathan Osler, Math and Community Organizing teacher at El Puente Academy for Peace and Justice, a public CES high school in Brooklyn, New York, Radical Math is an organization for educators working to integrate issues of political, economic, and social justice into math education. In April 2007, Radical Math cosponsored…
Young, Christina B; Wu, Sarah S; Menon, Vinod
Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction to situations involving mathematical problem solving. Math anxiety has a detrimental impact on an individual's long-term professional success, but its neurodevelopmental origins are unknown. In a functional MRI study on 7- to 9-year-old children, we showed that math anxiety was associated with hyperactivity in right amygdala regions that are important for processing negative emotions. In addition, we found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns, which were independent of overall activation levels in the right amygdala. Furthermore, effective connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions that regulate negative emotions was elevated in children with math anxiety. These effects were specific to math anxiety and unrelated to general anxiety, intelligence, working memory, or reading ability. Our study identified the neural correlates of math anxiety for the first time, and our findings have significant implications for its early identification and treatment.
Koch, Amanda Joy
A national shortage of workers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) occupations has led to efforts to identify why people leave these fields. Lower persistence rates in STEM for females than for males have also led to examinations of features that cause females to leave STEM fields. The current study examines individual- and school-level features that influence undergraduate students' decisions to leave STEM majors, focusing on potential explanations for why females are more likely than males to leave. Persistence in STEM was examined in three samples: (a) persistence through the second year of college in a sample of high school seniors interested in STEM majors; (b) persistence through the fourth year of college in a sample of second year undergraduate STEM majors; and (c) persistence through the second, third, and fourth years of college in a sample of high school seniors interested in STEM majors. Differences between persistence in male-dominated and non-male-dominated STEM majors were also examined. In all samples, gender differences were found for most individual-level predictors, with males tending to score higher than females on measures such as SAT-Math, self-rated STEM ability, and high school extracurricular activities and awards in STEM. On the other hand, females earned better high school grades and had stronger relative non-STEM ability and achievement than males. Bivariate analyses indicated that those who persisted in STEM majors typically had higher scores than those who did not persist for SAT-Math, high school achievement, STEM course taking, undergraduate STEM grades, self-rated STEM ability, interest in STEM, extracurricular activities and awards in STEM, degree goals, and socioeconomic status. Multivariate analyses identified SAT-Math as one of the best predictors of persistence in high school samples, and undergraduate STEM GPA was one of the best predictors in the samples of second year undergraduates. In several samples, a
Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels
This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants’ math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN. PMID:24236212
Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Angels
This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.
Erturan, Selin; Jansen, Brenda
Gender differences in children's emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 7-15 years). In Study 2, perceived math…
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariet J.
Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an…
Louie, Josephine; Brodesky, Amy; Brett, Jessica; Yang, Li-Ming; Tan, Yvette
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 requires states to ensure that all students make adequate yearly progress in achieving proficiency in English language arts and math. This study examines how six diverse schools have responded to the challenge of educating their students in math, particularly students with disabilities and other…
All five school systems on the Virginia Peninsula participate with a total of 21 middle schools in the ATOMS program. More than 20,000 students have participated in the pipeline programs since 1989. The focus has been on creating a diverse pool of academically-prepared students. The number of minority students participating has steadily increased, reaching 49.1 % in 1997. Female participation has remained steady at 55.4%. Female and minority participation will continue to receive high priority. The programs were evaluated by means of student, teacher, and counselor surveys. Questionnaires are distributed immediately after each intervention. The respondents are asked questions concerning the appropriateness of the activity, their interest level and change in opinion after the intervention. More than 90% of all students rate each activity as "Interesting" to "Very Interesting." Almost 70 % of students indicate they intend to take additional higher level mathematics courses in high school after participating in the Site and Campus Visits. Between 70 and 80 % (79.3 % after the Career Awareness Activity, 72.0 % after the Industry Site Visit) of students indicated they have a better understanding of why math and science are important school subjects after participation in each ATOMS activity. Comparisons in scores from the Iowa Test of Basic Skills have been made between the ATOMS students and the remainder of the seventh and eighth grade populations. ATOMS students' math and science achievement scores from the fifth grade were near the district average. After participating in ATOMS, students scored significantly higher than their peers. ATOMS students enrolled at TNCC have been identified and are being tracked further for achievement.
Keller, Leanne; Libertus, Melissa
Past research suggests that individual differences in the acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) are associated with children's math abilities. However, some recent work has argued that these associations can be explained through shared reliance on inhibitory control. Here, we test this claim in two separate experiments. In Experiment 1, forty-two 5- and 6-year-old children completed a non-symbolic number comparison task to assess ANS acuity as well as standardized experimenter-administered assessments for inhibitory control and math ability. Children's accuracy in the number comparison task and scores on the math assessment were significantly correlated, even when controlling for performance on the inhibitory control task. To rule out that our findings were due to the nature of the inhibitory control task, in Experiment 2, we administered a different, computerized inhibitory control task, and similar tasks to assess ANS acuity and math ability as in Experiment 1 to children aged 3-6 years (N = 169). Similar to the result of Experiment 1, we found that associations between accuracy in the number comparison task and math ability persisted when controlling for performance on the inhibitory control task. Together these results suggest that ANS acuity is uniquely associated with early math abilities, independent of the effect of inhibitory control at least in children from middle- to high-SES families.
This slide presentation examines the role of mathematical proficiency and how it relates to advantages in careers. It emphasises the role of math in attaining entrance to college, graduate schools, and a career that is interesting and well paying.
Gill, Willie Wallicia Allen
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine whether a difference existed in the percentage performance of students earning a pass/advanced score on the Standards of Learning (SOL) Test in math and reading in Virginia's Region IV for schools using an A/B block schedule and those using a traditional schedule. The research also examined if…
Klinkenberg, S.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Maas, H. L. J.
In this paper we present a model for computerized adaptive practice and monitoring. This model is used in the Maths Garden, a web-based monitoring system, which includes a challenging web environment for children to practice arithmetic. Using a new item response model based on the Elo (1978) rating system and an explicit scoring rule, estimates of…
Gesbocker, Shestine R.
The purpose of this study was to assess if there was a relationship between sixth, seventh, and eighth grade student's level of mastery of basic math facts and their mathematical scaled score from a standardized test, whether computer assisted instruction (CAI) software improved seventh grade students' ability to master their basic math…
Children from the United States score poorly on international math tests compared to their cohorts in other countries. These gaps grow as students enter high school and develop a dislike and fear of mathematics, suggesting the need to improve mathematics education in middle school. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of reading…
Ganley, Colleen M.; Purpura, David J.
There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children’s math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children’s math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children’s skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills. PMID:28005925
... Briefing Report--Encouraging Minority Students to Pursue Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY: United States Commission on Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of briefing...
Differential Effects of Using ACT® College Readiness Assessment Scores and High School GPA to Predict First-Year College GPA among Racial/Ethnic, Gender, and Income Groups. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (4)
Sanchez, Edgar I.
This study examines the differential effects on student subgroups of using the ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite (ACTC) score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for making admission decisions. The subgroup characteristics investigated include race/ethnicity, gender, and income. For each student subgroup, we examine the effect of…
Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Greenwald, Anthony G
A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) me with male (gender identity), (b) male with math (math-gender stereotype), and (c) me with math (math self-concept). Two findings emerged. First, as early as second grade, the children demonstrated the American cultural stereotype that math is for boys on both implicit and explicit measures. Second, elementary school boys identified with math more strongly than did girls on both implicit and self-report measures. The findings suggest that the math-gender stereotype is acquired early and influences emerging math self-concepts prior to ages at which there are actual differences in math achievement.
Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu
In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition.
Nomi, Takako; Allensworth, Elaine M.
In 2003, Chicago schools required students entering ninth grade with below-average math scores to take two periods of algebra. This led to higher test scores for students with both above- and below-average skills, yet failure rates increased for above-average students. We examine the mechanisms behind these surprising results. Sorting by incoming…
Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter
Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…
Each year, physical educators are asked to incorporate even more math, language arts, science and social studies into their curriculum. The challenge is how to do this without sacrificing the essential health and life skills provided by a quality physical education program. One program, Math & Movement, is a great aid for physical educators to…
Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal
To raise math success rates in middle school, many schools and districts have implemented summer math programs designed to improve student preparation for algebra content in grade 8. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. While students who participate typically experience learning gains, there is little rigorous…
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and…
Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
Research Findings: The current study analyzed the relation between the amount of mathematical input that preschool children hear (i.e., math talk) from their mothers in their homes and their early math ability a year later. Forty mother-child dyads recorded their naturalistic exchanges in their homes using an enhanced audio-recording device (the…
Zakariya, Yusuf F.
In this study, the author examined the validity of MATH 105 as a prerequisite to MATH 201. The data for this study was extracted directly from the examination results logic of the university. Descriptive statistics in form of correlations and linear regressions were used to analyze the obtained data. Three research questions were formulated and…
Afterschool teachers who tutor students or provide homework help have a unique opportunity to help students overcome the social or emotional barriers that so often block learning. They can embrace a creative and investigative approach to math learning. Margaret Kulkin's interest in being a math attitude "myth-buster" led her to apply to…
McKenzie, Michelle A.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Moore, Marion E.; Martella, Ronald C.
This study investigated the effects of teaching basic math skills to 16 children (11 typically developing, 5 with developmental delays) in an integrated university preschool. "Connecting Math Concepts Level K (CMC--K"; Engelmann & Becker, 1995) was delivered by the classroom teacher to small groups of 4 to 6 children over 6.5 weeks.…
Jolivette, Kristine; Lingo, Amy S.; Houchins, David E.; Barton-Arwood, Sally M.; Shippen, Margaret E.
The effects of a fluency building math program on addition and subtraction computational skills were evaluated using a multiple probe across subjects design. Two students with developmental disabilities and one student with attentional difficulties participated in a supplemental intervention using the Great Leaps Math program. Analyses indicated…
Wendt, Staci; Rice, John; Nakamoto, Jonathan
The MIND Research Institute contracted with the Evaluation Research Program at WestEd to conduct an independent assessment of mathematics outcomes in elementary school grades across California that were provided with the ST Math program. Spatial-Temporal (ST) Math is a game-based instructional software designed to boost K-5 and secondary-level…
ACT, Inc., 2013
The proposed federal STEM Teacher Pathway program seeks to produce 100,000 new, high-quality math and science teachers in the next decade. How difficult will the goal be to achieve? This report uses data from the ACT® college readiness assessment to examine the feasibility of producing 100,000 high-quality math and science teachers in the next…
This book offers classroom-tested activities designed to make even the most reluctant learners crazy about math. Appealing to everyone from sports fans to readers, future fashion designers to budding musicians, the activities presented in this book offer ways to develop a deep-rooted love and appreciation of math in every student. Teachers are…
Mathematics is a critical part of academic preparation of the middle school child, or, as Dr. Maria Montessori would refer to them, children in the third plane of development. Montessori educators are sincere in their endeavors not only to prepare young students for further studies of math and the application of math in their world and careers,…
Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.
Across 20 years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9-17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments…
DiGisi, Lori L.; Fleming, Dianne
Sixth and eighth grade students who are English language learners must be able to read and interpret 39 math word problems in order to successfully calculate the answers on the Massachusetts state math assessment (MCAS). The first year that MCAS was administered, many ELL students read the questions, found them confusing, and left them blank,…
This quasi-experimental study was to design, develop, and implement one multimedia math lesson in third grade to improve students' math learning. The non-equivalent control group design was used. The experimental group had 11 third grade students and the control group had 15 third grade students in an African American predominated elementary…
Bahr, Peter Riley
Nationally, a majority of community college students require remedial assistance with mathematics, but comparatively few students who begin the remedial math sequence ultimately complete it and achieve college-level math competency. The academic outcomes of students who begin the sequence but do not complete it are disproportionately unfavorable:…
This study was conducted to examine the attitudes of Head Start teachers toward mathematics and how it may influence how and what they teach in the classroom. In general, the findings of this study can be summarized as this: 1) Math anxiety affects how teachers assess their ability at mathematics. The more math anxiety they report, the lower they…
Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert
The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the shared environment and genetics influenced the covariance among math fluency, untimed math measures, and reading measures. However, roughly two thirds of the variance in math fluency was independent from untimed math measures and reading, including reading fluency. The majority of this independent variance was the result of genetic factors that were longitudinally stable across two measurement occasions. These results suggest that math fluency, although related to other math measures, may also be a genetically distinct dimension of mathematics performance.
Wang, Vincent Y.; Hassan, Bassem A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Zoghbi, Huda Y.
Many genes share sequence similarity between species, but their properties often change significantly during evolution. For example, the Drosophila genes engrailed and orthodenticle and the onychophoran gene Ultrabithorax only partially substitute for their mouse or Drosophila homologs. We have been analyzing the relationship between atonal (ato) in the fruit fly and its mouse homolog, Math1. In flies, ato acts as a proneural gene that governs the development of chordotonal organs (CHOs), which serve as stretch receptors in the body wall and joints and as auditory organs in the antennae. In the fly CNS, ato is important not for specification but for axonal arborization. Math1, in contrast, is required for the specification of cells in both the CNS and the PNS. Furthermore, Math1 serves a role in the development of secretory lineage cells in the gut, a function that does not parallel any known to be served by ato. We wondered whether ato and Math1 might be more functionally homologous than they appear, so we expressed Math1 in ato mutant flies and ato in Math1 null mice. To our surprise, the two proteins are functionally interchangeable.
Rubinsten, Orly; Bialik, Noam; Solar, Yael
Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is suggested as a strong antecedent for the low visibility of women in the science and engineering workforce. However, the assumption of gender differences in math anxiety is still being studied and results are inconclusive, probably due to the use of explicit measures such as direct questionnaires. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in males and females by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Specifically, university students (23 males and 30 females) completed a priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative, or related to mathematics). Participants were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division) was true or false. People are typically found to respond to target stimuli more rapidly after presentation of an affectively related prime than after an affectively unrelated one. In the current study, shorter response latencies for positive as compared to negative affective primes were found in the male group. An affective priming effect was found in the female group as well, but with a reversed pattern. That is, significantly shorter response latencies were observed in the female group for negative as compared to positive targets. That is, for females, negative affective primes act as affectively related to simple arithmetic problems. In contrast, males associated positive affect with simple arithmetic. In addition, only females with lower or insignificant negative affect toward arithmetic study at faculties of mathematics and science. We discuss the advantages of examining pure anxiety factors with implicit measures which are free of response factors. In addition it is suggested that environmental factors may enhance the association between math achievements
Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.
