Science.gov

Sample records for act oil pipeline

  1. 76 FR 28966 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The...

  2. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  3. 77 FR 29997 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... the ceiling levels for each 12 month period beginning January 1, ] l995,\\5\\ see Explorer Pipeline... for pipelines to use for the five-year period commencing July 1, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ 133 FERC ] 61,228 at P 1..., plus 2.65 percent, is positive 0.086011.\\3\\ Oil pipelines must multiply their July 1, 2011,...

  4. 78 FR 30296 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... the ceiling levels for each 12 month period beginning January 1, l995,\\5\\ see Explorer Pipeline... for pipelines to use for the five-year period commencing July 1, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ 133 FERC ] 61,228 at P 1..., plus 2.65 percent, is positive 0.045923.\\3\\ Oil pipelines must multiply their July 1, 2012,...

  5. 75 FR 29526 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... beginning January 1, 1995,\\5\\ see Explorer Pipeline Company, 71 FERC 61,416 at n.6 (1995). \\2\\ Bureau of... Finished Goods (PPI-FG), plus one point three percent (PPI+1.3). The Commission determined in an ``Order Establishing Index For Oil Price Change Ceiling Levels'' issued March 21, 2006, that PPI+1.3 is the...

  6. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  7. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  8. 78 FR 69121 - Information Collection Activities: Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... to Oil and Gas Pipelines Under the OCS Lands Act; Proposed Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-day... Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines Under the OCS Lands Act. DATES: You must submit comments by... Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines Under the OCS Lands Act. OMB Control Number: 1014-0012....

  9. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  10. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  11. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  12. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  13. 25 CFR 169.25 - Oil and gas pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil and gas pipelines. 169.25 Section 169.25 Indians....25 Oil and gas pipelines. (a) The Act of March 11, 1904 (33 Stat. 65), as amended by the Act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 973; 25 U.S.C. 321), authorizes right-of-way grants for oil and gas...

  14. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  15. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  16. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  17. 43 CFR 2881.12 - When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pipeline? 2881.12 Section 2881.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT General Information § 2881.12 When do I need a TUP for an oil and gas pipeline... in order to construct, operate, maintain, or terminate your pipeline, or to protect the...

  18. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  19. 8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  1. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  2. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  3. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  4. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  5. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  6. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  7. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  8. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  9. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  10. 18 CFR 357.3 - FERC Form No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. 357.3 Section 357.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 73, Oil Pipeline Data for Depreciation Analysis. (a) Who must file. Any oil pipeline company.... Service life data is reported to the Commission by an oil pipeline company, as necessary,...

  11. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  12. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  13. 18 CFR 356.3 - Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for oil pipeline companies. 356.3 Section 356.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... OF RECORDS FOR OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES § 356.3 Preservation of records for oil pipeline companies... and other products stocks and movement pipelines only: (a) Records and receipts, deliveries,...

  14. 18 CFR 357.2 - FERC Form No. 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. 357.2 Section 357.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL.... 6, Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies. (a) Who must file. (1) Each pipeline carrier subject to... the Commission copies of FERC Form No. 6, “Annual Report of Oil Pipeline Companies,” pursuant to...

  15. Pipeline issues shape southern FSU oil, gas development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    To future production from southern republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU), construction and revitalization of pipelines are as important as the supply of capital. Export capacity will limit production and slow development activity in the region until new pipelines are in place. Plenty of pipeline proposals have come forward. The problem is politics, which for every proposal so far complicates routing or financing or both. Russia has made clear its intention to use pipeline route decisions to retain influence in the region. As a source of external pressure, it is not alone. Iran and Turkey also have made strong bids for the southern FSU`s oil and gas transport business. Diplomacy thus will say as much as commerce does about how transportation issues are settled and how quickly the southern republics move toward their potentials to produce oil and gas. The paper discusses possible routes and the problems with them, the most likely proposal, and future oil flows.

  16. Troll oil pipeline: Seabed surveying and pipeline routing in critical areas

    SciTech Connect

    Indreeide, A.; Nilsen, O.; Trodal, L.; Canu, M.; Baldascino, G.

    1996-12-01

    The 85 km long 16-in oil pipeline from the Troll Field to the Mongstad Refinery North of Bergen in Norway, including a nearshore/inshore section of some 30 km length which is characterized by a water depth down to 540 meters, complex and rocky seabed topography including extremely steep fjords walls. This inner section required a considerable amount of highly detailed and accurate surveying, in particular using remotely operated vehicles (ROV) to gather the required seabed documentation for pipeline routing engineering and construction. In particular a high precision in route definition was necessary, together with a common seabed reference system for engineering and construction in order to obtain a very accurate pipeline location within the actual narrow route corridor. This paper deals with the seabed surveying and documentation as well as the subsequent pipeline routing within the nearshore/inshore section of the pipeline route.

  17. Western European oil pipeline spills on land decline in 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    European crude oil and petroleum products pipelines in 1992 had fewer incidents of oil spills than in 1991, spilled less in total volume, and recovered a larger portion of what was spilled than in any single year in the 5-year period beginning in 1988. Only seven incidents of oil spills from pipelines or related facilities occurred in 1992, compared with 14 in 1991 and an average of 12.9/year since 1971. Five spills were from pipelines; two from pump stations. Net loss of oil into the environment was 430 cu m (2,709 bbl) or barely 0.7 ppm of the total volume transported. Gross amount of spills totaled 804 cu m (5,065 bbl), least in the period 1988--92.

  18. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants.

  19. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in zones surrounding oil pipeline-pump stations and oil pipeline right-of-ways in Southwest-Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-10-01

    Oil spills due to oil pipelines is a very frequent problem in Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has been developing inspection and correction plans for zones around oil pipelines pumping stations and pipeline right-of-way. These stations are located at regular intervals of kilometres along the pipelines. In this study, two sections of an oil pipeline and two pipeline pumping stations zones are characterized in terms of the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study comprehends sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils regarding TPHs content and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. PMID:17286169

  20. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  1. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  2. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  3. 78 FR 72878 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Filing, Indexing and Service by Oil Pipelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... by Oil Pipelines, Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Changes to eTariff Part 341 Type of Filing... the filing, indexing and service procedures used by oil pipelines.\\1\\ Take notice that, effective...: \\2\\ \\1\\ Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines, 143 FERC ] 61,137 (2013)...

  4. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  5. 18 CFR 357.4 - FERC Form No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. 357.4 Section 357.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... No. 6-Q, Quarterly report of oil pipeline companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly financial report form of oil pipeline companies, designated as FERC Form No. 6-Q, is prescribed for the...

  6. Troll Oil Pipeline: Current measurements and modelling. Data basis for pipeline free span design

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerke, P.E.; Moshagen, H.; Roeed, L.P.; Eidnes, G.; McClimans, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Troll Oil Pipeline -- TOR -- is a dedicated pipeline for transportation of oil from the Troll field to the onshore terminal at Mongstad on the west coast of Norway. When installed, TOR will be the first pipeline installed in a deep Norwegian fjord, namely Fensfjorden. The water depth ranges from about 250 m at the sill down to about 500 m at the deepest part. The maximum depth is 540 m and is located just inside of the sill. The entrance to the Fensfjord consists of a deep canyon in the Norwegian Trench leading into a sill just northwest of Holmengra. From the sill depth down to the maximum depth, the pipeline route follows a steep ravine through an area of rough and rocky sea bed. Current measurements have revealed higher current velocities than expected in this area. These currents were concluded to be due to heavy water occasionally overflowing the sill and into the fjord. In the present paper, the extensive measurement program, including 27 current meters in operation up tc 16 months, is described including aspects of the data analysis. In conjunction with the measurements, also laboratory and numerical modelling studies were performed and the results from these are presented. A comparison of measurements and model results are also presented.

  7. Research on the optimal energy consumption of oil pipeline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Liuting; Liu, Song; Wu, Mingchang; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Chinese crude oil is easy to curdle and has high viscosity, so heating transportation is usually selected. Energy consumption by this method mainly comes from furnaces and pumps. Currently, operating parameters of these pipelines were determined according to experience of dispatch. It cause high energy consumption and high cost of pipeline running, so it could not adapt to energy conservation policy. The present study focused on consuming lowest energy to operate oil transportation line. To begin with, several optimization variables were set which included pump combinations, suction pressure, discharge pressure, and station temperature. Then constraint conditions were set to establish an optimal mathematical model of running transportation line. Furthermore, genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, in meantime, selection operation, cross operation and mutation operation in the genetic algorithm were improved. Finally, a crude oil pipeline running optimization software was developed. Through optimal analyzing, S-L transportation line and contrasting with the actual working conditions, it was found that optimal operation scheme could reduce energy consumption by 5% - 9%. In addition, optimal operation scheme also considered the effect of seasons and flow on energy consumption of S-L transportation line.

  8. Stress analysis of parallel oil and gas steel pipelines in inclined tunnels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Wu, Shijuan

    2015-01-01

    Geological conditions along long distance pipelines are complex. In consideration of differences in elevation and terrain obstacles, long distance pipelines are commonly laid through tunnels. Oil and gas pipelines are often laid side by side to reduce construction costs and minimize geological impact. The layout and construction of parallel oil and gas pipelines are more complex than those of single pipelines. In order to reduce safety hazards, it is necessary to carry out stress analysis of the oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels. In this study, a stress analysis model of pipelines running through a tunnel was developed. On the basis of the finite element method, CAESAR II software was used to analyze the stress and displacement of a section of parallel oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels and stress and displacement distribution laws were drawn from the analyses. A study of the factors influencing stress recommended that: (1) The buttress interval of the parallel oil and gas pipelines in a tunnel should be 12 m; (2) The angle of inclined pipelines should be no greater than 25°; (3) The stress of oil pipelines enhances more obviously than that of gas pipelines under earthquake action; (4) The average stress can be reduced by adopting "ladder" laying; and (5) Guide bend can be set at the tunnel entrance and exit in order to reduce the stress. PMID:26543793

  9. Stress analysis of parallel oil and gas steel pipelines in inclined tunnels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Wu, Shijuan

    2015-01-01

    Geological conditions along long distance pipelines are complex. In consideration of differences in elevation and terrain obstacles, long distance pipelines are commonly laid through tunnels. Oil and gas pipelines are often laid side by side to reduce construction costs and minimize geological impact. The layout and construction of parallel oil and gas pipelines are more complex than those of single pipelines. In order to reduce safety hazards, it is necessary to carry out stress analysis of the oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels. In this study, a stress analysis model of pipelines running through a tunnel was developed. On the basis of the finite element method, CAESAR II software was used to analyze the stress and displacement of a section of parallel oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels and stress and displacement distribution laws were drawn from the analyses. A study of the factors influencing stress recommended that: (1) The buttress interval of the parallel oil and gas pipelines in a tunnel should be 12 m; (2) The angle of inclined pipelines should be no greater than 25°; (3) The stress of oil pipelines enhances more obviously than that of gas pipelines under earthquake action; (4) The average stress can be reduced by adopting "ladder" laying; and (5) Guide bend can be set at the tunnel entrance and exit in order to reduce the stress.

  10. Production and pipeline transport of oil-water dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Carniani, E.; Celsi, A.; Ercolani, D.

    1997-07-01

    Oil-water dispersions are becoming increasingly important for their potential application in the economical exploitation of heavy-oil fields and as novel fuels to be utilized for gasification in industrial power plants and in small heating systems. Snamprogetti in co-operation with Agip and Eniricerche is involved in a research project, partially supported by the Holding Company ENI and Europen Union (Thermie project), for the developing of a new integrated process to produce heavy crude oil from the marginal fields located in the Adriatic Sea as oil-water dispersions. The process scheme provides the multiphase pipeline transportation of the oil in reservoir water dispersion (primary dispersion) from the platform to the onshore processing Oil Centre for oil production and for the preparation of a very stable dispersion of oil in fresh water (secondary dispersion) to be utilized for direct burning. To obtain the necessary information for the design of the production, transportation and processing systems Snamprogetti has equipped a pilot plant to perform dispersion preparations and characterizations, single phase and multiphase transportation tests. The present work provides experimental data relevant to pumping tests of primary and secondary dispersions showing a stable flow configuration for the secondary and a tendency to stratification for the primary in certain flow conditions. During multiphase pumping tests of primary dispersions a markedly non-newtonian behavior has been observed when strong segregation phenomena occur. A comparison with results obtained by one-phase and multiphase flow programs is also presented.

  11. Computer Simulation of Stress-Strain State of Oil Gathering Pipeline Designed for Ugut Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, P. V.; Burkova, S. P.; Samigullin, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the stress and strain state modeling of infield pipeline in Ugut oil field. The finite element models of the stress field distribution in the pipeline wall are presented in this paper. The attention is paid to the pipeline reliability under stress conditions induced by the internal pressure and external compressive or tensile loads.

  12. The pipeline oil pumping engineering based on the Plant Wide Control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, D. P.; Rybakov, E. A.; Gromakov, E. I.

    2015-04-01

    This article provides recommendations for the use technology Plant Wide Control to control the pumping of oil through the pipeline. The proposed engineering using pipeline management in general (Pipe Wide Control) will reduce the loss of electric power at the expense of the balance of pumping stations located along the pipeline route.

  13. First oil pipeline to Norway crosses Norwegian trench

    SciTech Connect

    Johsrud, P.

    1988-05-02

    Norsk Hydro AS laid the first oil pipeline from North Sea fields to Norway last summer as part of the Oseberg transportation system. The line was hydrostatically tested last fall in preparation for start-up next year. After several appraisal wells and extensive evaluation work, the operator for the field, Norsk Hydro, presented a development plan which was approved by the Norwegian parliament in the spring of 1984. This article describes the development phases, the transportation system, and how the trench crossing was done.

