Science.gov

Sample records for act oil pipeline

  1. 78 FR 30296 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The Commission's regulations include a methodology for oil...

  2. 77 FR 29997 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The Commission's regulations include a methodology for oil...

  3. 76 FR 28966 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The Commission's regulations include a methodology for oil...

  4. 75 FR 29526 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 61,161; Docket No. RM93-11-000] Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods May 19, 2010. The...

  5. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  6. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  7. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  8. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  9. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  10. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  11. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  12. Magnetic pipeline for coal and oil

    SciTech Connect

    Knolle, E.

    1998-07-01

    A 1994 analysis of the recorded costs of the Alaska oil pipeline, in a paper entitled Maglev Crude Oil Pipeline, (NASA CP-3247 pp. 671--684) concluded that, had the Knolle Magnetrans pipeline technology been available and used, some $10 million per day in transportation costs could have been saved over the 20 years of the Alaska oil pipeline's existence. This over 800 mile long pipeline requires about 500 horsepower per mile in pumping power, which together with the cost of the pipeline's capital investment consumes about one-third of the energy value of the pumped oil. This does not include the cost of getting the oil out of the ground. The reason maglev technology performs superior to conventional pipelines is because by magnetically levitating the oil into contact-free suspense, there is no drag-causing adhesion. In addition, by using permanent magnets in repulsion, suspension is achieved without using energy. Also, the pumped oil's adhesion to the inside of pipes limits its speed. In the case of the Alaska pipeline the speed is limited to about 7 miles per hour, which, with its 48-inch pipe diameter and 1200 psi pressure, pumps about 2 million barrels per day. The maglev system, as developed by Knolle Magnetrans, would transport oil in magnetically suspended sealed containers and, thus free of adhesion, at speeds 10 to 20 times faster. Furthermore, the diameter of the levitated containers can be made smaller with the same capacity, which makes the construction of the maglev system light and inexpensive. There are similar advantages when using maglev technology to transport coal. Also, a maglev system has advantages over railroads in mountainous regions where coal is primarily mined. A maglev pipeline can travel, all-year and all weather, in a straight line to the end-user, whereas railroads have difficult circuitous routes. In contrast, a maglev pipeline can climb over steep hills without much difficulty.

  13. Chemical cleaning of oil and gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, M.B.; Trahan, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    In the pipeline industry, increased awareness of flow inhibiting sediments and deposits, are producing new developments in the field of chemical cleaning. The Pipeline Service Industry recognized the need for an improved method of cleaning oil, gas, and product pipelines; bringing about the development of several environmentally preferable chemical cleaning agents, possessing unique physical properties and service capabilities. These products are specially developed to be nonhazardous and environmentally friendly, both to pipeline workers and to the surrounding environment. The products are formulated using new cleaning chemistry technology to improve the cleaning of oil and gas pipelines. The products are highly concentrated liquid blends of biodegradable surfactant and synthetic solvents, capable of wetting and removing the most tenacious line deposits encountered in oil and gas pipelines. During the early years of oil industry, pipelines were cleaned by using crudely constructed pigging devices. These pigs were most often made on site from available materials, usually consisting nothing more than straw wrapped with barbed wire, rags, or pieces of leather bundled together. Since those early days, the technique of making pigs has come a long way. Companies involved in the design and construction of pigs have perfected their methods of construction, improving the performance of their products. Today, it is estimated that there are over 350 different types of pipeline pig designated for use in cleaning oil and gas pipelines. It has been found that the proper application of cleaning products used in conjunction with pipeline pigs, results in the removal of substantial volumes of sediment, not previously possible with the application of pipeline pigs alone.

  14. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  15. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  16. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  17. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  18. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  19. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline Company; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting Requirements Take notice that on May 8, 2012, pursuant to Rule...

  20. 8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  2. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  3. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  4. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  5. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... submitting pages 301 and 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1 of Form No. 6, the...,” of FERC Form No. 6. When submitting page 700, each exempt oil pipeline carrier must include page 1...

  6. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis, available for review at the Commission's...

  7. Pipeline issues shape southern FSU oil, gas development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    To future production from southern republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU), construction and revitalization of pipelines are as important as the supply of capital. Export capacity will limit production and slow development activity in the region until new pipelines are in place. Plenty of pipeline proposals have come forward. The problem is politics, which for every proposal so far complicates routing or financing or both. Russia has made clear its intention to use pipeline route decisions to retain influence in the region. As a source of external pressure, it is not alone. Iran and Turkey also have made strong bids for the southern FSU`s oil and gas transport business. Diplomacy thus will say as much as commerce does about how transportation issues are settled and how quickly the southern republics move toward their potentials to produce oil and gas. The paper discusses possible routes and the problems with them, the most likely proposal, and future oil flows.

  8. Troll oil pipeline: Seabed surveying and pipeline routing in critical areas

    SciTech Connect

    Indreeide, A.; Nilsen, O.; Trodal, L.; Canu, M.; Baldascino, G.

    1996-12-01

    The 85 km long 16-in oil pipeline from the Troll Field to the Mongstad Refinery North of Bergen in Norway, including a nearshore/inshore section of some 30 km length which is characterized by a water depth down to 540 meters, complex and rocky seabed topography including extremely steep fjords walls. This inner section required a considerable amount of highly detailed and accurate surveying, in particular using remotely operated vehicles (ROV) to gather the required seabed documentation for pipeline routing engineering and construction. In particular a high precision in route definition was necessary, together with a common seabed reference system for engineering and construction in order to obtain a very accurate pipeline location within the actual narrow route corridor. This paper deals with the seabed surveying and documentation as well as the subsequent pipeline routing within the nearshore/inshore section of the pipeline route.

  9. Western European oil pipeline spills on land decline in 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    European crude oil and petroleum products pipelines in 1992 had fewer incidents of oil spills than in 1991, spilled less in total volume, and recovered a larger portion of what was spilled than in any single year in the 5-year period beginning in 1988. Only seven incidents of oil spills from pipelines or related facilities occurred in 1992, compared with 14 in 1991 and an average of 12.9/year since 1971. Five spills were from pipelines; two from pump stations. Net loss of oil into the environment was 430 cu m (2,709 bbl) or barely 0.7 ppm of the total volume transported. Gross amount of spills totaled 804 cu m (5,065 bbl), least in the period 1988--92.

  10. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. PMID:17286169

  11. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FERC Form No. 73, Oil... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  12. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 73, Oil... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  13. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FERC Form No. 73, Oil... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  14. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FERC Form No. 73, Oil... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  15. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Act of 1990, 33 U.S.C. 1321, and Executive Order 12777, 56 FR 54757, Oct. 18, 1991, PHMSA has issued... Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... response plan under 49 CFR part 194. In light of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of...

  16. Leakage detection of oil pipeline using distributed fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Song; Wang, Li; Zhou, Jinfeng

    2007-07-01

    A system of distributed optical fiber sensor has presented based on the optical fiber sensor technology and detected the oil pipeline leakage using Mach-Zehnder optical interferometer. There are two interferential signals from sensor and reference light to put in computer has been analyzed using the analysis software LabVIEW of National Instruments' that can operate for the cross-correlation function, then compare the correlation peak to obtain the disturbance of oil leakage location, the detection precision 200m at around 50km for pipeline in the high speed sampling and data signal processing has obtained.

  17. NORTH SEA PIPELINES: A SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGY, REGULATION AND USE CONFLICTS IN OIL AND GAS PIPELINE OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was undertaken to provide information on North Sea offshore pipelines and the processes used in route selection decision-making. It is designed to be used by persons involved in offshore oil and gas pipeline planning, including pipeline corridors and landfalls. A bri...

  18. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  19. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  20. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  1. Lidar technologies application to leakage detection in oil product pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoukhov, Valery M.; Petoukhova, Zaytuna K.; Akhtiamov, Rishad A.; Il'in, German I.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Pol'ski, Yuri E.

    1999-02-01

    Most of oil product pipelines have a design life from 20 till 25 years. The first attributes of their destruction are leakage of oil products. In our paper we try to discuss advantages and disadvantages of one of the main nondestructive techniques to oil product pipelines testing-- lidar technologies and its application to leakage detection. We consider applications of two basical lidars--IR-cw--LFM lidar (DIAL-system) for methane determining and pulsed lidar based on YAG:Nd3+ laser for registration of liquid oil products fluoristation. Set-ups for both lidars were made in Tupolev Kazan State Technical University and were used on the area of Sredne-Volgsk TransNefteProduct oil company for pipelines testing. Theoretical considerations and experimental results are presented. Some technical problems of specified lidars and their decisions are discussed. Particularly we present two frequency technique for He-Ne-DIAL-system and peculiarities of pumping source with high repetition range for pulsed laser. Its allow to improve characteristics of lidars. Possibilities of computerized leak detection system based on two specified lidars are discussed. It is shown that system can analyze leakage of different oil products, can determine leakage location (the second function of lidars-laser locator), can evaluate degree of damages. The structure of system and its peculiarities are shown.

  2. A New Method of Piping Work by Freezing Fuel Oil to Repair a Fuel Oil Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masashi; Tateno, Masayoshi; Minowa, Kazuki; Murayama, Kouichi

    When a pipe is cut off to repair fuel oil pipelines, the oil has to be drained from the pipelines. If the oil inside the pipe is frozen at both sides of a cutting plane, it is not necessary to drain the oil from the pipelines. In the present paper, such a freezing method is studied analytically and experimentally to establish a suitable construction method, where liquid-nitrogen (LN2) is used as a coolant and fuel oil-C is used as a typical example. From the result, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the fuel oil-C in a low temperature range were measured as a function of temperature in addition to the pour point and glass transition point. Furthermore, in order to compare the agreement between analysis and experiment, an analytical method was performed under various conditions. Finally, temperatures in analytical values were agreed well with experimental ones, and suitable position and time for cutting are clarified.

  3. Troll Oil Pipeline: Current measurements and modelling. Data basis for pipeline free span design

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerke, P.E.; Moshagen, H.; Roeed, L.P.; Eidnes, G.; McClimans, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Troll Oil Pipeline -- TOR -- is a dedicated pipeline for transportation of oil from the Troll field to the onshore terminal at Mongstad on the west coast of Norway. When installed, TOR will be the first pipeline installed in a deep Norwegian fjord, namely Fensfjorden. The water depth ranges from about 250 m at the sill down to about 500 m at the deepest part. The maximum depth is 540 m and is located just inside of the sill. The entrance to the Fensfjord consists of a deep canyon in the Norwegian Trench leading into a sill just northwest of Holmengra. From the sill depth down to the maximum depth, the pipeline route follows a steep ravine through an area of rough and rocky sea bed. Current measurements have revealed higher current velocities than expected in this area. These currents were concluded to be due to heavy water occasionally overflowing the sill and into the fjord. In the present paper, the extensive measurement program, including 27 current meters in operation up tc 16 months, is described including aspects of the data analysis. In conjunction with the measurements, also laboratory and numerical modelling studies were performed and the results from these are presented. A comparison of measurements and model results are also presented.

  4. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 342 Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June... pipeline pricing index established in Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy...). Specifically, the Commission proposes to use the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods (PPI) plus 1.3...

  5. Strength of an oil pipeline with surface defects

    SciTech Connect

    Ost-semin, A.A.; Zavarukhin, V.Yu.

    1994-08-01

    A determination is made of the load-carrying capacity of an oil pipeline with defects with allowance for the changes in the radius, thickness, and ductility properties of the constituent steels and the biaxial nature of the loading. The use of a fracture criterion connected with loss of plastic stability by the pipe is substantiated. This criterion is refined with consideration of the biaxial character of the load and the parameters of a longitudinal crack in the pipe. New analytical relations are derived for engineering calculations of the ultimate strength of thin-walled cylindrical pressure vessels, and a coefficient expressing the effect of the dimensions of the surface crack is refined for these formulas. Examples are presented to illustrate the calculation of the force exerted by a hydraulic expander in the last forming operation for large-diameter pipe. Also, practical recommendations are given on determining hydraulic testing regimes, load-carrying capacity, working pressure for oil pipelines.

  6. Research on the optimal energy consumption of oil pipeline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Liuting; Liu, Song; Wu, Mingchang; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Chinese crude oil is easy to curdle and has high viscosity, so heating transportation is usually selected. Energy consumption by this method mainly comes from furnaces and pumps. Currently, operating parameters of these pipelines were determined according to experience of dispatch. It cause high energy consumption and high cost of pipeline running, so it could not adapt to energy conservation policy. The present study focused on consuming lowest energy to operate oil transportation line. To begin with, several optimization variables were set which included pump combinations, suction pressure, discharge pressure, and station temperature. Then constraint conditions were set to establish an optimal mathematical model of running transportation line. Furthermore, genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, in meantime, selection operation, cross operation and mutation operation in the genetic algorithm were improved. Finally, a crude oil pipeline running optimization software was developed. Through optimal analyzing, S-L transportation line and contrasting with the actual working conditions, it was found that optimal operation scheme could reduce energy consumption by 5% - 9%. In addition, optimal operation scheme also considered the effect of seasons and flow on energy consumption of S-L transportation line. PMID:26387343

  7. Distributed fiber optic system for oil pipeline leakage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, R.; Liu, N.; Rumple, C.; Hara, Elmer H.

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel approach for the detection of leakage in oil pipelines using methods of fiber optic distributed sensors, a presence-of-oil based actuator, and Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). While the basic concepts of our approach are well understood, the integration of the components into a complete system is a real world engineering design problem. Our focus has been on the development of the actuator design and testing using installed dark fiber. Initial results are promising, however environmental studies into the long term effects of exposure to the environment are still pending.

  8. Stress analysis of parallel oil and gas steel pipelines in inclined tunnels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Wu, Shijuan

    2015-01-01

    Geological conditions along long distance pipelines are complex. In consideration of differences in elevation and terrain obstacles, long distance pipelines are commonly laid through tunnels. Oil and gas pipelines are often laid side by side to reduce construction costs and minimize geological impact. The layout and construction of parallel oil and gas pipelines are more complex than those of single pipelines. In order to reduce safety hazards, it is necessary to carry out stress analysis of the oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels. In this study, a stress analysis model of pipelines running through a tunnel was developed. On the basis of the finite element method, CAESAR II software was used to analyze the stress and displacement of a section of parallel oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels and stress and displacement distribution laws were drawn from the analyses. A study of the factors influencing stress recommended that: (1) The buttress interval of the parallel oil and gas pipelines in a tunnel should be 12 m; (2) The angle of inclined pipelines should be no greater than 25°; (3) The stress of oil pipelines enhances more obviously than that of gas pipelines under earthquake action; (4) The average stress can be reduced by adopting "ladder" laying; and (5) Guide bend can be set at the tunnel entrance and exit in order to reduce the stress. PMID:26543793

  9. Production and pipeline transport of oil-water dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Carniani, E.; Celsi, A.; Ercolani, D.

    1997-07-01

    Oil-water dispersions are becoming increasingly important for their potential application in the economical exploitation of heavy-oil fields and as novel fuels to be utilized for gasification in industrial power plants and in small heating systems. Snamprogetti in co-operation with Agip and Eniricerche is involved in a research project, partially supported by the Holding Company ENI and Europen Union (Thermie project), for the developing of a new integrated process to produce heavy crude oil from the marginal fields located in the Adriatic Sea as oil-water dispersions. The process scheme provides the multiphase pipeline transportation of the oil in reservoir water dispersion (primary dispersion) from the platform to the onshore processing Oil Centre for oil production and for the preparation of a very stable dispersion of oil in fresh water (secondary dispersion) to be utilized for direct burning. To obtain the necessary information for the design of the production, transportation and processing systems Snamprogetti has equipped a pilot plant to perform dispersion preparations and characterizations, single phase and multiphase transportation tests. The present work provides experimental data relevant to pumping tests of primary and secondary dispersions showing a stable flow configuration for the secondary and a tendency to stratification for the primary in certain flow conditions. During multiphase pumping tests of primary dispersions a markedly non-newtonian behavior has been observed when strong segregation phenomena occur. A comparison with results obtained by one-phase and multiphase flow programs is also presented.

  10. Computer Simulation of Stress-Strain State of Oil Gathering Pipeline Designed for Ugut Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, P. V.; Burkova, S. P.; Samigullin, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the stress and strain state modeling of infield pipeline in Ugut oil field. The finite element models of the stress field distribution in the pipeline wall are presented in this paper. The attention is paid to the pipeline reliability under stress conditions induced by the internal pressure and external compressive or tensile loads.

  11. The pipeline oil pumping engineering based on the Plant Wide Control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, D. P.; Rybakov, E. A.; Gromakov, E. I.

    2015-04-01

    This article provides recommendations for the use technology Plant Wide Control to control the pumping of oil through the pipeline. The proposed engineering using pipeline management in general (Pipe Wide Control) will reduce the loss of electric power at the expense of the balance of pumping stations located along the pipeline route.

  12. First oil pipeline to Norway crosses Norwegian trench

    SciTech Connect

    Johsrud, P.

    1988-05-02

    Norsk Hydro AS laid the first oil pipeline from North Sea fields to Norway last summer as part of the Oseberg transportation system. The line was hydrostatically tested last fall in preparation for start-up next year. After several appraisal wells and extensive evaluation work, the operator for the field, Norsk Hydro, presented a development plan which was approved by the Norwegian parliament in the spring of 1984. This article describes the development phases, the transportation system, and how the trench crossing was done.

  13. SCADA computer sytem controls major Saudi Aramco crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, J.; Al-Habib, R.

    1996-12-31

    A replacement Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) computer system which monitors and controls two 1,100 kilometer pipelines and eleven associated pump stations is described. The SCADA system was designed to meet two objectives: (1) decentralize the overall control system and provide a distributed control system capable of regulatory control at each pump and pressure reducing station, and (2) provide system wide monitoring and supervisory control function during normal operations at the crude oil terminal. The SCADA computer system hardware (host computers and consoles), software modules, and applications are overviewed. A data flow diagram and a hardware configuration diagram are provided. 3 figs.

  14. Modeling of Non-equilibrium Processes in Oil Trunk Pipeline Using Godunov Type Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumskoi, S. I.; Sverchkov, A. M.

    The Article presents the numerical method of solving the system of one-dimensional non-stationary equations describing oil movement in the oil pipeline. The method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the oil pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. This new developed method can be applied for relaxation non-equilibrium flow case, that can't be modeling using another methods. Also this method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the liquefied hydrocarbon pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. Phase non-equilibrium flow is considered for boiling liquids transporting pipeline.

  15. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 6-Q... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  16. 78 FR 21929 - TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 26, 2013, TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP (TexStar) submitted to the Federal Energy...

  17. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 6-Q... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  18. State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiwen; Chen, Kun; Wu, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design. Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more information about ground motion, which should be obtained by evaluating seismic safety for pipeline engineering site. Different from a city’s water pipeline network, the long-distance oil and gas pipeline system is a spatially linearly distributed system. For the uniform confidence of seismic safety, a long-distance oil and pipeline formed with pump stations and different-class pipe segments should be considered as a whole system when analyzing seismic risk. Considering the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, the design-basis fault displacements corresponding to the different pipeline classes are proposed to improve deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA). A new empirical relationship between the maximum fault displacement and the surface-wave magnitude is obtained with the supplemented earthquake data in East Asia. The estimation of fault displacement for a refined oil pipeline in Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake is introduced as an example in this paper.

  19. 78 FR 78353 - NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Petiton for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Petiton for Declaratory... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2013), NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P. (NuStar) filed a...Star's South Texas Crude Oil Pipeline system to transport additional Eagle Ford shale crude....

  20. Design of oil pipeline leak detection and communication system based on optical fiber technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yaqing; Chen, Huabo

    1999-08-01

    The integrity of oil pipeline is always a major concern of operators. Pipeline leak not only leads to loss of oil, but pollutes environment. A new pipeline leak detection and communication system based on optical fiber technology to ensure the pipeline reliability is presented. Combined direct leak detection method with an indirect one, the system will greatly reduce the rate of false alarm. According, to the practical features of oil pipeline,the pipeline communication system is designed employing the state-of-the-art optic fiber communication technology. The system has such feature as high location accuracy of leak detection, good real-time characteristic, etc. which overcomes the disadvantages of traditional leak detection methods and communication system effectively.

  1. Vertical magnetic field and its analytic signal applicability in oil field underground pipeline detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Liu, Dejun; Pan, Qi; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Yi; Wang, Zheng

    2015-06-01

    We propose using the vertical component of the magnetic anomaly (vertical magnetic field (VMF)) and its analytic signal (AS) to detect oil field underground pipelines. The connection between two peaks of the VMF curves or the AS curves was used to calculate the pipeline azimuth, and the peak coordinates of the AS were used to determine the horizontal position of pipelines. Then, the effect of the pipeline magnetization direction and pipeline buried depth on the horizontal locating error was analyzed. Three typical pipeline models were used for verifying this method. Results indicate that this method can be used to precisely calculate the stretch direction of the pipeline and effectively improve the identification capability in detecting parallel pipelines. The horizontal position of the pipeline axis can be accurately located by the peak of the AS and the locating error increases with the increase in pipeline buried depth, but it is not affected by pipeline outer diameter, thickness, susceptibility. The instrument design and the VMF measurement strategy are realistic and applicable. The VMF detection with its AS provides a new effective method for horizontal locating and direction calculating of oil field underground pipelines.

  2. Mathematical modeling of wax deposition in oil pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Svendsen, J.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    Deposition of wax on the wall of oil pipelines is often regarded as a problem since the tube diameter is reduced. Consequently, more power is needed to force the same amount of oil through the system. A mathematical model for quantitative prediction of wax deposition for each hydrocarbon component has been developed. Each component is characterized by weight fraction, heat of fusion, and melting point temperature. A model explains how a phase transition in the flow from liquid oil to waxy crystals may create a local density gradient and mass flux, which depends on the local temperature gradient. The model predicts that wax deposition can be considerably reduced even when the wall temperature is below the wax appearance point, provided the liquid/solid phase transition, expressed by the change in moles of liquid with temperature, is small at the wall temperature. Deposition as function of time has been obtained as a solution of differential equations derived from the principles of mass and energy conservation and the laws of diffusion.

  3. Troll oil pipeline: Advanced landfall solution at Mongstad

    SciTech Connect

    Sintini, G.L.; Bernardi, M.; Doerheim, M.K.; Kjosavik, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    The landfall of the 16-in. Troll Oil Pipeline is achieved by means of a 30-in. cased borehole routed through hard metamorphic rock using up-to-date technology for drilling, down hole directional control and path survey. The borehole, which extends over a total length of 760 m, starts in a clear area inside the Mongstad Refinery and pierces in the lowermost part of Fensfjord`s southern steep sided cliff at 314 m water depth. The deep waters at th4e offshore end required completely diverless operations. Pipeline installation inside the borehole was carried out as part of the pipelay start-up with the aid of an onshore located pull-in winch. Main topics faced during the design and the adopted technical solutions are presented, notably: borehole route and size; borehole approach route and intervention works, corrosion protection system; and auxiliary devices such as the bellmouth at the offshore end and the anchor block at the onshore end. Experience feedback from construction activities is discussed focusing on technology performance, contingencies and remedial actions.

  4. Troll oil pipeline: Pipelaying at the limits of today`s technology

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.; Sharland, G.; Sharman, G.; Curti, G.; Mastracchio, G.; Dale, H.

    1996-12-01

    The construction of the 16-in. Troll Oil Pipeline connecting the Troll field to the Mongstad Oil Terminal is regarded as one of the most technically challenging pipeline construction projects in the North Sea to date. It started with a unique landfall approach which involved pulling the pipeline through a directionally-drilled tunnel up to the oil refinery. Subsequently the Castoro Sei laybarge fitted with a 13m ramp extension, laid away to start a 30 km section of the route through the Fensfjorden. This involved installing the pipeline with low tension onto an undulating seabed in up to 540m water depth, around tight bend radii and onto numerous pre-installed gravel berms. The {+-} 3m laying corridor through many areas of the fjord required guided lay sections, using transponder arrays, to ensure that the pipeline was carefully positioned onto the gravel supports. Outside the fjord, the pipeline was constructed across the Norwegian Trench with high tension (to ensure satisfactory pipeline conditions during operation) up to the Troll field, located 85 km from the landfall. In this paper the challenges of constructing the Troll Oil Pipeline are explained. The specific engineering analyses performed and installation procedures adopted are presented to demonstrate the degree of engineering input to ensure the success of this pipeline installation. The results achieved during the construction activities, together with the lessons learned are presented and discussed.