As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order
Park, Daeun; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L
Math anxiety is a negative affective reaction to situations involving math. Previous work demonstrates that math anxiety can negatively impact math problem solving by creating performance-related worries that disrupt the working memory needed for the task at hand. By leveraging knowledge about the mechanism underlying the math anxiety-performance relationship, we tested the effectiveness of a short expressive writing intervention that has been shown to reduce intrusive thoughts and improve working memory availability. Students (N = 80) varying in math anxiety were asked to sit quietly (control group) prior to completing difficulty-matched math and word problems or to write about their thoughts and feelings regarding the exam they were about to take (expressive writing group). For the control group, high math-anxious individuals (HMAs) performed significantly worse on the math problems than low math-anxious students (LMAs). In the expressive writing group, however, this difference in math performance across HMAs and LMAs was significantly reduced. Among HMAs, the use of words related to anxiety, cause, and insight in their writing was positively related to math performance. Expressive writing boosts the performance of anxious students in math-testing situations.
The No Child Left Behind Act requires state assessments to report not only overall scores but also domain scores. To see the information on students' overall achievement, progress, and detailed strengths and weaknesses, and thereby identify areas for improvement in educational quality, students' performances across years or across forms need to be…
The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.
Jansen, Brenda R J; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariët J
Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an MBID-sample using computerized math training. Also, it was investigated whether EF and math performance were related and whether computerized math training had beneficial effects on EF. The sample consisted of a total of 58 adolescents (12-15 years) from special education. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or a treatment as usual (TAU) group. In the experimental condition, participants received 5 weeks of training. Math performance and EF were assessed before and after the training period. Math performance improved equally in both groups. However, frequently practicing participants improved more than participants in the control group. Visuo-spatial memory skills were positively related to addition and subtraction skills. Transfer effects from math training to EF were absent. It is concluded that math skills may increase if a reasonable effort in practicing math skills is made. The relation between visuo-spatial memory skills provides opportunities for improving math performance.
Berkowitz, Talia; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Maloney, Erin A; Peterson, Lori; Gregor, Courtney; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
With a randomized field experiment of 587 first-graders, we tested an educational intervention designed to promote interactions between children and parents relating to math. We predicted that increasing math activities at home would increase children's math achievement at school. We tested this prediction by having children engage in math story time with their parents. The intervention, short numerical story problems delivered through an iPad app, significantly increased children's math achievement across the school year compared to a reading (control) group, especially for children whose parents are habitually anxious about math. Brief, high-quality parent-child interactions about math at home help break the intergenerational cycle of low math achievement.
Heinrichs, Audrey S.
Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)
This paper presents results from an examination of the relationships between high school (HS) school day length and 2011 New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA) Math and Language Arts Literacy test results. Variables found to have an influence on standardized test scores in the extant literature were evaluated and reported.…
Graziano, Dana; Babo, Gerard
This paper presents results from an examination of the relationships between high school (HS) faculty mobility and 2009-2010 New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA) Math and Language Arts Literacy test results. Variables found to have an influence on standardized test scores in the extant literature were evaluated and reported.…
Scott, Marcia Strong; Delgado, Christine F.
In this study, kindergarten children's scores on nine cognitive tasks were evaluated as potential predictors of poor achievement in first grade. A set of five tasks successfully identified 83% of children who were poor readers in first grade, while just three tasks identified 72% of children who were poor achievers in math in first grade. There…
Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua
This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in 7 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries--Australia, Japan, the…
Hollingsworth, Mary Ann
This study examined the relationship between dimensions of wellness and academic performance for 634 third through fifth grade students in Title One schools in rural Mississippi, using composites of the Five Factor Wellness Inventory for Elementary Children and Reading, Language, and Math Scores of the Mississippi Curriculum Test (a state level…
Useful scales and classifications for patients with pulmonary diseases are discussed. The modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scale (mMRC) is a measure of disability in lung patients. The GOLD classifications, the COPD-Assessment Test (CAT) and the BODE Index are important to classify the severity of COPD and to measure the disability of these patients. The Geneva score is a clinical prediction rule used in determining the pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism. The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a scoring system used to predict 30 day mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is intended to measure daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. The Asthma Controll Test (ACT) determines if asthma symptoms are well controlled.
Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A.
An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed.
Ruff, Sarah E.; Boes, Susan R.
Low math achievement is a recurring weakness in many students. Math anxiety is a persistent and significant theme to math avoidance and low achievement. Causes for math anxiety include social, cognitive, and academic factors. Interventions to reduce math anxiety are limited as they exclude the expert skills of professional school counselors to…
White, Gwyne W; Stepney, Cesalie T; Hatchimonji, Danielle Ryan; Moceri, Dominic C; Linsky, Arielle V; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Elias, Maurice J
For students and schools, the current policy is to measure success via standardized testing. Yet the immutable factors of socioeconomic status (SES) and race have, consistently, been implicated in fostering an achievement gap. The current study explores, at the school-level, the impact of these factors on test scores. Percentage of students proficient for Language and Math was analyzed from 452 schools across the state of New Jersey. By high school, 52% of the variance in Language and 59% in Math test scores can be accounted for by SES and racial factors. At this level, a 1% increase in school minority population corresponds to a 0.19 decrease in percent Language proficient and 0.33 decrease for Math. These results have significant implications as they suggest that school-level interventions to improve academic achievement scores will be stymied by socioeconomic and racial factors and efforts to improve the achievement gap via testing have largely measured it.
Kiili, Kristian; Ketamo, Harri; Koivisto, Antti; Finn, Enda
This paper presents the first findings from Math Elements user experience (UX) studies. Math Elements is a game that makes the whole Finnish maths K-2 curriculum (kindergarten and primary school grades 1 and 2) available for players all over the world. The game is based on teachable agent approach, which means that in the game players can teach…
Smith, Jean Burr
As colleges take on increasing numbers of nontraditional students who have had only minimal exposure to mathematics, instructors must alleviate patterns of math anxiety and math avoidance which impede academic success, and, in a technological society, limit career opportunities. Among the obvious causes of math anxiety are: instructors' insistence…
Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.
Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…
Rosales, Allen C.
Based on years of research with early childhood teachers, author Allen Rosales provides an approach to create an emergent math curriculum that integrates children's interests with math concepts. The mathematizing approach is different from traditional math curriculums, as it immerses children in a process that is designed to develop their…
Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lynch, Tom Liam; Plati, Erin
As American students struggle with basic mathematical skills, the importance of math fact fluency has gained the attention of educators and researchers. Generalization of math fact fluency is also important for the transfer of skills to other settings and formats, assisting students in the completion of more varied and complicated math tasks. This…
Academy for Educational Development, 2007
This report summarizes findings from the Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) evaluation of After-School Math PLUS (ASM+). This program was designed to help students find the math in everyday experiences and create awareness about the importance of math skills for future career options. The evaluation was conducted by AED's Center for…
School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.