  14. Rapid hazard assessment of oil and gas pipeline based on the Shakemap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiwen; Hou, Benwei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The oil and gas pipeline is one of important lifeline systems. Based on the ground motion obtained by Shakemap, a method of rapid hazard evaluation for oil and gas pipelines is presented in this paper. The spatial distribution of PGA and PGV along the oil and gas pipeline could be obtained by Shakemap in about 30 minutes after the strong earthquake. It can be estimated whether or not the strain in pipeline caused by ground motion is larger than the allowable tension and compression strain of buried steel pipe. According to the density of population and the important level of pipeline, the possible consequences of the damage of oil and gas pipeline are classified. Considering the important level and the population density near the pipeline, the possible seismic disaster distribution along the total oil and gas pipeline is evaluated. The rapid hazard assessment of Nanjiang Gas Pipeline was realized with this method, which was affected by Pishan Ms 6.5 earthquake on July 3, 2015. The result provided the help for the oil and gas pipeline maintenance department to decide the emergency response after the earthquake.

  15. 78 FR 21929 - TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 26, 2013, TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP (TexStar) submitted to the Federal Energy...

  16. 78 FR 32090 - Filing, Indexing, and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... tariffs in effect and applicable to shippers on a given day. Thus, an oil pipeline must post the currently... tariffs going into effect. This final rule does not change this requirement. Additionally, although... ICA oil pipeline tariffs that are in effect are in eTariff's electronic format. 65. The NPGA...

  17. State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiwen; Chen, Kun; Wu, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design. Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more information about ground motion, which should be obtained by evaluating seismic safety for pipeline engineering site. Different from a city’s water pipeline network, the long-distance oil and gas pipeline system is a spatially linearly distributed system. For the uniform confidence of seismic safety, a long-distance oil and pipeline formed with pump stations and different-class pipe segments should be considered as a whole system when analyzing seismic risk. Considering the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, the design-basis fault displacements corresponding to the different pipeline classes are proposed to improve deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA). A new empirical relationship between the maximum fault displacement and the surface-wave magnitude is obtained with the supplemented earthquake data in East Asia. The estimation of fault displacement for a refined oil pipeline in Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake is introduced as an example in this paper.

  18. Vertical magnetic field and its analytic signal applicability in oil field underground pipeline detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Liu, Dejun; Pan, Qi; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Yi; Wang, Zheng

    2015-06-01

    We propose using the vertical component of the magnetic anomaly (vertical magnetic field (VMF)) and its analytic signal (AS) to detect oil field underground pipelines. The connection between two peaks of the VMF curves or the AS curves was used to calculate the pipeline azimuth, and the peak coordinates of the AS were used to determine the horizontal position of pipelines. Then, the effect of the pipeline magnetization direction and pipeline buried depth on the horizontal locating error was analyzed. Three typical pipeline models were used for verifying this method. Results indicate that this method can be used to precisely calculate the stretch direction of the pipeline and effectively improve the identification capability in detecting parallel pipelines. The horizontal position of the pipeline axis can be accurately located by the peak of the AS and the locating error increases with the increase in pipeline buried depth, but it is not affected by pipeline outer diameter, thickness, susceptibility. The instrument design and the VMF measurement strategy are realistic and applicable. The VMF detection with its AS provides a new effective method for horizontal locating and direction calculating of oil field underground pipelines.

  19. Mathematical modeling of wax deposition in oil pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Svendsen, J.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    Deposition of wax on the wall of oil pipelines is often regarded as a problem since the tube diameter is reduced. Consequently, more power is needed to force the same amount of oil through the system. A mathematical model for quantitative prediction of wax deposition for each hydrocarbon component has been developed. Each component is characterized by weight fraction, heat of fusion, and melting point temperature. A model explains how a phase transition in the flow from liquid oil to waxy crystals may create a local density gradient and mass flux, which depends on the local temperature gradient. The model predicts that wax deposition can be considerably reduced even when the wall temperature is below the wax appearance point, provided the liquid/solid phase transition, expressed by the change in moles of liquid with temperature, is small at the wall temperature. Deposition as function of time has been obtained as a solution of differential equations derived from the principles of mass and energy conservation and the laws of diffusion.

  20. Involvement of thermophilic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    PubMed

    Davidova, Irene A; Duncan, Kathleen E; Perez-Ibarra, B Monica; Suflita, Joseph M

    2012-07-01

    Two thermophilic archaea, strain PK and strain MG, were isolated from a culture enriched at 80°C from the inner surface material of a hot oil pipeline. Strain PK could ferment complex organic nitrogen sources (e.g. yeast extract, peptone, tryptone) and was able to reduce elemental sulfur (S°), Fe(3+) and Mn(4+) . Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the organism belonged to the order Thermococcales. Incubations of this strain with elemental iron (Fe°) resulted in the abiotic formation of ferrous iron and the accumulation of volatile fatty acids during yeast extract fermentation. The other isolate, strain MG, was a H(2) :CO(2) -utilizing methanogen, phylogenetically affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter family. Co-cultures of the strains grew as aggregates that produced CH(4) without exogenous H(2) amendment. The co-culture produced the same suite but greater concentrations of fatty acids from yeast extract than did strain PK alone. Thus, the physiological characteristics of organisms both alone and in combination could conceivably contribute to pipeline corrosion. The Thermococcus strain PK could reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide, produce fatty acids and reduce ferric iron. The hydrogenotrophic methanogen strain MG enhanced fatty acid production by fermentative organisms but could not couple the dissolution Fe° with the consumption of water-derived H(2) like other methanogens.

  1. Troll oil pipeline: Advanced landfall solution at Mongstad

    SciTech Connect

    Sintini, G.L.; Bernardi, M.; Doerheim, M.K.; Kjosavik, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    The landfall of the 16-in. Troll Oil Pipeline is achieved by means of a 30-in. cased borehole routed through hard metamorphic rock using up-to-date technology for drilling, down hole directional control and path survey. The borehole, which extends over a total length of 760 m, starts in a clear area inside the Mongstad Refinery and pierces in the lowermost part of Fensfjord`s southern steep sided cliff at 314 m water depth. The deep waters at th4e offshore end required completely diverless operations. Pipeline installation inside the borehole was carried out as part of the pipelay start-up with the aid of an onshore located pull-in winch. Main topics faced during the design and the adopted technical solutions are presented, notably: borehole route and size; borehole approach route and intervention works, corrosion protection system; and auxiliary devices such as the bellmouth at the offshore end and the anchor block at the onshore end. Experience feedback from construction activities is discussed focusing on technology performance, contingencies and remedial actions.

  2. 75 FR 5177 - Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... clarification of Order No. 720. \\1\\ Pipeline Posting Requirements under section 23 of the Natural Gas Act, 73 FR... Natural Gas Act, 73 FR 1116 (Jan. 7, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs., Proposed Regulations 2004-2007 ] 32,626.... 670, 71 FR 4244 (Jan. 26, 2006), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,202 (2006). \\44\\ TPA Request for...

  3. Frequency spectrum method-based stress analysis for oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline.

  4. Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  5. Bio-oil transport by pipeline: a techno-economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Pootakham, Thanyakarn; Kumar, Amit

    2010-09-01

    Bio-oil, produced by fast pyrolysis of biomass, has high energy density compared to 'as received' biomass. The study assesses and compares the cost of transportation ($/liter of bio-oil) of bio-oil by pipeline and truck. The fixed and variable cost components of transportation of bio-oil at a pipeline capacity of 560 m(3)/day and to a distance of 100 km are 0.0423$/m(3) and 0.1201$/m(3)/km, respectively. Pipeline transportation of bio-oil costs less than transportation by liquid tank truck (load capacity 30 m(3)) and super B-train trailer (load capacity 60 m(3)) above pipeline capacities of 1000 and 1700 m(3)/day, respectively. When transportation distance is greater than 100 km, bio-oil must be heated at booster stations. When transporting bio-oil by pipeline to a distance of 400 km, minimum pipeline capacities of 1150 and 2000 m(3)/day are required to compete economically with liquid tank trucks and super B-train tank trailers, respectively.

  6. H. R. 1465: Oil Pollution Act of 1989. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, November 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This act would establish limitations on liability for damages resulting from oil pollution, and establish a fund for the payment of compensation for such damages. This bill explains oil pollution liability and compensation; conforming amendments; implementation of international conventions; prevention and removal; Prince William Sound oil spill removal; research and development; and the Trans-Alaska pipeline system.

  7. A perspective on pipeline pricing under the Natural Gas Act

    SciTech Connect

    Threadgill, E.E.

    1995-12-31

    Pricing different services to a single class of customers, and pricing different services to the same or different classes of customers, are complex matters which, in many instances, are case specific. Cost responsibilities, market demands, and national policies should be taken into account in pricing pipeline services. But one fact is eminently clear, and that is that radically different {open_quotes}FERC incremental{close_quotes} rates for the same service to the same class of customers, depending upon the date upon which the customers signed contracts for an expansion of service, are unduly discriminatory and illegal under the NGA.

  8. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  9. Development and application of oil-spill risk assessment model for offshore pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan; Wang, Jia; Wei, Wenpu; Yang, Yong; An, Wei

    2014-06-01

    To the potential oil-spill risk caused by offshore pipeline more attention has been paid after the Dalian oil spill incident from oil-pipeline explosion. Since then an issue about how to prevent and control the sudden oil-spill from the offshore pipeline has been raised. In this paper, we proposed an optimized model to analyze the main causes (probability) of spill and the consequence with the fuzzy comprehensive assessment model. Considering the complicated assessment process for oil-spill, the assessment factor system involving the spill probability and consequence was established based on the operative manual and statistic leakage/damage data of offshore pipeline in order to estimate the integrated spill risk score automatically. The evaluated factors of spill probability could be grouped into five aspects: corrosion, fatigue, national damage, third party, and operational fault; the consequence evaluated factors of spill included hazard of oil and impact-controlling capability. With some modifications based on experts' opinions, each of the evaluated factors in our work was developed with a relative weight and evaluation criterion. A test example for an offshore pipeline in the Bohai waters was described to show how the model can be used for an actual case in more detail. By using the oil-spill risk assessment model, it is easy to determine the risk level associated with the ongoing activity and management level and hence to take the risk mitigation action immediately.

  10. A comparison of pipeline versus truck transport of bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Pootakham, Thanyakarn; Kumar, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Biomass-based energy and fuels are receiving attention because they are considered carbon neutral; i.e. the amount of CO(2) released during combustion of this biomass is nearly the same as that taken up by the plants during their growth. Bio-oil is a dark viscous liquid consisting of hydrocarbons. These are produced by fast pyrolysis of biomass. "As-is" biomass material has a low energy density (MJ m(-3)), hence, the cost of transporting this energy is high. Bio-oil has a high energy density as compared to "as-is" biomass material, consequently it helps in reducing the cost of energy transport. This study compares the life cycle assessment of transportation of bio-oil by pipeline with that by truck. The scope of the work includes the transportation of bio-oil by truck or pipeline from a centralized plant (supplied with forest biomass) to an end-user. Two cases are studied for pipeline transport of bio-oil: the first case considers a coal-based electricity supply for pumping the bio-oil through a pipeline; the second case considers an electricity supply from a renewable resource. The two cases of pipeline transport are compared to two cases of truck transport (truck trailer and super B-train truck). The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pipeline transport of bio-oil for the two cases of electricity supply are 345 and 17 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Similar values for transport by trailer (capacity - 30 m(3)) and super B-train truck (capacity - 60 m(3)) are 89 and 60 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Energy input for bio-oil transport is 3.95 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by pipeline, 2.59 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by truck and 1.66 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by super B-train truck. The results show that GHG emissions in pipeline transport are largely dependent on the source of electricity (higher for coal-based electricity). Substituting 250 m(3) day(-1) of pipeline-transported bio-oil for coal-based electricity can mitigate about 5.1 million tonnes of CO(2) per year

  11. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  12. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  13. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  14. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  15. S. 1583: This Act may be cited as the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 1991, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, September 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill would amend the Natural Gas Pipeline Act of 1968 and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 to authorize appropriations and to improve pipeline safety. The bill describes the following: authorization of appropriations; definitions; environmental protection; identification of certain pipelines; rapid shutdown of pipeline facilities; excess flow valves; replacement of cast iron pipelines; safety of pipe not owned by pipeline operators; one-call notification systems; underwater abandoned pipeline facilities; study of underwater abandoned pipeline facilities; and exemption from hours of service requirements.

  16. Why the poor pay with their lives: oil pipeline vandalisation, fires and human security in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onuoha, Freedom C

    2009-07-01

    Since its discovery in Nigeria in 1956 crude oil has been a source of mixed blessing to the country. It is believed to have generated enormous wealth, but it has also claimed a great many lives. Scholarly attention on the impact of oil on security in Nigeria has largely focused on internal conflicts rather than on how disasters associated with oil pipeline vandalisation have impacted on human security in terms of causing bodily injuries and death, destroying livelihoods and fracturing families. This paper examines how pipeline vandalisation affects human security in these ways. It identifies women and children as those who are hardest hit and questions why the poor are the most vulnerable in oil pipeline disasters in this country. It recommends the adoption of a comprehensive and integrated framework of disaster management that will ensure prompt response to key early warning signs, risk-reduction and appropriate mitigation and management strategies.

  17. Custody transfer metering performance for turbine and positive displacement meters on batched crude oil pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.E.; Coats, J.R.; Butts, H.W.; LaNasa, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The USA pipeline grid is quickly migrating from transporting low viscosity crude oils to large volumes of moderate to high viscosity crude oils. As a result, the challenges associated with custody transfer, loss control and line integrity have been brought to a new level. To assist in these challenges, an evaluation was undertaken on three flowmeters on a batched crude oil pipeline. A series of experiments are currently underway to evaluate the performance of a conventional turbine meter, a dual bladed helical turbine meter and a capillary seal positive displacement meter over a wide range of transport properties. The goal of this program is to assist the Northern American pipeline industry in determining economically acceptable alternatives in the handling of ever increasing high viscosity crude oils.