  5. Corrosion intelligence: An application to oil and gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Calvarano, M.; Condanni, D.; Bazzoni, B.

    1997-08-01

    The transfer of sound corrosion knowledge from human experts to dedicated software tools has been individuated as a strategic activity, and, accordingly, a number of applications have been developed in recent years. This approach to corrosion, which represents a new phase, coming after those of corrosion science and corrosion engineering, has been labelled corrosion intelligence, and it matches several needs of an oil company, as: standardization of design procedures; capitalization of available knowledge in programs easy to update; decentralization of the expertise. The paper illustrates an expert system dealing with all aspects related to oil and gas pipeline corrosion, including: internal and external corrosion; material selection and corrosion control requirements; internal corrosion monitoring; coatings; cathodic protection; corrosion in transient phases; intelligent pig inspection; costs comparison. In particular, the modules for internal and external corrosion assessment are described. The general architecture of the application, based on independent expert modules, is discussed in detail and examples of results, with relevant interfaces, are shown. The expert system is also evaluated with respect to another software application for the assessment of corrosion risks.

  6. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... received by carrier as to the division of interest and to whose account transported oil should be credited... the transfer of ownership of oil or other products in carrier's custody 3 years. Tariffs and Rates 20... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  7. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... received by carrier as to the division of interest and to whose account transported oil should be credited... the transfer of ownership of oil or other products in carrier's custody 3 years. Tariffs and Rates 20... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  8. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... received by carrier as to the division of interest and to whose account transported oil should be credited... the transfer of ownership of oil or other products in carrier's custody 3 years. Tariffs and Rates 20... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  9. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... received by carrier as to the division of interest and to whose account transported oil should be credited... the transfer of ownership of oil or other products in carrier's custody 3 years. Tariffs and Rates 20... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  10. Frequency spectrum method-based stress analysis for oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  11. Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  12. 77 FR 65513 - Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ..., composition and filing of rates and charges by interstate oil pipelines for transportation in interstate..., and update its regulations governing the form, composition and filing of rates and charges...

  13. 75 FR 44893 - Pipeline Posting Requirements Under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    .... 720, 73 FR 73,494 (Dec. 2, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,283 (2008) (Order No. 720). \\2\\ Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act, Order No. 720-A, 75 FR 5178 (Jan. 21, 2010... Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act, 73 FR 1116 (Jan. 7, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs....

  14. 75 FR 5177 - Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... clarification of Order No. 720. \\1\\ Pipeline Posting Requirements under section 23 of the Natural Gas Act, 73 FR... Natural Gas Act, 73 FR 1116 (Jan. 7, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs., Proposed Regulations 2004-2007 ] 32,626.... 670, 71 FR 4244 (Jan. 26, 2006), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,202 (2006). \\44\\ TPA Request for...

  15. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  16. A perspective on pipeline pricing under the Natural Gas Act

    SciTech Connect

    Threadgill, E.E.

    1995-12-31

    Pricing different services to a single class of customers, and pricing different services to the same or different classes of customers, are complex matters which, in many instances, are case specific. Cost responsibilities, market demands, and national policies should be taken into account in pricing pipeline services. But one fact is eminently clear, and that is that radically different {open_quotes}FERC incremental{close_quotes} rates for the same service to the same class of customers, depending upon the date upon which the customers signed contracts for an expansion of service, are unduly discriminatory and illegal under the NGA.

  17. Development and application of oil-spill risk assessment model for offshore pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Wang, Jia; Wei, Wenpu; Yang, Yong; An, Wei

    2014-06-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects: corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault; the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts' opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipeline in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  18. Method for oil pipeline leak detection based on distributed fiber optic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huabo; Tu, Yaqing; Luo, Ting

    1998-08-01

    Pipeline leak detection is a difficult problem to solve up to now. Some traditional leak detection methods have such problems as high rate of false alarm or missing detection, low location estimate capability. For the problems given above, a method for oil pipeline leak detection based on distributed optical fiber sensor with special coating is presented. The fiber's coating interacts with hydrocarbon molecules in oil, which alters the refractive indexed of the coating. Therefore the light-guiding properties of the fiber are modified. Thus pipeline leak location can be determined by OTDR. Oil pipeline lead detection system is designed based on the principle. The system has some features like real time, multi-point detection at the same time and high location accuracy. In the end, some factors that probably influence detection are analyzed and primary improving actions are given.

  19. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  20. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  1. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  2. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  3. DRIFT CARD OBSERVATIONS IN NORTHWESTERN WASHINGTON ALONG PORTIONS OF TWO PROPOSED OIL PIPELINE ROUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During April 1978 and July 1980, a total of 5257 drift cards were released along portions of two pipelines proposed to carry crude oil across Washington State. The thin floatable plastic cards, having a specific gravity close to most crude oils, drift predominantly under the infl...

  4. Why the poor pay with their lives: oil pipeline vandalisation, fires and human security in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onuoha, Freedom C

    2009-07-01

    Since its discovery in Nigeria in 1956 crude oil has been a source of mixed blessing to the country. It is believed to have generated enormous wealth, but it has also claimed a great many lives. Scholarly attention on the impact of oil on security in Nigeria has largely focused on internal conflicts rather than on how disasters associated with oil pipeline vandalisation have impacted on human security in terms of causing bodily injuries and death, destroying livelihoods and fracturing families. This paper examines how pipeline vandalisation affects human security in these ways. It identifies women and children as those who are hardest hit and questions why the poor are the most vulnerable in oil pipeline disasters in this country. It recommends the adoption of a comprehensive and integrated framework of disaster management that will ensure prompt response to key early warning signs, risk-reduction and appropriate mitigation and management strategies. PMID:19178551

  5. S. 1583: This Act may be cited as the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 1991, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, September 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill would amend the Natural Gas Pipeline Act of 1968 and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 to authorize appropriations and to improve pipeline safety. The bill describes the following: authorization of appropriations; definitions; environmental protection; identification of certain pipelines; rapid shutdown of pipeline facilities; excess flow valves; replacement of cast iron pipelines; safety of pipe not owned by pipeline operators; one-call notification systems; underwater abandoned pipeline facilities; study of underwater abandoned pipeline facilities; and exemption from hours of service requirements.

  6. Drift card observations in northwestern Washington along portions of two proposed oil pipeline routes

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.M.; Ebbesmeyer, C.C.; Helseth, J.M.; Coomes, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    During April 1978 and July 1980, a total of 5257 drift cards were released along portions of two pipelines proposed to carry crude oil across Washington State. The thin floatable plastic cards, having a specific gravity close to most crude oils, drift predominantly under the influence of local currents and winds until beached. Their reported recovery assists in determining possible trajectories and shoreline impact areas of potential surface and near surface oil spills.

  7. Ability to protect oil/gas pipelines and subsea installations from icebergs in the Hibernia area

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    Mobil Oil Canada has examined 2 pipeline routes from Hibernia to the Newfoundland coast. The Northern Route is from Hibernia to the Bay of Bulls, a distance of ca 200 miles. The Southern Route is from Hibernia to Trepassey Bay, a distance of ca 225 miles. Both these routes go through the Avalon channel which has water depths of 200 m, or over 600 ft, with very steep slopes on both sides of the channel. To protect pipelines from icebergs and iceberg scour, there is really only one obvious solution and that is to bury the pipeline several feet below the deepest known iceberg scour depth.

  8. A combined kriging and stochastic method to map paraffin scale growth in oil pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, R. K.; Novrianto, A. R.; Rahmawati, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Paraffin is a common deposit in oil production pipeline. It occurs when the oil flowing-temperature is under Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) or pour-point temperature. Several prediction models so far only estimatethe location where the paraffin-wax is possibly formed and there is no prediction about paraffin-wax growth over time. Therefore, this paper presents a new mathematical model to accurately predict paraffin-wax growth in oil production pipeline. The proposed model contains stochastic and kriging method. The stochastic model is developed based on Markov and Poisson model and used to describe the generation time and growth of scale. Kriging model is then combined to describe the position of scale along the production pipeline. As the result of the combined model, paraffin-wax thickness can be mapped in space and time. This prediction is important to determine and decide an effective production operation and efficient investment.

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  10. Oil and Gas Wells and Pipelines on U.S. Wildlife Refuges: Challenges for Managers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration. PMID:25915417

  11. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro; Mosley, Sherri Baker

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration. PMID:25915417

  12. 78 FR 32090 - Filing, Indexing, and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Service Requirements, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 77 FR 65513 (Oct. 29, 2012), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 32... governing the form, composition and filing of rates and charges by interstate oil pipelines for... update its regulations governing the form, composition and filing of rates and charges by interstate...

  13. Impact of the Keystone XL pipeline on global oil markets and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it `does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution'. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production. We find that for every barrel of increased production, global oil consumption would increase 0.6 barrels owing to the incremental decrease in global oil prices. As a result, and depending on the extent to which the pipeline leads to greater oil sands production, the net annual impact of Keystone XL could range from virtually none to 110 million tons CO2 equivalent annually. This spread is four times wider than found by the US State Department (1-27 million tons CO2e), who did not account for global oil market effects. The approach used here, common in lifecycle analysis, could also be applied to other pending fossil fuel extraction and supply infrastructure.

  14. Chemical effects on crude oil pipeline pressure problems

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, M.E.

    1984-05-01

    In the surface transportation of crude oils, high flowline pressures are encountered for a number of reasons. Basically these are a function of the rheological and depositional properties of the crude oil under the temperature-profile and shear-rate conditions developed in the system. These problems can be categorized into these areas: paraffin deposition, asphaltene deposition, thixotropic crude oil, turbulent flow transmission, and low-gravity asphaltic-based crude oils. Various laboratory and field tests are used to identify the key features of these problem crudes for identification and chemical treatment purposes.

  15. A Model for Oil-Gas Pipelines Cost Prediction Based on a Data Mining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Fragiskos A.; Spanidis, Phillip-Mark P.

    2009-08-01

    This paper addresses the problems associated with the cost estimation of oil/gas pipelines during the elaboration of feasibility assessments. Techno-economic parameters, i.e., cost, length and diameter, are critical for such studies at the preliminary design stage. A methodology for the development of a cost prediction model based on Data Mining (DM) process is proposed. The design and implementation of a Knowledge Base (KB), maintaining data collected from various disciplines of the pipeline industry, are presented. The formulation of a cost prediction equation is demonstrated by applying multiple regression analysis using data sets extracted from the KB. Following the methodology proposed, a learning context is inductively developed as background pipeline data are acquired, grouped and stored in the KB, and through a linear regression model provide statistically substantial results, useful for project managers or decision makers.

  16. Pollution from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines.

  17. H. R. 2325: Comprehensive Oil Pollution Liability and Compensation Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 11, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 2325 would establish a domestic liability and compensation system for oil pollution from vessels and facilities and would implement the 1984 Protocols to the 1969 Civil Liability and 1971 Fund Conventions concerning seagoing tanker-source oil pollution. The goal of this act is to: (1) strengthen the four existing oil pollution liability and compensation regimes under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, the Deepwater Port Act, and the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act to create a unified program; (2) establish a system financed by vessel and facility owners and the oil industry to compensate the US government, the states, and Indian tribes for removal and restoration costs associated with oil spills; and (3) provide greater protection from foreign tanker oil spills by implementing the existing protocols and conventions.

  18. Oil pipeline geohazard monitoring using optical fiber FBG strain sensors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Ferro, Andres; Mendez, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Pipelines are naturally vulnerable to operational, environmental and man-made effects such as internal erosion and corrosion; mechanical deformation due to geophysical risks and ground movements; leaks from neglect and vandalism; as well as encroachments from nearby excavations or illegal intrusions. The actual detection and localization of incipient and advanced faults in pipelines is a very difficult, expensive and inexact task. Anything that operators can do to mitigate the effects of these faults will provide increased reliability, reduced downtime and maintenance costs, as well as increased revenues. This talk will review the on-line monitoring of an extensive network of oil pipelines in service in Colombia using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for the measurement of strains and bending caused by geohazard risks such as soil movements, landslides, settlements, flooding and seismic activity. The FBG sensors were mounted on the outside of the pipelines at discrete locations where geohazard risk was expected. The system has been in service for the past 3 years with over 1,000 strain sensors mounted. The technique has been reliable and effective in giving advanced warning of accumulated pipeline strains as well as possible ruptures.

  19. Quantitative risk assessment & leak detection criteria for a subsea oil export pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang-Yuan; Bai, Yong; Badaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Tuty, Suhartodjo

    2009-06-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on leak detection criteria (LDC) for the design of a proposed subsea oil export pipeline is presented in this paper. The objective of this QRA/LDC study was to determine if current leak detection methodologies were sufficient, based on QRA results, while excluding the use of statistical leak detection; if not, an appropriate LDC for the leak detection system would need to be established. The famous UK PARLOC database was used for the calculation of pipeline failure rates, and the software POSVCM from MMS was used for oil spill simulations. QRA results revealed that the installation of a statistically based leak detection system (LDS) can significantly reduce time to leak detection, thereby mitigating the consequences of leakage. A sound LDC has been defined based on QRA study results and comments from various LDS vendors to assist the emergency response team (ERT) to quickly identify and locate leakage and employ the most effective measures to contain damage.

  20. Pipelines continue to lead all other forms of transport in movement of oil in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This study released by the Association of Oil Pipe Lines includes its annual study showing shifts in petroleum transportation between the years 1938 and 1979. Crude petroleum and petroleum products carried in domestic transportation by pipelines, water carriers, motor carriers, and railroads in 1979 is tabulated. A comparison of the ton-miles of crude petroleum and petroleum products carried in domestic transportation by the various modes of transport is included. (DP)

  1. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  2. Transnational opposition and negotiation: Challenges to an oil pipeline in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widener, Patricia

    The literature on transnational networks portrays transnational collaborations as advantageous to domestic stakeholders. Yet, the gains of transnational engagement may be accompanied by hardship for domestic groups. This dissertation examines how domestic stakeholders experienced the benefits and burdens of transnational collaboration in challenging the construction of the oil pipeline, the Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados, in Ecuador. Four community cases along the pipeline's route were selected for analysis. Each case varied by the experienced externalities of the oil industry and distributive struggle with the industry and the state. Lago Agrio, an oil town on the edge of the Amazon, represented a community with 30 years of oil saturation that engaged the state to determine just compensation. The capital Quito represented the nation's environmental organizations that sought a role in directing oil-funded conservation efforts. The third site, the eco-tourism community of Mindo, mobilized to reject the pipeline's route near their private reserves and to promote eco-tourism as an economic alternative to oil extraction. The final site was Esmeraldas, a coastal community experienced in tanker loading and oil refining that achieved a collective dignity in pressing for community-determined compensation. To better understand the impacts of transnational activities, this dissertation synthesizes theories of social movements, environmental justice and development. In its longitudinal and case study design, the examination of one project at four sites of contention offers insight into how transnational mobilization drives or hinders environmental justice and how grassroots groups gain or lose a forum for participation. My findings indicate that transnational campaigns benefited locals by providing expert assessments, facilitating international access and influencing international financing policies. However, the unintended consequences included a focus on international concerns

  3. Identification of environmentally vulnerable areas with priority for prevention and management of pipeline crude oil spills.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Heydrich, Silke Cram; Cervantes, Irene Sommer; Orozco, Oralia Oropeza

    2011-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the main productive activities in Mexico and has a huge infrastructure, including a wide pipeline network that crosses urban, industrial, agricultural and natural areas. The threat of crude oil spills is greatest in those regions with a high concentration of oil extraction and refining activities, as in the case of the Coatzacoalcos and Tonalá Rivers Low Basin. This study ranked the geosystems of the basin in terms of vulnerability to pipeline crude oil spills. Very high vulnerability (level I) was assigned to the water bodies (lakes and rivers) and their margins of influence, including surfaces that flood during normal hydraulic load. High vulnerability areas (level II) comprised surfaces that can flood during extraordinary hydraulic load related with extreme hydrometeorological events. The remaining three vulnerability levels were defined for areas with low or negligible flooding potential, these were ranked according to physical (slope, relief and permeability), biological (richness, singularity and integrity) and socio-economic (social marginalization index and economic activities index) conditions. These results are presented on a map for better visualization and interpretation. This study will be useful to establish preventive and effective emergency management actions in order to reduce remediation costs and adverse effects on wild species. It also can help local and national authorities, oil industry and civil protection corps to better protect ecosystems, natural resources and human activities and goods. PMID:21376445

  4. Criteria for performance assessment and calibration of in-line inspections of oil and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Hallen, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    Oil and gas pipeline operators routinely use magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic (UT) in-line inspection (ILI) to detect, locate and size metal losses caused by corrosion. As a preliminary step in fitness-for-service evaluations, the quality of the ILI is assessed through statistical comparison of the ILI data with data gathered in the field at dig sites. This work presents generalized criteria for the performance assessment and calibration of MFL and UT ILI tools from field measurements. The proposed criteria are capable of accounting for the measurement errors of both the ILI tool and the field instrument. The performance assessment of the ILI run is based on the determination of the minimum number of unsuccessful field verifications required to reject the ILI at a given significance level. The calibration of the ILI data uses new, simplified, error-in-variables methods to estimate the true size of the corrosion metal losses reported by the ILI tool. The proposed methodology also allows for determination of the errors associated with the estimation of the true defect depths. This information is of utmost importance in conducting reliability and risk assessments of pipelines based on either the probability distribution properties of the pipeline defect population, or the probability of failure of each individual defect in the pipeline. The proposed criteria are tested using Monte Carlo simulations and a real-life case study is presented to illustrate their application.

  5. New Oil Pollution Act of 1990 will impact facilities, terminals, and transports in the oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The magnitude of the Exxon Valdez spill galvanized the opinion of both the public and Congress on the need for new oil spill legislation. Consequently, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 - a comprehensive prevention, response, liability, and compensation system for dealing with oil production - was passed by the 101st Congress. This book describes in detail the new law and the liabilities it imposes; the new financial responsibility requirements placed on oil-related facilities and vessels; oil spill prevention and response obligations; and the oil industry's activities to prevent and mitigate oil spills. Also discussed are the compliance problems faced by both fixed facilities and the transportation industry.

  6. Identification and characterization of microbial biofilm communities associated with corroded oil pipeline surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Tiffany R; Duncan, Kathleen E; Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Smith, Whitney; Bonifay, Vincent; Biri, Bernadette; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has long been implicated in the deterioration of carbon steel in oil and gas pipeline systems. The authors sought to identify and characterize sessile biofilm communities within a high-temperature oil production pipeline, and to compare the profiles of the biofilm community with those of the previously analyzed planktonic communities. Eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA sequences of DNA recovered from extracted pipeline pieces, termed 'cookies,' revealed the presence of thermophilic sulfidogenic anaerobes, as well as mesophilic aerobes. Electron microscopy and elemental analysis of cookies confirmed the presence of sessile cells and chemical constituents consistent with corrosive biofilms. Mass spectrometry of cookie acid washes identified putative hydrocarbon metabolites, while surface profiling revealed pitting and general corrosion damage. The results suggest that in an established closed system, the biofilm taxa are representative of the planktonic eubacterial and archaeal community, and that sampling and monitoring of the planktonic bacterial population can offer insight into biocorrosion activity. Additionally, hydrocarbon biodegradation is likely to sustain these communities. The importance of appropriate sample handling and storage procedures to oilfield MIC diagnostics is highlighted. PMID:25115517

  7. Seismic hazard exposure for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cluff, L.S.; Page, R.A.; Slemmons, D.B.; Grouse, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of oil on Alaska's North Slope and the construction of a pipeline to transport that oil across Alaska coincided with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and a destructive Southern California earthquake in 1971 to cause stringent stipulations, state-of-the-art investigations, and innovative design for the pipeline. The magnitude 7.9 earthquake on the Denali fault in November 2002 was remarkably consistent with the design earthquake and fault displacement postulated for the Denali crossing of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline route. The pipeline maintained its integrity, and disaster was averted. Recent probabilistic studies to update previous hazard exposure conclusions suggest continuing pipeline integrity.

  8. Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book was designed for persons who lease federal lands for oil and gas development and who require an understanding of both the current and historic laws relating to leasing. The manual from this workshop is useful as a reference tool for attorneys, landsmen, and others who require information on the original Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 and all subsequent amendments, including the Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 and selected legislative history. Included in this manual is a lengthy discussion of the Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act, along with a reference section containing full text of: Mineral Leasing Act of February 25, 1920, with all amendments including the Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987, comprehensively footnoted with subject notations and comments; Senate Report 100-188: Committee Report on Leasing Reform Act; House Report 100-495: Joint Explanatory Statement on Leasing Reform Act; Testimony of the Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain States to House Interior Subcommittee on Mining and Natural Resources.

  9. The Troll oil pipeline project: A welcome challenge to survey technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trodal, L.; Nilsen, O.

    1995-12-01

    The design and engineering of the Troll oil pipeline has been totally dependent on recent development within detailed underwater survey/mapping techniques. To achieve the required data accuracy, resolution and density, a large extent of the survey work has been carried out with Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV). This project is considered a first step into the kind of detailed subsea survey work which will be required in deeper waters (1,500--2,000 meters) for engineering and construction purposes, within the next 5 years.

  10. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  11. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest. PMID:18559178

  12. Influence of the key parameters of suspended structures on the inherent frequency of oil and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S. Y.; Liu, Q. Y.; Wang, G. R.; Jiang, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Inherent frequency is an important parameter that reflects the dynamic stability of fluid-conveying pipelines. In engineering applications, the inherent frequency of pipelines is usually increased to improve their dynamic stability. The flow velocity and pressure of oil and gas pipelines cannot be altered freely. Among all of the parameters that affect the inherent frequency of suspended pipelines, the flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder, the tensile force of the cable system, and the pipe-axial precompression force are the most important. Revealing the influence laws of these three parameters could provide theoretical support for engineering designs. In this paper, a suspended crossing pipeline project was simplified as a Hetenyi's elastic foundation model. The flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder and the tensile force of the cable system were simplified as the foundation parameters G and K, respectively. The influence regularities of G, K, and the pipe-axial precompression force T on the pipeline inherent frequency were analyzed. According to the numerical simulation results, the ranks of these three parameters in descending order of importance were G, T, and K. During construction, G should be increased as much as possible. If the inherent frequency needs to be improved while pipelines have already been built up, it should be firstly considered to increase T, to values higher than zero if possible. On this basis, the further improvement of K could achieve a better result.

  13. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to determine the

  14. 75 FR 57285 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines, Extension of a Collection... Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the OCS Lands Act. DATES: Submit written comments by November 19... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 291, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the...

  15. Application of Golay codes to distributed optical fiber sensor for long-distance oil pipeline leakage and external damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yannian; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2006-03-01

    A new distributed optical fiber sensor system for long-distance oil pipeline leakage and external damage detection is presented. A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is buried beneath the soil running along the oil pipeline, which is sensitive to soakage of oil products and mechanical deformation and vibration caused by leaking, tampering, and mechanical impacting. The region of additional attenuation can be located based on the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR), and the types of external disturbances can be identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power. The Golay codes are utilized to improve the range-resolution performance of the OTDR sub-system and offer a method to characterize the transmitted optical power in a wide range of frequency spectrum. Theoretic analysis and simulation experiment have shown that the application of Golay codes can overcome the shortcomings of the prototype based on the conventional single-pulse OTDR.

  16. 77 FR 1085 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Marathon Pipe Line Company, LLC, Civil Action No. 3... this action, the United States sought to recover from Marathon natural resource damages under the Oil... pipeline owned by Marathon, of 5,000 barrels of crude oil into a forested wetland within the watershed of...