Accelerated Math (AM) math management software is a task level learning information system placed in 4th-11th grade classrooms around the country. AM provides teachers with an information system that assures that students can master all math objectives and state standards from grade 3 through calculus. It eliminates teacher paperwork, improves…
U Do the Math provides an innovative alternative to developmental math, replacing traditional course lectures with a student-centered approach to active learning and subject mastery. Chattanooga State used its grant funding from Next Generation Learning Challenges (NGLC) to establish and scale the U Do the Math program. The community college,…
Kotsopoulos, Donna; Lee, Joanne
A "math congress" is a pedagogical approach in which students present their solutions from their mathematical work completed individually, in pairs, or in small groups, and share and defend their mathematical thinking. Mathematical artifacts presented during math congress remain on display as community records of practice. Math congress…
Ashkenazi, Sarit; Black, Jessica M.; Abrams, Daniel A.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Menon, Vinod
The primary goal of this review is to highlight current research and theories describing the neurobiological basis of math (MD), reading (RD), and comorbid math and reading disability (MD+RD). We first describe the unique brain and cognitive processes involved in acquisition of math and reading skills, emphasizing similarities and differences in…
Apelman, Maja; King, Julie
This book focuses on everyday math and parent involvement. It is divided into three parts and contains activities that help teachers involve parents in everyday math. Part I, Getting Started, describes the organization of the book and includes a curriculum chart. Part II, Involving Parents, discusses how children learn math and strategies for…
Winburg, Karin; Chamberlain, Barbara; Valdez, Alfred; Trujillo, Karen; Stanford, Theodore B.
This "Math Snacks" intervention measured 741 fifth grade students' gains in conceptual understanding of core math concepts after game-based learning activities. Teachers integrated four "Math Snacks" games and related activities into instruction on ratios, coordinate plane, number systems, fractions and decimals. Using a…
Adcock, Deborah P.
This book is a teacher's resource guide designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include measurement and data analysis such as measuring…
This book is designed to help adults gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life and work and on standardized tests, including the GED. It is expected to help students overcome math anxiety, discover math as interesting and purposeful, and develop good number sense. Lessons are organized around four strands: (1) skill lessons that…
Harper, Norma Wynn; Daane, C. J.
Analyzed math-anxiety levels among elementary preservice teachers before and after a mathematics methods course, noting factors that promoted math anxiety. Interviews and surveys indicated significant reductions in math anxiety at the end of the course. Anxiety stemmed from rigid and structured classroom instructional practices. The main factors…
Approximately 93 percent of Americans indicate that they experience some level of math anxiety. Math anxiety is defined as negative emotions that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems. Studies have found that some students who perform poorly on math assessments actually have a full understanding of the concepts being tested; however,…
This book is a teacher's resource guide designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers and addition, subtraction,…
Phillips, Jan; Osmus, Kathy
This book is a teacher's resource guide designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include algebra and geometry. Lessons are organized around four…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"Saxon Math" curricula and materials are available for grades K through 12, with the content and skills designed to meet National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards and various state standards. This WWC report focuses on middle school math curricula, defined as all Saxon Math curricula for grades 6 through 9. The…
Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Joanne; Sideris, John; Burchinal, Margaret; Zeisel, Susan
This study's primary purpose was to examine the relative contribution of social-behavioral predictors to reading and math skills. The study expands on Duncan et al.'s (2007) work by using longitudinal methodology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) databases, and by focusing on potential differences in patterns of early predictors of later reading and math trajectories for African American versus Caucasian students. Predictor measures were selected at kindergarten, and the outcomes included standardized reading and math scores obtained from Grades 1, 3, 5, and 9 for the SECCYD sample, and Grades 3, 5, and 8 for the ECLS-K sample. Consistent with Duncan et al.'s findings, results reflect the relative contributions of early reading and math skills to later functioning in these respective academic domains for both samples, and there are indications for the importance of early expressive language skills to both reading and math in the SECCYD sample. Findings related to the power of social-behavioral predictors, however, are not consistent across samples. Although the SECCYD sample evidenced no such predictors, several interactions in the ECLS-K sample suggested the moderating effects of early ratings of aggressive behaviors and internalizing behaviors on later reading and math for African American students. The moderating effects of early teacher ratings of attention and internalizing behaviors for African American students as compared with Caucasian students in later math growth also were noted. The importance of early social-behavioral functions as related to later academic skills remains an important area of inquiry.
Are your students engaged and motivated to read and write but hesitant during math instruction? Do you want your students to be as excited about math as they are about literacy? This unique resource explores how best practices for teaching reading and writing can help you become a better math teacher. Drawing on the work of such educators as…
Cummings, Tracy; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.; Lipsey, Mark W.; Bilbrey, Carol; Vorhaus, Elizabeth
The "Building Blocks PreK Math Curriculum" (Clements & Sarama, 2007) was designed to facilitate children's engagement in math and talk about math. Much research investigates the effect of curriculum on classrooms or teacher practices. This study used a mediational model to look at a curriculum's effect on children's achievement gain, operating…
Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Castle Heatly, Melissa
The present study examined whether multiple opportunities to learn math were associated with smaller socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in fifth-grade math achievement using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). High amounts of procedural math instruction were associated with higher…
Smeding, Annique; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Régner, Isabelle
In 2 field experiments, we relied on the very features of real testing situations--where both math and verbal tests are administered--to examine whether order of test administration can, by itself, create vs. alleviate stereotype threat (ST) effects on girls' math performance. We predicted that taking the math test before the verbal test would be…
Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert
The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the…
Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines
Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…
Levpuscek, Melita Puklek; Zupancic, Maja
Contributions of parental involvement in educational pursuits as well as math teachers' classroom behavior to students' motivation and performance in math were investigated. By the end of the first school term, 365 Slovene eighth graders reported on their parents' academic involvement (pressure, support, and help) and their math teachers' behavior…
Klanderman, David B.; Moore, Mary Webster; Maxwell, Mandi S.; Robbert, Sharon K.
We describe several service-learning initiatives implemented by the mathematics and education departments. College students with majors and minors in math and math education have helped to design and implement math events for elementary and middle school students. Formal and informal reflections on these service-related experiences have…
Kranjac, Ashley Wendell
Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children.
Gordon, E. S.
Fitchburg State University has a diverse student population comprised largely of students traditionally underrepresented in higher education, including first-generation, low-income, and/or students with disabilities. Approximately half of our incoming students require developmental math coursework, but often enroll in science classes prior to completing those courses. Since our introductory geoscience courses (Oceanography, Meteorology, Geology, Earth Systems Science) do not have prerequisites, many students who take them lack basic math skills, but are taking these courses alongside science majors. In order to provide supplemental math instruction without sacrificing time for content, "The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN), a set of online math tutorials placed in a geoscience context, will be implemented in three of our introductory courses (Oceanography, Meteorology, and Earth Systems Science) during Fall, 2011. Students will complete 5-6 modules asynchronously, the topics of which include graphing skills, calculating rates, unit conversions, and rearranging equations. Assessment of quantitative skills will be tracked with students' pre- and post-test results, as well as individual module quiz scores. In addition, student assessment results from Oceanography will be compared to student data from Academic Year 2010-11, during which quantitative skills were evaluated with pre- and post-test questions, but students did not receive online supplemental instruction.
The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.
McLarty, Joyce R.
The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…
SLACK, CHARLES W.
REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…
Lamb, J; Daniels, R
This study was designed to determine the feasibility of improving gifted girls' attitudes toward mathematics. This study was conducted in three school districts in an isolated rural setting. Subjects were 24 gifted girls in Grades 4-7. A control group also contained 24 gifted girls at the same grade levels. On pretest, using the Mathematics Attitude Inventory (MAI), no significant differences were found between groups in their attitudes toward math. The intervention program included problem-solving activities, math-related career options, and self-esteem issues. MAI posttest scores after the 18-week program indicated that the program was effective in changing attitudes toward mathematics of gifted girls in a rural environment.