  18. Drift card observations in northwestern Washington along portions of two proposed oil pipeline routes

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.M.; Ebbesmeyer, C.C.; Helseth, J.M.; Coomes, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    During April 1978 and July 1980, a total of 5257 drift cards were released along portions of two pipelines proposed to carry crude oil across Washington State. The thin floatable plastic cards, having a specific gravity close to most crude oils, drift predominantly under the influence of local currents and winds until beached. Their reported recovery assists in determining possible trajectories and shoreline impact areas of potential surface and near surface oil spills.

  19. Ability to protect oil/gas pipelines and subsea installations from icebergs in the Hibernia area

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    Mobil Oil Canada has examined 2 pipeline routes from Hibernia to the Newfoundland coast. The Northern Route is from Hibernia to the Bay of Bulls, a distance of ca 200 miles. The Southern Route is from Hibernia to Trepassey Bay, a distance of ca 225 miles. Both these routes go through the Avalon channel which has water depths of 200 m, or over 600 ft, with very steep slopes on both sides of the channel. To protect pipelines from icebergs and iceberg scour, there is really only one obvious solution and that is to bury the pipeline several feet below the deepest known iceberg scour depth.

  20. A combined kriging and stochastic method to map paraffin scale growth in oil pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, R. K.; Novrianto, A. R.; Rahmawati, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Paraffin is a common deposit in oil production pipeline. It occurs when the oil flowing-temperature is under Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) or pour-point temperature. Several prediction models so far only estimatethe location where the paraffin-wax is possibly formed and there is no prediction about paraffin-wax growth over time. Therefore, this paper presents a new mathematical model to accurately predict paraffin-wax growth in oil production pipeline. The proposed model contains stochastic and kriging method. The stochastic model is developed based on Markov and Poisson model and used to describe the generation time and growth of scale. Kriging model is then combined to describe the position of scale along the production pipeline. As the result of the combined model, paraffin-wax thickness can be mapped in space and time. This prediction is important to determine and decide an effective production operation and efficient investment.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  2. Trials of a gamma-ray multiphase flow meter on oil production pipelines at Thevenard Island

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, G.J.; Watt, J.S.; Zastawny, H.W.; Hartley, P.E.; Ellis, W.K.

    1994-12-31

    CSIRO has developed a gamma-ray multiphase flow meter (MFM) for the on-line determination of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in oil production pipelines. It is based on two gamma-ray transmission gauges mounted on a pipe carrying the full flow of the multiphase fluid. In trials, two of these MFMs were mounted on a test pipeline linking the test manifold to the test separator at the oil processing facilities on Thevenard Island. One MFM was always mounted on the vertical upflow section of the pipe. The other was in turn mounted on the vertical downflow section, and on two horizontal sections with different upstream conditions. The MFM mounted on the vertical (upflow) pipeline determined the flow rates to 4.0% relative for liquids, 7.5% for oil, 4.5% for water and 7.9% for gas. Water cut was determined to 3.6% relative. The MFM mounted on the vertical downflow pipeline determined flow rates to 3.3% relative for liquids, 6.1% for oil, 4.5% for water, and 7.7% for gas. Water cut was determined to 3.7%.

  3. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro; Mosley, Sherri Baker

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration. PMID:25915417

  4. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro; Mosley, Sherri Baker

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  5. Oil and Gas Wells and Pipelines on U.S. Wildlife Refuges: Challenges for Managers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration. PMID:25915417

  6. H. R. 3277: Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Reform Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, September 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The bill would improve Federal laws relating to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System in light of the recent Valdez oil spill and its environmental consequences. The bill explains provisions for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System fund and liability; the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System trust fund; improvement of the pipeline system (establishes a Presidential task force); Alaska oil spill recovery institute; penalties; provisions applicable to Alaska natives; and state laws and programs.

  7. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 342 Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June 15, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Inquiry. SUMMARY:...

  8. Impact of the Keystone XL pipeline on global oil markets and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Climate policy and analysis often focus on energy production and consumption, but seldom consider how energy transportation infrastructure shapes energy systems. US President Obama has recently brought these issues to the fore, stating that he would only approve the Keystone XL pipeline, connecting Canadian oil sands with US refineries and ports, if it `does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution'. Here, we apply a simple model to understand the implications of the pipeline for greenhouse gas emissions as a function of any resulting increase in oil sands production. We find that for every barrel of increased production, global oil consumption would increase 0.6 barrels owing to the incremental decrease in global oil prices. As a result, and depending on the extent to which the pipeline leads to greater oil sands production, the net annual impact of Keystone XL could range from virtually none to 110 million tons CO2 equivalent annually. This spread is four times wider than found by the US State Department (1-27 million tons CO2e), who did not account for global oil market effects. The approach used here, common in lifecycle analysis, could also be applied to other pending fossil fuel extraction and supply infrastructure.

  9. 77 FR 48112 - Pipeline Safety: Administrative Procedures; Updates and Technical Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... enforcement authority for oil spill response plan compliance under section 4202 of the Oil Pollution Act of... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 190, 192, 193, 195, and 199 RIN 2137-AE29 Pipeline Safety: Administrative Procedures; Updates and Technical Corrections AGENCY: Pipeline...

  10. Pollution from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines.

  11. A Model for Oil-Gas Pipelines Cost Prediction Based on a Data Mining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Fragiskos A.; Spanidis, Phillip-Mark P.

    2009-08-01

    This paper addresses the problems associated with the cost estimation of oil/gas pipelines during the elaboration of feasibility assessments. Techno-economic parameters, i.e., cost, length and diameter, are critical for such studies at the preliminary design stage. A methodology for the development of a cost prediction model based on Data Mining (DM) process is proposed. The design and implementation of a Knowledge Base (KB), maintaining data collected from various disciplines of the pipeline industry, are presented. The formulation of a cost prediction equation is demonstrated by applying multiple regression analysis using data sets extracted from the KB. Following the methodology proposed, a learning context is inductively developed as background pipeline data are acquired, grouped and stored in the KB, and through a linear regression model provide statistically substantial results, useful for project managers or decision makers.

  12. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... discharging oil into or on any navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines must prepare and... substantial harm to the environment by discharging oil into or on any navigable waters of the United States or... Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  13. Oil pipeline geohazard monitoring using optical fiber FBG strain sensors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-Ferro, Andres; Mendez, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Pipelines are naturally vulnerable to operational, environmental and man-made effects such as internal erosion and corrosion; mechanical deformation due to geophysical risks and ground movements; leaks from neglect and vandalism; as well as encroachments from nearby excavations or illegal intrusions. The actual detection and localization of incipient and advanced faults in pipelines is a very difficult, expensive and inexact task. Anything that operators can do to mitigate the effects of these faults will provide increased reliability, reduced downtime and maintenance costs, as well as increased revenues. This talk will review the on-line monitoring of an extensive network of oil pipelines in service in Colombia using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for the measurement of strains and bending caused by geohazard risks such as soil movements, landslides, settlements, flooding and seismic activity. The FBG sensors were mounted on the outside of the pipelines at discrete locations where geohazard risk was expected. The system has been in service for the past 3 years with over 1,000 strain sensors mounted. The technique has been reliable and effective in giving advanced warning of accumulated pipeline strains as well as possible ruptures.

  14. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  15. Quantitative risk assessment & leak detection criteria for a subsea oil export pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang-Yuan; Bai, Yong; Badaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Tuty, Suhartodjo

    2009-06-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on leak detection criteria (LDC) for the design of a proposed subsea oil export pipeline is presented in this paper. The objective of this QRA/LDC study was to determine if current leak detection methodologies were sufficient, based on QRA results, while excluding the use of statistical leak detection; if not, an appropriate LDC for the leak detection system would need to be established. The famous UK PARLOC database was used for the calculation of pipeline failure rates, and the software POSVCM from MMS was used for oil spill simulations. QRA results revealed that the installation of a statistically based leak detection system (LDS) can significantly reduce time to leak detection, thereby mitigating the consequences of leakage. A sound LDC has been defined based on QRA study results and comments from various LDS vendors to assist the emergency response team (ERT) to quickly identify and locate leakage and employ the most effective measures to contain damage.

  16. Evaluating the economic impacts of pipeline useage on the Texas oil & gas supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jashandeep

    The objective of this dissertation is to find the minimum supply chain cost for the Texas oil and gas industry, when pipeline is used as the major mode of transporting oil. The problem is solved, by introducing a mixed -- integer linear programming model which will help in taking the necessary decisions based on the cost estimates for various scenarios. In order to meet the objective, specific objectives were put down to evaluate their impacts. First was to evaluate the economic impact of mode of transport and the infrastructure second was to evaluate the economic impact of refinery flow. Finally this dissertation aims at the mixed -- integer programming model to demonstrate the economic impacts of pipeline usage on the supply chain.

  17. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  18. Transnational opposition and negotiation: Challenges to an oil pipeline in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widener, Patricia

    The literature on transnational networks portrays transnational collaborations as advantageous to domestic stakeholders. Yet, the gains of transnational engagement may be accompanied by hardship for domestic groups. This dissertation examines how domestic stakeholders experienced the benefits and burdens of transnational collaboration in challenging the construction of the oil pipeline, the Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados, in Ecuador. Four community cases along the pipeline's route were selected for analysis. Each case varied by the experienced externalities of the oil industry and distributive struggle with the industry and the state. Lago Agrio, an oil town on the edge of the Amazon, represented a community with 30 years of oil saturation that engaged the state to determine just compensation. The capital Quito represented the nation's environmental organizations that sought a role in directing oil-funded conservation efforts. The third site, the eco-tourism community of Mindo, mobilized to reject the pipeline's route near their private reserves and to promote eco-tourism as an economic alternative to oil extraction. The final site was Esmeraldas, a coastal community experienced in tanker loading and oil refining that achieved a collective dignity in pressing for community-determined compensation. To better understand the impacts of transnational activities, this dissertation synthesizes theories of social movements, environmental justice and development. In its longitudinal and case study design, the examination of one project at four sites of contention offers insight into how transnational mobilization drives or hinders environmental justice and how grassroots groups gain or lose a forum for participation. My findings indicate that transnational campaigns benefited locals by providing expert assessments, facilitating international access and influencing international financing policies. However, the unintended consequences included a focus on international concerns

  19. Identification of environmentally vulnerable areas with priority for prevention and management of pipeline crude oil spills.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Heydrich, Silke Cram; Cervantes, Irene Sommer; Orozco, Oralia Oropeza

    2011-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the main productive activities in Mexico and has a huge infrastructure, including a wide pipeline network that crosses urban, industrial, agricultural and natural areas. The threat of crude oil spills is greatest in those regions with a high concentration of oil extraction and refining activities, as in the case of the Coatzacoalcos and Tonalá Rivers Low Basin. This study ranked the geosystems of the basin in terms of vulnerability to pipeline crude oil spills. Very high vulnerability (level I) was assigned to the water bodies (lakes and rivers) and their margins of influence, including surfaces that flood during normal hydraulic load. High vulnerability areas (level II) comprised surfaces that can flood during extraordinary hydraulic load related with extreme hydrometeorological events. The remaining three vulnerability levels were defined for areas with low or negligible flooding potential, these were ranked according to physical (slope, relief and permeability), biological (richness, singularity and integrity) and socio-economic (social marginalization index and economic activities index) conditions. These results are presented on a map for better visualization and interpretation. This study will be useful to establish preventive and effective emergency management actions in order to reduce remediation costs and adverse effects on wild species. It also can help local and national authorities, oil industry and civil protection corps to better protect ecosystems, natural resources and human activities and goods.

  20. Effects of hydrocarbon spills from an oil pipeline break on ground water. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Helweg, O.J.; Hwang, H.H.M.

    1993-08-03

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of an oil spill, which might be caused by a seismic event rupturing a crude oil pipe line which crosses the recharge area of the Memphis Sands Aquifer. To do this, two numerical models were used to simulate a potential rupture of the 40 inch crude oil pipeline located in Wolf River fluvial valley susceptible to liquefaction. The simulation approach used two two-dimensional upstream weighted finite element models to predict the three-dimensional flow phenomenon of released crude in the saturated and unsaturated zones. ARMOS (Areal Multiphase Organic Simulator) was used to simulate the crude oil migration horizontally and to evaluate the extent of the crude dispersion on the ground water table.

  1. New Oil Pollution Act of 1990 will impact facilities, terminals, and transports in the oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The magnitude of the Exxon Valdez spill galvanized the opinion of both the public and Congress on the need for new oil spill legislation. Consequently, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 - a comprehensive prevention, response, liability, and compensation system for dealing with oil production - was passed by the 101st Congress. This book describes in detail the new law and the liabilities it imposes; the new financial responsibility requirements placed on oil-related facilities and vessels; oil spill prevention and response obligations; and the oil industry's activities to prevent and mitigate oil spills. Also discussed are the compliance problems faced by both fixed facilities and the transportation industry.

  2. Criteria for performance assessment and calibration of in-line inspections of oil and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Hallen, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    Oil and gas pipeline operators routinely use magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic (UT) in-line inspection (ILI) to detect, locate and size metal losses caused by corrosion. As a preliminary step in fitness-for-service evaluations, the quality of the ILI is assessed through statistical comparison of the ILI data with data gathered in the field at dig sites. This work presents generalized criteria for the performance assessment and calibration of MFL and UT ILI tools from field measurements. The proposed criteria are capable of accounting for the measurement errors of both the ILI tool and the field instrument. The performance assessment of the ILI run is based on the determination of the minimum number of unsuccessful field verifications required to reject the ILI at a given significance level. The calibration of the ILI data uses new, simplified, error-in-variables methods to estimate the true size of the corrosion metal losses reported by the ILI tool. The proposed methodology also allows for determination of the errors associated with the estimation of the true defect depths. This information is of utmost importance in conducting reliability and risk assessments of pipelines based on either the probability distribution properties of the pipeline defect population, or the probability of failure of each individual defect in the pipeline. The proposed criteria are tested using Monte Carlo simulations and a real-life case study is presented to illustrate their application.