  17. Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM(2.5), gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM(2.5) are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM(2.5) are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident. PMID:25467693

  18. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  19. The lift forces acting on a submarine composite pipeline in a wave-current coexisting field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.C.; Zhang, N.C.

    1994-12-31

    The composite pipeline is defined as a main big pipe composed with one or several small pipes. The flow behavior around a submarine composite pipeline is more complicated than that around a single submarine pipeline. A series model test of composite pipelines in a wave-current coexisting field was conducted by the authors. Both in-line and lift forces were measured, and the resultant forces are also analyzed. The results of lift forces and resultant forces are reported in this paper. It is found that the lift force coefficients for composite pipelines are well related to the KC number. The lift force coefficients in an irregular wave-current coexisting field are smaller than those in regular wave-current coexisting field. The frequency of lift force is usually the twice or higher than the wave frequency. It is indicated by the authors` test that the resultant forces are larger than in-line forces (horizontal forces) about 10 to 20 percent. The effect of water depth was analyzed. Finally, the relationship between lift force coefficient C{sub l} and KC number, the statistical characteristics of lift and resultant forces, are given in this paper, which may be useful for practical engineering application.

  20. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  1. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; McInerney, Michael J.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm2, while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens. PMID:24639674

  2. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S; Duncan, Kathleen E; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm(2), while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens. PMID:24639674

  3. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  4. Subsoil TPH contamination in two oil pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in north Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, R; Flores-Serrano, R M; Castro, A; Flores, C; Torres, L G

    2010-11-01

    This investigation deals with the characterization carried out in zones around two pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in the north of Mexico. In particular those areas where contamination was evaluated: (a) south area of the separation ditch in the Avalos station, (b) the area between the separation ditch at the Avalos station, (c) km 194+420 of the Moctuzma station, and (d) km 286+900 in the Candelaria station. Results of this investigation showed that only four samples showed TPH values higher than the Mexican limit for 2004: AVA 1B, with 21,191 mg kg(-1); AVA 1C, with 9348 mg kg(-1); AVA 2B, with 13,970 mg kg(-1); and MOC 2A, with 4108 mg kg(-1).None of the sampled points showed the presence of PAHs at values higher than those found in the Mexican or American legislations. PAH were detected in the range of 0.0004 and 13.05 mg kg(-1).It is suggested to implement surfactant soil washing as a remediation technique for the approximately 600 m(3) that need to be treated. PMID:20674145

  5. Oil droplets of bird eyes: microlenses acting as spectral filters

    PubMed Central

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2014-01-01

    An important component of the cone photoreceptors of bird eyes is the oil droplets located in front of the visual-pigment-containing outer segments. The droplets vary in colour and are transparent, clear, pale or rather intensely yellow or red owing to various concentrations of carotenoid pigments. Quantitative modelling of the filter characteristics using known carotenoid pigment spectra indicates that the pigments’ absorption spectra are modified by the high concentrations that are present in the yellow and red droplets. The high carotenoid concentrations not only cause strong spectral filtering but also a distinctly increased refractive index at longer wavelengths. The oil droplets therefore act as powerful spherical microlenses, effectively channelling the spectrally filtered light into the photoreceptor's outer segment, possibly thereby compensating for the light loss caused by the spectral filtering. The spectral filtering causes narrow-band photoreceptor spectral sensitivities, which are well suited for spectral discrimination, especially in birds that have feathers coloured by carotenoid pigments. PMID:24395968

  6. Predictive and preventive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines in the area North Monagas-Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M.A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Predictive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines has allowed the prediction of operational failures. Specially due to the thermodynamic behavior of the produced fluids, contaminants present in the oil and gas such as sand, water, H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}, asphaltene deposition, high temperatures and pressures, physicochemical characteristics of the soil, etc. lead to risks of the installations. In order to minimize risks of failures, the author has established a control and monitoring preventive program of the variables that influence these conditions, such as: nondestructive testing, wall thickness measurements and two dimensional B Scan measurements to detect impurities, laminations and inclusions in the pipeline material, corrosion evaluation of pipelines, characterization of the soil corrosive potential of flow stations and compressing plants. Additionally, he has implemented predictive control through the application of external corrosion prevention techniques such as cathodic protection and coatings. For internal corrosion, the use of corrosion inhibitors, asphaltene dispersants and material selection are used. Increasing the protection through preventive and predictive maintenance can reduce the operational risks involved for the oil and gas production.

  7. Energy landscapes: Coal canals, oil pipelines, and electricity transmission wires in the mid-Atlantic, 1820--1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christopher F.

    2009-12-01

    Coal canals, oil pipelines, and electricity transmission wires transformed the built environment of the American mid-Atlantic region between 1820 and 1930. By transporting coal, oil, and electrons cheaply, reliably, and in great quantities, these technologies reshaped the energy choices available to mid-Atlantic residents. In particular, canals, pipelines, and wires created new energy landscapes: systems of transport infrastructure that enabled the ever-increasing consumption of fossil fuels. Energy Landscapes integrates history of technology, environmental history, and business history to provide new perspectives on how Americans began to use fossil fuels and the social implications of these practices. First, I argue that the development of transport infrastructure played critical, and underappreciated, roles in shaping social energy choices. Rather than simply responding passively to the needs of producers and consumers, canals, pipelines, and wires structured how, when, where, and in what quantities energy was used. Second, I analyze the ways fossil fuel consumption transformed the society, economy, and environment of the mid-Atlantic. I link the consumption of coal, oil, and electricity to the development of an urban and industrialized region, the transition from an organic to a mineral economy, and the creation of a society dependent on fossil fuel energy.

  8. Safety enhancement of oil trunk pipeline crossing active faults on Sakhalin Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishkina, E.; Antropova, N.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    The article explores the issues concerning safety enhancement of pipeline active fault crossing on Sakhalin Island. Based on the complexity and analysis results, all the faults crossed by pipeline system are classified into five categories - from very simple faults to extremely complex ones. The pipeline fault crossing design is developed in accordance with the fault category. To enhance pipeline safety at fault crossing, a set of methods should be applied: use of pipes of different safety classes and special trench design in accordance with soil permeability characteristics.

  9. Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig. PMID:24792683

  10. Oil and gas pipeline construction cost analysis and developing regression models for cost estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaduri, Ravi Kiran

    In this study, cost data for 180 pipelines and 136 compressor stations have been analyzed. On the basis of the distribution analysis, regression models have been developed. Material, Labor, ROW and miscellaneous costs make up the total cost of a pipeline construction. The pipelines are analyzed based on different pipeline lengths, diameter, location, pipeline volume and year of completion. In a pipeline construction, labor costs dominate the total costs with a share of about 40%. Multiple non-linear regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of pipelines for various cross-sectional areas, lengths and locations. The Compressor stations are analyzed based on the capacity, year of completion and location. Unlike the pipeline costs, material costs dominate the total costs in the construction of compressor station, with an average share of about 50.6%. Land costs have very little influence on the total costs. Similar regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of compressor station for various capacities and locations.

  11. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  12. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  13. 76 FR 28968 - Imperial Oil and ExxonMobil Oil Corporation, v. Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Lights) LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on May 11, 2011, pursuant to Rule 206 of the Rules of... Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC (Respondent). Complainants are challenging certain rates, terms...

  14. Worldwide rehabilitation work is undergoing major changes. [Rehabilitation of oil and gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.A. )

    1994-02-01

    This paper reviews methods for the rehabilitation of in-service pipeline systems and the types of protective coatings which appear to work best. The paper also compares the cost benefits of retrofitting the pipeline versus abandonment, replacement, or operation at reduced pressure and flows. A review of the normal procedure for retrofitting a pipeline is discussed and includes administrative procedures, coating removal procedures, surface preparation, and new coating application. A discussion of inherent problems found with both out-of-ditch and in-situ types of rehabilitation. Equipment for surface preparation is also presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each along with the effectiveness on different types of metal surfaces.

  15. Coal slurry pipelines. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation and Commerce of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress. [Coal Pipeline Act of 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Witnesses at an August 28, 1980 hearing on the proposed Coal Pipeline Act of 1980 (HR 6879) focused on the controversial issues of depleted ground water, contamination from waste water, and the competitive fairness to the regulated railroads and other transportation modes. The text of HR 6879 is followed by ten statements and additional materials submitted by representatives of the railroads, pipeline companies, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and other agencies. Water rights cause special concerns for an already water-scarce area. Of equal importance is the need to keep the nation's rail industry viable in order to transport food and other commodities. Proponents of the pipeline, including government agencies, urged passage or eminent-domain rights, and encourage strong competition for the railroads. The EPA considers the use of recycled municipal waste water and saline water a valid solution to the water supply problem. (DCK)

  16. Health, safety and environmental risk of a gas pipeline in an oil exploring area of Gachsaran.

    PubMed

    Kalatpoor, Omid; Goshtasp, Kambiz; Khavaji, Solieman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was assessing health, safety and environmental risk of a gas transfer pipeline in an oily area of Gachsaran. In this method, we used the Kent's pipeline risk assessment method except that to facilitate using the method more practically some changes were exerted into Kent's method. A pipeline with 16 kilometers length was selected considering surrounding nature of the pipeline. It was divided into two sections. Analogous to Kent's method, in this method, parameters included: interested party's injuries, corrosion, design factor, incorrect operation index and consequence scoring. The difference here was that for consequence scoring we used ALOHA 5.6 software instead of Kent's pattern. Results showed that health, safety and environmental risks of section 2 (the next 13 kilometers of outgoing pipeline from gas station after the first 3 kilometers) were greater. It seems the main cause of gaining a bigger risk number was related to more activities of interested parties around section 2. Because all figures gathered from indexes are almost close to gather except third parties activity. PMID:21173529

  17. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  18. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  19. Induced electric currents in the Alaska oil pipeline measured by gradient, fluxgate, and SQUID magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. H.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The field gradient method for observing the electric currents in the Alaska pipeline provided consistent values for both the fluxgate and SQUID method of observation. These currents were linearly related to the regularly measured electric and magnetic field changes. Determinations of pipeline current were consistent with values obtained by a direct connection, current shunt technique at a pipeline site about 9.6 km away. The gradient method has the distinct advantage of portability and buried- pipe capability. Field gradients due to the pipe magnetization, geological features, or ionospheric source currents do not seem to contribute a measurable error to such pipe current determination. The SQUID gradiometer is inherently sensitive enough to detect very small currents in a linear conductor at 10 meters, or conversely, to detect small currents of one amphere or more at relatively great distances. It is fairly straightforward to achieve imbalance less than one part in ten thousand, and with extreme care, one part in one million or better.

  20. Referral of small oil spills to coast guard under Oil Pollution Act before new enforcement MOU is in effect

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-17

    The memorandum supplements earlier guidance concerning a case-by-case approach to the referral of post-Oil Pollution Act (OPA) oil spills to the Coast Guard. Congress has rewritten Section 311 to provide additional administrative and judicial oil spill enforcement remedies when it passed the OPA, and noted in the legislative history that this new authority is available to both the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of Transportation.

  1. 76 FR 26768 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, as amended by the Oil Pollution... operation of oil pipelines on the North Slope of Alaska. The Clean Water Act claims in the Complaint arise from two unauthorized discharges of crude oil in the spring and summer of 2006, as well as...

  2. 78 FR 69121 - Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...; 134E1700D2 EEEE500000 ET1SF0000.DAQ000] Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access.... These regulations concern open and nondiscriminatory access to pipelines, and are the subject of this...) concerns a renewal to the paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 Part 291, Open...

  3. Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Al/Al2O3 Duplex Coating on Pipeline Steel X80 in Simulated Oil and Gas Well Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ping-Gu; Shi, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Meng-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Corrosion resistant Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating for pipeline steel X80 was prepared by a combined treatment of low-temperature aluminizing and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Phase composition and microstructure of mono-layer Fe-Al coating and Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Corrosion resistance of the coated pipeline steel X80 in a simulated oil and gas well condition was also investigated. Mono-layer Fe-Al coating consists of Fe2Al5 and FeAl, which is a suitable transitional layer for the preparation of ceramic coating by MAO on the surface of pipeline steel X80. Under the same corrosion condition at 373 K for 168 h with 1 MPa CO2 and 0.1 MPa H2S, corrosion weight loss rate of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating decreased to 23% of original pipeline steel X80, which improved by 10% than that of pipeline steel X80 with mono-layer Fe-Al coating. It cannot find obvious cracks and pits on the corrosion surface of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating.

  4. Pyrosequencing Investigation into the Bacterial Community in Permafrost Soils along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai

    2012-01-01

    The China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) goes through 441 km permafrost soils in northeastern China. The bioremediation in case of oil spills is a major concern. So far, little is known about the indigenous bacteria inhabiting in the permafrost soils along the pipeline. A pilot 454 pyrosequencing analysis on the communities from four selected sites which possess high environment risk along the CRCOP is herein presented. The results reveal an immense bacterial diversity than previously anticipated. A total of 14448 OTUs with 84834 reads are identified, which could be assigned into 39 different phyla, and 223 families or 386 genera. Only five phyla sustain a mean OTU abundance more than 5% in all the samples, but they altogether account for 85.08% of total reads. Proteobacteria accounts for 41.65% of the total OTUs or 45% of the reads across all samples, and its proportion generally increases with soil depth, but OTUs numerically decline. Among Proteobacteria, the abundance of Beta-, Alpha-, Delta- and Gamma- subdivisions average to 38.7% (2331 OTUs), 37.5% (2257 OTUs), 10.35% (616 OTUs), and 6.21% (374 OTUs), respectively. Acidobacteria (esp. Acidobacteriaceae), Actinobacteria (esp. Intrasporangiaceae), Bacteroidetes (esp. Sphingobacteria and Flavobacteria) and Chloroflexi (esp. Anaerolineaceae) are also very common, accounting for 8.56% (1237 OTUs), 7.86% (1136 OTUs); 7.35% (1063 OTUs) and 8.27% (1195 OTUs) of total libraries, respectively. The ordination analysis indicates that bacteria communities in the upper active layer cluster together (similar), while bacterial consortia from the lower active layer and permafrost table scatter (less similar). The abundance of Rhodococcus (12 OTUs), Pseudomonas (71 OTUs) and Sphingomonas (87 OTUs) is even less (<0.01%). This effort to profile the background diversity may set the first stage for better evaluating the bacterial dynamics in response to accidental oil spills. PMID:23300754

  5. Parallel pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.; Bai, R.; Liao, T.Y.; Huang, A.; Hu, H.H.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the idea of parallel pipelining for water lubricated transportation of oil (or other viscous material). A parallel system can have major advantages over a single pipe with respect to the cost of maintenance and continuous operation of the system, to the pressure gradients required to restart a stopped system and to the reduction and even elimination of the fouling of pipe walls in continuous operation. The authors show that the action of capillarity in small pipes is more favorable for restart than in large pipes. In a parallel pipeline system, they estimate the number of small pipes needed to deliver the same oil flux as in one larger pipe as N = (R/r){sup {alpha}}, where r and R are the radii of the small and large pipes, respectively, and {alpha} = 4 or 19/7 when the lubricating water flow is laminar or turbulent.

  6. AN EVALUATION OF PYROLYSIS OIL PROPERTIES AND CHEMISTRY AS RELATED TO PROCESS AND UPGRADE CONDITIONS WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO PIPELINE SHIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G; Boyd, Alison C

    2012-01-01

    One factor limiting the development of commercial biomass pyrolysis is challenges related to the transportation of the produced pyrolysis oil. The oil has different chemical and physical properties than crude oil, including more water and oxygen and has lower H/C ratio, higher specific gravity and density, higher acidity, and lower energy content. These differences could limit its ability to be transported by existing petroleum pipelines. Pyrolysis oil can also be treated, normally by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, and approaches crude oil and petroleum condensates at higher severity levels. This improvement also results in lower liquid yield and high hydrogen consumption. Biomass resources for pyrolysis are expected to become plentiful and widely distributed in the future, mainly through the use of crop residuals and growing of energy crops such as perennial grasses, annual grasses, and woody crops. Crude oil pipelines are less well distributed and, when evaluated on a county level, could access about 18% of the total biomass supply. States with high potential include Texas, Oklahoma, California, and Louisiana. In this study, published data on pyrolysis oil was compiled into a data set along with bio-source source material, pyrolysis reactor conditions, and upgrading conditions for comparison to typical crude oils. Data of this type is expected to be useful in understanding the properties and chemistry and shipment of pyrolysis oil to refineries, where it can be further processed to fuel or used as a source of process heat.

  7. Virtual Instrumentation Corrosion Controller for Natural Gas Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, J.; Agnihotri, G.; Deshpande, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion is an electrochemical process. Corrosion in natural gas (methane) pipelines leads to leakages. Corrosion occurs when anode and cathode are connected through electrolyte. Rate of corrosion in metallic pipeline can be controlled by impressing current to it and thereby making it to act as cathode of corrosion cell. Technologically advanced and energy efficient corrosion controller is required to protect natural gas pipelines. Proposed virtual instrumentation (VI) based corrosion controller precisely controls the external corrosion in underground metallic pipelines, enhances its life and ensures safety. Designing and development of proportional-integral-differential (PID) corrosion controller using VI (LabVIEW) is carried out. When the designed controller is deployed at field, it maintains the pipe to soil potential (PSP) within safe operating limit and not entering into over/under protection zone. Horizontal deployment of this technique can be done to protect all metallic structure, oil pipelines, which need corrosion protection.

  8. New Journal index will measure gas pipeline inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1982-09-20

    This article marks the start of a new pipeline cost index, for gas pipelines. Its objective is to complement the Journal's oil pipeline cost index, started with the Nov. 19, 1979 issue. This new gas pipeline cost index will be published quarterly, as will the OGJ MORGAN Oil Pipeline Cost Index.

  9. Alternatives to Double Hull Tank Vessel Design, Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-24

    The report required by section 4115(e) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The report concludes that, at present, there are no equivalent designs to the double hull tanker for the prevention of oil outflow due to groundings, which are the most prevalent type of serious vessel accident in U.S. waters. The report does not recommend any changes to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to allow alternatives to double hull design, but does recommend that the Coast Guard continue to evaluate novel tanker designs and associated technologies.

  10. Efficacy of natural biocide on control of microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines mediated by Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas.

    PubMed

    Lavania, Meeta; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Mandal, Ajoy K; Cheema, Simrita; Lal, Banwari

    2011-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of a natural biocide with four chemical tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate, benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, and formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, to control microbial induced corrosion in oil pipelines. The efficacy of biocides were monitored against Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in experimental pipes by measuring cell counts, H2S production, Fe(II) production, production of extracellular polymeric substances and structure of biofilm. The treatment with cow urine had minimum planktonic cell counts of 3 x 10(2) CFU/mL as well as biofilm cell counts of 9 x 10(1) CFU/mL as compared with tetrakishydroxyl methyl phosphonium sulfonate, benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. Sulfide production was the lowest with cow urine (0.08 mmol/L), followed by tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfonate 0.72 mmol/L. On day 90 of treatment, Fe(II) production was also found to be the lowest with cow urine. The scanning electron microscopic studies indicated that the biofilm bacteria were killed by cow urine. These results demonstrate the cow urine mediated control of microbially induced corrosion, and this is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of toxic biocides. To the best of our knowledge, this seems to be the first report which screens possible biocidal activity by cow urine as compared to the most common biocides which oil industry is currently using. PMID:22128548

  11. 76 FR 67385 - Claims Procedures Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... interim rule, titled ``Claims Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990'' (Interim Rule, 57 FR 36316, August 12... Facility to each document in the public docket for this rulemaking E.O. Federal Executive Order FR Federal... Water Pollution Control Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387 (2010) Interim Rule The Coast Guard's interim...

  12. Troll oil pipeline: Assessment of slope and gravel sleeper stability in steep fjord areas

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, A.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Nadim, F.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the slope stability evaluation in the steep areas of the Fensfjord. The main focus in the study has been to establish appropriate undrained shear strength for static and dynamic stability analyses, make a reasonable prediction of the earthquake induced permanent deformation and evaluate the post-earthquake static stability. The special laboratory testing and analysis conducted showed that the only consequence of earthquake loading is limited permanent deformations. Analysis of gravel supports on soft clay showed that three supports needed counter fills in order to fulfill the design requirements. At the tunnel entrance point of the pipeline at Mongstad, the soft clay at the seabed had to be excavated in order to attain satisfactory stability for the gravel support.

  13. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  14. Pipeline accident statistics: Base to pipeline rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chis, T.

    1996-12-31

    The climate in which pipeline companies operate continues to change. Industry failures, related to public safety and environmental concerns, are now front page news. New and proposed regulations such as drug and alcohol testing of employees, instruments internal inspection and standardize oil spill response plans, are modifying the way pipeline companies operate. Paralleling these influences, the market place is also changing. Declining domestic production refinery closures and new specification for refined products are altering the pipe line distribution system. All of these changes are presenting new opportunities and many challenges. In 1995, when Conpet S.A. Ploiesti Formalized Pipeline Integrity Program, the reasons for the program were: What is the location to pipeline rehabilitation? What is failure probability? This paper reviews some aspects of the pipeline accident statistic to the Constanta Division of Conpet S.A. Ploiesti.

  15. 75 FR 80300 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) is issuing this Final Order concluding its third five-year review of the oil pricing index, established in Order No. 561. After consideration of the initial, reply and supplemental comments, the Commission has concluded that an index level of Producer Price Index for Finished Goods plus 2.65 percent (PPI-FG+2.65) should be established for......

  16. Decision fusion framework in diagnostic and prognostic assessment of long-distance oil pipeline leakage and damage based on Dempster Shafer theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannian, Wang; Zhuangde, Jiang

    2005-01-01

    A decision fusion algorithm in diagnostic and prognostic assessment of long-distance oil pipeline leakage and damage based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory is proposed in this paper. To monitor the leakage and external damage, a new monitoring system is constructed with an optical fiber cable installed along the pipeline as a distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) and a pair of pressure meters installed at the pipeline inlet and outlet. When leaking, the oil stream disturbs the cable and a negative-pressure wave originates which propagates to pipe inlet and outlet. The probability of leaking is evaluated according to the correlation coefficient of negative-pressure waves acquired at the inlet and outlet, and the location is pinpointed using the negative-pressure method. The optical fiber cable is sensitive to soakage of oil products and mechanical deformation/vibration caused by leaking, tampering, or mechanical impacting. An optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) is employed to locate the additional attenuation and an optical power meter is employed to record the transmitted optical power. By using the D-S rule, features generated from the waveforms of optical power and negative-pressures are fused to make a decision about whether and where there is leakage and/or external damage.

  17. 1997 annual pipeline directory and equipment guide

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This annual guide is divided into the following sections: Equivalent valve tables; Complete 1997 line pipe tables; Engineering and construction services; Crude oil pipeline companies; Slurry companies; Natural gas companies; Gas distribution pipeline companies; Municipal gas systems; Canadian pipeline companies; International pipeline companies; and Company index. The tables list component materials, manufacturers, and service companies.