Niewiński, Grzegorz; Kański, Andrzej
Chronic shortage of ITU beds makes decisions on admission difficult and responsible. The use of computer-based mortality scoring should help in decision-making and for this purpose, a number of different scoring systems have been created; in principle, they should be easy to use, adaptable to all populations of patients and suitable for predicting the risk of mortality during both ITU and hospital stay. Most of existing scales and scoring systems were included in this review. They are frequently used in ITUs and become a necessary tool to describe ITU populations and to explain differences in mortality. As there are several pitfalls related to the interpretation of the numbers supplied by the systems, they should be used with the knowledge on the severity scoring science. Moreover, the cost and significant workload limit the use of scoring systems; in many cases an extra person has to be employed for collection and analysis of data only.
"Stepping Up to Science and Math" invites teachers to step back and rethink the way they teach both of these essential subjects. Then it illustrates how teachers can step up the pace with Standards-based activities that make learning more effective and efficient. (New lessons featuring gummy worms, school buses, or the planet Mars help teachers…
Sayler, Michael, Ed.
This theme issue of a Texas journal on gifted education contains articles focusing on math and science instruction for gifted students. "Science Education for Gifted Students" (Joyce VanTassel-Baska) discusses what a science curriculum for gifted students should include, what teachers can do to make reform efforts successful, and how to…
Langkamp, Greg; Hull, Joe
This document presents an interdisciplinary course and workshop that aims to develop a better understanding of cooperative learning, interdisciplinary curriculum, and earthquakes among the participants. Students are encouraged to develop their own math and environmental education curriculum. An exercise on earthquakes and power law frequency are…
Math can sometimes seem like a strange language from foreign land--one communicated in symbols, numbers, and geometric figures. When teachers talk about mathematical concepts, even familiar, garden variety words such as "parallel," "power," "even," "odd," "multiply," "difference," "product," "positive," and "negative" take on brand-new meanings.…
Kissane, Barry; McConney, Andrew
"Maths by Email" (MbE) is a free fortnightly email newsletter produced through a partnership between CSIRO Education and the Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute (AMSI), with funding from the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). The principal aim of MbE has been "to…
Once upon a time, a student well advanced past grade level in math would have had few choices. Advanced students would invariably outpace the skills of their elementary teachers, and due to age wouldn't have options such as going to the middle school or community college for classes. Soon thereafter, students would enter middle school only to find…
Few strategies for luring more students and working adults into math and science teaching have proved as popular among elected officials as financial incentives, which try to make one of the least appealing aspects of the job--low pay--a little less daunting. Lawmakers on Capitol Hill are considering a number of bills that would expand existing…
Rodrigues, Kathleen J.
This paper describes application of innovative practice and procedures in relationship to recognized principles and theory of adult education used in college math instruction. Adult learning principles provide the theoretical constructs and foundation of the practice supporting a learner-centered approach to learning. The purpose was to explore…
Many students begin higher education unprepared for college-level work in mathematics and must take non-credit developmental courses. Furthermore, many are "math-phobic" and avoid courses, majors and careers that involve quantitative work. Yet science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are among the few job-growth…
Cafarella, Brian V.
Currently, many community colleges are struggling with poor student success rates in developmental math. Therefore, this qualitative study focused on employing best practices in developmental mathematics at an urban community college in Dayton, Ohio. Guiding the study were the following research questions: What are the best practices utilized by a…
Saunders, Marnie M.
To promote math and science, this author designed an activity to show students that biomedical fields are within their reach. The activity has three distinct goals: (1) To introduce the field of biomedical engineering to students and encourage them in these career pursuits; (2) To give them hands-on experience conducting a biomechanical test; and…
Stoodt, Barbara D.
This column discusses five children's books selected to develop math concepts involving problem solving, reasoning, and communication. The books are "Only One" (Marc Harshman); "The Librarian Who Measured the Earth" (Kathryn Lasky); "Counting Jennie" (Helena C. Pittman); "The Search for Delicious" (Natalie Babbitt); and "The Toothpaste…
Fotoples, Robert M.
Describes math anxiety, explaining roadblocks to mathematics success; discussing strategies for overcoming anxiety (e.g., parent involvement, teacher sensitivity, and peer tutoring); and examining the influence of learning styles on mathematics achievement and attitudes. Mathematics teachers must identify students' problems in mathematics, work…
Center for Alternative Learning, Bryn Mawr, PA.
This report describes a project that developed a "Train the Trainer" program that would enable individuals to learn and teach the alternative instructional technique, Tic Tac Toe Math, developed by Richard Cooper for adult basic education students. The pilot workshop conducted as part of the project identified problems that traditional…
Robertson, Douglas F.; Claesgens, Joan
This paper discusses the problems associated with mathematics anxiety, and provides detailed information on the history and structure of the Mathematics Anxiety Program at the University of Minnesota. The seven parts concern: (1) the Continuing Education for Women Program, (2) the development of the Math Anxiety Program, (3) the symptoms of…
One may have heard of Bowland maths and will know something of the "case studies" that were published in 2008. These are substantial mathematics projects, taking five hours, or more, to complete. Most are set in real or realistic contexts, like "designing a smoothy"--Product Wars, or "devising plans to improve road safety"--Reducing Road…
Students enjoy origami and like making everything from paper cranes to footballs out of small, colorful squares of paper. They can invent their own shapes and are intrigued by the polyhedrons that they can construct. Paper folding is fun, but where is the math? Unless teachers develop lessons that address mathematical objectives, origami could be…
Hunka, Dan; And Others
An elective unit was developed for a course (Math 20) which would teach students to program solutions to typical exercises. Development of the unit took place in a large senior high school in Alberta. The elective is 15 hours long, with the first five hours devoted to learning programming fundamentals and the final ten hours to programming…
This article describes the Math Olympiads for Elementary and Middle School, Inc., a non-for profit public foundation dedicated to strengthening the education of gifted youngsters though mathematics competitions. The development of the Olympiads, the program's structure, and the benefits of competition are discussed. Sample questions and answers…
While math has long been regarded as a universal language because of its foundation in numbers, the subject poses nearly as many hurdles for students with limited English as lessons that rely more heavily on reading, many educators say. Malinda Evans spends about an hour and a half each day teaching mathematics to her 5th graders at Navajo…
Bryant-Jones, Marian; Shimmins, Kymberley J.; Vega, Jill D.
This report describes a program for increasing math achievement through the use of musical interventions including repeated exposure to Mozart classical music and School House Rock, and introduction to teacher-made songs that introduce mathematical concepts in the music classroom. The students of the targeted second and fourth grade classes…
For some children maths and science are exciting subjects that work side by side, one providing the opportunity to practise and hone skills and knowledge gained from the other. For other children the subjects are disjointed and seem to bear no relationship to each other. Science can provide a wonderful opportunity to practise a variety of math…
Aspects of the Math for America organization's actions, aims and affiliations are analyzed for their effects on urban schools and society at large. These aspects are argued as evidence to consider MfA as an agent working against democratic practice and in favor of furthering profit and its resultant inequitable resource distribution. The…
The author discusses the level of mathematics needed in biomedical technology programs. Technical institutes and community colleges across the country have varying math requirements, from first-year college algebra on into calculus. He suggests a study to determine the reasons for the variance, leading eventually to uniform quality. (MF)
This article describes a developmental math course design that uses flipped instruction and self-paced learning. The design was created and taught at Metropolitan State University, where most students are returning adult students with little preparation in mathematics. The author argues that this design suits the students well: the learning…
Rapacki, Lauren J.; Cross Francis, Dionne I.