  3. Seismic hazard exposure for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cluff, L.S.; Page, R.A.; Slemmons, D.B.; Grouse, C.B.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of oil on Alaska's North Slope and the construction of a pipeline to transport that oil across Alaska coincided with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and a destructive Southern California earthquake in 1971 to cause stringent stipulations, state-of-the-art investigations, and innovative design for the pipeline. The magnitude 7.9 earthquake on the Denali fault in November 2002 was remarkably consistent with the design earthquake and fault displacement postulated for the Denali crossing of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline route. The pipeline maintained its integrity, and disaster was averted. Recent probabilistic studies to update previous hazard exposure conclusions suggest continuing pipeline integrity.

  4. World Bank oil-pipeline project designed to prevent HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Kigotho, A W

    1997-11-29

    A World Bank-funded oil pipeline project, in Chad and Cameroon, is the first large-scale construction project in sub-Saharan Africa to incorporate an HIV/AIDS prevention component. The project entails the development of oil fields in southern Chad and construction of 1100 km of pipeline to port facilities on Cameroon's Atlantic coast. 3000 construction workers from the two countries will be employed between 1998 and 2001, including about 600 truck drivers. In some areas along the pipeline route, 50% of the prostitutes (who are frequented by truck drivers) are HIV-infected. The HIV/AIDS intervention aims to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among project workers through social marketing of condoms, treatment of STDs in prostitutes along the route, and health education to modify high-risk behaviors. The program is considered a test case for African governments and donors interested in whether the integration of a health component in major construction projects can avoid AIDS epidemics in affected countries.

  5. Identification and characterization of microbial biofilm communities associated with corroded oil pipeline surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Tiffany R; Duncan, Kathleen E; Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Smith, Whitney; Bonifay, Vincent; Biri, Bernadette; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has long been implicated in the deterioration of carbon steel in oil and gas pipeline systems. The authors sought to identify and characterize sessile biofilm communities within a high-temperature oil production pipeline, and to compare the profiles of the biofilm community with those of the previously analyzed planktonic communities. Eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA sequences of DNA recovered from extracted pipeline pieces, termed 'cookies,' revealed the presence of thermophilic sulfidogenic anaerobes, as well as mesophilic aerobes. Electron microscopy and elemental analysis of cookies confirmed the presence of sessile cells and chemical constituents consistent with corrosive biofilms. Mass spectrometry of cookie acid washes identified putative hydrocarbon metabolites, while surface profiling revealed pitting and general corrosion damage. The results suggest that in an established closed system, the biofilm taxa are representative of the planktonic eubacterial and archaeal community, and that sampling and monitoring of the planktonic bacterial population can offer insight into biocorrosion activity. Additionally, hydrocarbon biodegradation is likely to sustain these communities. The importance of appropriate sample handling and storage procedures to oilfield MIC diagnostics is highlighted.

  6. The Troll oil pipeline project: A welcome challenge to survey technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trodal, L.; Nilsen, O.

    1995-12-01

    The design and engineering of the Troll oil pipeline has been totally dependent on recent development within detailed underwater survey/mapping techniques. To achieve the required data accuracy, resolution and density, a large extent of the survey work has been carried out with Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV). This project is considered a first step into the kind of detailed subsea survey work which will be required in deeper waters (1,500--2,000 meters) for engineering and construction purposes, within the next 5 years.

  7. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  8. Sub-soil contamination due to oil spills in six oil-pipeline pumping stations in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Castro, Alejandrina; Torres, Luis G

    2007-06-01

    Mexico has a very important oil industry, comprehending the exploration, production, transformation, storage and distribution of crude oil and its fractions. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is a state-owned monopoly in charge of these activities. Oil and oil-products transport is an extremely crucial operation for the cycle production-transformation-distribution. Pipeline system transport crude oil and sub-products along the country (including liquids, gases and mixtures). It has been reported that more than 30% of the oil ducts in Mexico have been operating for over 30 years, although their lifetime has been calculated in 25-30 years. This work is aimed at characterizing a zone around six oil-pipeline pumping stations located at northern Mexico. The specific places to evaluate soil contamination were (1) the distribution head of the Gomez Palacio (GOPA) pumping station; (2) the north side of the old ditch, the API oil separator and the wastewater zones of the Jimenez (JIM) pumping station; (3) the pumping stations of Ceballos (CE), Peronal (PER), Simon Bolivar (SIBO), and Mayran (MAY). The study comprehended sampling of the areas, delimitation of contamination in the vertical and horizontal extension, analysis of the sampled soils, regarding TPH and, in some cases, the 16 PAHs considered as a priority by USEPA, calculation of areas and volumes contaminated (according to the Mexican legislation, specifically NOM-EM-138-ECOL-2002) and, finally, a proposal for the best remediation techniques suitable for the encountered contamination levels and the localization of contaminants. In general, TPHs were found in all the pumping stations analyzed in this study. Regarding maximal TPHs concentrations at the stations, their order of contamination was as follows: SIBO>CE>PER>MAY>JIM>GOPA. PAHs were found only in a few points at concentrations above the detection limit. At the Jimenez, Gomez Palacio, Peronal, and Ceballos stations, only one point, with PAHs values over the

  9. Physical and biological remediation of oil-polluted river bed and hillside sediments resulting from a ruptured oil pipeline in

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfa, I.; Mcintosh, R.S.; Gambera

    1993-12-31

    An oil spill of several tens of thousands of liters ocurred when an underground pipeline ruptured next to the Rio Barca, a torrential mountain stream in Italy. The spill ocurred during a time when the Rio Barca was almost totally dry, therefore allowing the fuel-oil to saturate the sediments which form the bed of the watercourse. This paper describes the feasibility study performed to determine the possibility of conducting in situ remediation. In addition, a two-step strategy was developed to remove the hydrocarbons in the stream: (1) Mechanical liberation and recovery of the free-phase hydrocarbon trapped in the sediments; (2) In situ treatment via an Enhanced Natural Bioremediation program. The residual hydrocarbon contamination in the hillside soils were addressed by in situ remediation incorporating air sparging below the water table, soil vapor extraction of the vadose zone and nutrient addition to the soils via infiltration trenches.

  10. Influence of an oil soluble inhibitor on microbiologically influenced corrosion in a diesel transporting pipeline.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Maruthamuthu, S; Mohanan, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2007-01-01

    Microbial degradation of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitor (OSCI) Baker NC 351 contributed to a decrease in inhibitor efficiency. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by the rotating cage and flow loop methods. The nature of the biodegradation of the corrosion inhibitor was also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The influence of bacterial activity on the degradation of the corrosion inhibitor and its influence on corrosion of API 5LX were evaluated using a weight loss technique and impedance studies. Serratia marcescens ACE2 and Bacillus cereus ACE4 can degrade aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the corrosion inhibitor. The present study also discusses the demerits of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum product pipeline.

  11. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest.

  12. Detection of oil pollution along the pipeline routes in tropical ecosystem from multi-spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamu, Bashir; Tansey, Kevin; Ogutu, Booker

    2014-05-01

    The study was conducted in an oil producing environment dominated by mangrove and swamp vegetation in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Ancillary data including oil pipeline map and GPS of spill points were used in selecting sample sites to identify and detect polluted locations. A number of polluted and non-polluted sites were selected and vegetation spectral reflectance and indices for these sample sites were extracted from TM data of January and December 1986. A statistical T-test was used to test for significant differences between vegetation spectral reflectance and indices from polluted and non-polluted sites. The initial results from the analysis of spectral reflectance between polluted and non-polluted did not show any significant difference in all the six spectral bands with p-value <0.005. The results from analysis of various vegetation indices some did not show any significance differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites (e.g. the SRI, SAVI and EVI2). Other VIs (NDVI, MSAVI2 and ARVI2) showed significant differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. From these preliminary results we can conclude that pollution from oil spills may result to the changes in leaf biochemistry of the Mangroves in the Niger Delta which are detectable from remote sensing data. Future work will focus on undertaking further temporal analysis of additional spill sites to determine what quantity of spilt oil arises in spectral changes of vegetation.

  13. Influence of the key parameters of suspended structures on the inherent frequency of oil and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S. Y.; Liu, Q. Y.; Wang, G. R.; Jiang, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Inherent frequency is an important parameter that reflects the dynamic stability of fluid-conveying pipelines. In engineering applications, the inherent frequency of pipelines is usually increased to improve their dynamic stability. The flow velocity and pressure of oil and gas pipelines cannot be altered freely. Among all of the parameters that affect the inherent frequency of suspended pipelines, the flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder, the tensile force of the cable system, and the pipe-axial precompression force are the most important. Revealing the influence laws of these three parameters could provide theoretical support for engineering designs. In this paper, a suspended crossing pipeline project was simplified as a Hetenyi's elastic foundation model. The flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder and the tensile force of the cable system were simplified as the foundation parameters G and K, respectively. The influence regularities of G, K, and the pipe-axial precompression force T on the pipeline inherent frequency were analyzed. According to the numerical simulation results, the ranks of these three parameters in descending order of importance were G, T, and K. During construction, G should be increased as much as possible. If the inherent frequency needs to be improved while pipelines have already been built up, it should be firstly considered to increase T, to values higher than zero if possible. On this basis, the further improvement of K could achieve a better result.

  14. 75 FR 57285 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines, Extension of a Collection... Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the OCS Lands Act. DATES: Submit written comments by November 19... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 291, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the...

  15. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to determine the

  16. Safety and human factors considerations in control rooms of oil and gas pipeline systems: conceptual issues and practical observations.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, Najmedin

    2006-01-01

    All oil and gas pipeline systems are run by human operators (called controllers) who use computer-based workstations in control rooms to "control" pipelines. Several human factor elements could contribute to the lack of controller success in preventing or mitigating pipeline accidents/incidents. These elements exist in both the work environment and also in the computer system design/operation (such as data presentation and alarm configuration). Some work environment examples include shift hours, shift length, circadian rhythms, shift change-over processes, fatigue countermeasures, ergonomics factors, workplace distractions, and physical interaction with control system computers. The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the critical effects of human and organizational factors and also to highlight the role of their interactions with automation (and automated devices) in the safe operation of complex, large-scale pipeline systems. A case study to demonstrate the critical role of human organizational factors in the control room of an oil and gas pipeline system is also presented.

  17. H. R. 2266: Pipeline Safety Reauthorization Act of 1988. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, April 21, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bill would amend the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 to authorize appropriations for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. The bill describes certification, state notification and pipeline inventory, state enforcement, qualifications for state grant programs, Federal-State cooperation in case of accident, destruction of signs or markers, additional inspection and testing, feasibility of regulating excavation activities, and authorization for appropriations for natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. This bill would also specifically regulate the transport of carbon dioxide. Sections are included on grants-in-aid, additional hirings, minimum requirements for one-call notification systems, internal inspection of pipelines, and emergency flow restricting devices.

  18. How to avoid major hazards from oil- and gas pipelines in the coastal- and inner waters of Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Thygesen, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Dansk Olie and Naturgas A/S owns and operates approx. 500 km of offshore gas and oil pipelines running from the platforms in the Danish sector of North Sea platforms to the mainland and through the inner waters towards Sweden. The paper describes the preventive measures taken by Dansk Olie and Naturgas A/S to avoid major hazards and their effects on the marine environment. Inspection methods to detect deficiencies before they develop into a hazardous situation are described along with emergency plans for how to handle hazardous situations, should they occur, the surveillance for possible damage, prior to repair including the safety precautions to be taken, and finally in the case of the oil pipeline, the oil spill clean-up procedures are described.

  19. The lift forces acting on a submarine composite pipeline in a wave-current coexisting field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.C.; Zhang, N.C.

    1994-12-31

    The composite pipeline is defined as a main big pipe composed with one or several small pipes. The flow behavior around a submarine composite pipeline is more complicated than that around a single submarine pipeline. A series model test of composite pipelines in a wave-current coexisting field was conducted by the authors. Both in-line and lift forces were measured, and the resultant forces are also analyzed. The results of lift forces and resultant forces are reported in this paper. It is found that the lift force coefficients for composite pipelines are well related to the KC number. The lift force coefficients in an irregular wave-current coexisting field are smaller than those in regular wave-current coexisting field. The frequency of lift force is usually the twice or higher than the wave frequency. It is indicated by the authors` test that the resultant forces are larger than in-line forces (horizontal forces) about 10 to 20 percent. The effect of water depth was analyzed. Finally, the relationship between lift force coefficient C{sub l} and KC number, the statistical characteristics of lift and resultant forces, are given in this paper, which may be useful for practical engineering application.

  20. Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM(2.5), gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM(2.5) are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM(2.5) are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident.

  1. The Isiokpo oil-pipeline leakage: total organic carbon/organic matter contents of affected soils.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-08-01

    The environmental impact of the 1997 leakage of the high-pressure crude-oil pipeline at Isiokpo in the Niger Delta in the southeast of Nigeria was evaluated, with particular reference to total-organic-carbon (TOC) and total-organic-matter (TOM) contents of soils within the vicinity of the oil spillage. The soils, taken from depths of 0-15 cm (surface) and 15-30 cm (subsurface), were found to be more acidic (pH 4.2-5.6) than the unpolluted soils, with a high average moisture content of 6.8%. The extractable hydrocarbon content ranged from 2.71-3.48 mg/kg, indicating hydrocarbon contamination. However, contrary to expectation, the TOC and TOM contents of the polluted soils did not show any significant increase in concentration, supposedly due to natural rehabilitation of the affected mat layer of soils. Thus, notwithstanding the possible proliferation of heterotrophic organisms by the presence of the added petroleum hydrocarbons, environmental conditions such as weathering and climatic predispositions, as well as physico-chemical parameters such as pH, moisture content, and temperature must have encumbered the carbon-mineralizing capacity of the heterotrophs, thereby reducing the turnover of carbon and the decomposition of organic matter. The restrictions by high moisture content might not come directly from H(2)O itself, but are probably a consequence of hindered soil ventilation, which reduces O(2) supply and gaseous diffusion, conditions that might have been substantially aggravated by the added petroleum hydrocarbons.