  18. The influence of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 on structural design and economics of oil tankers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, Yousif Ibrahim

    Scope and method of study. Since the discovery of oil in 1859, the transportation of oil and oil products has always been associated with accidents and groundings of the tanker carriers. During the past 25 years, the United States and other nations have become increasingly concerned about oil spills associated with waterborne transportation of oil. Legislative initiatives aimed at reducing oil spills have evolved slowly in direct response to tanker accidents that took place over the years. For the most part, legislation prior to 1990 had been developed under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization. However, the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90) was a major departure from the international effort to address the shortcomings in tanker design and operation. In mandating a requirement to change from single-hull to double-hull designs, the United States acted unilaterally. Section 4115 of OPA90 excludes single-hull tankers of 5000 gross tons or more from U.S. waters after the period 2010--2015. This study reviewed and analyzed the history of oil spills and the effectiveness of oil spill regulations. Findings and conclusions. An economic analysis which included costs, risks, and benefits of double-hull technology has proved that the increase in capital and operational costs of double-hull tankers is higher than the expected benefits of reducing oil spills if an accident were to occur. OPA90 and Regulations 13F and 13G, which may be viewed as political mandates, have forced the shipbuilding industry to drastically change its standard for the design of oil tankers from single- to double-hull tankers without giving the industry any clear design guidelines or proven standards. It is a prime example of political expediency taking over the economic and technical factors needed for any new design to be successful and economically feasible. As a general rule of thumb, any new design takes from 15 to 20 years to become mature, error-free, and ready to be

  19. A comparison study of SARA fractions from conventional and heavy crude oils in relation to their deposition tendency in production pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Carbognani, L.; Espidel, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Asphaltene deposition is a widespread problem in the oil industry. Well and oil pipeline clogging causes very significant economic losses and operational delays. In spite of these problems, very little has been reported about the chemical nature of such deposits and the mechanism by which they form. The results show that conventional crudes (troublesome) have a lower asphaltene content. However, such asphaltenes exhibit a higher degree of condensation and aromaticity than their counterpart in heavy crude oils (trouble-free). In addition, conventional crude oils have a higher paraffin content than heavy crude oils. Furthermore, resins are found at higher percentages in heavy crude oils. These observations suggest that the chemical structure of conventional crude oil asphaltene is not compatible with the matrix in which they are contained. Following the same line of thought, a heavy crude oil asphaltene is stabilized by the matrix, due to the solvent effect provided by the high aromatic content of such crudes. Extensive data in chemical parameters of the different fractions and a possible explanation for the deposit formation are discussed.

  20. Mitigating the consequences of extreme events on strategic facilities: evaluation of volcanic and seismic risk affecting the Caspian oil and gas pipelines in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Pasquarè, F A; Tormey, D; Vezzoli, L; Okrostsvaridze, A; Tutberidze, B

    2011-07-01

    In this work we identify and quantify new seismic and volcanic risks threatening the strategic Caspian oil and gas pipelines through the Republic of Georgia, in the vicinity of the recent Abuli Samsari Volcanic Ridge, and evaluate risk reduction measures, mitigation measures, and monitoring. As regards seismic risk, we identified a major, NW-SE trending strike-slip fault; based on the analysis of fault planes along this major transcurrent structure, an about N-S trend of the maximum, horizontal compressive stress (σ1) was determined, which is in good agreement with data instrumentally derived after the 1986, M 5.6 Paravani earthquake and its aftershock. Particularly notable is the strong alignment of volcanic vents along an about N-S trend that suggests a magma rising controlled by the about N-S-directed σ1. The original pipeline design included mitigation measures for seismic risk and other geohazards, including burial of the pipeline for its entire length, increased wall thickness, block valve spacing near recognized hazards, and monitoring of known landslide hazards. However, the design did not consider volcanic risk or the specific seismic hazards revealed by this study. The result of our analysis is that the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline, as well as the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzerum South Caucasian natural gas pipeline (SCP) were designed in such a way that they significantly reduce the risk posed by the newly-identified geohazards in the vicinity of the Abuli-Samsari Ridge. No new measures are recommended for the pipeline itself as a result of this study. However, since the consequences of long-term shut-down would be very damaging to the economies of Western Europe, we conclude that the regionally significant BTC and SCP warrant greater protections, described in the final section of or work. The overall objective of our effort is to present the results in a matrix framework that allows the technical information to be used further in the decision

  1. An examination of additive-mediated wax nucleation in oil pipeline environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, A. J.; Neville, A.; Roberts, K. J.

    1999-03-01

    As part of a wider study probing the molecular-scale factors important in controlling wax crystallisation processes, the effect of additives on the surface and bulk nucleation of wax crystals from hydrocarbon solution phases was examined. Bulk nucleation data obtained in the absence and presence of two growth inhibiting additives indicated an increase in the meta-stable zone width (MSZW) on addition of both inhibitors, and differences in their kinetics of inhibition. Complementary studies of surface nucleation using a pipe blocking apparatus revealed a lowering in the temperature at which blockage occurred on addition of inhibitor to the model oil, and existence of fractional crystallisation observed in the bulk phase was confirmed. The hydrodynamic dependence of the nucleation process provided added information on how the inhibitors and wax would perform in a field situation, with a strong dependence on shear rate.

  2. Slick work: An analysis of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, C.M.; Pittman, L.; Dye, R.F.

    1992-12-31

    Long before there was an Exxon Valdez releasing over ten million gallons of crude oil into cold Alaskan waters on March 24, 1989, there was a law establishing a comprehensive compensation and liability scheme for oil discharges into United States waters. For fifteen years, Congress had debated the need to improve that scheme to no avail. Then came the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an incident that highlighted the inadequacies of the existing legal regime as never before, raising the level of national concern and the severity of the congressional response - perhaps too far in light of the actual environmental harm caused by the vast majority of spills each year. This Article begins by providing an overview of the state of the law before passage of the OPA. The OPA is then discussed in-depth, contrasting and comparing it to the pre-existing law and offering insight into the Act`s key controversies and their resolutions in Congress. Discussion of the OPA begins by looking at provisions of the Act dealing with oil spill prevention and preparedness by addressing federal removal authority, oil spill contingency plan requirements, and double hull requirements for tank vessels. Next follows a discussion of the OPA`s liability regime, exploring a number of significant provisions: compensation for removal costs and damage incurred, defenses to liability, oil spill trust fund monies, extent of cleanup requirements, claims procedure against responsible parties, limitations on liability, financial responsibility requirements, penalties, natural resource damage compensation, jurisdiction and venue requirements, and preemption. The Article concludes with a discussion of the 1984 Oil and Spill Protocols, which attempt to address the problem of oil spills at the international level, and the failure of the United States to ratify the Protocols.

  3. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. 382.203 Section 382.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  4. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. 382.203 Section 382.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  5. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. 382.203 Section 382.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  6. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. 382.203 Section 382.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  7. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. 382.203 Section 382.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  8. Building the Talent Pipeline: Policy Recommendations for "The Condition of STEM 2013." BHEF/ACT Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    ACT has been a leader in measuring college and career readiness trends for decades. Each August, ACT releases "The Condition of College & Career Readiness" (www.act.org/newsroom/data/2013), our annual report on the progress of the ACT-tested graduating class relative to college readiness. Nationally, 54.3% of the 2013 graduating…

  9. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990: Legislation in the wake of a crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Grumbles, B.H.; Manley, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    The pattern is nothing new. Congress, like any other institution, needs nudging-sometimes gentle, sometimes jolting-before it responds. An environmental crisis prompts a congressional reaction, sometimes an overreaction. The discovery of contamination at Love Canal prompted enactment of Superfund; the disaster at Bhopal, India, led to the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act; and the collision of the Exxon Valdez brought about the enactment of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. For better or for worse, the pattern of environmental crisis and legislative response remains. March 24, 1989, marked the beginning of a new age in federal and state oil spill law. After the Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh reef and spewed 11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska congressional debate on comprehensive federal legislation would never be the same. The stalemate that characterized previous congressional efforts seemed to disappear overnight. Major differences between the two chambers were either eliminated or reduced, and only 4 major issues had to be negotiated: international protocols; technical requirements relating to double hulls; cargo owner liability; state and private industry roles in oil spill contingency planning, response and cleanup efforts. This article discusses the legal manuvering and major provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

  10. 75 FR 13304 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... 15, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in the case of United States, et al. v. Polar Tankers, Inc... Decree alleging that on or about October 13, 2004, the oil tank vessel POLAR TEXAS, owned by Polar... Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C 2702(a). Under the Consent Decree, Polar Tankers, Inc., will pay assessment...

  11. 75 FR 70947 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on November 15, 2010, a proposed consent decree in United States, et al. v. Bouchard Transportation Company, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 1:10-cv-11958-NMG,...

  12. Adsorption of Oil onto API-X100 Pipeline Steel in CO2-Saturated Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the validity of Langmuir adsorption theorem in analyzing the natural corrosion inhibition by an aromatic C10H12 compound, in a hydrocarbon fuel, in 1-bar CO2-saturated solutions. The adsorption isotherms were constructed from the efficiencies of inhibition, by 10, 20, and 30 vol pct of the fuel, of the corrosion rates calculated from potentiodynamic polarization measurements, in 2 NaCl g/L solutions at 293 K, 323 K, and 353 K (20 °C, 50 °C, and 80 °C). The corrosion rates increased with temperature, and the hydrocarbon fuel, seemingly showing cathodic-inhibition characteristics, acted less efficiently accordingly; two main results the potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit measurements, demonstrated agreement on with each other.

  13. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A.; Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Leek, Donald M.; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.; Ripmeester, John A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate cages. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR experiments showed that at temperatures near 273 K, methanol is incorporated in the hydrate lattice along with other guest molecules. The amount of included methanol depends on the preparative method used. For instance, single-crystal XRD shows that at low temperatures, the methanol molecules are hydrogen-bonded in 4.4% of the small cages of tetrahydrofuran cubic structure II hydrate. At higher temperatures, NMR spectroscopy reveals a number of methanol species incorporated in hydrocarbon hydrate lattices. At temperatures characteristic of icy planetary bodies, vapor deposits of methanol, water, and methane or xenon show that the presence of methanol accelerates hydrate formation on annealing and that there is unusually complex phase behavior as revealed by powder XRD and NMR spectroscopy. The presence of cubic structure I hydrate was confirmed and a unique hydrate phase was postulated to account for the data. Molecular dynamics calculations confirmed the possibility of methanol incorporation into the hydrate lattice and show that methanol can favorably replace a number of methane guests. PMID:23661058

  14. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A; Moudrakovski, Igor L; Leek, Donald M; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I; Ripmeester, John A

    2013-05-21

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate cages. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR experiments showed that at temperatures near 273 K, methanol is incorporated in the hydrate lattice along with other guest molecules. The amount of included methanol depends on the preparative method used. For instance, single-crystal XRD shows that at low temperatures, the methanol molecules are hydrogen-bonded in 4.4% of the small cages of tetrahydrofuran cubic structure II hydrate. At higher temperatures, NMR spectroscopy reveals a number of methanol species incorporated in hydrocarbon hydrate lattices. At temperatures characteristic of icy planetary bodies, vapor deposits of methanol, water, and methane or xenon show that the presence of methanol accelerates hydrate formation on annealing and that there is unusually complex phase behavior as revealed by powder XRD and NMR spectroscopy. The presence of cubic structure I hydrate was confirmed and a unique hydrate phase was postulated to account for the data. Molecular dynamics calculations confirmed the possibility of methanol incorporation into the hydrate lattice and show that methanol can favorably replace a number of methane guests. PMID:23661058

  15. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  18. 78 FR 34703 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

  19. Protecting a pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.H ); Garcia-Lopez, M. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  20. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  1. 78 FR 11682 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean Water Act On February 12, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed consent decree with the United States District Court for the District of Kansas...

  2. 77 FR 55861 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA'') Notice is hereby given... and Section 48-1-90 of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act, S.C. Code Ann. Sec. 48-1-90. In...

  3. Seismic hazard along a crude oil pipeline in the event of an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.H.M.; Chen, C.H.S.

    1990-04-16

    An assessment of the seismic hazard that exists along the major crude oil pipeline running through the New Madrid seismic zone from southeastern Louisiana to Patoka, Illinois is examined in the report. An 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake with moment magnitude 8.2 is assumed to occur at three locations where large historical earthquakes have occurred. Six pipeline crossings of the major rivers in West Tennessee are chosen as the sites for hazard evaluation because of the liquefaction potential at these sites. A seismologically-based model is used to predict the bedrock accelerations. Uncertainties in three model parameters, i.e., stress parameter, cutoff frequency, and strong-motion duration are included in the analysis. Each parameter is represented by three typical values. From the combination of these typical values, a total of 27 earthquake time histories can be generated for each selected site due to an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake occurring at a postulated seismic source.

  4. 41 CFR 50-210.1 - Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers. 50-210.1 Section 50-210.1 Public...-210.1 Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers... Interpretations No. 2 1 with respect to coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck...

  5. 41 CFR 50-210.1 - Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers. 50-210.1 Section 50-210.1 Public...-210.1 Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers... Interpretations No. 2 1 with respect to coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck...

  6. 41 CFR 50-210.1 - Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers. 50-210.1 Section 50-210.1 Public...-210.1 Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers... Interpretations No. 2 1 with respect to coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck...

  7. 41 CFR 50-210.1 - Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers. 50-210.1 Section 50-210.1 Public...-210.1 Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers... Interpretations No. 2 1 with respect to coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck...

  8. 41 CFR 50-210.1 - Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers. 50-210.1 Section 50-210.1 Public...-210.1 Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers... Interpretations No. 2 1 with respect to coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck...

  9. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  10. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  11. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  12. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  13. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  14. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act; 43 U.S.C. 1331) must identify on all their respective pipelines...

  15. 75 FR 77694 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Register on November 26, 2010 (75 FR 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection...

  16. S. 1461: Oil Tanker Navigation Safety Act of 1989. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, August 1, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bill would enhance the navigation safety of oil tankers. Title I, Provisions applicable to nationally licensed personnel, explains provisions relating to motor vehicle driving records of vessel personnel; dangerous drugs and other grounds for suspension or revocation; alcohol testing and alcohol rehabilitation; prohibition on service; vessel traffic services; oil tanker construction and size; oil spill contingency plans and approval; international inventory of equipment and contractors; national council on oil spill technology research and development; oil spill disaster assistance; impact on other laws; penalties; and a report on user fees. Title II, Provisions applicable with respect to Alaska pilotage at Port of Valdez, includes explanations of Bligh reef light; Prince William Sound VTS; oil spill recovery institute; and the Trans-Alaska pipeline liability fund. Title III, Provisions applicable to Mississippi River radio communications on Mississippi River, is also included.

  17. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  18. 75 FR 750 - Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability-Vessels and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ...--Vessels and Deepwater Ports'' (73 FR 54997) CPI-U Consumer Price Index--All Urban Consumers, Not... Federal Register, at 73 FR 54997, entitled ``Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990... 74 FR 31358, to the extent this rulemaking affects the collection of information in 33 CFR...

  19. 75 FR 49411 - Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability-Vessels and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability--Vessels and Deepwater Ports'' (74 FR... published a final rule adopting the interim rule without change (75 FR 750). With the exception of this... Number 1625-0046 entitled ``Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels).'' The approval...

  20. The impact of the Sarbanes Oxley Act on auditing fees: An empirical study of the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezelle, Ralph Wayne, Jr.

    2011-12-01

    This study examines auditing of energy firms prior and post Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. The research explores factors impacting the asset adjusted audit fee of oil and gas companies and specifically examines the effect of the Sarbanes Oxley Act. This research analyzes multiple year audit fees of the firms engaged in the oil and gas industry. Pooled samples were created to improve statistical power with sample sizes sufficient to test for medium and large effect size. The Sarbanes Oxley Act significantly increases a firm's asset adjusted audit fees. Additional findings are that part of the variance in audit fees was attributable to the market value of the enterprise, the number of subsidiaries, the receivables and inventory, debt ratio, non-profitability, and receipt of a going concern report.

  1. Landscape scale ecological monitoring as part of an EIA of major construction activities: experience at the Turkish section of the BTC crude oil pipeline project.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Sükran; Kurum, Ekrem

    2009-09-01

    Ecological monitoring is a complementary component of the overall environmental management and monitoring program of any Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report. The monitoring method should be developed for each project phase and allow for periodic reporting and assessment of compliance with the environmental conditions and requirements of the EIA. Also, this method should incorporate a variance request program since site-specific conditions can affect construction on a daily basis and require time-critical application of alternative construction scenarios or environmental management methods integrated with alternative mitigation measures. Finally, taking full advantage of the latest information and communication technologies can enhance the quality of, and public involvement in, the environmental management program. In this paper, a landscape-scale ecological monitoring method for major construction projects is described using, as a basis, 20 months of experience on the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) Crude Oil Pipeline Project, covering Turkish Sections Lot B and Lot C. This analysis presents suggestions for improving ecological monitoring for major construction activities. PMID:18712610

  2. Highlander prompts pipeline innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Akten, H.T.

    1986-05-05

    Texaco North Sea UK Co.'s Highlander field was developed with innovative subsea engineering which helped bring the field onstream in an 18-month period. Among the engineering challenges met were the design and construction of the Highlander Pipeline System and especially the innovations evident in the first-ever subsea slug catcher and in the retrievable subsea pigging facilities. Located in 420 ft of water in Texaco's North Sea Block 14/20, Highlander is 8 miles west of Texaco's existing Tartan A production platform which stands in approximately 465 ft of water. To bring oil on-stream rapidly, thus maximizing early cash flow, the project was undertaken in two phases. The first phase consisted of one water injector and two producer wells connected to Tartan A via three 8-in. pipelines and associated flexible jumpers/risers. The remaining 4-in. and 12-in. pipelines were flooded with inhibited sea water and left on the seabed for approximately 1 year until commissioning for the project's second phase. All steel pipelines were trenched immediately after laying, and umbilicals were laid into certain of these trenches. Highlander's second phase included an innovative subsea production facility with such unique features as subsea slug catchers and retrievable subsea pigging facilities. Much of the technology involved was developed in Britain and will have worldwide application linking smaller marginal fields to existing platforms swiftly and in a cost effective manner.

  3. Battle over proposed Keystone pipeline continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    Opposing sides in the battle over the proposed construction of the controversial Keystone XL pipeline continue to push their messages on the issue. The American Petroleum Institute (API) announced on 9 July that it has launched a new advertising campaign in support of the pipeline, which, if built, will ship oil from Canadian tar sands to refineries in the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Large, live line rehab project requires detailed planning: Part 1. [Refurbishing in-service oil and gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Leeds, J.M. ); Catley, M.G. )

    1994-02-01

    Detailed planning and organization has resulted in a smoothly executed six-year coating refurbishment program on 373 mi of live, high-pressure pipe in South Australia. Production of oil and gas in north-east South Australia. Production of oil and gas in north-east South Australia began in 1969 using pipe lines coated in single wrap polyethylene (PE) tape that, over time, has undergone severe degradation due to poor construction practices, severe soil stresses and, in some cases, high temperatures in transported fluids. In the late 70s, a massive expansion of natural gas production was planned. Given known problems with PE tapes, an alternative coating, flake-filled isophthalic polyester, was selected for high-temperature lines. When this subsequently failed, the polyester was replaced by fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). To date, only minor problems have been experienced with FBE. In the early 80s, about 373 mi were coated with suspect materials, either tape or polyester. In addition to corrosion leaks, there had been five failures due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Two of the most severe were in a 20-in. OD trunkline. Problems were somewhat exacerbated by the pipe lines being buried in some of the most corrosive soils in existence. To ameliorate the situation, a massive coating refurbishment program, the largest in the southern hemisphere, was undertaken. Because few of the lines initially were looped, it was decided to repair lines, where possible, live and operating at their normal 1,250 psi. Only concession was shut-down of lines with a history of SCC. In initiating a comprehensive refurbishment program, a strategy was developed to identify key points and objectives.

  5. Slurry pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wasp, E.J.

    1983-11-01

    Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

  6. Pipeline Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This appendix examines the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It also includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie-in with the U.S. markets or projects.

  7. Pipelines & Headlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Edward A.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a poster describing how oil is made, discovered, recovered, distributed, and used with suggestions for using it. Includes cards for an oil vocabulary game with its playing instructions and seven oil scramble words. Gives three addresses of sources for additional information. (YP)

  8. 75 FR 4106 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on January 20... approximately 3,393 barrels of crude oil were discharged from the ``Line 63'' pipeline owned by Pacific...

  9. Recession holds quarterly pipeline building costs to less than 1%

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-02-21

    Pipeline construction costs for the first 6 months of 1982 were substantially retarded when material costs fell drastically. Discusses first half (1982) cost components; steel line pipe; rail freight rates; labor rates; pumping unit costs; and steel storage tanks. Presents graphs showing the OGJ-Morgan oil pipeline cost index and cost component indexes. Gives table which indicates that the total composite cost index for building oil pipelines increased a meager 0.97.

  10. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1018 Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) Assignment may be made of a...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An applicant,...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1017 - Requirements for construction under pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for construction under pipeline... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1017 Requirements for construction under pipeline right-of-way...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1013 - Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1013 Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way grants. Failure to comply...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A right-of-way grant or a...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You must submit an original...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1009 - Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1009 Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) In addition...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted under the...

  6. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097

  7. 76 FR 45904 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... of Pipeline Safety, Training. OMB Control Number: 2137-0600. Current Expiration Date: 2/29/2012... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection...

  8. 78 FR 36016 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  9. 77 FR 27279 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477) or visit http... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  10. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  11. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  12. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  13. 75 FR 76077 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  14. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  15. 75 FR 53733 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  16. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum....

  17. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... the proposed construction is of major proportions. Pipeline companies are accordingly urged to...

  18. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  19. Stresses of pipelines during earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyomiya, O.

    1983-05-01

    Construction of submarine pipelines plays an important role in offshore development. Japan is famous for earthquake country. It is very important to estimate the earthquake proof of the submarine pipelines. An oil leakage causes the contamination of ocean if the submarine pipelines are damaged by earthquakes. Pipe stresses during earthquakes are closely related to the relative displacement of the ground. Field observation has been carried out to know the ground deformation. Steel pipe is assumed to be buried along the observation line and pipe stresses are calculated from the ground deformation obtained by the field observation. The stresses calculated by seismic deformation method that has been used for earthquake resistant design in Japan and by dynamic response analysis are compared with those from the observation.

  20. Alcohol fuels tax incentives. A summary: alcohol fuels provisions of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This document presents tax incentive information pertaining to alcohol fuels production as provided by the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act of 1980. Significant tax incentives for producers, blenders, marketers, and users of alcohol fuels are included. Discussed are: the 4% excise taxes exemption; income tax credits; energy investment tax credit for biomass; alcohol fuel plant operating permits; tax exempt bonds for alcohol fuel from solid wastes; state financing of renewable energy property; the study of imported alcohol; and annual reports on alcohol fuels.

  1. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline—soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West—East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097

  2. Seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Nyman, D.J.; Hammond, C.R.

    1992-04-01

    The status of knowledge on the seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States is reviewed. Types of ground response to earthquake motions that result in pipeline failure and pipeline response to such motions are discussed. The primary focus is on oil and gas transmission lines constructed of welded steel pipe. Results of vulnerability studies, the need for better determination of the potential for existing pipeline failures, and design procedures for new pipelines are presented.

  3. 77 FR 22387 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http... Pipeline Systems Incident Report, and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems Accident Report AGENCY: Pipeline... several minor revisions to the hazardous liquid pipeline systems accident report and the gas...

  4. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY... Standards Committee (TPSSC) and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee...

  5. Developing sorbent standards for spill response: Effects of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Free Trade Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, E. L.; Westover, E. S.

    1993-09-01

    For the past five years the Millsaps Sorbent Laboratory has been actively engaged in developing standards for initial and long-term oil spill remedial technologies. As a voting member of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) F-20 Committee, Canadian General Standards Board, and the US Coast Guard Sorbents Task Force, the laboratory has been engaged in developing useful, pragmatic protocols for various chemical and physical sorbent and filtration technologies driven by the deadlines imposed by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The “open border” approach to certification of technologies and products promulgated by the US/Canadian Free Trade Agreement has placed the US users and producers of such products and systems in a unique and tenuous position. Canadian standards and goals are grandfathered into the United States under this agreement and products have official US government certification based on Canadian regulations. This situation is unfavorable to the US domestic environment and economy for several specific scenarios. Included in these scenarios are: abundant warmwater zones and inland waters of the US versus Canada, the basic chemical variation between Canadian and US crude oils, the different generally accepted remediation technologies in the US versus Canadian, and the technology validation procedures prior to purchase inherent to both countries.

  6. Providing Situational Awareness for Pipeline Control Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Jonathan; Kleinhans, Hugo; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    A SCADA system for a single 3,000-mile-long strand of oil or gas pipeline may employ several thousand field devices to measure process parameters and operate equipment. Because of the vital tasks performed by these sensors and actuators, pipeline operators need accurate and timely information about their status and integrity. This paper describes a realtime scanner that provides situational awareness about SCADA devices and control operations. The scanner, with the assistance of lightweight, distributed sensors, analyzes SCADA network traffic, verifies the operational status and integrity of field devices, and identifies anomalous activity. Experimental results obtained using real pipeline control traffic demonstrate the utility of the scanner in industrial settings.