When one of the authors saw the job description for an elementary school mathematics coach on a state Department of Education website, she recognized it as an opportunity to have her dream job. She knew that making the transition from the classroom to a math teacher leader would afford her the opportunity to have an even greater impact on student…
Schroth, Stephen T.; Helfer, Jason A.
Gifted middle school mathematics students often exhibit boundless energy, a desire to exert some degree of control over their learning, and an ability to think logically and abstractly in ways that astound their parents and teachers. Middle school math curriculum that combines guided investigations of real-life problems with product-based…
Mathematics professionals are working with teachers revealing the reality and beauty that happens in the world of math and to show that this is essentially a "human endeavour," embedded in much of what people do and the ways in which they think. In this article, the author shares vignettes of primary classes working with mathematicians…
An innovative Math for Liberal Arts course was designed to provide liberal arts students with the life skills necessary to survive in the 21st century. The course emphasizes application driven mathematics. This course has been successful in changing students' perceptions of the usefulness of the course and improving student success rate as well as…
Rawding, Molly Rothermel; Call, Susan
Last year, Annandale Terrace Elementary School (Annandale, Virginia) began exploring professional learning communities (PLC). In this article, two of Annandale's math coaches share the school's journey. On the basis of their own reflections, the coaches conclude with some recommendations for those considering embarking on a similar journey…
When students at Prescott High School sign up to take math as seniors, not all of them will be wading into precalculus or calculus, with in-depth explorations of derivatives and trigonometric functions. Some will instead end up using mathematics to study the Electoral College, or the security of Internet passwords, or how delivery companies ship…
Gadanidis, George; Hughes, Janette M.
A storied math context helps students engage both emotionally and cognitively with mathematics and helps show that mathematics develops out of human experience. Children's literature also models mathematical storytelling for students, and creates opportunities for them to retell and extend stories. This article describes mathematics investigations…
Golovcsenko, Igor V.
The report describes the math model for an experimental ship handling trainer. The training task is that of a replenishment operation at sea. The model includes equations for ship dynamics of a destroyer, propeller-engine response times, ship separation, interaction effects between supply ship and destroyer, and outputs to a visual display system.…
Despite suggestions for incorporating students' experiences into school math lessons, mathematics education seems to be the last bastion of formalism. This paper reports on a sociocultural study of the use of students' personal experiences in early childhood elementary mathematics lessons. This study documents the use of students' personal…
Zhao, Liming; Huang, Yong; Hu, Yan; He, Xiaoli; Shen, Wenhui; Liu, Chunlin; Ruan, Ying
The MATH (meprin and TRAF-C homology) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel β-helices involved in protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 90 MATH-domain proteins from the Brassica rapa genome. By sequence analysis together with MATH-domain proteins from other species, the B. rapa MATH-domain proteins can be grouped into 6 classes. Class-I protein has one or several MATH domains without any other recognizable domain; Class-II protein contains a MATH domain together with a conserved BTB (Broad Complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-Brac ) domain; Class-III protein belongs to the MATH/Filament domain family; Class-IV protein contains a MATH domain frequently combined with some other domains; Class-V protein has a relative long sequence but contains only one MATH domain; Class-VI protein is characterized by the presence of Peptidase and UBQ (Ubiquitinylation) domains together with one MATH domain. As part of our study regarding seed development of B. rapa, six genes are screened by SSH (Suppression Subtractive Hybridization) and their expression levels are analyzed in combination with seed developmental stages, and expression patterns suggested that Bra001786, Bra03578 and Bra036572 may be seed development specific genes, while Bra001787, Bra020541 and Bra040904 may be involved in seed and flower organ development. This study provides the first characterization of the MATH domain proteins in B. rapa PMID:24179444
Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.
This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the
Murrah, William M., III
The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.
Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Darcey M; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Phillips, Beth M
Children's self-regulation, including components of executive function such as inhibitory control, is related concurrently and longitudinally with elementary school children's reading and math abilities. Although several recent studies have examined links between preschool children's self-regulation or executive function and their academic skill development, few included large numbers of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Among the fastest growing segments of the U.S. school-age population, many of these children are at significant risk of academic difficulties. We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores on this last measure were lower for children for whom it was administered in Spanish. For both English and Spanish outcomes, those scores were significantly and uniquely associated with higher scores on measures of phonological awareness and math skills but not vocabulary or print knowledge skills.
Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua
This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008
Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua
This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.
Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.
Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)
Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun
The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)
Marsh, Herbert W; Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Köller, Olaf; Baumert, Jürgen
Reciprocal effects models of longitudinal data show that academic self-concept is both a cause and an effect of achievement. In this study this model was extended to juxtapose self-concept with academic interest. Based on longitudinal data from 2 nationally representative samples of German 7th-grade students (Study 1: N = 5,649, M age = 13.4; Study 2: N = 2,264, M age = 13.7 years), prior self-concept significantly affected subsequent math interest, school grades, and standardized test scores, whereas prior math interest had only a small effect on subsequent math self-concept. Despite stereotypic gender differences in means, linkages relating these constructs were invariant over gender. These results demonstrate the positive effects of academic self-concept on a variety of academic outcomes and integrate self-concept with the developmental motivation literature.
Rodrigues, Clarissa Guimaraes; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves; de Xavier Pinto, Cristine Campos
In Brazil, the mean of math test scores for students of the fourth grade declined by approximately 0.2 standard deviation in the late 1990s. However, the potential changes in the distribution of scores have never been addressed. It is unclear if the decline was caused by deterioration in student performance levels at the upper and/or lower tails…
Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru
Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.
Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru
Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed. PMID:27788235
Warnimont, Chad S.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…
Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.
Stacy, Sara T.; Cartwright, Macey; Arwood, Zjanya; Canfield, James P.; Kloos, Heidi
Students rarely practice math outside of school requirements, which we refer to as the “math-practice gap”. This gap might be the reason why students struggle with math, making it urgent to develop means by which to address it. In the current paper, we propose that math apps offer a viable solution to the math-practice gap: Online apps can provide access to a large number of problems, tied to immediate feedback, and delivered in an engaging way. To substantiate this conversation, we looked at whether tablets are sufficiently engaging to motivate children’s informal math practice. Our approach was to partner with education agencies via a community-based participatory research design. The three participating education agencies serve elementary-school students from low-SES communities, allowing us to look at tablet use by children who are unlikely to have extensive access to online math enrichment programs. At the same time, the agencies differed in several structural details, including whether our intervention took place during school time, after school, or during the summer. This allowed us to shed light on tablet feasibility under different organizational constraints. Our findings show that tablet-based math practice is engaging for young children, independent of the setting, the student’s age, or the math concept that was tackled. At the same time, we found that student engagement was a function of the presence of caring adults to facilitate their online math practice. PMID:28270780
Deacon, Mary M.