  2. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  3. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced...

  4. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced...

  5. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced...

  6. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  7. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; McInerney, Michael J.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm2, while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens. PMID:24639674

  8. Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S; Duncan, Kathleen E; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm(2), while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens.

  9. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  10. Subsoil TPH contamination in two oil pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in north Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, R; Flores-Serrano, R M; Castro, A; Flores, C; Torres, L G

    2010-11-01

    This investigation deals with the characterization carried out in zones around two pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in the north of Mexico. In particular those areas where contamination was evaluated: (a) south area of the separation ditch in the Avalos station, (b) the area between the separation ditch at the Avalos station, (c) km 194+420 of the Moctuzma station, and (d) km 286+900 in the Candelaria station. Results of this investigation showed that only four samples showed TPH values higher than the Mexican limit for 2004: AVA 1B, with 21,191 mg kg(-1); AVA 1C, with 9348 mg kg(-1); AVA 2B, with 13,970 mg kg(-1); and MOC 2A, with 4108 mg kg(-1).None of the sampled points showed the presence of PAHs at values higher than those found in the Mexican or American legislations. PAH were detected in the range of 0.0004 and 13.05 mg kg(-1).It is suggested to implement surfactant soil washing as a remediation technique for the approximately 600 m(3) that need to be treated.

  11. Subsoil TPH contamination in two oil pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in north Mexico.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, R; Flores-Serrano, R M; Castro, A; Flores, C; Torres, L G

    2010-11-01

    This investigation deals with the characterization carried out in zones around two pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in the north of Mexico. In particular those areas where contamination was evaluated: (a) south area of the separation ditch in the Avalos station, (b) the area between the separation ditch at the Avalos station, (c) km 194+420 of the Moctuzma station, and (d) km 286+900 in the Candelaria station. Results of this investigation showed that only four samples showed TPH values higher than the Mexican limit for 2004: AVA 1B, with 21,191 mg kg(-1); AVA 1C, with 9348 mg kg(-1); AVA 2B, with 13,970 mg kg(-1); and MOC 2A, with 4108 mg kg(-1).None of the sampled points showed the presence of PAHs at values higher than those found in the Mexican or American legislations. PAH were detected in the range of 0.0004 and 13.05 mg kg(-1).It is suggested to implement surfactant soil washing as a remediation technique for the approximately 600 m(3) that need to be treated. PMID:20674145

  12. Predictive and preventive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines in the area North Monagas-Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M.A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Predictive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines has allowed the prediction of operational failures. Specially due to the thermodynamic behavior of the produced fluids, contaminants present in the oil and gas such as sand, water, H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}, asphaltene deposition, high temperatures and pressures, physicochemical characteristics of the soil, etc. lead to risks of the installations. In order to minimize risks of failures, the author has established a control and monitoring preventive program of the variables that influence these conditions, such as: nondestructive testing, wall thickness measurements and two dimensional B Scan measurements to detect impurities, laminations and inclusions in the pipeline material, corrosion evaluation of pipelines, characterization of the soil corrosive potential of flow stations and compressing plants. Additionally, he has implemented predictive control through the application of external corrosion prevention techniques such as cathodic protection and coatings. For internal corrosion, the use of corrosion inhibitors, asphaltene dispersants and material selection are used. Increasing the protection through preventive and predictive maintenance can reduce the operational risks involved for the oil and gas production.

  13. 75 FR 70947 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on November 15... Rhode Island for natural resource damages under the Oil Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2701, et seq... to an oil spill from the tank barge Bouchard No. 120, which occurred in April 2003 in Buzzards...

  14. Safety enhancement of oil trunk pipeline crossing active faults on Sakhalin Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishkina, E.; Antropova, N.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    The article explores the issues concerning safety enhancement of pipeline active fault crossing on Sakhalin Island. Based on the complexity and analysis results, all the faults crossed by pipeline system are classified into five categories - from very simple faults to extremely complex ones. The pipeline fault crossing design is developed in accordance with the fault category. To enhance pipeline safety at fault crossing, a set of methods should be applied: use of pipes of different safety classes and special trench design in accordance with soil permeability characteristics.

  15. Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig.

  16. Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig. PMID:24792683

  17. Oil and gas pipeline construction cost analysis and developing regression models for cost estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaduri, Ravi Kiran

    In this study, cost data for 180 pipelines and 136 compressor stations have been analyzed. On the basis of the distribution analysis, regression models have been developed. Material, Labor, ROW and miscellaneous costs make up the total cost of a pipeline construction. The pipelines are analyzed based on different pipeline lengths, diameter, location, pipeline volume and year of completion. In a pipeline construction, labor costs dominate the total costs with a share of about 40%. Multiple non-linear regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of pipelines for various cross-sectional areas, lengths and locations. The Compressor stations are analyzed based on the capacity, year of completion and location. Unlike the pipeline costs, material costs dominate the total costs in the construction of compressor station, with an average share of about 50.6%. Land costs have very little influence on the total costs. Similar regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of compressor station for various capacities and locations.

  18. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels, or any refined product produced therefrom... Regulations § 29.21-9 Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid... Director of the Bureau of Land Management in accordance with regulations in 43 CFR part 2800. Any...

  19. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  20. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  1. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  2. 76 FR 28968 - Imperial Oil and ExxonMobil Oil Corporation, v. Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Lights) LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on May 11, 2011, pursuant to Rule 206 of the Rules of... Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC (Respondent). Complainants are challenging certain rates, terms...

  3. 78 FR 69875 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act On November 15, 2013, the....) Inc. (``Suncor'') pursuant to the Oil Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2701-2762. The United States'...

  4. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act On December 21, 2012, the...'') natural resource damage claims brought pursuant to Sections 1002 and 1006 of the Oil Pollution Act, 33...

  5. 75 FR 13304 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) Notice is hereby given that on March... Decree alleging that on or about October 13, 2004, the oil tank vessel POLAR TEXAS, owned by Polar Tankers, Inc., a subsidiary of ConocoPhillips, Inc., discharged oil into waterways near Vashon and...

  6. Health, safety and environmental risk of a gas pipeline in an oil exploring area of Gachsaran.

    PubMed

    Kalatpoor, Omid; Goshtasp, Kambiz; Khavaji, Solieman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was assessing health, safety and environmental risk of a gas transfer pipeline in an oily area of Gachsaran. In this method, we used the Kent's pipeline risk assessment method except that to facilitate using the method more practically some changes were exerted into Kent's method. A pipeline with 16 kilometers length was selected considering surrounding nature of the pipeline. It was divided into two sections. Analogous to Kent's method, in this method, parameters included: interested party's injuries, corrosion, design factor, incorrect operation index and consequence scoring. The difference here was that for consequence scoring we used ALOHA 5.6 software instead of Kent's pattern. Results showed that health, safety and environmental risks of section 2 (the next 13 kilometers of outgoing pipeline from gas station after the first 3 kilometers) were greater. It seems the main cause of gaining a bigger risk number was related to more activities of interested parties around section 2. Because all figures gathered from indexes are almost close to gather except third parties activity.

  7. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  8. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-04-02

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  9. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  10. Referral of small oil spills to coast guard under Oil Pollution Act before new enforcement MOU is in effect

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-17

    The memorandum supplements earlier guidance concerning a case-by-case approach to the referral of post-Oil Pollution Act (OPA) oil spills to the Coast Guard. Congress has rewritten Section 311 to provide additional administrative and judicial oil spill enforcement remedies when it passed the OPA, and noted in the legislative history that this new authority is available to both the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of Transportation.

  11. Induced electric currents in the Alaska oil pipeline measured by gradient, fluxgate, and SQUID magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. H.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The field gradient method for observing the electric currents in the Alaska pipeline provided consistent values for both the fluxgate and SQUID method of observation. These currents were linearly related to the regularly measured electric and magnetic field changes. Determinations of pipeline current were consistent with values obtained by a direct connection, current shunt technique at a pipeline site about 9.6 km away. The gradient method has the distinct advantage of portability and buried- pipe capability. Field gradients due to the pipe magnetization, geological features, or ionospheric source currents do not seem to contribute a measurable error to such pipe current determination. The SQUID gradiometer is inherently sensitive enough to detect very small currents in a linear conductor at 10 meters, or conversely, to detect small currents of one amphere or more at relatively great distances. It is fairly straightforward to achieve imbalance less than one part in ten thousand, and with extreme care, one part in one million or better.

  12. Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Al/Al2O3 Duplex Coating on Pipeline Steel X80 in Simulated Oil and Gas Well Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ping-Gu; Shi, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Meng-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Corrosion resistant Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating for pipeline steel X80 was prepared by a combined treatment of low-temperature aluminizing and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Phase composition and microstructure of mono-layer Fe-Al coating and Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Corrosion resistance of the coated pipeline steel X80 in a simulated oil and gas well condition was also investigated. Mono-layer Fe-Al coating consists of Fe2Al5 and FeAl, which is a suitable transitional layer for the preparation of ceramic coating by MAO on the surface of pipeline steel X80. Under the same corrosion condition at 373 K for 168 h with 1 MPa CO2 and 0.1 MPa H2S, corrosion weight loss rate of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating decreased to 23% of original pipeline steel X80, which improved by 10% than that of pipeline steel X80 with mono-layer Fe-Al coating. It cannot find obvious cracks and pits on the corrosion surface of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating.

  13. 77 FR 65513 - Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... statement that the previous tariff publication remains in effect.'' \\16\\ 18 CFR 341.4(f) (2012). 17. This... pipeline to make non-ministerial tariff changes without filing to withdraw any pending proposal and making... adopted Order No. 714, which required that all tariffs and tariff revisions and rate change...

  14. Pyrosequencing Investigation into the Bacterial Community in Permafrost Soils along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai

    2012-01-01

    The China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) goes through 441 km permafrost soils in northeastern China. The bioremediation in case of oil spills is a major concern. So far, little is known about the indigenous bacteria inhabiting in the permafrost soils along the pipeline. A pilot 454 pyrosequencing analysis on the communities from four selected sites which possess high environment risk along the CRCOP is herein presented. The results reveal an immense bacterial diversity than previously anticipated. A total of 14448 OTUs with 84834 reads are identified, which could be assigned into 39 different phyla, and 223 families or 386 genera. Only five phyla sustain a mean OTU abundance more than 5% in all the samples, but they altogether account for 85.08% of total reads. Proteobacteria accounts for 41.65% of the total OTUs or 45% of the reads across all samples, and its proportion generally increases with soil depth, but OTUs numerically decline. Among Proteobacteria, the abundance of Beta-, Alpha-, Delta- and Gamma- subdivisions average to 38.7% (2331 OTUs), 37.5% (2257 OTUs), 10.35% (616 OTUs), and 6.21% (374 OTUs), respectively. Acidobacteria (esp. Acidobacteriaceae), Actinobacteria (esp. Intrasporangiaceae), Bacteroidetes (esp. Sphingobacteria and Flavobacteria) and Chloroflexi (esp. Anaerolineaceae) are also very common, accounting for 8.56% (1237 OTUs), 7.86% (1136 OTUs); 7.35% (1063 OTUs) and 8.27% (1195 OTUs) of total libraries, respectively. The ordination analysis indicates that bacteria communities in the upper active layer cluster together (similar), while bacterial consortia from the lower active layer and permafrost table scatter (less similar). The abundance of Rhodococcus (12 OTUs), Pseudomonas (71 OTUs) and Sphingomonas (87 OTUs) is even less (<0.01%). This effort to profile the background diversity may set the first stage for better evaluating the bacterial dynamics in response to accidental oil spills. PMID:23300754

  15. Pyrosequencing investigation into the bacterial community in permafrost soils along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP).

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Jin, Huijun; Wu, Qingbai

    2012-01-01

    The China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) goes through 441 km permafrost soils in northeastern China. The bioremediation in case of oil spills is a major concern. So far, little is known about the indigenous bacteria inhabiting in the permafrost soils along the pipeline. A pilot 454 pyrosequencing analysis on the communities from four selected sites which possess high environment risk along the CRCOP is herein presented. The results reveal an immense bacterial diversity than previously anticipated. A total of 14448 OTUs with 84834 reads are identified, which could be assigned into 39 different phyla, and 223 families or 386 genera. Only five phyla sustain a mean OTU abundance more than 5% in all the samples, but they altogether account for 85.08% of total reads. Proteobacteria accounts for 41.65% of the total OTUs or 45% of the reads across all samples, and its proportion generally increases with soil depth, but OTUs numerically decline. Among Proteobacteria, the abundance of Beta-, Alpha-, Delta- and Gamma- subdivisions average to 38.7% (2331 OTUs), 37.5% (2257 OTUs), 10.35% (616 OTUs), and 6.21% (374 OTUs), respectively. Acidobacteria (esp. Acidobacteriaceae), Actinobacteria (esp. Intrasporangiaceae), Bacteroidetes (esp. Sphingobacteria and Flavobacteria) and Chloroflexi (esp. Anaerolineaceae) are also very common, accounting for 8.56% (1237 OTUs), 7.86% (1136 OTUs); 7.35% (1063 OTUs) and 8.27% (1195 OTUs) of total libraries, respectively. The ordination analysis indicates that bacteria communities in the upper active layer cluster together (similar), while bacterial consortia from the lower active layer and permafrost table scatter (less similar). The abundance of Rhodococcus (12 OTUs), Pseudomonas (71 OTUs) and Sphingomonas (87 OTUs) is even less (<0.01%). This effort to profile the background diversity may set the first stage for better evaluating the bacterial dynamics in response to accidental oil spills.

  16. Parallel pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.; Bai, R.; Liao, T.Y.; Huang, A.; Hu, H.H.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the idea of parallel pipelining for water lubricated transportation of oil (or other viscous material). A parallel system can have major advantages over a single pipe with respect to the cost of maintenance and continuous operation of the system, to the pressure gradients required to restart a stopped system and to the reduction and even elimination of the fouling of pipe walls in continuous operation. The authors show that the action of capillarity in small pipes is more favorable for restart than in large pipes. In a parallel pipeline system, they estimate the number of small pipes needed to deliver the same oil flux as in one larger pipe as N = (R/r){sup {alpha}}, where r and R are the radii of the small and large pipes, respectively, and {alpha} = 4 or 19/7 when the lubricating water flow is laminar or turbulent.