  7. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  8. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  9. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  10. S. 2643: Oil Pollution Liability and Compensation Act of 1988. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, July 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    S. 2643 would consolidate and improve Federal laws providing compensation and establishing liability for oil spills. The bill establishes that the owner or operator of a vessel or an onshore or offshore facility from which oil is discharged, or which poses the threat of a discharge which causes the incurrence of removal costs, shall be liable for all removal costs incurred by the US government or a State under provisions of the Clean Water Act, Intervention on the High Seas, or Deepwater Port Act of 1974. The owner/operator is also liable for economic loss or loss of natural resources resulting from such a discharge. However, there is no liability for the owner/operator who can establish that the discharge or threat of discharge was caused by an act of God, and act of war, and act of omission of a third party other than an employee or agent, or any combination the these three.

  11. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  12. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  13. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO , presents a plaque to Center Director Roy Bridges. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad.

  14. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jerry Jorgensen welcomes the audience to the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center. Jorgensen, with Space Gateway Support (SGS), is the pipeline project manager. To the right is Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO. Others at the ceremony were Center Director Roy Bridges; Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad.

  15. 77 FR 19414 - Pipeline Safety: Public Comment on Leak and Valve Studies Mandated by the Pipeline Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Studies Mandated by the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 AGENCY..., Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 has called for several commissioned studies and reports...

  16. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  17. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  18. Records set, drilling calculation refined in Dutch pipeline crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Spiekhout, J.; Gorter, J.; Hartlief )

    1993-01-04

    This paper reports on horizontal drilling for pipeline installation which made significant progress in The Netherlands in 1991 with establishment of two diameter records and development of a simplified design calculation method. The records were established in two natural gas pipeline projects by N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen. In companion, waterway-crossing projects, installation of two 48-in. gas lines by directional drilling set a record for diameter-to-length ratio. Also, directional drilling for a 36-in. pipeline crossing established a record for entry and exit angles for such large-diameter pipe. Precise location was particularly important in this second project because a pipeline bundle (12-in. insulated oil pipeline, 10-in. chloride pipeline, 12-in. nitrogen pipeline) was installed to run parallel over part of the distance.

  19. Automated hydrostatic testing for pipeline leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B. ); Musilli, M. )

    1994-11-01

    Leaks in pipelines carrying such products as crude oil and crude oil by-products lead not only to loss of product, but present the prospect of blowouts in the future that can cause millions of dollars in property damage and costly EPA-mandated cleanups. These leaks are considered sufficiently serious that the US Department of Transportation, which is charged with regulating the safety of pipelines throughout the country, may at times require pipeline operators to hydrostatically test their pipelines. One fully automated pipeline leak locating method based on computer analysis of dynamic pressure signals uses three IBM-compatible personal computers and two 16-channel high-speed analog-to-digital interfaces. The system detects leaks by means of dynamic pressure changes sampled at a high rate and locates them precisely by means of pressure signal velocity. In this way, leaks as small as 3--13mm (0.125--0.5 in.) can be located with an accuracy of a single pipe length in a pipeline section of 160 km (100 mi). This article describes the instrumentation needed and the test procedure used.

  20. Components in the Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian

    2011-02-24

    Scientists commonly describe their data processing systems metaphorically as software pipelines. These pipelines input one or more data sources and apply a sequence of processing steps to transform the data and create useful results. While conceptually simple, pipelines often adopt complex topologies and must meet stringent quality of service requirements that place stress on the software infrastructure used to construct the pipeline. In this paper we describe the MeDICi Integration Framework, which is a component-based framework for constructing complex software pipelines. The framework supports composing pipelines from distributed heterogeneous software components and provides mechanisms for controlling qualities of service to meet demanding performance, reliability and communication requirements.

  1. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A number of new ideas for geothermal power development and use have been proposed or initiated. British engineers have proposed using North Sea oil rigs as geothermal power stations. These stations would use the low temperature heat from the water that now occupies the former oil reservoirs to generate electricity. NASA recently retrofitted its engine test facility to enable it to use warm water from an underground aquifer as source water in a heat pump. A major policy guideline regarding electricity is issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) every two years. This year, CEC appears to be revising its method for determining the total societal cost of various electricity supply options. The change may impact geothermal energy usage in a positive way. Virtually untapped geothermal resources in Preston, Idaho will be utilized for warm water catfish farming. Stockton State College in New Jersey will be the site of one of the nation's largest geothermal projects when it is completed in 1993. It is designed to satisfy the college's energy requirements at an estimated cost savings of $300,000 per year. Aquaculture projects using thermal springs are under consideration in Utah and Washington State. Utah may be the site of an alligator farm and Washington State is being considered for raising golden tilapia, a food fish.

  2. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. 250.1015 Section 250.1015 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way §...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. 250.1015 Section 250.1015 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way §...

  4. Evaluation of oil tanker routing per section 4111(b)(7) Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Part 2. Atlantic and Florida Gulf coasts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate oil tanker routing along the east coast and Florida Gulf Coast. It discusses whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be restricted to oil tankers.

  5. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  6. H. R. 2223: Oil Spill Resource Restoration Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 2223 would provide for expedited assessment of damages from major oil spills, and would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to disallow deduction of the costs for cleanup of oil or hazardous substance discharges. Upon receiving a petition for expedited preliminary damage, the administrator would immediately initiate an assessment of the damages to natural resources. Within 20 days if it is found to be a major spill, the administrator designates trustees for overseeing both Federal and state natural resources that are affected, establishes a commission of these trustees, makes a determination regarding the party responsible for the spill, and directs that party to establish a trust fund accessible to the commission in an amount determined to be adequate to pay reasonable costs incurred by the commission for a full assessment of the damages and for preparing a restoration and replacement plan. Deductions for cleanup of spills would be allowed only if it can be certified that the taxpayer made good faith efforts to comply with the Clean Water Act for oil spills or with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act for hazardous substances spills or if it can be proved that the spill was caused by an act of God, and act of war, negligence on the part of the US government, or an act of omission of a third party. The bill would be applicable to spills occurring after March 23, 1989.

  7. Adequacy of the regulatory oversight of the Trans-Alaska pipeline and terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Exxon Valdez spill abruptly brought to the nation's attention the risks of transporting crude oil. While oil tanker transportation received many of the headlines, the safety of pipelines carrying oil and the terminals that store it have also been called into question. GAO testified on the adequacy of regulatory oversight of the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline System and the terminal at Valdez, Alaska. This paper reports increased and coordinated regulatory oversight as a major component of an effective operational and emergency response strategy for the pipeline. The current lack of comprehensive and systematic oversight is of particular concern because of recent revelations of significant corrosion problems in the pipeline.

  8. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges addresses the audience at the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center that will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile- long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS.

  9. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Solid gel pigs for cleaning production pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.E.; Bohon, W.M.; Chesnut, G.R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields, such as that at Kuparuk, on the North Slope of Alaska, have been built as a trunk and lateral gathering system, with many different pipeline diameters in a branched network. No launchers nor receivers were built for the Kuparuk oil production pipelines. The high cost of retrofitting launchers and receivers prompted investigation of alternative methods for cleaning the pipelines. This paper describes a novel approach to mold solid gelatin pigs in bypass lines, and to run those pigs through the production pipelines to the primary separators. The gelatin pigs would slowly melt, eliminating the need for receivers. Field and laboratory testing showed that gelatin pigs could not effectively clean the pipelines. The addition of cross linking agents could increase the mechanical integrity of the gelatin pigs, but also elevated the melting temperatures above the operating temperatures of the primary separators. As such, they were not meltable (in time), and no benefits could be obtained by the use of solid gelatin pigs for cleaning applications.

  11. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  12. 18 CFR 284.142 - Sales by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales by intrastate... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.142 Sales by intrastate pipelines....

  13. 75 FR 18190 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application April 2, 2010. Take notice that on March 30, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting authorization to abandon...

  14. 75 FR 38801 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application June 24, 2010. Take notice that on June 11, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting authorization to abandon...

  15. 75 FR 53281 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application August 24, 2010. On August 12, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act and section 157 of...

  16. 76 FR 19338 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 18, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket No. CP11-142-000 pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act...

  17. 75 FR 74705 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application November 24, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... the Natural Gas Act for a certificate of public convenience and necessity to construct, and...

  18. 75 FR 74027 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application November 23, 2010. Take notice that on November 17, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana...) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for authorization to construct a new 2,000 horsepower compressor...

  19. 75 FR 80483 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application December 15, 2010. Take notice that on December 13, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and the Commission's regulations, an application for authority to convey...

  20. 75 FR 82378 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application December 22, 2010. Take notice that on December 15, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and the Commission Regulations, for authorization to abandon by sale...

  1. 75 FR 13807 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http... published in the Federal Register on July 2, 2009 (74 FR 31675) and comments were submitted to Docket No..., titled: Pipeline Safety: New Reporting Requirements for Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Operators:...

  2. 78 FR 46560 - Pipeline Safety: Class Location Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...PHMSA is seeking public comment on whether applying the integrity management program (IMP) requirements, or elements of IMP, to areas beyond current high consequence areas (HCAs) would mitigate the need for class location requirements for gas transmission pipelines. Section 5 of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 requires the Secretary of Transportation to......

  3. 78 FR 10261 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477) or visit http... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Distribution Annual Report AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  4. S.1920: Federal Oil and Gas Lease Management Improvement Act of 1998, introduced in the US Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, April 2, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The purposes of this Act are: (1) to transfer from the Bureau of Land Management to each State in which the Federal lands are present authority to regulate oil and gas operations on leased tracts and related operations as fully as if the operations were occurring on privately owned land; (2) to share the costs saved through more efficient State enforcement among State governments and the Federal treasury; (3) to prevent the imposition of unwarranted delays and recoupments of Federal administrative costs on Federal oil and gas lessees; (4) to effect no change in the administration of Indian lands; and (5) to ensure that those funds deduced from the States` net receipt share are directly tied to administrative costs related to oil and gas on Federal lands.

  5. Multinode reconfigurable pipeline computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosenchuck, Daniel M. (Inventor); Littman, Michael G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multinode parallel-processing computer is made up of a plurality of innerconnected, large capacity nodes each including a reconfigurable pipeline of functional units such as Integer Arithmetic Logic Processors, Floating Point Arithmetic Processors, Special Purpose Processors, etc. The reconfigurable pipeline of each node is connected to a multiplane memory by a Memory-ALU switch NETwork (MASNET). The reconfigurable pipeline includes three (3) basic substructures formed from functional units which have been found to be sufficient to perform the bulk of all calculations. The MASNET controls the flow of signals from the memory planes to the reconfigurable pipeline and vice versa. the nodes are connectable together by an internode data router (hyperspace router) so as to form a hypercube configuration. The capability of the nodes to conditionally configure the pipeline at each tick of the clock, without requiring a pipeline flush, permits many powerful algorithms to be implemented directly.

  6. Natural Gas Pipeline Permitting Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Pompeo, Mike [R-KS-4

    2013-05-09

    12/09/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Safety Representatives (NAPSR) on new distribution pipeline construction. The workshop will allow stakeholders in the pipeline safety community to learn about and discuss construction issues and...

  8. 76 FR 77995 - Southcross Alabama Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... December 7, 2011, Southcross Alabama Pipeline LLC (SAP) submitted a revised Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under Section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA'')....

  9. Environmental impact analysis; the example of the proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, David A.

    1974-01-01

    The environmental impact analysis made as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline included consideration of the (1) technologically complex and geographically extensive proposed project, (2) extremely different physical environments across Alaska along the proposed route and elsewhere in Alaska and in Canada along alternative routes, (3) socioeconomic environment of the State of Alaska, and (4) a wide variety of alternatives. The analysis was designed specifically to fit the project and environment that would be affected. The environment was divided into two general parts--natural physical systems and superposed socioeconomic systems--and those parts were further divided into discipline-oriented systems or components that were studied and analyzed by scientists of the appropriate discipline. Particular attention was given to potential feedback loops in the impact network and to linkages between the project's impacting effects and the environment. The results of the analysis as reported in the final environmental impact statement were that both unavoidable and threatened environmental impacts would result from construction, operation, and maintenance of the proposed pipeline system and the developments related to it. The principal unavoidable effects would be (1) disturbances of terrain, fish and wildlife habitat, and human environs, (2) the results of the discharge of effluent from the tanker-ballast-treatment facility into Port Valdez and of some indeterminate amount of oil released into the ocean from tank-cleaning operations at sea, and (3) the results associated with increased human pressures of all kinds on the environment. Other unavoidable effects would be those related to increase of State and Native Corporation revenues, accelerated cultural change of the Native population, and extraction of the oil and gas resource. The main threatened environmental effects would all be related to unintentional oil

  10. 76 FR 30241 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Managing Challenges With Pipeline Seam Welds and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or view the... ``Call to Action'' to address pipeline infrastructure risks, drive for more aggressive safety efforts...

  11. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Masheder, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    Since the Piper Alpha disaster, more than 80 subsea isolation systems (SSIS) have been installed in subsea gas and oil pipelines in the U.K. continental shelf at an estimated cost in the region of {Brit_pounds}500 million. The reliability and costs of these installations have now been assessed between Dec. 1992 and Oct. 1993. This assessment was based upon comprehensive reliability and cost databases which were established so that the studies could be based upon factual information in order to obtain a current status as required by the sponsoring group. The study consultants report findings have now been consolidated into a report by the UKOOA Pipeline Valve Work Group. Probabilities of failure for different types of valves and systems have been assessed and expenditures broken down and compared. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  12. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  13. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  14. Impact of nitrate on the structure and function of bacterial biofilm communities in pipelines used for injection of seawater into oil fields.

    PubMed

    Schwermer, Carsten U; Lavik, Gaute; Abed, Raeid M M; Dunsmore, Braden; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Stoodley, Paul; Gieseke, Armin; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-05-01

    We studied the impact of NO(3)(-) on the bacterial community composition, diversity, and function in in situ industrial, anaerobic biofilms by combining microsensor profiling, (15)N and (35)S labeling, and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting. Biofilms were grown on carbon steel coupons within a system designed to treat seawater for injection into an oil field for pressurized oil recovery. NO(3)(-) was added to the seawater in an attempt to prevent bacterial H(2)S generation and microbially influenced corrosion in the field. Microprofiling of nitrogen compounds and redox potential inside the biofilms showed that the zone of highest metabolic activity was located close to the metal surface, correlating with a high bacterial abundance in this zone. Upon addition, NO(3)(-) was mainly reduced to NO(2)(-). In biofilms grown in the absence of NO(3)(-), redox potentials of <-450 mV at the metal surface suggested the release of Fe(2+). NO(3)(-) addition to previously untreated biofilms induced a decline (65%) in bacterial species richness, with Methylophaga- and Colwellia-related sequences having the highest number of obtained clones in the clone library. In contrast, no changes in community composition and potential NO(3)(-) reduction occurred upon subsequent withdrawal of NO(3)(-). Active sulfate reduction was below detection levels in all biofilms, but S isotope fractionation analysis of sulfide deposits suggested that it must have occurred either at low rates or episodically. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that pitting corrosion occurred on all coupons, independent of the treatment. However, uniform corrosion was clearly mitigated by NO(3)(-) addition. PMID:18344353

  15. Impact of Nitrate on the Structure and Function of Bacterial Biofilm Communities in Pipelines Used for Injection of Seawater into Oil Fields▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Schwermer, Carsten U.; Lavik, Gaute; Abed, Raeid M. M.; Dunsmore, Braden; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Stoodley, Paul; Gieseke, Armin; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    We studied the impact of NO3− on the bacterial community composition, diversity, and function in in situ industrial, anaerobic biofilms by combining microsensor profiling, 15N and 35S labeling, and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting. Biofilms were grown on carbon steel coupons within a system designed to treat seawater for injection into an oil field for pressurized oil recovery. NO3− was added to the seawater in an attempt to prevent bacterial H2S generation and microbially influenced corrosion in the field. Microprofiling of nitrogen compounds and redox potential inside the biofilms showed that the zone of highest metabolic activity was located close to the metal surface, correlating with a high bacterial abundance in this zone. Upon addition, NO3− was mainly reduced to NO2−. In biofilms grown in the absence of NO3−, redox potentials of <−450 mV at the metal surface suggested the release of Fe2+. NO3− addition to previously untreated biofilms induced a decline (65%) in bacterial species richness, with Methylophaga- and Colwellia-related sequences having the highest number of obtained clones in the clone library. In contrast, no changes in community composition and potential NO3− reduction occurred upon subsequent withdrawal of NO3−. Active sulfate reduction was below detection levels in all biofilms, but S isotope fractionation analysis of sulfide deposits suggested that it must have occurred either at low rates or episodically. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that pitting corrosion occurred on all coupons, independent of the treatment. However, uniform corrosion was clearly mitigated by NO3− addition. PMID:18344353

  16. Automated Monitoring of Pipeline Rights-of-Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Chard Ritchie

    2010-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. have partnered in the formation of a research program to identify and develop the key technologies required to enable automated detection of threats to gas and oil transmission and distribution pipelines. This presentation describes the Right-of-way Automated Monitoring (RAM) program and highlights research successes to date, continuing challenges to implementing the RAM objectives, and the program's ongoing work and plans.

  17. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Numerical Simulation of Pipeline Deformation Caused by Rockfall Impact

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zheng; Han, Chuanjun

    2014-01-01

    Rockfall impact is one of the fatal hazards in pipeline transportation of oil and gas. The deformation of oil and gas pipeline caused by rockfall impact was investigated using the finite element method in this paper. Pipeline deformations under radial impact, longitudinal inclined impact, transverse inclined impact, and lateral eccentric impact of spherical and cube rockfalls were discussed, respectively. The effects of impact angle and eccentricity on the plastic strain of pipeline were analyzed. The results show that the crater depth on pipeline caused by spherical rockfall impact is deeper than by cube rockfall impact with the same volume. In the inclined impact condition, the maximum plastic strain of crater caused by spherical rockfall impact appears when incidence angle α is 45°. The pipeline is prone to rupture under the cube rockfall impact when α is small. The plastic strain distribution of impact crater is more uneven with the increasing of impact angle. In the eccentric impact condition, plastic strain zone of pipeline decreases with the increasing of eccentricity k. PMID:24959599

  1. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills can also affect human health. These effects can depend on what kind of oil was spilled and where (on land, in a river, or in the ocean). Other factors include what kind of exposure and how much ...

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  3. Pipeline joint protector

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes a weight coated pipeline joint protective apparatus for protecting pipeline joints against impact or high stress concentrations. It consists of a high density plastic sheet wrapped around a pipeline joint with the opposite edges of such sheet overlaying the weight of coat material on the abutting pipes forming the joint. The first end of the sheet overlaps the wrapped sheet with means for securing such first end to the sheet surface near or adjacent to the opposite end of such sheet.

  4. Deepwater pipeline recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McStravick, D.M.; Baugh, B.F.

    1997-07-01

    The paper gives a presentation of the tooling concepts used for the recovery of steel and flexible flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico Shell Tahoe I area in the summer of 1996 in 1,370 ft. of sea water. This offshore operation required a Global Grabber to engage and retrieve 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, an ROV Pipeline Spear to internally engage the end of the 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, and a FlexGrip Assembly to wrap and grab 5.566-in. OD flexible pipe. The design of the tooling emphasized the use of API 17D ROV interfaces.

  5. 77 FR 37472 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Workshop To Discuss Implementing Incorporation by Reference...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for..., Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Section 24 of the recently-passed Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011...

  6. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS) presents an award of appreciation to H.T. Everett, KSC Propellants manager, at the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Center Director Roy Bridges;); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS.

  7. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  8. 77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...The recent passage of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 has set forth several mandates and reports to Congress that PHMSA must complete. Reports on leak detection and automatic/remote control valves are among these mandates. PHMSA is sponsoring these public meetings to further study how to encourage operators to expand the use of leak detection systems......

  9. Commanding Constellations (Pipeline Architecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Tim; Condron, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Providing ground command software for constellations of spacecraft is a challenging problem. Reliable command delivery requires a feedback loop; for a constellation there will likely be an independent feedback loop for each constellation member. Each command must be sent via the proper Ground Station, which may change from one contact to the next (and may be different for different members). Dynamic configuration of the ground command software is usually required (e.g. directives to configure each member's feedback loop and assign the appropriate Ground Station). For testing purposes, there must be a way to insert command data at any level in the protocol stack. The Pipeline architecture described in this paper can support all these capabilities with a sequence of software modules (the pipeline), and a single self-identifying message format (for all types of command data and configuration directives). The Pipeline architecture is quite simple, yet it can solve some complex problems. The resulting solutions are conceptually simple, and therefore, reliable. They are also modular, and therefore, easy to distribute and extend. We first used the Pipeline architecture to design a CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Ground Telecommand system (to command one spacecraft at a time with a fixed Ground Station interface). This pipeline was later extended to include gateways to any of several Ground Stations. The resulting pipeline was then extended to handle a small constellation of spacecraft. The use of the Pipeline architecture allowed us to easily handle the increasing complexity. This paper will describe the Pipeline architecture, show how it was used to solve each of the above commanding situations, and how it can easily be extended to handle larger constellations.

  10. 78 FR 66066 - Proposed Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ...: Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the Outer Continental Shelf and Pipeline Rights of Way ACTION: 60-day... paperwork requirements in the regulations under 30 CFR 556, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the OCS; 30 CFR 550, Subpart J, Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; and 30 CFR 560, OCS Oil and Gas...

  11. Virtual Astronomical Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Protopapas, P.; Lehner, M.

    2007-10-01

    The sheer magnitude of databases and data rates in new surveys makes it hard to develop pipelines to enable both the analysis of data and the federation of these databases for correlation and followup. There is thus a compelling need to facilitate the creation and management of dynamic workflow pipelines that enable correlating data between separate, parallel streams; changing the workflow in response to an event; using the NVO to obtain additional needed information from databases; and modifying the observing program of a primary survey to follow-up a transient or moving object. This paper describes such a Virtual Astronomical Pipeline (VAP) system which is running in the TAOS project. The software enables components in the pipeline to react to events encapsulated in XML messages, modifying and subsequently routing these messages to multiple other components. This architecture allows for the bootstrapping of components individually in the development process and for dynamic reconfiguration of the pipeline as a response to external and internal events. The software will be extended for future work in combining the results of surveys and followups into a global virtual pipeline.

  12. Four barges mobilized for job: Indian offshore pipeline work demands comprehensive coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. )

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the design, installation, and commissioning timeframe developed for the Oil and Natural Gas Commission of India. Offshore Hyundai International Inc. and Offshore Pipelines International have completed the installation of 47 pipelines, six platforms, and a single-point mooring system in the Arabian Sea. The coordination and work scheduling problems are described along with the engineered placement of the pipelines in an already congested area.

  13. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  14. 33 CFR 148.700 - How does the Deepwater Port Act interact with other Federal and State laws?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Agency, for Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act permits; (2) The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Office of Pipeline Safety; and (3) The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...

  15. Improved, Low-Stress Economical Submerged Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study has shown that the use of a high-strength composite fiber cloth material may greatly reduce fabrication and deployment costs of a subsea offshore pipeline. The problem is to develop an inexpensive submerged pipeline that can safely and economically transport large quantities of fresh water, oil, and natural gas underwater for long distances. Above-water pipelines are often not feasible due to safety, cost, and environmental problems, and present, fixed-wall, submerged pipelines are often very expensive. The solution is to have a submerged, compliant-walled tube that when filled, is lighter than the surrounding medium. Some examples include compliant tubes for transporting fresh water under the ocean, for transporting crude oil underneath salt or fresh water, and for transporting high-pressure natural gas from offshore to onshore. In each case, the fluid transported is lighter than its surrounding fluid, and thus the flexible tube will tend to float. The tube should be ballasted to the ocean floor so as to limit the motion of the tube in the horizontal and vertical directions. The tube should be placed below 100-m depth to minimize biofouling and turbulence from surface storms. The tube may also have periodic pumps to maintain flow without over-pressurizing, or it can have a single pump at the beginning. The tube may have periodic valves that allow sections of the tube to be repaired or maintained. Some examples of tube materials that may be particularly suited for these applications are non-porous composite tubes made of high-performance fibers such as Kevlar, Spectra, PBO, Aramid, carbon fibers, or high-strength glass. Above-ground pipes for transporting water, oil, and natural gas have typically been fabricated from fiber-reinforced plastic or from more costly high-strength steel. Also, previous suggested subsea pipeline designs have only included heavy fixed-wall pipes that can be very expensive initially, and can be difficult and expensive

  16. Pipeliners and gas processors target even cleaner operations

    SciTech Connect

    True, R.W.