Despite initiatives to increase and broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, women remain underrepresented in STEM. While U.S. girls and women perform as well as, if not better, than boys and men in math, research results indicate that there are significant declines in girls' math self-efficacy,…
The algorithm develops a single health score for office computers, today just Windows, but we plan to extend this to Apple computers. The score is derived from various parameters, including: CPU Utilization Memory Utilization Various Error logs Disk Problems Disk write queue length It then uses a weighting scheme to balance these parameters and provide an overall health score. By using these parameters, we are not just assessing the theoretical performance of the components of the computer, rather we are using actual performance metrics that are selected to be a more realistic representation of the experience of the person using the computer. This includes compensating for the nature of their use. If there are two identical computers and the user of one places heavy demands on their computer compared with the user of the second computer, the former will have a lower health score. This allows us to provide a 'fit for purpose' score tailored to the assigned user. This is very helpful data to inform the mangers when individual computers need to be replaced. Additionally it provides specific information that can facilitate the fixing of the computer, to extend it's useful lifetime. This presents direct financial savings, time savings for users transferring from one computer to the next, and better environmental stewardship.
Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan
Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math.
Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan
Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742
Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.
The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.
Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Humphries, Melissa
This study explores whether gender stereotypes about math ability shape high school teachers’ assessments of the students with whom they interact daily, resulting in the presence of conditional bias. It builds on theories of intersectionality by exploring teachers’ perceptions of students in different gender and racial/ethnic subgroups, and advances the literature on the salience of gender across contexts by considering variation across levels of math course-taking in the academic hierarchy. Utilizing nationally representative data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), analyses reveal that disparities in teachers’ perceptions of ability that favored white males over minority students of both genders are explained away by student achievement in the form of test scores and grades. However, we find evidence of a consistent bias against white females which, although relatively small in magnitude, suggests that teachers hold the belief that math is easier for white males than it is for white females. We also find some evidence of variation across course level contexts with regard to bias. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for research on the construction of gender inequality. PMID:24187437
The Math You Need (TMYN) modules were introduced at Baylor University in fall 2012 to address issues of math anxiety common among freshmen non-majors completing their lab science requirement, and to reduce lab time spent reviewing basic math concepts. Modules and associated assessment questions commonly use geoscience examples to illustrate the mathematical principles involved, reinforcing topics addressed in lab. Large enrollments in the course selected for these modules necessitate multiple graduate teaching assistants in the lab, making the online nature of the modules and minimal required involvement of the teaching assistants even more valuable. Students completed three selected modules before encountering associated topics in lab, as well as a pre and post-test to gauge improvement. This presentation will review lessons learned and changes made in the first two years of TMYN at Baylor. Results indicate continued increases in mean pre to post test scores (e.g. 3.2% in fall 2012 to 11.9% in spring 2014), percentage of student pre to post- test improvement (59% in fall 2012 to 72% in spring 2014) and student participation (95 in fall 2012 to 186 in spring 2014). Continued use of these modules is anticipated.
Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José
Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028
Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel
The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students
Jordan, Stacie L.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between technology skills and academic achievement among eighth-grade students. Previous studies investigated the relationship between the use of technology as a teaching tool and student outcomes, but none had specifically examined students' technology skill competencies with…
Mackay, Patricia E.
Although a limited body of research has supported the positive impact of the Tools of the Mind curriculum on the development of self-regulation, research supporting a direct relationship between Tools and academic achievement is extremely limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Tools of the Mind curriculum…
Allen, Tosha Y.
This study examined whether or not teacher collaboration in professional learning communities, which is a form of professional development, affected student learning in third-grade mathematics. The sample for the study consisted of 120 students (i.e., 60 students for the experimental group and 60 students for the control group). Both schools were…
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Impact Evaluation of Math Professional... of Collection: Impact Evaluation of Math Professional Development. OMB Control Number: 1850-NEW. Type..., and teachers for a study of math professional development. The study will provide...
Burdett, Nicole G.
The purpose of this research study was to examine, through statistical analyses, the impact that the 2 different types of highly qualified teachers have on student achievement reading and math scores among fourth- and fifth-grade special education and general education students for the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years. The evaluation…
Thomas, Ally S.; Bonner, Sarah M.; Everson, Howard T.
Recently, the authors have been exploring the use of propensity score methods for developing evidence of program impact. Specifically, they have been developing evidence (after one year of implementation) of the effects of the Math Science Partnership in New York City ("MSPinNYC2") on high school students' achievement--both in terms of…
Harris, Maureen Ann
While a growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance the value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized. If research of students in the school system indicates that learning through the arts can benefit the "whole" child, that math achievement scores are significantly…
The purpose of this quantitate ve study was to determine whether or not students in fifth grade who meet the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for aerobic capacity on the fall 2013 FITNESSGRAM® Test scored higher on the math portion of the 2013 fall Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) test, than students that failed to reach the HFZ for aerobic capacity…
We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.
The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…
This article discusses a White House proposal that would bring math, science, and engineering professionals into public high schools to teach those subjects, thereby bypassing the "highly qualified" teacher mandate under the No Child Left Behind Act. Education observers consider this merely a temporary solution to easing the shortfall of…
Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.
The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323
Saul, Sara M.; Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Altschuler, Richard A.; Shore, Susan E.; Rudolph, Dellaney D.; Kabara, Lisa L.; Halsey, Karin E.; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Zhou, Jianxun; Dolan, David F.; Glaser, Tom
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Math5 (Atoh7) is required for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and optic nerve development. Using Math5-lacZ knockout mice, we have identified an additional expression domain for Math5 outside the eye, in functionally connected structures of the central auditory system. In the adult hindbrain, the cytoplasmic Math5-lacZ reporter is expressed within the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), in a subpopulation of neurons that project to medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), lateral superior olive (LSO), and lateral lemniscus (LL). These cells were identified as globular and small spherical bushy cells based on their morphology, abundance, distribution within the cochlear nucleus (CN), co-expression of Kv1.1, Kv3.1b and Kcnq4 potassium channels, and projection patterns within the auditory brainstem. Math5-lacZ is also expressed by cochlear root neurons in the auditory nerve. During embryonic development, Math5-lacZ was detected in precursor cells emerging from the caudal rhombic lip from embryonic day (E)12 onwards, consistent with the time course of CN neurogenesis. These cells co-express MafB, Math1 and Math5 and are post-mitotic. Math5 expression in the CN was verified by mRNA in situ hybridization, and the identity of positive neurons was confirmed morphologically using a Math5-Cre BAC transgene with an alkaline phosphatase reporter. The hindbrains of Math5 mutants appear grossly normal, with the exception of the CN. Although overall CN dimensions are unchanged, the lacZ positive cells are significantly smaller in Math5 −/− mice compared to Math5 +/− mice, suggesting these neurons may function abnormally. The Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) of Math5 mutants was evaluated in a BALB/cJ congenic background. ABR thresholds of Math5 −/− mice were similar to those of wild-type and heterozygous mice, but the interpeak latencies for Peaks II-IV were significantly altered. These temporal changes are consistent
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…
Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice; DeFlorio, Lydia
There is a national need for effective interventions to improve school readiness and subsequent achievement in mathematics for students from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a 2-year preschool math intervention that began at preschool entry when children were 3 years of age and continued through the end…
Vaille, John; Kushins, Harold
Many school districts around the nation are re-evaluating how they measure student performance in mathematics. Calls have been made for alternative, authentic assessment tools that go beyond simple, and widely ineffective, multiple-choice tests. This book examines how the Fizz & Martina math video series provides students with hands-on…
Institutions find success with Pearson Education's MyMathLab. The Department of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Memphis (UM) reported a narrowing of the achievement gap between Black and White students. According to the study conducted by UM professors and titled "The Effectiveness of Blended Instruction in Postsecondary General…
This article explores how place matters in public school reform efforts intended to promote more equitable opportunities and outcomes. Qualitative case studies of three California middle schools' eighth grade math reforms and the resulting opportunities for Latino English learners are presented, using the conceptual frameworks of critical human…
Smith, Thomas; Cobb, Paul; Farran, Dale; Cordray, David; Munter, Charles; Dunn, Alfred
The authors' goal was to evaluate the potential of Math Recovery (MR), a pullout, one-to-one tutoring program that has been designed to increase mathematics achievement among low-performing first graders, thereby closing the school-entry achievement gap and enabling participants to achieve at the level of their higher-performing peers in the…
South Seattle Community Coll., Washington.