  17. AN EVALUATION OF PYROLYSIS OIL PROPERTIES AND CHEMISTRY AS RELATED TO PROCESS AND UPGRADE CONDITIONS WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO PIPELINE SHIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G; Boyd, Alison C

    2012-01-01

    One factor limiting the development of commercial biomass pyrolysis is challenges related to the transportation of the produced pyrolysis oil. The oil has different chemical and physical properties than crude oil, including more water and oxygen and has lower H/C ratio, higher specific gravity and density, higher acidity, and lower energy content. These differences could limit its ability to be transported by existing petroleum pipelines. Pyrolysis oil can also be treated, normally by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, and approaches crude oil and petroleum condensates at higher severity levels. This improvement also results in lower liquid yield and high hydrogen consumption. Biomass resources for pyrolysis are expected to become plentiful and widely distributed in the future, mainly through the use of crop residuals and growing of energy crops such as perennial grasses, annual grasses, and woody crops. Crude oil pipelines are less well distributed and, when evaluated on a county level, could access about 18% of the total biomass supply. States with high potential include Texas, Oklahoma, California, and Louisiana. In this study, published data on pyrolysis oil was compiled into a data set along with bio-source source material, pyrolysis reactor conditions, and upgrading conditions for comparison to typical crude oils. Data of this type is expected to be useful in understanding the properties and chemistry and shipment of pyrolysis oil to refineries, where it can be further processed to fuel or used as a source of process heat.

  18. Oceanic pipeline computations

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, A.

    1980-01-01

    yechnical and economic feasibility, design, and construction of oil, gas, and two-phase oceanic pipelines systems are discussed. In addition, formulae, references, examples, and programmable calculator software (Hewlett-Packard-67) are given. The contents include: preliminary pipeline sizing; fluid characteristics; preliminary hydraulics; oceanographis; preliminary corridor selection; route selection; final pipeline design; hydraulic design; wall thickness selection; oceanographic design computations; stress analysis; and construction parameters. (JMT)

  19. New Journal index will measure gas pipeline inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1982-09-20

    This article marks the start of a new pipeline cost index, for gas pipelines. Its objective is to complement the Journal's oil pipeline cost index, started with the Nov. 19, 1979 issue. This new gas pipeline cost index will be published quarterly, as will the OGJ MORGAN Oil Pipeline Cost Index.

  20. Pipeline transport of biomass.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Cameron, Jay B; Flynn, Peter C

    2004-01-01

    The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry was determined. In a practical application of field delivery by truck of biomass to a pipeline inlet, the pipeline will only be economical at large capacity ( >0.5 million dry t/yr for a one-way pipeline, and >1.25 million dry t/yr for a two-way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances ( >75 km [one-way] and >470 km [two-way] at a capacity of 2 million dry t/yr). Mixed hardwood and softwood chips in western Canada rise in moisture level from about 50% to 67% when transported in water; the loss in lower heating value (LHV) would preclude the use of water slurry pipelines for direct combustion applications. The same chips, when transported in a heavy gas oil, take up as much as 50% oil by weight and result in a fuel that is >30% oil on mass basis and is about two-thirds oil on a thermal basis. Uptake of water by straw during slurry transport is so extreme that it has effectively no LHV. Pipeline-delivered biomass could be used in processes that do not produce contained water as a vapor, such as supercritical water gasification.

  1. 77 FR 1085 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act Notice is hereby given that on December 21... Pollution Act, 33 U.S.C. 2710, et seq., which arose from an alleged August 2008 discharge, from a...

  2. 77 FR 16052 - Information Collection Activities: Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; Submitted for Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Number: 1014-0016. Abstract: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 1331 et... through the submerged lands of the OCS for pipelines ``* * * for the transportation of oil, natural gas... initial 60-day FR notice and now, BSEE requested and obtained OMB approval via a Notice of Action...

  3. Federal Clean Water Act legislative and regulatory developments impacting the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lesniak, K.Z.

    1995-12-31

    Although the 103rd Congress made substantial progress towards passage of Clean Water Act amendments and reauthorization legislation and other environmental bills, including Safe Drinking Water Act reauthorization, 1994 resulted in no substantial new environmental legislation. Regulatory developments proceeded slowly as well, the most significant water regulatory issues on the federal level potentially impacting oil and gas operations being the anticipated issuance of a multi-sector storm water general permit and continuing EPA study of effluent limitations for coastal oil and gas extraction. The several Oil Pollution Act regulatory developments over the last year, including vessel financial responsibility, oil spill response planning, and revisions to the National Contingency Plan are not addressed in this paper.

  4. Pipeline accident statistics: Base to pipeline rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chis, T.

    1996-12-31

    The climate in which pipeline companies operate continues to change. Industry failures, related to public safety and environmental concerns, are now front page news. New and proposed regulations such as drug and alcohol testing of employees, instruments internal inspection and standardize oil spill response plans, are modifying the way pipeline companies operate. Paralleling these influences, the market place is also changing. Declining domestic production refinery closures and new specification for refined products are altering the pipe line distribution system. All of these changes are presenting new opportunities and many challenges. In 1995, when Conpet S.A. Ploiesti Formalized Pipeline Integrity Program, the reasons for the program were: What is the location to pipeline rehabilitation? What is failure probability? This paper reviews some aspects of the pipeline accident statistic to the Constanta Division of Conpet S.A. Ploiesti.

  5. Troll oil pipeline: Assessment of slope and gravel sleeper stability in steep fjord areas

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, A.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Nadim, F.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the slope stability evaluation in the steep areas of the Fensfjord. The main focus in the study has been to establish appropriate undrained shear strength for static and dynamic stability analyses, make a reasonable prediction of the earthquake induced permanent deformation and evaluate the post-earthquake static stability. The special laboratory testing and analysis conducted showed that the only consequence of earthquake loading is limited permanent deformations. Analysis of gravel supports on soft clay showed that three supports needed counter fills in order to fulfill the design requirements. At the tunnel entrance point of the pipeline at Mongstad, the soft clay at the seabed had to be excavated in order to attain satisfactory stability for the gravel support.

  6. 78 FR 11682 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Clean Water Act On... under Sections 301 and 311 of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1321, relating to a June 30 and July 1, 2007 discharge of approximately 2,145 barrels of crude oil, diesel fuel, and oily...

  7. 1997 annual pipeline directory and equipment guide

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This annual guide is divided into the following sections: Equivalent valve tables; Complete 1997 line pipe tables; Engineering and construction services; Crude oil pipeline companies; Slurry companies; Natural gas companies; Gas distribution pipeline companies; Municipal gas systems; Canadian pipeline companies; International pipeline companies; and Company index. The tables list component materials, manufacturers, and service companies.

  8. The influence of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 on structural design and economics of oil tankers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, Yousif Ibrahim

    Scope and method of study. Since the discovery of oil in 1859, the transportation of oil and oil products has always been associated with accidents and groundings of the tanker carriers. During the past 25 years, the United States and other nations have become increasingly concerned about oil spills associated with waterborne transportation of oil. Legislative initiatives aimed at reducing oil spills have evolved slowly in direct response to tanker accidents that took place over the years. For the most part, legislation prior to 1990 had been developed under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization. However, the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90) was a major departure from the international effort to address the shortcomings in tanker design and operation. In mandating a requirement to change from single-hull to double-hull designs, the United States acted unilaterally. Section 4115 of OPA90 excludes single-hull tankers of 5000 gross tons or more from U.S. waters after the period 2010--2015. This study reviewed and analyzed the history of oil spills and the effectiveness of oil spill regulations. Findings and conclusions. An economic analysis which included costs, risks, and benefits of double-hull technology has proved that the increase in capital and operational costs of double-hull tankers is higher than the expected benefits of reducing oil spills if an accident were to occur. OPA90 and Regulations 13F and 13G, which may be viewed as political mandates, have forced the shipbuilding industry to drastically change its standard for the design of oil tankers from single- to double-hull tankers without giving the industry any clear design guidelines or proven standards. It is a prime example of political expediency taking over the economic and technical factors needed for any new design to be successful and economically feasible. As a general rule of thumb, any new design takes from 15 to 20 years to become mature, error-free, and ready to be

  9. Desulfovibrio gabonensis sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from an oil pipeline.

    PubMed

    Tardy-Jacquenod, C; Magot, M; Laigret, F; Kaghad, M; Patel, B K; Guezennec, J; Matheron, R; Caumette, P

    1996-07-01

    Two moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from an African oil pipeline and designated strains SEBR 3640 and SEBR 2840T (T = type strain). Both of these strains possess traits that define the genus Desulfovibrio. The cells of both isolates were motile curved rods that had a single polar flagellum and contained desulfoviridin, and both isolates utilized lactate, pyruvate, malate, fumarate, succinate, and ethanol in the presence of sulfate. Sulfite, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur were also used as an electron acceptors in the presence of lactate. However, both strains tolerated higher concentrations of NaCl (up to 17%) than all other Desulfovibrio species except Desulfovibrio halophilus, which tolerated a similar level of NaCl. The results of a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis also placed the designated type strain, strain SEBR 2840, in the genus Desulfovibrio but revealed that this organism was significantly different from D. halophilus and all other validly described Desulfovibrio species. On the basis of our results, we propose that strain SEBR 2840T is a member of a new species of the genus Desulfovibrio, Desulfovibrio gabonensis. The type strain of D. gabonensis is strain SEBR 2840 (= DSM 10636).

  10. Building the Talent Pipeline: Policy Recommendations for "The Condition of STEM 2013." BHEF/ACT Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    ACT has been a leader in measuring college and career readiness trends for decades. Each August, ACT releases "The Condition of College & Career Readiness" (www.act.org/newsroom/data/2013), our annual report on the progress of the ACT-tested graduating class relative to college readiness. Nationally, 54.3% of the 2013 graduating…

  11. Slick work: An analysis of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, C.M.; Pittman, L.; Dye, R.F.

    1992-12-31

    Long before there was an Exxon Valdez releasing over ten million gallons of crude oil into cold Alaskan waters on March 24, 1989, there was a law establishing a comprehensive compensation and liability scheme for oil discharges into United States waters. For fifteen years, Congress had debated the need to improve that scheme to no avail. Then came the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an incident that highlighted the inadequacies of the existing legal regime as never before, raising the level of national concern and the severity of the congressional response - perhaps too far in light of the actual environmental harm caused by the vast majority of spills each year. This Article begins by providing an overview of the state of the law before passage of the OPA. The OPA is then discussed in-depth, contrasting and comparing it to the pre-existing law and offering insight into the Act`s key controversies and their resolutions in Congress. Discussion of the OPA begins by looking at provisions of the Act dealing with oil spill prevention and preparedness by addressing federal removal authority, oil spill contingency plan requirements, and double hull requirements for tank vessels. Next follows a discussion of the OPA`s liability regime, exploring a number of significant provisions: compensation for removal costs and damage incurred, defenses to liability, oil spill trust fund monies, extent of cleanup requirements, claims procedure against responsible parties, limitations on liability, financial responsibility requirements, penalties, natural resource damage compensation, jurisdiction and venue requirements, and preemption. The Article concludes with a discussion of the 1984 Oil and Spill Protocols, which attempt to address the problem of oil spills at the international level, and the failure of the United States to ratify the Protocols.

  12. Mitigating the consequences of extreme events on strategic facilities: evaluation of volcanic and seismic risk affecting the Caspian oil and gas pipelines in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Pasquarè, F A; Tormey, D; Vezzoli, L; Okrostsvaridze, A; Tutberidze, B

    2011-07-01

    In this work we identify and quantify new seismic and volcanic risks threatening the strategic Caspian oil and gas pipelines through the Republic of Georgia, in the vicinity of the recent Abuli Samsari Volcanic Ridge, and evaluate risk reduction measures, mitigation measures, and monitoring. As regards seismic risk, we identified a major, NW-SE trending strike-slip fault; based on the analysis of fault planes along this major transcurrent structure, an about N-S trend of the maximum, horizontal compressive stress (σ1) was determined, which is in good agreement with data instrumentally derived after the 1986, M 5.6 Paravani earthquake and its aftershock. Particularly notable is the strong alignment of volcanic vents along an about N-S trend that suggests a magma rising controlled by the about N-S-directed σ1. The original pipeline design included mitigation measures for seismic risk and other geohazards, including burial of the pipeline for its entire length, increased wall thickness, block valve spacing near recognized hazards, and monitoring of known landslide hazards. However, the design did not consider volcanic risk or the specific seismic hazards revealed by this study. The result of our analysis is that the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline, as well as the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzerum South Caucasian natural gas pipeline (SCP) were designed in such a way that they significantly reduce the risk posed by the newly-identified geohazards in the vicinity of the Abuli-Samsari Ridge. No new measures are recommended for the pipeline itself as a result of this study. However, since the consequences of long-term shut-down would be very damaging to the economies of Western Europe, we conclude that the regionally significant BTC and SCP warrant greater protections, described in the final section of or work. The overall objective of our effort is to present the results in a matrix framework that allows the technical information to be used further in the decision

  13. Zonation and assessment of frozen-ground conditions along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route from Mo’he to Daqing, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Hao, J.; Chang, X.