    1991-12-16

    With the recent passage of amendments to the federal Clean Air Act and the reauthorization next year of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, pipelines and gas processors are looking at more ways to tighten operations and avoid polluting surface water or air. This paper reports that some companies are not waiting for the final rules but are taking actions which anticipate tougher standards.

  17. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in 30 CFR 550.1011. No transfer will be recognized unless and until it is first approved, in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in 30 CFR 550.1011. No transfer will be recognized unless and until it is first approved, in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements in 30 CFR 550.1011. No transfer will be recognized unless and until it is first approved, in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1752 - How do I remove a pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I remove a pipeline? 250.1752 Section 250.1752 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1752 How do I remove a...

  1. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-04-20

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated carbon dioxide (CO2) pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale within the United States. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies (so called WRE450 and WRE550 stabilization scenarios) and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The analysis reveals that between 11,000 and 23,000 additional miles of dedicated CO2 pipeline might be needed in the U.S. before 2050 across these two cases. While that is a significant increase over the 3,900 miles that comprise the existing national CO2 pipeline infrastructure, it is critically important to realize that the demand for additional CO2 pipeline capacity will unfold relatively slowly and in a geographically dispersed manner as new dedicated CCS-enabled power plants and industrial facilities are brought online. During the period 2010-2030, the growth in the CO2 pipeline system is on the order of a few hundred to less than a thousand miles per year. In comparison during the period 1950-2000, the U.S. natural gas pipeline distribution system grew at rates that far exceed these projections in growth in a future dedicated CO2 pipeline system. This analysis indicates that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a major obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies in the U.S. Nevertheless, there will undoubtedly be some associated regulatory and siting issues to work through but these issues should not be unmanageable based on the size of infrastructure requirements alone.

  2. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  3. Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals Propagation in Buried Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, A. L.; Lapshin, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the issues concerning acoustic signals propagation in the large-diameter oil pipelines caused by mechanical action on the pipe body. Various mechanisms of signals attenuation are discussed. It is shown that the calculation of the attenuation caused only by internal energy loss, i.e, the presence of viscosity, thermal conductivity and liquid pipeline wall friction lead to low results. The results of experimental studies, carried out using the existing pipeline with a diameter of 1200 mm. are shown. It is experimentally proved that the main mechanism of signal attenuation is the energy emission into the environment. The numerical values of attenuation coefficients that are 0,14- 0.18 dB/m for the pipeline of 1200 mm in diameter, in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 500 Hz, are determined.

  4. Experience of cathodic protection, fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassen, S.; Pettersen, N.H.

    1996-08-01

    Statoil is the major operator of the oil and gas pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. Different coating systems have been used for external corrosion protection of the pipelines. The paper presents the company`s experience regarding cathodic protection design and fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines.

  5. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  6. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  7. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants cut the lines to helium-filled balloons. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  8. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants watch as helium-filled balloons take to the sky after their lines were cut. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  9. Structural analysis and risk assessment of the All American pipeline at the San Andreas fault crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, J.D.; Row, D.G.; Drugovich, D.

    1995-12-31

    The All American oil transmission pipeline crosses the San Andreas fault and a series of smaller, associated faults in a fault zone southwest (SW) of Bakersfield, California. The possibility of fault rupture on any of these faults during a major earthquake is a source of concern since such an event could result in pipeline damage or failure. This paper describes the development of a fault displacement risk model, the evaluation of the risk at the All American Pipeline (AAPL) site provided by an initial crossing design, and the evaluation of various alternative designs. A practical alternative design scheme, which significantly reduces the risk of pipeline damage or failure is then recommended.

  10. Reliability of Radiographic Inspection of Steel Pipeline Girth Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, R. M.; Rebello, J. M. A.; Carvalho, A. A.; Smid, J.

    2008-02-01

    In this work, the radiographic NDT technique was employed for the detection of defects in girth welds of steel pipelines used by the offshore oil industry. Simulation was used to calculate the size of the smallest detectable defect and the corresponding radiographic parameters. The method developed showed good reliability.

  11. Hydrogen pipeline compressors annual progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.

    2011-07-15

    The objectives are: (1) develop advanced materials and coatings for hydrogen pipeline compressors; (2) achieve greater reliability, greater efficiency, and lower capital in vestment and maintenance costs in hydrogen pipeline compressors; and (3) research existing and novel hydrogen compression technologies that can improve reliability, eliminate contamination, and reduce cost. Compressors are critical components used in the production and delivery of hydrogen. Current reciprocating compressors used for pipeline delivery of hydrogen are costly, are subject to excessive wear, have poor reliability, and often require the use of lubricants that can contaminate the hydrogen (used in fuel cells). Duplicate compressors may be required to assure availability. The primary objective of this project is to identify, and develop as required, advanced materials and coatings that can achieve the friction, wear, and reliability requirements for dynamically loaded components (seal and bearings) in high-temperature, high-pressure hydrogen environments prototypical of pipeline and forecourt compressor systems. The DOE Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop identified critical needs in the development of advanced hydrogen compressors - notably, the need to minimize moving parts and to address wear through new designs (centrifugal, linear, guided rotor, and electrochemical) and improved compressor materials. The DOE is supporting several compressor design studies on hydrogen pipeline compression specifically addressing oil-free designs that demonstrate compression in the 0-500 psig to 800-1200 psig range with significant improvements in efficiency, contamination, and reliability/durability. One of the designs by Mohawk Innovative Technologies Inc. (MiTi{reg_sign}) involves using oil-free foil bearings and seals in a centrifual compressor, and MiTi{reg_sign} identified the development of bearings, seals, and oil-free tribological coatings as crucial to the successful

  12. Tanker navigation safety standards: Tanker navigation safety research baseline: A study required by section 4111(b)(9) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 directed the Secretary of Transportation to review and incorporate the results of past studies, including studies by the Coast Guard and Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). This literature search and review focuses on materials pertinent to determining or evaluating current and/or `best` practices, and not on the adequacy of current statutes or regulations. In addition, it is not the intention of the report to assess best practices (e.g., suggest the appropriate crew sizes or what navigation equipment should be required on tankers), but to establish the baseline for future study of best practices. The report does not provide answers to new analytical quations, but presents the status of research so that questions addressed previoulsy will not be duplicated by future studies.

  13. Disorder in Milk Proteins: α-Lactalbumin. Part B. A Multifunctional Whey Protein Acting as an Oligomeric Molten Globular "Oil Container" in the Anti-Tumorigenic Drugs, Liprotides.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N; Permyakov, Serge E; Breydo, Leonid; Redwan, Elrashdy M; Almehdar, Hussein A; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2016-07-15

    This is a second part of the three-part article from a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. We continue to describe α-lactalbumin, a small globular Ca2+-binding protein, which besides being one of the two components of lactose synthase that catalyzes the final step of the lactose biosynthesis in the lactating mammary gland, possesses a multitude of other functions. In fact, recent studies indicated that some partially folded forms of this protein possess noticeable bactericidal activity and other forms might be related to induction of the apoptosis of tumor cells. In its anti-tumorigenic function, oligomeric α-lactalbumin serves as a founding member of a new family of anticancer drugs termed liprotides (for lipids and partially denatured proteins), where an oligomeric molten globular protein acts as an "oil container" or cargo for the delivery of oleic acid to the cell membranes. PMID:26916155

  14. UQ Pipeline Lorenz Portlet

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    This is web client software that can help initiate UQ Pipeline jobs on LLNL's LC compute systems and visually shows the status of such jobs in a browser window. The web client interacts with LC's interactive compute nodes using (LLNL) Lorenz REST API to initiate action and obtain status data in JSON format.

  15. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Philip E.; Keyes, C.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-12-01

    The COS calibration pipeline (CALCOS) includes three main components: basic calibration, wavelength calibration, and spectral extraction. Calibration of modes using the far ultraviolet (FUV) and near ultraviolet (NUV) detectors share a common structure, although the individual reference files differ and there are some additional steps for the FUV channel. The pipeline is designed to calibrate data acquired in either ACCUM or time-tag mode. The basic calibration includes pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. Wavelength calibration can be done either by using separate lamp exposures or by taking several short lamp exposures concurrently with a science exposure. For time-tag data, the latter mode ("tagflash") will allow better correction of potential drift of the spectrum on the detector. One-dimensional spectra will be extracted and saved in a FITS binary table. Separate columns will be used for the flux-calibrated spectrum, error estimate, and the associated wavelengths. CALCOS is written in Python, with some functions in C. It is similar in style to other HST pipeline code in that it uses an association table to specify which files to be included, and the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to use are specified by header keywords. Currently, in conjunction with the Instrument Definition Team (led by J. Green), the ground-based reference files are being refined, delivered, and tested with the pipeline.

  16. S. 33: A Bill to amend the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to clarify the financial responsibility requirements for offshore facilities. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This bill proposes to amend the financial responsibility section of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 as applied to offshore facilities. Offshore facilities which drill for, produce, or process oil; or which have the capacity to transport, store, transfer, or otherwise handle more than 1,000 barrels of oil at any one time, are required to establish evidence of financial responsibility in an amount between 35 and 150 million dollars, based on an assessment of the facility`s risk to meet the amount of liability to which the responsible party could be subjected.

  17. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1995-05-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non-contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with nine case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  18. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be an accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non- contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion areas surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  19. Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Smallidge, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

  20. Suppressing turbulence and enhancing liquid suspension flow in pipelines with electrorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Gu, G. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Flows through pipes, such as crude oil through pipelines, are the most common and important method of transportation of fluids. To enhance the flow output along the pipeline requires reducing viscosity and suppressing turbulence simultaneously and effectively. Unfortunately, no method is currently available to accomplish both goals simultaneously. Here we show that electrorheology provides an efficient solution. When a strong electric field is applied along the flow direction in a small section of pipeline, the field polarizes and aggregates the particles suspended inside the base liquid into short chains along the flow direction. Such aggregation breaks the rotational symmetry and makes the fluid viscosity anisotropic. In the directions perpendicular to the flow, the viscosity is substantially increased, effectively suppressing the turbulence. Along the flow direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced; thus the flow along the pipeline is enhanced. Recent field tests with a crude oil pipeline fully confirm the theoretical results.

  1. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  2. H. R. 1301: A bill to implement the National Energy Strategy Act, and for other purposes, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, March 6, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill contains the following: Title I - Residential, commercial, and Federal energy use: consumer and commercial products, and Federal energy management; Title II - Natural gas: natural gas pipeline regulatory reform, natural gas import/export deregulation, and structural reform of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Title III - Oil: Alaska coastal plain oil and gas leasing, Naval Petroleum Reserve leasing, and oil pipeline deregulation; Title IV - Electricity generation and use: Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and power marketing administration repayment reform; Title V - Nuclear power: licensing reform, nuclear waste management; Title VI - Renewable energy: PURPA size cap and co-firing reform, and hydroelectric power regulatory reform; Title VII - Alternative fuel: alternative and dual fuel vehicle credits, and alternative transportation fuels; Title VIII - Innovation and technology transfer; Title IX - Tax incentives.

  3. World pipeline construction to slip for 1994 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

    1994-02-07

    World pipeline construction planned in 1994 and beyond has fallen in the past year, reflecting uncertainties in energy markets. Still, significant expansions are under way or planned for Latin America, Asia and the Pacific regions, and Europe. Latest Oil and Gas Journal data, derived from its survey of world pipeline operators, industry sources, and published information, show more than 55,000 miles of crude oil, product, and natural gas pipeline planned for 1994 and beyond. The data include projections for pipeline construction in Russia and former republics of the Soviet Union. Western Russia and all countries west of the Ural Mountains are included under totals for Europe, eastern Russia and countries east of the Urals under totals for the Asia-Pacific region. The paper discusses the following: European gas lines; North Sea projects; Gulf of Thailand; Yacheng subsea pipeline; Australian gas lines; other Asian lines; Russian activity; Algeria-Europe gas lines; Southeast US; Gulf gathering systems; Western US; South America; Trans-Ecuadorian expansion; Chilean gas network; and Bolivia-Brazil gas line.

  4. 78 FR 10689 - Pipeline Safety: Public Forum State One-Call Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Forum State One-Call... sponsor a public forum on state one-call exemptions. The forum will be held on March 14, 2013, in...

  5. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  6. 49 CFR 1.97 - Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Materials Safety Administrator. 1.97 Section 1.97 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator. The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... International Bridge Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 535) as it relates to pipelines not over navigable waterways....

  7. 49 CFR 1.97 - Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Materials Safety Administrator. 1.97 Section 1.97 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator. The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... International Bridge Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 535) as it relates to pipelines not over navigable waterways....

  8. 49 CFR 1.97 - Delegations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Materials Safety Administrator. 1.97 Section 1.97 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator. The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... International Bridge Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 535) as it relates to pipelines not over navigable waterways....

  9. 76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road... sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon and construct...

  10. 78 FR 67350 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 18, 2013 Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), at 3250 Lacey Road... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for a certificate of...

  11. 75 FR 36376 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application June 17, 2010. Take notice that on June 8, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural..., pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon two...

  12. 75 FR 51031 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application August 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 30, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural Gas...), and sections 157.7 and 157.18 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  13. 75 FR 12229 - Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application March 5, 2010. Take notice that on March 3, 2010, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Sea Robin), PO Box 4967, Houston, Texas... Gas Act (NGA) requesting authorization to abandon by removal Sea Robin's East Cameron Block 265...

  14. Using ILI pigs to establish pipeline corrosion rates -- Case histories

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    Corrosion is a major concern for the oil and gas industry. Pipelines are subject to internal and external agents that can cause corrosion affecting their safety, integrity, and profitability. Corrosion causes metal losses that may hamper the supply of energy and could lead to substantial damage to the ecology. Restoring pipelines to safe operating condition is the main goal of in-line inspection (ILI) using state-of-the-art Smart Pigs. These tools travel through the full length of pipelines gathering detailed information that is used for the assessment of both the internal and the external surfaces of the line. Ultrasound ILI tools perform direct measurements of the remaining wall thickness of the pipe. The analysis of an ultrasound ILI run determines the residual strength of the pipeline at the time of the inspection. On the other hand, the comparison of successive ultrasound runs establishes patterns of individual defect growth. Under this light the interpretation of the data leads to an assessment of the dynamics of the corrosion phenomena occurring in pipelines. Case histories are presented in this paper in order to illustrate how ultrasound ILI data are being used today to establish courses of action in corrective, preventive, and predictive maintenance of pipelines.

  15. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  16. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  17. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  18. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  19. Constructing computational pipelines.

    PubMed

    Halling-Brown, Mark; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    Many bioinformatics tasks involve creating a computational pipeline from existing software components and algorithms. The traditional approach is to glue components together using scripts written in a programming language such as Perl. However, a new, more powerful approach is emerging that promises to revolutionise the way bioinformaticians create applications from existing components, an approach based on the concept of the scientific workflow. Scientific workflows are created in graphical environments known as workflow management systems. They have many benefits over traditional program scripts, including speed of development, portability, and their suitability for developing complex, distributed applications. This chapter explains how to design and implement bioinformatics workflows using free, Open Source software tools, such as the Taverna workflow management system. We also demonstrate how new and existing tools can be deployed as Web services so that they can be easily integrated into novel computational pipelines using the scientific workflow paradigm. PMID:18712319

  20. Pipeline Calibration for STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Hulbert, S. J.; Lindler, D.; Busko, I.; Hsu, J.-C.; Baum, S.; McGrath, M.; Goudfrooij, P.; Shaw, R.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; Bohlin, R.

    The CALSTIS program for calibration of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph data in the OPUS pipeline differs in several significant ways from calibration for earlier HST instruments, such as the use of FITS format, computation of error estimates, and association of related exposures. Several steps are now done in the pipeline that previously had to be done off-line by the user, such as cosmic ray rejection and extraction of 1-D spectra. Although the program is linked with IRAF for image and table I/O, it is written in ANSI C rather than SPP, which should make the code more accessible. FITS extension I/O makes use of the new IRAF FITS kernel for images and the HEASARC FITSIO package for tables.

  1. Sludge pipeline design.

    PubMed

    Slatter, P T

    2001-01-01

    The need for the design engineer to have a sound basis for designing sludge pumping and pipelining plant is becoming more critical. This paper examines both a traditional text-book approach and one of the latest approaches from the literature, and compares them with experimental data. The pipelining problem can be divided into the following main areas; rheological characterisation, laminar, transitional and turbulent flow and each is addressed in turn. Experimental data for a digested sludge tested in large pipes is analysed and compared with the two different theoretical approaches. Discussion is centred on the differences between the two methods and the degree of agreement with the data. It is concluded that the new approach has merit and can be used for practical design. PMID:11794641

  2. Products pipeline network plans set out for North Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    Venus, C.

    1984-02-13

    The growth of oil-products demand in future years is leading the Yemen Arab Republic (Y.A.R.) to improve the distribution network for the products by constructing a pipeline system. Petroleum products are currently distributed by road tankers only between the receiving terminals and the main cities, which represent the most important consumption centers, together with new industrial plants such as cement factories, power plants, etc. The technical design and economic and financial feasibility study of the project was entrusted to Omnium Technique des Transports par Pipelines (OTP). The scope covers the setting up in the Y.A.R. of the basic equipment for the supply, storage, and land transportation of petroleum products with a view to: Meeting the national demand for the next 25 years. Providing an adequate strategic reserve of petroleum products with a total storage capacity amounting to 3 months of consumption. The only exception in the transportation of the petroleum products will involve heavy fuel oil which will continue to be transported by road tankers. This article describes the basic facilities which have to be installed before the start-up of the projected network. The project includes a marine terminal in Salif and a pipeline to Sana'a with the related storage, truck loading, and pumping facilities for white products and gas oil which will be transported by pipeline.

  3. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://docketsinfo.dot.gov . Docket: For... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  4. The MIS Pipeline Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, M. W.; Storm, S.; Mundy, L. G.; Salter, D. M.; Lee, K.; Kwon, W.; Fernandez Lopez, M.; Plunkett, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pipeline toolkit was developed to help organizing, reducing and analyzing a large number of near-identical datasets. This is a very general problem, for which many different solutions have been implemented. In this poster we present one such solution that lends itself to users of the Unix command line, using the Unix "make" utility, and adapts itself easily to observational as well as theoretical projects. Two examples are given, one from the CARMA CLASSy survey, and another from a simulated kinematic survey of early galaxy forming disks. The CLASSy survey (discussed in more detail in three accompanying posters) consists of 5 different star forming regions, observed with CARMA, each containing roughly 10-20 datasets in continuum and 3 different molecular lines, that need to be combined in final data cubes and maps. The strength of such a pipeline toolkit shows itself as new data are accumulated, the data reduction steps are improved and easily re-applied to previously taken data. For this we employed a master script that was run nightly, and collaborators submitted improved script and/or pipeline parameters that control these scripts. MIS is freely available for download.

  5. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  6. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  7. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  8. Trans ecuadorian pipeline; Mountainous pipeline restoration a logistical masterpiece

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L. )

    1988-06-01

    The Trans Ecuadorian Pipeline pumped approximately 300,000 b/d of crude from fields in eastern Ecuador to an export terminal and refinery at Esmeraldas on the Pacific coast. The devastation resulting from an earthquake cut off the main portion of export income as well as domestic fuel supplies and propane gas. Approximately 25 km of the pipeline was destroyed. This article details how the pipeline was reconstructed, including both the construction of a temporary line and of permanent facilities.

  9. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION:...

  10. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.210 Pipeline location. (a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid,...

  11. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.210 Pipeline location. (a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid,...

  12. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  13. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  14. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  15. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  16. The SPIRE Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D.; Lim, T.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the data reduction pipeline of the SPIRE instrument for the Herschel Space Observatory. The pipeline is being written in Java and Jython as part of the multi-platform Herschel Common Science System. We concentrate on the algorithmic design of the pipeline based on the analysis of test data. We also discuss some of the alternative designs under consideration and give the reasons for the design adopted.

  17. 76 FR 22944 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Webinars on Implementation of Distribution Integrity Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... on Implementation of Distribution Integrity Management Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous... state and Federal Distribution Integrity Management Program Implementation Team (Team)...

  18. 76 FR 33808 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http..., titled ``Pipeline Safety: Public Awareness Program.'' PHMSA is preparing to request approval from OMB for... written comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped postcard with the following...

  19. 75 FR 73160 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, PHMSA invites comments on an information collection under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control No. 2137-0578, titled ``Reporting Safety-Related Conditions on Gas, Hazardous Liquid, and Carbon Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities.'' PHMSA is preparing to request approval from OMB for a renewal of the current......

  20. 18 CFR 284.122 - Transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.122 Transportation...

  1. 18 CFR 284.102 - Transportation by interstate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines § 284.102 Transportation...

  2. 18 CFR 284.102 - Transportation by interstate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines § 284.102 Transportation...

  3. 18 CFR 284.122 - Transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.122 Transportation...

  4. 18 CFR 284.122 - Transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.122 Transportation...

  5. 18 CFR 284.102 - Transportation by interstate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines § 284.102 Transportation...

  6. 18 CFR 284.102 - Transportation by interstate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines § 284.102 Transportation...

  7. 18 CFR 284.122 - Transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.122 Transportation...

  8. 18 CFR 284.102 - Transportation by interstate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines § 284.102 Transportation...

  9. 18 CFR 284.122 - Transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation by... RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.122 Transportation...

  10. Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights worldwide oil and gas developments during 1982, focusing on production, drilling, and other activities/projects in specific countries and regional areas. Indicates that the most political actions (other than the U.S. decision not to protest further the Siberian pipeline project) were the continued Afghanistan and Iraq-Iran wars.…

  11. Simulation of pipeline in the area of the underwater crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, P.; Chernyavskiy, D.; Burkova, S.; Konan, E. C.

    2014-08-01

    The article studies stress-strain behavior of the main oil-pipeline section Alexandrovskoye-Anzhero-Sudzhensk using software system Ansys. This method of examination and assessment of technical conditions of objects of pipeline transport studies the objects and the processes that affect the technical condition of these facilities, including the research on the basis of computer simulation. Such approach allows to develop the theory, methods of calculations and designing of objects of pipeline transport, units and parts of machines, regardless of their industry and destination with a view to improve the existing constructions and create new structures, machines of high performance, durability and reliability, maintainability, low material capacity and cost, which have competitiveness on the world market.

  12. Trans-oceanic pipeline: reaffirms Panama's strategic position

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-24

    The Trans-Panama Pipeline, which began in July 1980 and was finished October 1, 1982, will transport Alaskan crude from Puerto Armuelles, in the Pacific Ocean, to Chiriqui Grande, in the Atlantic. Built at a total cost of $400 million, the facility will speed deliveries of North Slope crude to refining centers in Houston, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and New Jersey; it is expected to move about 800,000 barrels/day by January 1983. With construction of a pump station near Chiriqui Grande, the pipeline could easily be altered for reverse-flow capability. This issue of Energy Detente reviews the use of the new pipeline, as it cuts crude oil transportation time and cost and provides an alternative to the Panama Canal. The issue also updates the fuel price/tax series for the countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  14. Use of FBG sensors for health monitoring of pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, Ferdinando; Paolozzi, Antonio; Vendittozzi, Cristian; Paris, Claudio; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The infrastructures for oil and gas production and distribution need reliable monitoring systems. The risks for pipelines, in particular, are not only limited to natural disasters (landslides, earthquakes, extreme environmental conditions) and accidents, but involve also the damages related to criminal activities, such as oil theft. The existing monitoring systems are not adequate for detecting damages from oil theft, and in several occasion the illegal activities resulted in leakage of oil and catastrophic environmental pollution. Systems based on fiber optic FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensors present a number of advantages for pipeline monitoring. FBG sensors can withstand harsh environment, are immune to interferences, and can be used to develop a smart system for monitoring at the same time several physical characteristics, such as strain, temperature, acceleration, pressure, and vibrations. The monitoring station can be positioned tens of kilometers away from the measuring points, lowering the costs and the complexity of the system. This paper describes tests on a sensor, based on FBG technology, developed specifically for detecting damages of pipeline due to illegal activities (drilling of the pipes), that can be integrated into a smart monitoring chain.