This publication contains materials for three courses in Applied Math in the Applied Academics program at South Seattle Community College. It begins with the article, "Community College Applied Academics: The State of the Art?" (George B. Neff), which describes the characteristics, model, courses, and coordination activity that make up…
Hamadneh, Iyad M.; Al-Masaeed, Aslan
This study aimed at finding out mathematics teachers' attitudes towards photo math application in solving mathematical problems using mobile camera; it also aim to identify significant differences in their attitudes according to their stage of teaching, educational qualifications, and teaching experience. The study used judgmental/purposive…
Velicer, Wayne F.
Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)
Mannamaa, Mairi; Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Palu, Anu
Math achievement is not a unidimensional construct but includes different skills that require different cognitive abilities. The focus of this study was to examine associations between a number of cognitive abilities and three domains of math skills (knowing, applying and problem solving) simultaneously in a multivariate framework. Participants…
Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan
The Math Promise is a contract that family members make with one another. They commit to spending mathematical time together; getting to know each other's mathematical thinking and understanding; and finding time to play math games, solve problems, and notice mathematics in their daily lives. Whether parents and children are cooking in the…
Oehlert, Jeremy J.
Previous research has reported positive correlations between math achievement and the cognitive constructs of spatial visualization, working memory, and general intelligence; however, no single study has assessed variance in math achievement attributable to all three constructs, examined in combination. The current study fills this gap in the…
Mook, Corena; Legg, Marilyn
One of a series of instructional packets to aid schools in reducing sex stereotypes, this inservice guide for use with school personnel is designed to increase awareness of the extent to which Kansans limit their career options by avoiding math and science. Focus is on why people do not develop more math knowledge and/or skills (such as…
de la Rosa, Raul; Hackett, Eugene deG.
The educational background and issues which shaped the design of the National Migrant Education Program Math Skills Information System are explained in this report, along with a full description of the features of the system and its operation. It discusses the variety of math skills information used to permit teachers to input and receive math…
Anderson, Nancy; Chapin, Suzanne; O'Connor, Cathy
"Classroom Discussions: Seeing Math Discourse in Action, Grades K-6" provides preservice and inservice instructors, coaches and facilitators with real, classroom-based video examples that illustrate the principles and practices covered in the authors' best-selling book, "Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn, Grade K-6,…
Ethridge, Elizabeth Ann; King, James R.
The Early Childhood profession would benefit from a systematic inquiry into "calendar math." The authors offer an organized framework for this work. After a description of calendar math practices, the authors examine problematic aspects of its implementation, based on developmental theory. The essay concludes with a call for more reflective…
Dunkle, Susan M.
The purpose of this study was to measure the level of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, and then to determine if remediation methods would lower the measured level of anxiety in these same preservice teachers. The 10-day study provided an intense remediation using a time-series design to measure change on the Revised Math Anxiety…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"Saxon Elementary School Math," published by Harcourt Achieve, is a core curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 5. A distinguishing feature of "Saxon Elementary School Math" is its use of a distributed approach, as opposed to a chapter-based approach, for instruction and assessment. The program is built on the…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2006
The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) reviewed seven studies of the "Saxon Elementary School Math program." A distinguishing feature of "Saxon Elementary School Math" is its use of a distributed approach, as opposed to a chapter-based approach, for instruction and assessment. One of these studies met WWC standards with…
Latterell, Carmen M.
Parents are concerned about their children's math learning. Teachers are concerned about math teaching. When parents see what children are bringing home under the new curriculum, it is clear that their children are not working on the same mathematics that parents remember from the time when they were in school. But, the problem goes beyond grades…
Corporation for National and Community Service, 2010
President Obama has recognized the need to move students from the middle to the top of the pack in math and science as a national priority. Mentorship is often cited as a key strategy for exciting, supporting, and keeping students and young scientists and engineers in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This is…
Kizer, Pat; And Others
Developed by the Small Schools Career Education Development Project, the guide, divided into 6 units, provides 279 activities for math and language instruction in grades 1-6. Units are titled: Bank, Grocery Store, Hardware Store, Pandora's Box, Restaurant, and Streets, Bikes, and Highways. Both math and language activities are provided for each…
A catalog is presented of subsystem and environment math models used or planned for space shuttle simulations. The purpose is to facilitate sharing of similar math models between shuttle simulations. It provides information on mach model requirements, formulations, schedules, and contact persons for further information.
Everett, Gregory E.; Swift, Honora S.; McKenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Jewell, Jeremy D.
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of individualized math-to-mastery (MTM) interventions, selected though brief experimental analysis (BEA), at increasing math fluency skills for three elementary-aged females. As MTM has only been investigated as a multicomponent intervention, the present study utilized BEA to identify those specific…
Althauser, Krista; Harter, Cynthia
The purpose of this study is to outline a partnership program that involved a local elementary school district, an institution of higher education, the local business community, and a state economic education advocacy group to integrate economics into math in grades K-5. The "Economics: Math in Real Life" program was provided in…
Fogelberg, Ellen; Skalinder, Carole; Satz, Patti; Hiller, Barbara; Bernstein, Lisa; Vitantonio, Sandra
Many K-6 teachers and students still think of mathematics as a totally separate subject from literacy. Yet incorporating math content into the language arts block helps students gain skills for reading many kinds of texts. Bringing reading, writing, and talking into the math classroom supports the development of conceptual knowledge and problem…
Hill, Jason G.; Dalton, Ben
This study investigates the distribution of math teachers with a major or certification in math using data from the National Center for Education Statistics' High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). The authors discuss the limitations of existing data sources for measuring teacher qualifications, such as the Schools and Staffing Survey…
Research indicates that many students have difficulty with mathematics, which can be attributed to many factors including math anxiety. Students who experience math anxiety have poor attitudes towards mathematics and perform below grade level based on class and statewide assessments. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to…
During the author's everyday math discussions with her class, young children talk about mathematical ideas, theories, and concepts within a predictable structure. These discussions include many concepts from--and beyond--the first-grade math curriculum, and their depth and complexity build throughout the school year. Concepts and skills include…
Kuhns, Catherine Jones
In this book, author Catherine Jones Kuhns introduces student- and teacher-friendly math activities designed to get students thinking like mathematicians and loving mathematics, while addressing content standards through grade 2. She also shows how to make math fun for students, get children actively engaged in learning, create a student-centered…
CYBERCHASE, an interactive math-based adventure series for young viewers, is entering its fifth season on public broadcasting stations in the United States. This article explore season highlights and suggests benefits of using CYBERCHASE to supplement math lessons in school and at home.