    2009-12-01

    The proposed China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP), 813 mm in diameter, is designed to transport 603,000 barrels of Siberian crude oil per day using conventional burial across 1,030 km of frozen-ground. About 500 boreholes, with depths of 5 to 20 m, were drilled and cored for analyses, and the frozen-ground conditions were evaluated. After detailed surveys and analyses of the permafrost conditions along the pipeline route, a conventional burial construction mode at a nominal depth of 1.5 m was adopted. This paper discusses the principles and criteria for the zonation and assessment of the frozen-ground environments and conditions of engineering geology for the design, construction, operation of the pipeline system based on an extensive and in-depth summary and analysis of the survey and exploration data. Full consideration of the characteristics of pipelining crude oil at ambient temperatures in the permafrost regions and the interactive processes between the pipeline and foundation soils were taken into account. Two zones of frozen-ground environment and conditions of engineering geology, i. e. seasonally-frozen-ground and permafrost, were defined on the basis of the regional distribution and differentiations in frozen-ground environments and conditions. Then, four subzones of the permafrost zone were classified according to the areal extent, taking into consideration the temperatures and thicknesses of permafrost, as well as changes in vegetation coverage. In the four subzones, 151 sections of engineering geology were categorized according to the ice/moisture contents of the permafrost, as well as the classes of frost-heaving and thaw-settlement potentials. These 151 sections are comprehensively summarized into four types for engineering construction and operation: good, fair, poor, and very poor, for overall conditions of engineering geology. The zonation, assessment principles and criteria have been applied in the design of the pipeline. They have also been

  14. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990: Legislation in the wake of a crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Grumbles, B.H.; Manley, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    The pattern is nothing new. Congress, like any other institution, needs nudging-sometimes gentle, sometimes jolting-before it responds. An environmental crisis prompts a congressional reaction, sometimes an overreaction. The discovery of contamination at Love Canal prompted enactment of Superfund; the disaster at Bhopal, India, led to the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act; and the collision of the Exxon Valdez brought about the enactment of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. For better or for worse, the pattern of environmental crisis and legislative response remains. March 24, 1989, marked the beginning of a new age in federal and state oil spill law. After the Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh reef and spewed 11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska congressional debate on comprehensive federal legislation would never be the same. The stalemate that characterized previous congressional efforts seemed to disappear overnight. Major differences between the two chambers were either eliminated or reduced, and only 4 major issues had to be negotiated: international protocols; technical requirements relating to double hulls; cargo owner liability; state and private industry roles in oil spill contingency planning, response and cleanup efforts. This article discusses the legal manuvering and major provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

  15. 76 FR 67385 - Claims Procedures Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... interim rule, titled ``Claims Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990'' (Interim Rule, 57 FR 36316, August 12... Facility to each document in the public docket for this rulemaking E.O. Federal Executive Order FR Federal... FR 36316, August 12, 1992; 57 FR 41104, September 9, 1992 (correction)] NAICS North American...

  16. Spill, RFG rules promise trouble for U. S. pipelines. [ReFormulated Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1994-06-06

    The effects of current and impending governmental regulations on US pipeline operations occupied much of April's API Pipeline Conference in Houston. Entire sessions were devoted to ramifications of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and governmentally mandated rules for reformulated gasoline. Other papers discussed how the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission may regulate oil-pipeline rates in the future and what issues individual state legislatures may be examining. If pipeline operators weren't hearing what governments planned, they were hearing what their own industry wanted them to do, mostly in the form of standards, such as API 2610 for terminal and tank facilities, or recommended practices, as for ensuring crude oil quality at terminal and tank sites. The paper discusses the Oil Pollution Act rules; contingency plans proposed by the EPA; NOAA proposals for natural-resource damage assessments; major regulatory issues that will affect pipelines in the future; liabilities and documentation associated with RFG in pipelines; product codes; transfer documentation; operation; oversight programs; and unanswered questions.

  17. 76 FR 26768 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The Federal Pipeline Safety Laws Notice is hereby given that on May 3, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. BP... relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, as amended by the Oil...

  18. 75 FR 49411 - Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability-Vessels and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability--Vessels and Deepwater Ports'' (74 FR... Number 1625-0046 entitled ``Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels).'' The approval for... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 138 RIN 1625-AB25 Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall be inspected...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  3. Methanol incorporation in clathrate hydrates and the implications for oil and gas pipeline flow assurance and icy planetary bodies.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyuchul; Udachin, Konstantin A; Moudrakovski, Igor L; Leek, Donald M; Alavi, Saman; Ratcliffe, Christopher I; Ripmeester, John A

    2013-05-21

    One of the best-known uses of methanol is as antifreeze. Methanol is used in large quantities in industrial applications to prevent methane clathrate hydrate blockages from forming in oil and gas pipelines. Methanol is also assigned a major role as antifreeze in giving icy planetary bodies (e.g., Titan) a liquid subsurface ocean and/or an atmosphere containing significant quantities of methane. In this work, we reveal a previously unverified role for methanol as a guest in clathrate hydrate cages. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR experiments showed that at temperatures near 273 K, methanol is incorporated in the hydrate lattice along with other guest molecules. The amount of included methanol depends on the preparative method used. For instance, single-crystal XRD shows that at low temperatures, the methanol molecules are hydrogen-bonded in 4.4% of the small cages of tetrahydrofuran cubic structure II hydrate. At higher temperatures, NMR spectroscopy reveals a number of methanol species incorporated in hydrocarbon hydrate lattices. At temperatures characteristic of icy planetary bodies, vapor deposits of methanol, water, and methane or xenon show that the presence of methanol accelerates hydrate formation on annealing and that there is unusually complex phase behavior as revealed by powder XRD and NMR spectroscopy. The presence of cubic structure I hydrate was confirmed and a unique hydrate phase was postulated to account for the data. Molecular dynamics calculations confirmed the possibility of methanol incorporation into the hydrate lattice and show that methanol can favorably replace a number of methane guests.

  4. Mining machinery/equipment/parts/services. Oil and gas field equipment/machinery/parts/supplies (Peru). Oil and gas field exploration, drilling, production, and pipeline machinery and equipment, July 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    After five years of contraction, import demand for oil and gas field exploration, drilling, production and pipeline machinery and equipment will surge at a faster rate as Peru must expand low domestic reserves and current production to meet internal demand and to avoid excessive-expensive imports of crude. Petroperu's financial condition has improved but it still has serious debt arrears. Congress is expected to issue a new oil law which may liberalize procedures to approve exploration contracts while setting up the framework for at least partial privatization of Petroperu.

  5. RCRA, Superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (updated February 1998); Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this module is to explain the purpose, scope, and reporting requirements under the Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures (SPCC) and related regulations and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

  6. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... holder of a right-of-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An...-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced from submerged...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An...-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced from submerged...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An...-way oil or gas pipeline shall transport or purchase oil or natural gas produced from submerged...

  10. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee...

  11. Protecting a pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.H ); Garcia-Lopez, M. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  12. Determination of direct-acting mutagens and clastogens in oil shale retort process water

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.; Okinaka, R.T.; Strniste, G.F.; Meyne, J.

    1982-01-01

    Shale oil products contain various metabolically active and photoactive genotoxic components. In addition, preliminary observations indicated that retort process water contain direct-acting mutagens which cause significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistance (6TG/sup R/) mutants in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, we have been unable to demonstrate the occurrence of direct-acting mutagens in these process waters when tested in the standard Ames/Salmonella assay. In this report results are presented concerning the dose response of direct-acting mutagenicity in an above ground retort process (ARP) water and various fractions from it. Since many mutagenic agents are also clastogrenic, the cytogenetic and mutagenic effects of this process water under the same experimental conditions are compared.

  13. 75 FR 750 - Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Limits of Liability-Vessels and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ...--Vessels and Deepwater Ports'' (73 FR 54997) CPI-U Consumer Price Index--All Urban Consumers, Not... Federal Register, at 73 FR 54997, entitled ``Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution Act of 1990... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 138 RIN 1625-AB25 Consumer Price Index Adjustments of Oil Pollution......

  14. OMAE 1993: Proceedings. Volume 5: Pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, M.; Murray, A.; Thygesen, J.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of conference proceedings is volume five of a five volume series dealing with offshore and arctic pipeline, marine riser, platforms, and ship design and engineering. This volume is a result of increased use of pipeline transportation for oil, gas, and liquid products and the resultant need for lower design and operating costs. Papers in this conference cover topics on environmental considerations, pipeline automation, computer simulation techniques, materials testing, corrosion protection, permafrost problems, pipeline integrity, geotechnical concerns, and offshore engineering problems.

  15. 77 FR 63309 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Gas Pipelines. G-3 RM12-15-000 Filing, Indexing and Service Requirements for Oil Pipelines. G-4 RM12-17-000 Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines. HYDRO...

  16. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  17. 77 FR 55861 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA'') Notice is hereby given... and Section 48-1-90 of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act, S.C. Code Ann. Sec. 48-1-90. In...

  18. Seismic hazard along a crude oil pipeline in the event of an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.H.M.; Chen, C.H.S.

    1990-04-16

    An assessment of the seismic hazard that exists along the major crude oil pipeline running through the New Madrid seismic zone from southeastern Louisiana to Patoka, Illinois is examined in the report. An 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake with moment magnitude 8.2 is assumed to occur at three locations where large historical earthquakes have occurred. Six pipeline crossings of the major rivers in West Tennessee are chosen as the sites for hazard evaluation because of the liquefaction potential at these sites. A seismologically-based model is used to predict the bedrock accelerations. Uncertainties in three model parameters, i.e., stress parameter, cutoff frequency, and strong-motion duration are included in the analysis. Each parameter is represented by three typical values. From the combination of these typical values, a total of 27 earthquake time histories can be generated for each selected site due to an 1811-1812 type New Madrid earthquake occurring at a postulated seismic source.

  19. 41 CFR 50-210.1 - Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers. 50-210.1 Section 50-210.1 Public...-210.1 Coverage under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act of truck drivers employed by oil dealers... employed by oil dealers, by amending section 40(e)(1) of Rulings and Interpretations No. 3 1 to read...

  20. Trans-Alaska pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline system transports nearly 25 percent of the nation's domestically produced crude oil. Since operations began in 1977, the system has delivered over 8 billion barrels of oil to Port Veldez for shipment. This paper reports that concerns have been raised about whether the system is meeting special engineering design and operations requirements imposed by federal and state regulators. GAO found that the five principal federal and state regulatory agencies have not pursued a systematic, disciplined, and coordinated approach to regulating the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Instead, these agencies have relied on the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which runs the system, to police itself. It was only after the Exxon Valdez spill and the discovery of corrosion that the regulators began to reevaluate their roles and focus on issues such as whether Alyeska's operating and maintenance procedures meet the pipelines, special engineering design and operating requirements, or whether Alyeska can adequately respond to a large oil spill. In January 1990, the regulators established a joint office to provide more effective oversight of the system. GAO believes that central leadership and a secured funding sources may help ensure that this office provides adequate oversight.

  1. 77 FR 31347 - High Prairie Pipeline, LLC v. Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, High Prairie Pipeline, LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission High Prairie Pipeline, LLC v. Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership;...

  2. Turbine cooling waxy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, J.S.

    1987-10-27

    A process for pipelining a waxy oil to essentially eliminate deposition of wax on the pipeline wall is described comprising: providing a pressurized mixture of the waxy oil and a gas; effecting a sudden pressure drop of the mixture of the oil and the gas through an expansion turbine, thereby expanding the gas and quickly cooling the oil to below its cloud point in the substantial absence of wax deposition and forming a slurry of wax particles and oil; and pipelining the slurry.

  3. 75 FR 77694 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Register on November 26, 2010 (75 FR 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection...

  4. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  5. S. 1461: Oil Tanker Navigation Safety Act of 1989. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, August 1, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bill would enhance the navigation safety of oil tankers. Title I, Provisions applicable to nationally licensed personnel, explains provisions relating to motor vehicle driving records of vessel personnel; dangerous drugs and other grounds for suspension or revocation; alcohol testing and alcohol rehabilitation; prohibition on service; vessel traffic services; oil tanker construction and size; oil spill contingency plans and approval; international inventory of equipment and contractors; national council on oil spill technology research and development; oil spill disaster assistance; impact on other laws; penalties; and a report on user fees. Title II, Provisions applicable with respect to Alaska pilotage at Port of Valdez, includes explanations of Bligh reef light; Prince William Sound VTS; oil spill recovery institute; and the Trans-Alaska pipeline liability fund. Title III, Provisions applicable to Mississippi River radio communications on Mississippi River, is also included.

  6. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  7. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the oil regulatory program will be assessed against each oil pipeline company based on the proportion of the total operation revenues of each oil pipeline company for the immediately preceding calendar... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  8. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the oil regulatory program will be assessed against each oil pipeline company based on the proportion of the total operation revenues of each oil pipeline company for the immediately preceding calendar... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  9. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the oil regulatory program will be assessed against each oil pipeline company based on the proportion of the total operation revenues of each oil pipeline company for the immediately preceding calendar... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  10. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the oil regulatory program will be assessed against each oil pipeline company based on the proportion of the total operation revenues of each oil pipeline company for the immediately preceding calendar... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  11. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the oil regulatory program will be assessed against each oil pipeline company based on the proportion of the total operation revenues of each oil pipeline company for the immediately preceding calendar... pipeline companies being assessed annual charges. (b) No oil pipeline company's annual charge may exceed...

  12. The impact of the Sarbanes Oxley Act on auditing fees: An empirical study of the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezelle, Ralph Wayne, Jr.

    2011-12-01

    This study examines auditing of energy firms prior and post Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. The research explores factors impacting the asset adjusted audit fee of oil and gas companies and specifically examines the effect of the Sarbanes Oxley Act. This research analyzes multiple year audit fees of the firms engaged in the oil and gas industry. Pooled samples were created to improve statistical power with sample sizes sufficient to test for medium and large effect size. The Sarbanes Oxley Act significantly increases a firm's asset adjusted audit fees. Additional findings are that part of the variance in audit fees was attributable to the market value of the enterprise, the number of subsidiaries, the receivables and inventory, debt ratio, non-profitability, and receipt of a going concern report.