  15. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086) PHMSA published in the Federal Register an Advance Notice of Proposed... by email at mike.israni@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086), PHMSA... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 RIN 2137-AE72 Pipeline...

  16. The bacterial proteogenomic pipeline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteogenomics combines the cutting-edge methods from genomics and proteomics. While it has become cheap to sequence whole genomes, the correct annotation of protein coding regions in the genome is still tedious and error prone. Mass spectrometry on the other hand relies on good characterizations of proteins derived from the genome, but can also be used to help improving the annotation of genomes or find species specific peptides. Additionally, proteomics is widely used to find evidence for differential expression of proteins under different conditions, e.g. growth conditions for bacteria. The concept of proteogenomics is not altogether new, in-house scripts are used by different labs and some special tools for eukaryotic and human analyses are available. Results The Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline, which is completely written in Java, alleviates the conducting of proteogenomic analyses of bacteria. From a given genome sequence, a naïve six frame translation is performed and, if desired, a decoy database generated. This database is used to identify MS/MS spectra by common peptide identification algorithms. After combination of the search results and optional flagging for different experimental conditions, the results can be browsed and further inspected. In particular, for each peptide the number of identifications for each condition and the positions in the corresponding protein sequences are shown. Intermediate and final results can be exported into GFF3 format for visualization in common genome browsers. Conclusions To facilitate proteogenomics analyses the Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline is a set of comprehensive tools running on common desktop computers, written in Java and thus platform independent. The pipeline allows integrating peptide identifications from various algorithms and emphasizes the visualization of spectral counts from different experimental conditions. PMID:25521444

  17. Biotech pipeline: Bottleneck ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.

    1991-10-18

    A vast array of new genetically engineered drugs are heading for market - but an FDA backlog is holding them up. Patients may have to wait far longer than the biotech enthusiasts suggest before they reap the benefits of those new drugs. There is little hope the FDA will get the money it needs to do the job. The agency's pipeline is clogged with at least 58 monoclonal antibody-based drugs at all stages of testing to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases, including a half-dozen cancers, diabetes, and sepsis.

  18. Implementing a Workforce Development Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hix, Billy

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that the number of highly trained scientists and engineers has continued a steady decline during the 1990's. Furthermore, at the high school level, almost 40% of the total high school graduates are seeking technical skills in preparation of entering the workforce directly. The decrease of students in technology and science programs, along with the lack of viable vocational programs, haunts educators and businesses alike. However, MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) has the opportunity to become a leading edge model of workforce development by offering a unified program of apprenticeships, workshops, and educational initiatives. These programs will be designed to encourage young people of all backgrounds to pursue the fields of technology and science, to assist research opportunities, and to support teachers in the systemic changes that they are facing. The emphasis of our program based on grade levels will be: Elementary Level: Exposure to the workforce. Middle School: Examine the workforce. High School and beyond: Instruct the workforce. It is proposed that MSFC create a well-integrated Workforce Development Pipeline Program. The program will act to integrate the many and varied programs offered across MSFC directorates and offices. It will offer a clear path of programs for students throughout middle school, high school, technical training, and college and universities. The end result would consist of technicians, bachelors degrees, masters degrees, and PhDs in science and engineering fields entering the nation's workforce, with a focus on NASA's future personnel needs.

  19. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  20. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    PubMed Central

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Pyle, Richard L.; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker, Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper. PMID:26877662

  1. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank).

    PubMed

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Pyle, Richard L; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker, Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper. PMID:26877662

  2. Pipeline To Environmental Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Elaine; Brewer, Carol; Berkey, Jim; Brown, Fletcher

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary project involving the harnessing of petroleum energy. Necessitates research into exploration, production, transport, and conversion of the energy resource and incorporates such topics as the biological and environmental effects of oil spills. (DDR)

  3. Clamp for arctic pipeline support

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, A.W.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a ring clamp for supporting and anchoring a large diameter metallic arctic pipeline comprising substantially rigid, curved clamp portions adapted to completely encircle the pipeline and fastening means connecting the clamp portions, the clamp portions having inner and outer layers of fiber reinforced rigid polymer material and an intermediate core layer of honeycomb-form aramid paper.

  4. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  5. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Philip E.; Kaiser, M. E.; Keyes, C. D.; Ake, T. B.; Aloisi, A.; Friedman, S. D.; Oliveira, C. M.; Shaw, B.; Sahnow, D. J.; Penton, S. V.; Froning, C. S.; Beland, S.; Osterman, S.; Green, J.; COS/STIS STScI Team; IDT, COS

    2008-05-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, COS, (Green, J, et al., 2000, Proc SPIE, 4013) will be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the next servicing mission. This will be the most sensitive ultraviolet spectrograph ever flown aboard HST. The program (CALCOS) for pipeline calibration of HST/COS data has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute. As with other HST pipelines, CALCOS uses an association table to list the data files to be included, and it employs header keywords to specify the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to be used. COS includes both a cross delay line detector for the far ultraviolet (FUV) and a MAMA detector for the near ultraviolet (NUV). CALCOS uses a common structure for both channels, but the specific calibration steps differ. The calibration steps include pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. A 1-D spectrum will be extracted and flux calibrated. Data will normally be taken in TIME-TAG mode, recording the time and location of each detected photon, although ACCUM mode will also be supported. The wavelength calibration uses an on-board spectral line lamp. To enable precise wavelength calibration, default operations will simultaneously record the science target and lamp spectrum by executing brief (tag-flash) lamp exposures at least once per external target exposure.

  6. Environmental impacts of pipeline corridors in the Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wilshire, H.G. )

    1992-01-01

    Three recently-built gas and oil pipelines that cross the Mojave Desert have graded constructed zones averaging 107 feet wide (range 68--200) on terrain of low relief, and 135 feet (range 77--273) on steeper terrain. Where corridors overlap, the graded width of two pipelines combined averages 157 feet (range 100--388). Right Of Way (ROW) Grants stipulate ROWs 50 feet wide, with an extra 25 feet allowed for construction. Pre- and post-construction measurements on one pipeline show that the width of the graded corridor exceeds the surveyed width by about 21%. A moderate rainstorm of 4 hr duration in the Tehachapi Mtns. eroded about 120 tons/ac to 250 tons/ac of soil from one pipeline corridor, measured on 3 transects across steep slopes. Especially in the western Mojave Desert, the pipeline corridors remain vulnerable to wind erosion for at least 5 years, and thus pose hazards to traffic on nearby highways. Pipeline corridors that pass through areas of stable eolian deposits are undergoing active erosion that expands by undercutting roots and sandblasting plants on downwind sides of the corridors, and by burial of plants beneath drifts. Techniques used to clear vegetation from construction corridors range from deep bulldozing to those designed to remove foliage while leaving root systems intact; the former technique guarantees long-term impacts, but the latter technique may have been defeated by final grading. Problems arise from failure to implement existing mitigations, inadequacies in environmental stipulations, and inadequacies in engineering oversight. Environmental benefits can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the practice of mechanical grading of the corridor, and by placing ditch lines of subsequent pipelines within existing 50 ft. ROWs and limiting construction disturbance to the existing disturbed zone.

  7. Mudslide effects on offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R.C.; Jones, W.T.

    1982-11-01

    In regions of unstable soils such as portions of the Mississippi Delta, occasional pipeline failures during periods of severe weather have been attributed to mudslides. The effects of such downslope soil movements on the deflection and resulting stress in a pipeline have been studied in an attempt to reveal methods of routing or design which would reduce the risk of failure. Results show that the chances of surviving a slide are increased if the pipeline outer diameter is reduced to as small a value as possible, if the pipe wall thickness is increased, and if some slack is available in the line. The chance of survival is greatest if the slide occurs in a direction perpendicular to the pipeline route since the failure mode is primarily one of tension. When the slide crosses the pipeline at other angles of incidence, the chance of survival is significantly lessened.

  8. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The report concludes that, to effectively deal with our national energy problems, gas rate structures should be designed to reflect the costs which the nation avoids if gas is efficiently used and substituted for oil. Current pipeline and distribution company rate structures generally do not meet this test. Although gas is a substitute for oil in many applications, and conserved gas can reduce oil imports, gas rate structures often fail to convey to consumers the fact that, from a national perspective, gas is as valuable as oil. The provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) take a strong first step in correcting these problems. But, as clearly recognized in both NGPA and PURPA, these provisions need to be supplemented by updating pipeline and distribution company rate designs to address the problems of the 1980's - rather than the problems of the 1950's. In this regard, NGPA mandates incremental pricing, which raises the average price of gas to certain industrial users only. The Department of Energy (DOE) study suggests an alternate approach: pipeline and distribution rate structures that reflect in their tailblocks, for all customer classes, the economic costs of gas usage. Such rates would convey to all users the costs incurred by the nation as a consequence of their decisions to use or conserve gas. Such rate structures should promote the three purposes of PURPA - end-use conservation, efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates - to a greater extent than do traditional accounting cost rate designs, which reflect decisions made in the distant past.

  9. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  10. IDC Infrasound Pipeline development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialle, P.; Bittner, P.; Brown, D.; Given, J.

    2012-04-01

    The first atmospheric event built only from infrasound arrivals was reported in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2003. In the last decade, 44 infrasound stations from the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are transmitting data to the IDC. The growing amount of infrasound data and detections produced by the automatic system challenged the station and network processing at the IDC, which require the Organization to improve the infrasound data processing. For nearly 2 years, the IDC resumed automatic processing of infrasound data reviewed by interactive analysis; the detected and located events are being systematically included in the Late Event Bulletin (LEB) and REB. Approximately 16% of SEL3 (Selected Event List 3, produced 6 hours after real-time) events with an infrasound component make it to the IDC bulletins and 41% of SEL3 events rejected after review are built including only 2 associated infrasound phases (and potentially seismic and hydroacoustic detections). Therefore, the process whereby infrasound and seismic detections are associated into an event needed to be investigated further. The IDC works on enhancing the automatic system for the identification of valid signals and the optimization of the network detection threshold. Thus the IDC investigates ways to refine the signal characterization methodology and the association criteria. The objective of this study is to reduce the number of associated infrasound arrivals that are rejected from the SEL3 pipeline when generating the LEB and REB bulletins. The study is performed in the virtual Data Exploitation Center (vDEC) from the CTBTO in order to separate the automatic processing into two streams: seismic and hydroacoustic (SH) pipeline on one side, and infrasound (I) pipeline on the other side. The "fusion" of the two parallel event-forming streams will have to be

  11. Effect of stress corrosion cracking on integrity and remaining life of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.; Harle, B.A.

    1996-08-01

    External stress-corrosion cracking of pipelines is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. Longitudinal cracks initiate on the outside surface of the pipe and link up to form flaws that, in some cases, can lead to pipe rupture. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines and considers both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes. A methodology also is presented to calculate the remaining life of a pipeline containing flaws of known size.

  12. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  13. WFPC2 Pipeline Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Chris

    2004-03-01

    This document contains a listing of all WFPC2 reference files, grouped by type, that are presently available in the Calibration Data Base (CDB) System, and a summary of how they are used in the calibration of WFPC2 data. A summary memo is kept on STEIS and kept up to date as the reference files change. That memo is intended to inform observers as to the quality of the calibration applied to their data by the PODPS pipeline processing and to provide an aid in selecting appropriate reference files for the re-calibration of WFPC2 observations. The datafiles may be requested by name from the STScI in the same fashion as any other nonproprietary data products.

  14. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  15. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  17. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    SciTech Connect

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. )

    1995-01-23

    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  18. 76 FR 17430 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activities: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau...: Title: 30 CFR Part 291, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the OCS Lands... oil, gas, and sulphur resources; make such resources available to meet the Nation's energy...

  19. Papua New Guinea pipeline overcomes adverse climate, terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.B. ); Leipert, G.F. )

    1993-02-15

    Construction of the Kutubu oil-export facilities in Papua New Guinea illustrates the importance of proper planning and flexible execution in completing on schedule and within budget a project through difficult and remote terrain. As part of the Kutubu petroleum development project, the pipeline transports crude oil from a central production facility (CPF) in the southern highlands to a marine terminal located in the Gulf of Papua. The paper describes the land line construction, construction challenges, the plan for catch-up when establishing right-of-way proved slow, pipes and valves used, marine activities, river construction, coating, and commissioning.

  20. Toughness requirements for pipeline integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Denys, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental results of large scale (curved wide plate) tests on thin wall pipelines (thickness < 12.7 mm) have been compared with small scale (Charpy V notch impact and CTOD) test results. The result of the comparisons show that (a) the Charpy V notch impact test can be used to predict plastic collapse by pipe metal yielding of pipelines containing surface breaking root cracks and (b) the CTOD test should not be used as a basis for designing thin wall pipelines against brittle fracture. The assessment has further demonstrated that the effect of weld metal yield strength on the required minimum CVN or CTOD is an important factor.

  1. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  2. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction §...

  3. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  4. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  5. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  6. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  7. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  8. Corrosion detection on pipelines by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bison, P.; Marinetti, S.; Cuogo, G.; Molinas, B.; Zonta, P.; Grinzato, E.

    2011-05-01

    IR thermography is applied to detect hidden corrosion on carbon steel pipelines for oil transportation. The research is oriented to set up a robust technique to carry out in situ the early detection of corroded zones that may evolve either towards leakage or failure. The use of thermography associated with a transient thermal technique is investigated on 12.2 mm thick samples, machined to artificially create a reduction of wall thickness that simulates the effect of real corrosion in pipes. The extension and depth of the artificial defects is controlled by ultrasounds which represents the reference for the results obtained by thermography. Two approaches are proposed: the first is based on the processing of a single thermogram taken at the optimum time after a finite pulse heating of a large area of the external surface; the second technique is carried out by scanning the pipeline by means of a device composed of a linear lamp and a thermographic camera which move jointly over the surface to test. A suitable reconstruction provides a map of the tested surface with possible hot spots in correspondence with the corroded areas. The analysis of the thermal problem by Finite Element Method is used to optimize the experimental parameters. The experimental results demonstrate a detection capability starting from 15 % of wall thickness reduction.

  9. Pipeline design essential in making pigging plans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.

    1998-08-01

    Pigs have gotten an unfortunate reputation for getting stuck in pipelines. As a result, for many years few pigged their pipelines and consequently, many companies are paying the price to repair or replace their corroded pipelines. It is currently considered a necessary evil to run pigs to improve pipeline efficiency and prevent corrosion. Some pipelines were not designed to run pigs and occasionally the wrong type of pig is selected to run in a particular pipeline, increasing the chances of sticking a pig. A pipeline properly designed for pigging along with proper pig selection greatly reduces chances of sticking a pig.

  10. New pipeline policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefgen, J.R. Jr.; Colucci, D.M.

    1996-04-01

    This article outlines regulations addressing the sale, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas in Mexico. The regulations were issued in November 1995 by the Comision Reguladora de Energia. The major policy decisions of the regulations are summarized. The current role of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state owned oil and gas entity, which formerly monopolized the Mexican industry, is discussed.

  11. 76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of... Improvement Act of 2002, and the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Brian...

  12. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  13. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    SciTech Connect

    Boeheim, C.

    1991-08-01

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  14. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... may be harmful to the public health or welfare or the environment of the United States include discharges of oil that: (a) Violate applicable water quality standards; or (b) Cause a film or sheen upon or... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge...

  15. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... may be harmful to the public health or welfare or the environment of the United States include discharges of oil that: (a) Violate applicable water quality standards; or (b) Cause a film or sheen upon or... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge...

  16. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... may be harmful to the public health or welfare or the environment of the United States include discharges of oil that: (a) Violate applicable water quality standards; or (b) Cause a film or sheen upon or... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge...

  17. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... may be harmful to the public health or welfare or the environment of the United States include discharges of oil that: (a) Violate applicable water quality standards; or (b) Cause a film or sheen upon or... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge...

  18. 40 CFR 110.5 - Discharges of oil not determined “as may be harmful” pursuant to Section 311(b)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the bilges of a vessel discharged in compliance with MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, as provided in 33 CFR... 33 CFR part 151, subpart A; and (c) Any discharge of oil explicitly permitted by the Administrator in... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.5 Discharges...

  19. 40 CFR 110.5 - Discharges of oil not determined “as may be harmful” pursuant to Section 311(b)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in the bilges of a vessel discharged in compliance with MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, as provided in 33 CFR... 33 CFR part 151, subpart A; and (c) Any discharge of oil explicitly permitted by the Administrator in... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.5 Discharges...

  20. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge of oil in such quantities as... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge of... may be harmful to the public health or welfare or the environment of the United States...

  1. 40 CFR 110.5 - Discharges of oil not determined “as may be harmful” pursuant to Section 311(b)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in the bilges of a vessel discharged in compliance with MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, as provided in 33 CFR... 33 CFR part 151, subpart A; and (c) Any discharge of oil explicitly permitted by the Administrator in... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharges of oil not determined...

  2. Oil and gas leasing in proposed wilderness areas: the Wyoming District Court's interpretation of Section 603 of the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976 - Rocky Mountain Oil and Gas Association v. Andrus, 500 F. Supp. 1338 (D. Wyo. 1980), appeal docketed, No. 81-1040 (10th Cir. Jan. 5, 1981)

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Plaintiff Rocky Mountain Oil and Gas Association, a non-profit trade association, brought suit against the Secretary of the Interior, challenging land management policies of the Department of the Interior which plaintiff contended have effectively prohibited oil and gas exploration in areas proposed as wilderness under the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA). The principal issue at trial was Interior's interpretation of the wilderness study provisions contained in Section 603 of the Act, which directed that activities on oil and gas leases in proposed wilderness areas be managed so as to prevent impairment of wilderness values. The United States Court for the District of Wyoming, Kerr, J., held that strict application of the non-impairment standard of Section 603, FLPMA, by the Department of the Interior virtually halted oil and gas exploration in proposed wilderness areas, and is therefore statutorily erroneous, clearly contrary to Congressional intent, and counter-productive to public interest. The Trial Court's decision is being appealed to the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals under the title Rocky Mountain Oil and Gas Association v. Watt. 91 references.

  3. Creating a pipeline rehabilitation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, W.F.

    1997-05-01

    This paper will highlight the various aspects of planning a pipeline rehabilitation project to maximize used resources. The paper will visit in some detail the aspect of pipeline data collection to make rehabilitation decisions, including intelligent pig data and its use, close interval survey and its use, hydrotest data and its use, etc. This paper will also review the analysis of the hydrotest data, the close interval survey data, and its meaning to the overall rehabilitation design and plan. The paper will also assess the various types of pipeline coatings and methods of recoating and typical and innovative cathodic protection methods. The paper will stress analysis of pipeline structural integrity prior to making rehabilitation decisions. It will review cost estimating for various types of pipeline rehabilitation, and look at various alternatives. Finally, this paper will review typical results from various types of rehabilitation and soil conditions. It will emphasize the need to assess the results of the different rehabilitation methods and detail the future pipeline rehabilitation project decision making. The paper will discuss the use of RAP sheets (rehabilitation analysis profile) for data review and suggest various methods to invest rehabilitation dollars to get the greatest quantity of rehabilitation work done for the least cost.

  4. The LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexov, A.; Hessels, J.; Mol, J. D.; Stappers, B.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2010-12-01

    The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) for radio astronomy is being built in the Netherlands by ASTRON, with extensions throughout Europe. LOFAR operates at radio frequencies below 250 MHz. The project is an interferometric array of radio antennas grouped into stations that are distributed over an area of hundreds of kilometers. LOFAR will revolutionise low-frequency radio astronomy. Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipeline is being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computation capabilities (˜ 50 Tflops) and data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing additional transient pipelines.

  5. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

  6. S. 686: A bill to consolidate and improve Federal laws providing compensation and establishing liability for oil spills. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, April 4, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bill is for the purpose of consolidating and improving Federal laws which provide compensation and establish liability for oil spills. The owner or operator of a vessel or onshore/offshore facility from which there is an oil spill shall be liable for all costs incurred for spill removal and all damages for economic loss or loss of natural resources resulting from the discharge. There is no liability for the person otherwise liable if it can be established that the discharge or threat of discharge resulted from an act of God, an act of war, or an act of omission of a third party other than an employee or agent of the owner/operator. The law sets maximum limits to this liability, for example, 100 million dollars is the maximum liability for any deep water port facility. An oil spill compensation fund and regional oil spill response teams are established by this act and are described. Required amendments to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Fund, the Intervention on the High Seas Act, Clean Water Act, Deepwater Port Act, and Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act are included.

  7. STIS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, S.; Hodge, P.; Lindler, D.; Shaw, R.; Goudfrooij, P.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; McGrath, M.; Bohlin, R.; Baum, S.

    1997-05-01

    Routine calibration of STIS observations in the HST data pipeline is performed by the CALSTIS task. CALSTIS can: subtract the over-scan region and a bias image from CCD observations; remove cosmic ray features from CCD observations; correct global nonlinearities for MAMA observations; subtract a dark image; and, apply flat field corrections. In the case of spectral data, CALSTIS can also: assign a wavelength to each pixel; apply a heliocentric correction to the wavelengths; convert counts to absolute flux; process the automatically generated spectral calibration lamp observations to improve the wavelength solution; rectify two-dimensional (longslit) spectra; subtract interorder and sky background; and, extract one-dimensional spectra. CALSTIS differs in significant ways from the current HST calibration tasks. The new code is written in ANSI C and makes use of a new C interface to IRAF. The input data, reference data, and output calibrated data are all in FITS format, using IMAGE or BINTABLE extensions. Error estimates are computed and include contributions from the reference images. The entire calibration can be performed by one task, but many steps can also be performed individually.

  8. Programmable pipelined image processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, Donald B. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A pipelined image processor selectively interconnects modules in a column of a two-dimensional array to modules of the next column of the array of modules 1,1 through M,N, where M is the number of modules in one dimension and N is the number of modules in the other direction. Each module includes two input selectors for A and B inputs, two convolvers, a binary function operator, a neighborhood comparison operator which produces an A output and an output selector which may select as a B output the output of any one of the components in the module, including the A output of the neighborhood comparison operator. Each module may be connected to as many as eight modules in the next column, preferably with the majority always in a different row that is up (or down) in the array for a generally spiral data path around the torus thus formed. The binary function operator is implemented as a look-up table addressed by the most significant 8 bits of each 12-bit argument. The table output includes a function value and the slopes for interpolation of the two arguments by multiplying the 4 least significant bits in multipliers and adding the products to the function value through adders.

  9. Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341

    SciTech Connect

    Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J.

    2013-07-01

    Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

  10. Pipeliners beat designers across Panama's jungle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-27

    Hard-driving pipeline crews are slashing a path down the steep slopes of the Andes range on Panama's Caribbean coast for the final leg of an 80-mile Pacific-Atlantic oil link that will reduce shipping times for North Slope crude to Gulf Coast refineries. When completed in late August, the trans-isthmus tube will be able to drain the Panama Canal of Alaskan oil, which currently must be pumped from large tankers to 65,000 ton ships before passage through the 50-mile cut. The 36 and 40-in.-dia pipe will connect an existing Northville oil transshipment terminal at Puerto Armuelles, near Costa Rica on the Pacific Coast, with a new 2.5-million-bbl storage area at Chiriqui Grande on the Caribbean coast. Two pumping stations, one at Puerto Armuelles and another at the base of the Serrania de Tabasara mountains, will lift the oil 4,000 ft over the Continental Divide. Gravity flows of 7 1/2 ft per second down the steep drop to the swamps along the Caribbean will feed three 833,000-bbl tanks being built on a hillside overlooking Chiriqui Bay. From there, two 36-in. lines will feed concrete-coated pipe sections trenched into the surf zone and placed on the muddy bottom for the remaining distance to two marine loading buoys over a mile offshore. The catenary anchor-leg mooring buoys are designed to handle tankers of up to 160,000 tons in 65 ft of water at maximum fill rates of 120,000 bbl per hour.

  11. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company...

  12. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company...

  13. Monitoring of pipeline ruptures by means of a Robust Satellite Technique (RST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizzola, C.; Baldassarre, G.; Corrado, R.; Mazzeo, G.; Marchese, F.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2009-04-01

    Pipeline ruptures have deep economic and ecologic consequences so that pipeline networks represent critical infrastructures to be carefully monitored particularly in areas which are frequently affected by natural disasters like earthquakes, hurricanes, landslide, etc. In order to minimize damages, the detection of harmful events along pipelines should be as rapid as possible and, at the same time, what is detected should be an actual incident and not a false alarm. In this work, a Robust Satellite Technique (RST), already applied to the prevision and NRT (Near Real Time) monitoring of major natural and environmental hazards (such as seismically active areas, volcanic activity, hydrological risk, forest fires and oil spills) has been employed to automatically identify, from satellite, anomalous Thermal Infrared (TIR) transients related to explosions of oil/gas pipelines. In this context, the combination of the RST approach with high temporal resolution, offered by geostationary satellites, seems to assure both a reliable and timely detection of such events. The potentials of the technique (applied to MSG-SEVIRI data) were tested over Iraq, a region which is sadly known for the numerous (mainly manmade) accidents to pipelines, in order to have a simulation of the effects (such as fires or explosions near or directly involving a pipeline facility) due to natural disasters.

  14. The Bayou Choctaw Oil Shipment Test

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.; Ballard, S.; Barker, G.T.

    1994-05-01

    In early October of 1993, an oil shipment of about 1 million barrels was made from the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility to St. James Terminal. During the shipment, oil temperatures and soil temperatures along the pipeline were recorded. The field data were used to make estimations of soil thermal properties, thermal conductivity and specific heat. These data were also used to validate and calibrate a heat transfer code, OILPIP, which has been used to calculate pipeline cooling of oil during a drawdown.

  15. Field investigation and analysis of buried pipelines under various seismic environments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1982-08-01

    A research project is proposed in which the behavior of oil, water, sewer, and gas pipelines under various seismic environments, including seismic shaking and large ground deformation would be investigated. It is suggested that the investigation be conducted in the Beijing and Tangshan areas. Three major hazards to underground pipelines are identified: the effect of wave propagation; ground rupture and differential movement along fault lines; and soil liquefaction induced by ground shaking. Ruptures or severe distortions of the pipe are most often associated with fault movements, landslides, or ground squeeze associated with fault zones. A model is presented to evaluate the general longitudinal responses of buried pipelines, both segmented and continuous, subjected to ground shakings and vibrations. The results of these tests will be used to develop aseismic codes for buried pipelines.

  16. Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. J.; Gao, B. T.; Zhang, X. H.; Deng2, Z. Q.

    2006-10-01

    Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot.

  17. Could non-destructive methodologies enhance the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in pipeline systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abbas, F.; Kakpovbia, A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.; Spear, J.

    2013-01-01

    Stringent corrosion management programs are being deployed by oil and gas industry to ensure the integrity of pipeline systems. Parts of this program are the corrosion protection systems and inspection detection methods included non-destructive techniques. Those measures induce remnant magnetic field (RMF) in the pipeline steel. Potentially the RMF could affect the corrosion process in the pipeline including microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Microorganisms in pipelines have surface charges and produce a wide variety of metabolic products. Consequently, when they are exposed to RMF generated at the linepipe steel surface by the aforementioned sources there will be potential effects. This sequentially will increase the likelihood of biofilm formation and hence enhance/promote MIC. This study investigates the potential effects of RFM on the MIC by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB).

  18. Norwegian regulatory requirements related to the utilization of intelligent pigs in pipeline integrity monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vestre, H.I.

    1996-08-01

    Since the first steps of the Norwegian Offshore Petroleum Industry were taken in the late sixties, several philosophies and generations of tools for pipeline integrity monitoring have been utilized. This paper presents and discusses the Norwegian Regulatory Requirements relevant for internal integrity monitoring of pipelines on the continental shelf. It is pointed out that, for several pipeline systems, the establishment of an internal baseline and subsequent inspections by intelligent pigs at intervals that are partly adjusted based on operational experience, is of vital importance in the continuous effort to maintain and develop the high availability of oil and gas through the Norwegian pipeline grid. It is also pointed out that the selection of philosophy and technology for integrity monitoring should include an evaluation of the continuous corrosivity of the transported products, the consequences of failures for personnel, the environment, the economic investment and the income of the society.

  19. Calculations allow program to design pipelines for waxy crude--

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Fariss, T.F.; Desouky, S.E.M. )

    1990-01-08

    This article reports that calculations have been derived which will permit writing of a computer program for design of a pipeline handling Newtonian, pseudoplastic, or yield-pseudoplastic crudes. Statistical analysis was used to find out the variation of rheological behavior with operating temperatures and wax content in various Saudi oils. The evaluation was carried out at a statistical confidence level of 95%. Experimental data were correlated with respect to power-law and Herschel-Bulkey law. The pipeline design calculations were carried out through a computer program. The friction factor was determined from Torrance's correlation and Dodge and Metzner correlation for yield-pseudoplastic and pseudoplastic fluids, respectively. The frictional pressure drop was calculated from Darcy-Weisbach equation.

  20. 77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or view the Privacy Notice at http://www.regulations.gov... published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for Individuals... Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  1. Diverse Mechanisms of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Development Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a remarkable array of new chemical entities in the current antiepileptic drug (AED) development pipeline. In some cases, the compounds were synthesized in an attempt improve upon the activity of marketed AEDs. In other cases, the discovery of antiepileptic potential was largely serendipitous. Entry into the pipeline begins with the demonstration of activity in one or more animal screening models. Results from testing in a panel of such models provide a basis to differentiate agents and may offer clues as to the mechanism. Target activity may then be defined through cell-based studies, often years after the initial identification of activity. Some pipeline compounds are believed to act through conventional targets, whereas others are structurally novel and may act by novel mechanisms. Follow-on agents include the levetiracetam analogs brivaracetam and seletracetam that act as SV2A-ligands; the valproate-like agents valrocemide, valnoctamide, propylisopropyl acetamide, and isovaleramide; the felbamate analog flurofelbamate, a dicarbamate, and the unrelated carbamate RWJ-333369; the oxcarbazepine analog licarbazepine, which probably acts as a use-dependent sodium channel blockers, and its prodrug acetate BIA 2-093; and various selective partial benzodiazepine receptor agonists, including ELB139, which is a positive allosteric modulator of α3-containing GABAA receptors. A variety of AEDs that may act through novel targets are also in clinical development: lacosamide, a functionalized amino acid; talampanel, a 2,3-benzodiazepine selective noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist; NS1209, a competitive AMPA receptor antagonist; ganaxolone, a neuroactive steroid that acts as a positive modulator of GABAA receptors; retigabine, a KCNQ potassium channel opener with activity as a GABAA receptor positive modulator; the benzanilide KCNQ potassium channel opener ICA-27243 that is more selective than retigabine; and rufinamide, a triazole of unknown mechanism. PMID

  2. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid the disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besstrashnov, Vladimir; Strom, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Trunk pipelines that pass through tectonically active areas connecting oil and gas reservoirs with terminals and refineries cross active faults that can produce large earthquakes. Besides strong motion affecting vast areas, these earthquakes are often associated with surface faulting that provides additional hazard to pipelines. To avoid significant economic losses and environmental pollution, pipelines should be designed to sustain both effects (shaking and direct rupturing) without pipe damage and spill. Special studies aimed to provide necessary input data for the designers should be performed in the course of engineering survey. However, our experience on conducting and review of such studies for several oil and gas trunk pipelines in Russia show urgent need of more strict definition of basic conceptions and approaches used for identification and localization of these potentially hazardous tectonic features. Identification of active faults (fault zones) considered as causative faults - sources of strong motion caused by seismic waves that affect dozens kilometers of pipeline route can be done by use of both direct and indirect evidence of Late Pleistocene - Holocene activity of faults and fault zones. Since strong motion parameters can be considered as constant within the near-field zone, which width in case of large earthquake is up to dozens kilometers, accuracy of active fault location is not so critical and ±1-2 km precision provided by use of indirect evidence is acceptable. In contrast, if one have to identify and characterize zones of potential surface rupturing that require special design of the endangered pipeline section, only direct evidence of such activity can provide reliable input data for crossing design with relevant accuracy of fault location, amount and direction of displacement. Only traces of surface faults displacing Late Pleistocene - Holocene sediments and/or geomorphic features are considered as direct evidence of fault activity. Just

  3. Method and system for pipeline communication

    DOEpatents

    Richardson; John G.

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  4. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ..., 2000, (65 FR 19477) or view the Privacy Notice at http://www.regulations.gov before submitting any such... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid... Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee (LPAC) also known as the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline...

  5. Ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) and mineral oil act synergistically to enhance the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoming; Bao, Shengjun; Wu, Lihua; Hu, Songhua

    2009-01-01

    Saponins extracted from ginseng stems and leaves (GSLS) as well as the synergistic effect between GSLS and oil emulsion were investigated for their adjuvant effects on the immune responses of mice to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1. In experiment A, ICR mice were subcutaneously immunized twice with FMDV antigen with or without GSLS (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 microg) at 3 week intervals. Highest FMDV-specific IgG level was observed 2 weeks after the boosting in mice immunized with FMDV antigen plus 10 microg of GSLS. In experiment B, mice were subcutaneously injected with FMDV antigen with or without GSLS (10 microg), or in oil emulsion with or without GSLS (10 microg) on days 1 and 21. Results indicated that when co-administered with a mixture of oil and GSLS, FMDV antigen induced significantly higher IgG titer and IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 responses, production of IFN-gamma (Th1 cytokine) and IL-5 (Th2 cytokine) by splenocytes, as well as T and B lymphocyte proliferation in response to Con A and LPS than when FMDV antigen was used alone or mixed with either GSLS or oil. This suggests that GSLS and oil adjuvant synergistically promote both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. As protection against FMDV requires both cellular and humoral immune responses, the combined effects of GSLS and oil deserve further study in other animals such as cattle and pigs in order to induce effective immunity against FMDV infection. PMID:18973783

  6. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... example, the records indicated that pipe in the area was 30-inch diameter seamless pipe, whereas pipe... diameter, wall thickness, grade, and seam type; pipe coating; girth weld coating; maximum operating.... On October 18, 2010 (75 FR 63774) PHMSA published an ANPRM titled ``Pipeline Safety: Safety of...

  7. Clean coal slurry pipelines in China

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.

    1994-12-31

    China Pipeline Holdings Limited, managed by Custom Coals Corporation, has formed a joint venture with the Chinese government, called China Coal Pipeline Company, to build and operate coal slurry pipelines in China. Carrying cleaned coal and financed on the strength of coal contracts, pipelines offer an environmentally sound and cost effective alternative to alleviate transportation bottlenecks and help meet the energy demands of China`s phenomenal growth.

  8. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Neuscamman, Stephanie; Price, Don; Pezzola, Genny; Glascoe, Lee

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  9. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    SciTech Connect

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    The U.S. liquid petroleum pipeline industry is large, diverse, and vital to the nation's economy. Comprised of approximately 200,000 miles of pipe in all fifty states, liquid petroleum pipelines carried more than 40 million barrels per day, or 4 trillion barrel-miles, of crude oil and refined products during 2001. That represents about 17% of all freight transported in the United States, yet the cost of doing so amounted to only 2% of the nation's freight bill. Approximately 66% of domestic petroleum transport (by ton-mile) occurs by pipeline, with marine movements accounting for 28% and rail and truck transport making up the balance. In 2004, the movement of crude petroleum by domestic federally regulated pipelines amounted to 599.6 billion tonmiles, while that of petroleum products amounted to 315.9 billion ton-miles (AOPL 2006). As an illustration of the low cost of pipeline transportation, the cost to move a barrel of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to New York Harbor is only 3 cents per gallon, which is a small fraction of the cost of gasoline to consumers. Pipelines may be small or large, up to 48 inches in diameter. Nearly all of the mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as pump stations are above ground. Some lines are as short as a mile, while others may extend 1,000 miles or more. Some are very simple, connecting a single source to a single destination, while others are very complex, having many sources, destinations, and interconnections. Many pipelines cross one or more state boundaries (interstate), while some are located within a single state (intrastate), and still others operate on the Outer Continental Shelf and may or may not extend into one or more states. U.S. pipelines are located in coastal plains, deserts, Arctic tundra, mountains, and more than a mile beneath the water's surface of the Gulf of Mexico (Rabinow 2004; AOPL 2006). The network of crude oil pipelines in the United States is extensive. There are approximately 55

  10. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline... indication of pipeline leakage. The results of these inspections shall be retained for at least 2 years...

  11. Recession curbs gas pipeline construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-01-24

    This paper shows how after 5 yrs. of inflation, gas pipeline construction costs have finally felt the effects of a severe building recession. First quarter (1982) construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high-pressure gas-station piping are discussed. Graphs of OGJ-Morgan composite gas pipeline cost, and gas pipeline cost component indexes are presented.

  12. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  13. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  14. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  15. The ALMA Pipeline Procedure Execution Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L.; Williams, S.; Nakazato, T.; Lightfoot, J.; Muders, D.; Kent, B.

    2015-09-01

    The ALMA pipeline processes data taken in standard observing modes. The ALMA pipeline execution framework is responsible for executing the standard reduction procedure for each standard mode. The execution framework is written in Python. The pipeline reduction procedures are layered on and run inside the CASA package. The framework is flexible enough to support observatory operations, reprocessing, commissioning and testing, and user desktop reprocessing.

  16. 27 CFR 19.587 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.587 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Containers § 19.587 Pipelines. Pursuant to the provisions of this part, pipelines which conform to the requirements of § 19.274 may...

  17. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  18. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  19. 27 CFR 19.274 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.274 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Construction, Equipment and Security § 19.274 Pipelines. (a) General. (1) Pipelines for the conveyance of spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines...

  20. Strengthening Pipeline Safety and Enforcement Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2011-01-31

    01/31/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S363-365) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Pipeline Infrastructure and Community Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Upton, Fred [R-MI-6

    2011-09-15

    11/16/2011 Reported (Amended) by the Committee on Energy and Commerce. H. Rept. 112-287, Part I. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Welding the Maui A-B pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P. ); Emmerson, J.G. ); Berg, Van Den R. )

    1993-11-01

    Submarine pipelines have been installed all over the world, in diameters ranging from 76 mm (3 in.) up to 1270 mm (50 in.) or more and in water depths up to 500 m (1600 ft) using the S-lay method. In the 1950s, the J-lay concept was developed. With the J-lay technique, the pipe is suspended near vertically from the lay barge, thus reducing the horizontal force required to prevent pipe buckling. The J-lay technique has obvious advantages for deep-water applications where it is possible to eliminate the use of anchors by using dynamic positioning. The main drawback of the J-lay technique is that the near vertical pipe is difficult to handle and multiple workstations cannot be used. Only one length of pipe can be welded onto the pipeline at a time and subsequent inspection and coating must be done before the next weld can be made, resulting in low production rates compared to that achieved by S-lay barges. In 1989, Heerema, A Dutch company, which operates a fleet of semi-submersible crane vessels (SSCV) used for the installation of offshore oil and gas production platforms, decided to diversify into marine pipe laying. Realizing direct competition with established pipe lay contractors using S-lay barges could not be commercially competitive, an innovative J-lay system was designed which took advantage of the unique capabilities of the SSCV. Although the J-lay concept was some 30 years old, no functional system had been constructed as there was no immediate market for it, especially one which could justify inferior productivity when compared to S-lay barges. Heerema's solution to this limitation was to maximize the length of each piece of pipe added to the pipeline. By fabricating the pipe on shore into lengths up to 72 m (240 ft) and using the massive crane capacity (4000 tons) of the SSCV to lift each pipe string into position for welding, they could compensate for a lower productivity rate.

  3. S.1919: Federal Oil and Gas Stripper Well Preservation Act of 1998, introduced in the US Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, April 2, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this bill is to provide for the energy security of the Nation through encouraging the production of domestic oil and gas resources from stripper wells on Federal lands, and for other purposes. The law would authorize reduction of royalty rates for stripper wells on federal lands and suspend minimum royalty and per acre rental fees.

  4. Pipelined Flexible Krylov Subspace Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanan, Patrick; Schnepp, Sascha M.; May, Dave A.

    2015-04-01

    State-of-the-art geophysical forward models expend most of their computational resources solving large, sparse linear systems. To date, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods have proven to be the only algorithmically scalable approach to solving these systems. However, at `extreme scale', the global reductions required by the inner products within these algorithms become a computational bottleneck, and it becomes advantageous to use pipelined Krylov subspace methods. These allow overlap of global reductions with other work, at the expense of using more storage and local computational effort, including overhead required to synchronize overlapping work. An impediment to using currently-available pipelined solvers for relevant geophysical forward modeling is that they are not `flexible', meaning that they cannot support nonlinear or varying preconditioners. Such preconditioners are effective for solving challenging linear systems, notably those arising from modelling of Stokes flow with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure. To this end, we introduce, for the first time, Krylov subspace methods which are both pipelined and flexible. We implement and demonstrate pipelined, flexible Conjugate Gradient, GMRES, and Conjugate Residual methods, which will be made publicly available via the open source PETSc library. Our algorithms are nontrivial modifications of the flexible methods they are based on (that is, they are not equivalent in exact arithmetic), so we analyze them mathematically and through a number of numerical experiments employing multi-level preconditioners. We highlight the benefits of these algorithms by solving variable viscosity Stokes problems directly relevant to lithospheric dynamics.

  5. The Classroom to Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The school-to-prison pipeline doesn't just begin with cops in the hallways and zero tolerance discipline policies. It begins when teachers fail to create a curriculum and a pedagogy that connects with students, that takes them seriously as intellectuals, that lets students know teachers care about them, that gives them the chance to channel their…

  6. Corrosion beneath disbonded pipeline coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between coatings, cathodic protection (CP), and external corrosion of underground pipelines is described. Historically, this problem has been addressed by focusing on the corrosion and CP processes associated with holidays, e.g., coating disbondment and CP current flow within the disbonded region. These issues and those associated with disbonded areas distant from holidays are also discussed.

  7. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  8. Oil cuts a path across Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-04

    Nineteen photographs illustrate the Panamian jungle, swamp, and mountain terrain which oil-pipeline construction crews faced as they crossed the country from Chirique Grande to Puerto Armuelles. The pipeline, completed in October 1982, after only 14 months, will move Alaskan crude from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic considerably faster and cheaper. Modern technology made the project faster, cheaper, and safer than the Panama Canal construction of 70 years ago. (DCK)

  9. Oman-India pipeline sets survey challenges. Crossing involves most rugged terrain, water depths four times greater than previous attempts

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decisions concerning the route for the world`s deepest pipeline call for some of the most challenging commercial oceanographic and engineering surveys ever undertaken. Oman Oil Co.`s 1, 170-kilometer pipeline will carry 2 billion cubic feet of gas daily across the Arabian Sea from Oman to the northern coast of India at the Gulf of Kutch. Not only will the project be in water depths four times greater than any previous pipeline, but it will cross some of the world`s most rugged seabed terrain, traversing ridges and plunging into deep canyons. Project costs are likely to approach $5 billion.

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  11. Customer service drives pipelines` reorganization

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-06-01

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate`s net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG`s income, it was vital that the merger of Northern`s 950 employees with Transwestern`s 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives.

  12. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 10-94. Guidance for determination and documentation of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) phase-out schedule for existing single hull vessels carrying oil in bulk. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-22

    The purpose of this Circular is to provide guidance regarding the determination and documentation of phase-out dates for single hull vessels subject to chapter 37 of Title 46, U.S. Code, constructed or adapted to carry or that carry oil in bulk as cargo or cargo residue and operating on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

  13. Coating disbondment leads causes of external pipeline corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, M. )

    1991-04-01

    Internal corrosion has proved the most persistent corrosion problem on the approximately 670 miles of pipelines operated since 1959 by Elf Gabon. Causes include the presence of CO{sub 2} in polyphasic lines, residual oxygen and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in water-injection lines, and bacterial corrosion in crude-oil lines. External corrosion has been less troublesome, caused either by atmospheric marine exposure with frequent wetting or by disbonded coatings on buried lines. These were the major conclusions of a review conducted by the company and presented here in two parts. This article focuses on external corrosion.

  14. Pipeline rehabilitation using field applied tape systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, C.R.

    1998-12-31

    Bare steel pipelines were first installed years before the turn of the century. Pipeline operators soon realized the lie of bare steel could be greatly enhanced by applying coatings. Thus began ``pipeline rehabilitation.`` Many of the older pipelines were exposed, evaluated, coated and returned to service. This procedure has reached new heights in recent years as coated pipelines of the twentieth century, having lived past their original design life, are now subject to coating failure. Many operator companies with pipelines thirty years or older are faced with ``replace or recondition.`` Considering the emphasis on cost restraints and environmental issues, replacing an existing pipeline is often not the best decision. Rehabilitation is a preferred solution for many operators.

  15. H. R. 779: This Act may be cited as the Natural Gas Enhancement Act of 1991, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 4, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill would increase the nation's use of natural gas by simplifying and streamlining current regulatory requirements for new natural gas pipeline construction. Amendments to the Natural Gas Act are described under the following headings: rehearing time limits; environmental contracting; utilization of rulemaking procedures; certificate not required for replacement facilities; unopposed projects; and noncertificate option. Amendments to the Natural Gas Policy Acts of 1978 are described under the headings: interstate pipelines and intrastate pipelines; effective date; and priority projects.

  16. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)--the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  17. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  18. An electromagnetic cavity sensor for multiphase measurement in the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hajeri, S.; Wylie, S. R.; Stuart, R. A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2007-07-01

    The oil and gas industry require accurate sensors to monitor fluid flow in pipelines in order to manage wells efficiently. The sensor described in this paper uses the different relative permittivity values for the three phases: oil, gas and water to help determine the fraction of each phase in the pipeline, by monitoring the resonant frequencies that occur within an electromagnetic cavity. The sensor has been designed to be non-intrusive. This is advantageous, as it will prevent the sensor being damaged by the flow through the pipeline and allow pigging, the technique used for cleaning rust and wax from the inside of the pipeline using blades or brushes.

  19. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Ting, Yen-Peng; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed. PMID:19844704

  20. Magnetic Flux Leakage and Principal Component Analysis for metal loss approximation in a pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M.; Mujica, L. E.; Quintero, M.; Florez, J.; Quintero, S.

    2015-07-01

    Safety and reliability of hydrocarbon transportation pipelines represent a critical aspect for the Oil an Gas industry. Pipeline failures caused by corrosion, external agents, among others, can develop leaks or even rupture, which can negatively impact on population, natural environment, infrastructure and economy. It is imperative to have accurate inspection tools traveling through the pipeline to diagnose the integrity. In this way, over the last few years, different techniques under the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) have continuously been in development. This work is based on a hybrid methodology that combines the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) approaches. The MFL technique induces a magnetic field in the pipeline's walls. The data are recorded by sensors measuring leakage magnetic field in segments with loss of metal, such as cracking, corrosion, among others. The data provide information of a pipeline with 15 years of operation approximately, which transports gas, has a diameter of 20 inches and a total length of 110 km (with several changes in the topography). On the other hand, PCA is a well-known technique that compresses the information and extracts the most relevant information facilitating the detection of damage in several structures. At this point, the goal of this work is to detect and localize critical loss of metal of a pipeline that are currently working.