  13. Landscape scale ecological monitoring as part of an EIA of major construction activities: experience at the Turkish section of the BTC crude oil pipeline project.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Sükran; Kurum, Ekrem

    2009-09-01

    Ecological monitoring is a complementary component of the overall environmental management and monitoring program of any Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report. The monitoring method should be developed for each project phase and allow for periodic reporting and assessment of compliance with the environmental conditions and requirements of the EIA. Also, this method should incorporate a variance request program since site-specific conditions can affect construction on a daily basis and require time-critical application of alternative construction scenarios or environmental management methods integrated with alternative mitigation measures. Finally, taking full advantage of the latest information and communication technologies can enhance the quality of, and public involvement in, the environmental management program. In this paper, a landscape-scale ecological monitoring method for major construction projects is described using, as a basis, 20 months of experience on the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) Crude Oil Pipeline Project, covering Turkish Sections Lot B and Lot C. This analysis presents suggestions for improving ecological monitoring for major construction activities.

  14. Battle over proposed Keystone pipeline continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    Opposing sides in the battle over the proposed construction of the controversial Keystone XL pipeline continue to push their messages on the issue. The American Petroleum Institute (API) announced on 9 July that it has launched a new advertising campaign in support of the pipeline, which, if built, will ship oil from Canadian tar sands to refineries in the Gulf of Mexico.

  15. 75 FR 45591 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or view the... complete Privacy Act Statement was published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 Pipeline Safety: Notice of...

  16. Slurry pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wasp, E.J.

    1983-11-01

    Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

  17. Russian Arctic battles pipeline leak

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1995-05-12

    An estimated 100,000 barrels of oil have leaked from a corroded pipeline in northern Russia`s Komi Republic since last August. The oil threatens salmon fisheries and marshlands used for grazing cattle and raindeer. This article discusses the spill in relation to other large spills and the possible ecological damage. Russian authorities, first reluctant to come to grips with the spill, are changing their attitudes, a position essential to gaining access to threatened regions for important monitoring studies.

  18. Pipeline Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This appendix examines the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It also includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie-in with the U.S. markets or projects.

  19. Speedy repair returns Basin Pipeline to service

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that a ruptured section of the Basin Pipeline, a 24-in., crude-oil line 25 miles northeast of Wichita Falls, Tex., was quickly replaced after the Red River cut a new channel and damaged the pipeline during May 30-31 flooding. Until that time, the pipeline, operated by Texaco Pipeline Inc., had safely delivered more than 400,000 b/d of crude oil from Jal, N.M., to Cushing, Okla. Because of flooding caused by heavy rains, the river broke through a levee, traversed a flood plain, then cut a new channel about 1,000 ft wide and 16 ft deep, approximately 1,000 ft north of its original shore. It was under the new channel that the pipeline rupture occurred. There was no damage at the original spanned crossing of the river. Also described are the welding progress and the procedures involved in removal of the damaged pipe.

  20. Pipelines & Headlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Edward A.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a poster describing how oil is made, discovered, recovered, distributed, and used with suggestions for using it. Includes cards for an oil vocabulary game with its playing instructions and seven oil scramble words. Gives three addresses of sources for additional information. (YP)

  1. Recession holds quarterly pipeline building costs to less than 1%

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-02-21

    Pipeline construction costs for the first 6 months of 1982 were substantially retarded when material costs fell drastically. Discusses first half (1982) cost components; steel line pipe; rail freight rates; labor rates; pumping unit costs; and steel storage tanks. Presents graphs showing the OGJ-Morgan oil pipeline cost index and cost component indexes. Gives table which indicates that the total composite cost index for building oil pipelines increased a meager 0.97.

  2. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1013 - Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1013 Grounds for forfeiture of pipeline right-of-way grants. Failure to comply...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1009 - Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1009 Requirements to obtain pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) In addition...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1017 - Requirements for construction under pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for construction under pipeline... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1017 Requirements for construction under pipeline right-of-way...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The lessee shall ensure the...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1010 - General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1010 General requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. An applicant,...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted under the...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1018 Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) Assignment may be made of a...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1011 - Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1011 Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders. (a) When you apply for,...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1015 - Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1015 Applications for pipeline right-of-way grants. (a) You must submit an original...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1016 - Granting pipeline rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Granting pipeline rights-of-way. 250.1016... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1016 Granting pipeline rights-of-way. (a) In considering an application for a...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1014 - When pipeline right-of-way grants expire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1014 When pipeline right-of-way grants expire. Any right-of-way granted...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1019 - Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1019 Relinquishment of pipeline right-of-way grants. A right-of-way grant or a...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The...

  7. Subsea Target Measurement Technique of High Resolution Multi-Beam Sonar System -A Case Study of Ocean Oil & Gas Production Platform and Pipeline Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J.; Tang, Q.; Zhou, X.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: with fast development of modern science and technology, subsea pipeline detection means have been increasingly improved which have not only improved detection efficiency, but also extremely advanced the detection precision. The article has integrated the performance characteristics of high resolution multi-beam measurement system in recent years, which has introduced the relevant technique and detection achievement of subsea pipeline detecting (especially for exposed pipeline) by detection cases. The final detection result has been verified that high resolution multi-beam measurement system could accurately detect subsea minisize target object, which has provided the technical reference with popularization and application of new characteristics.

  8. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  9. 78 FR 23972 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477) or visit http... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  10. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  11. 75 FR 53733 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  12. 78 FR 36016 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  13. 76 FR 33808 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  14. 75 FR 76077 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  15. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum....

  16. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  17. 76 FR 45904 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  18. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  19. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... certificates, comparatively minor enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be...

  20. 77 FR 27279 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477) or visit http... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  1. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 284 Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines... capacity on intrastate natural gas pipelines providing interstate transportation and storage services under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and Hinshaw pipelines providing such services...

  2. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements.

  3. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline-soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West-East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097

  4. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  5. Alcohol fuels tax incentives. A summary: alcohol fuels provisions of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This document presents tax incentive information pertaining to alcohol fuels production as provided by the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act of 1980. Significant tax incentives for producers, blenders, marketers, and users of alcohol fuels are included. Discussed are: the 4% excise taxes exemption; income tax credits; energy investment tax credit for biomass; alcohol fuel plant operating permits; tax exempt bonds for alcohol fuel from solid wastes; state financing of renewable energy property; the study of imported alcohol; and annual reports on alcohol fuels.

  6. Push Force Analysis of Anchor Block of the Oil and Gas Pipeline in a Single-Slope Tunnel Based on the Energy Balance Method

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yifei; Zhang, Lisong; Yan, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a single-slope tunnel pipeline was analysed considering the effects of vertical earth pressure, horizontal soil pressure, inner pressure, thermal expansion force and pipeline—soil friction. The concept of stagnation point for the pipeline was proposed. Considering the deformation compatibility condition of the pipeline elbow, the push force of anchor blocks of a single-slope tunnel pipeline was derived based on an energy method. Then, the theoretical formula for this force is thus generated. Using the analytical equation, the push force of the anchor block of an X80 large-diameter pipeline from the West—East Gas Transmission Project was determined. Meanwhile, to verify the results of the analytical method, and the finite element method, four categories of finite element codes were introduced to calculate the push force, including CAESARII, ANSYS, AutoPIPE and ALGOR. The results show that the analytical results agree well with the numerical results, and the maximum relative error is only 4.1%. Therefore, the results obtained with the analytical method can satisfy engineering requirements. PMID:26963097

  7. Seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Nyman, D.J.; Hammond, C.R.

    1992-04-01

    The status of knowledge on the seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States is reviewed. Types of ground response to earthquake motions that result in pipeline failure and pipeline response to such motions are discussed. The primary focus is on oil and gas transmission lines constructed of welded steel pipe. Results of vulnerability studies, the need for better determination of the potential for existing pipeline failures, and design procedures for new pipelines are presented.

  8. 77 FR 22387 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http... Pipeline Systems Incident Report, and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems Accident Report AGENCY: Pipeline... several minor revisions to the hazardous liquid pipeline systems accident report and the gas...

  9. Developing sorbent standards for spill response: Effects of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Free Trade Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, E. L.; Westover, E. S.

    1993-09-01

    For the past five years the Millsaps Sorbent Laboratory has been actively engaged in developing standards for initial and long-term oil spill remedial technologies. As a voting member of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) F-20 Committee, Canadian General Standards Board, and the US Coast Guard Sorbents Task Force, the laboratory has been engaged in developing useful, pragmatic protocols for various chemical and physical sorbent and filtration technologies driven by the deadlines imposed by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The “open border” approach to certification of technologies and products promulgated by the US/Canadian Free Trade Agreement has placed the US users and producers of such products and systems in a unique and tenuous position. Canadian standards and goals are grandfathered into the United States under this agreement and products have official US government certification based on Canadian regulations. This situation is unfavorable to the US domestic environment and economy for several specific scenarios. Included in these scenarios are: abundant warmwater zones and inland waters of the US versus Canada, the basic chemical variation between Canadian and US crude oils, the different generally accepted remediation technologies in the US versus Canadian, and the technology validation procedures prior to purchase inherent to both countries.

  10. OMAE 1994. Volume 5: Pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Fernandez, M.L.; Thygesen, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The pipeline industry in the 1990s faces significant technical challenges requiring innovative design, operating, and maintenance strategies. Public safety, system reliability, environmental issues, and cost reductions are constant concerns. These and other issues are developed and expanded upon in this conference proceedings that represents one volume of a five volume set pertaining to offshore development of mineral resources, predominantly oil and gas. Papers deal with materials and corrosion; numerical modeling; pipeline design and integrity; geotechnical and permafrost; operation and maintenance; pipeline laying in deep water; on-bottom stability; and various case histories.

  11. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  12. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  13. S. 2643: Oil Pollution Liability and Compensation Act of 1988. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, July 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    S. 2643 would consolidate and improve Federal laws providing compensation and establishing liability for oil spills. The bill establishes that the owner or operator of a vessel or an onshore or offshore facility from which oil is discharged, or which poses the threat of a discharge which causes the incurrence of removal costs, shall be liable for all removal costs incurred by the US government or a State under provisions of the Clean Water Act, Intervention on the High Seas, or Deepwater Port Act of 1974. The owner/operator is also liable for economic loss or loss of natural resources resulting from such a discharge. However, there is no liability for the owner/operator who can establish that the discharge or threat of discharge was caused by an act of God, and act of war, and act of omission of a third party other than an employee or agent, or any combination the these three.

  14. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  15. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  16. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  17. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jerry Jorgensen welcomes the audience to the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center. Jorgensen, with Space Gateway Support (SGS), is the pipeline project manager. To the right is Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO. Others at the ceremony were Center Director Roy Bridges; Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad.

  18. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO , presents a plaque to Center Director Roy Bridges. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad.

  19. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-21

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  20. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  1. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    PubMed

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  2. Records set, drilling calculation refined in Dutch pipeline crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Spiekhout, J.; Gorter, J.; Hartlief )

    1993-01-04

    This paper reports on horizontal drilling for pipeline installation which made significant progress in The Netherlands in 1991 with establishment of two diameter records and development of a simplified design calculation method. The records were established in two natural gas pipeline projects by N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen. In companion, waterway-crossing projects, installation of two 48-in. gas lines by directional drilling set a record for diameter-to-length ratio. Also, directional drilling for a 36-in. pipeline crossing established a record for entry and exit angles for such large-diameter pipe. Precise location was particularly important in this second project because a pipeline bundle (12-in. insulated oil pipeline, 10-in. chloride pipeline, 12-in. nitrogen pipeline) was installed to run parallel over part of the distance.

  3. Structural monitoring helps assess deformations in Arctic pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, K.J.; Lara, P.F.

    1986-11-10

    Advanced structural monitoring systems can play an important role in the evaluation of arctic pipeline distortions along the alignment. These systems can influence pipeline design requirements, reduce capital costs, and improve operating reliability. Differential soil movements resulting from terrain instabilities are the main features which threaten a pipeline's structural integrity and affect the design of buried pipeline systems in the Arctic. Economic, aesthetic, and safety concerns make conventional buried construction an optimum design choice for an arctic crude-oil or gas-pipeline transportation system. However, variable frozen and thawed soil conditions underlying the pipeline along a discontinuous permafrost corridor pose a challenge to the design and operation of such systems. Crude-oil pipelines which must operate at elevated temperatures can be installed in unfrozen soils or in permafrost soils where initially frozen segments will exhibit limited settlement under the thawed conditions imposed by pipeline construction and operation. Ice-rich portions of the frozen alignment may have an unacceptable settlement potential for a warm buried pipeline. In contrast, natural-gas pipelines can be operated cold to increase throughput capability and to prevent the problems associated with thawing permafrost.

  4. Update on implementation of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Volume 1, Number 4, September 1991. Intermittent bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Contents: bioremediation of oil spills; testimony on oil spill r and d efforts; spill planning/response: practical issues; definitions applicable to u.s. waters; causes of oil spills from fixed facilities.

  5. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  6. Risk-managed approach for routing petroleum pipelines: Keystone XL pipeline, Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Roy F; Hirsh, Aaron J

    2012-12-01

    TransCanada's proposed international crude oil pipeline route over sensitive, relatively pristine, subirrigated land underlain by the Ogallala aquifer led to increased scrutiny and eventual rejection of the Keystone XL pipeline. Pipeline routing could be made much more acceptable by adopting risk-managed routes that lessen the potential to adversely impact high-quality groundwater and, should a release occur, decrease the longevity of hazardous groundwater contaminants. Threats to water quality are taken quite seriously in states like Nebraska where 85% of the population depend on groundwater for potable water.

  7. Risk-managed approach for routing petroleum pipelines: Keystone XL pipeline, Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Roy F; Hirsh, Aaron J

    2012-12-01

    TransCanada's proposed international crude oil pipeline route over sensitive, relatively pristine, subirrigated land underlain by the Ogallala aquifer led to increased scrutiny and eventual rejection of the Keystone XL pipeline. Pipeline routing could be made much more acceptable by adopting risk-managed routes that lessen the potential to adversely impact high-quality groundwater and, should a release occur, decrease the longevity of hazardous groundwater contaminants. Threats to water quality are taken quite seriously in states like Nebraska where 85% of the population depend on groundwater for potable water. PMID:23134326

  8. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A number of new ideas for geothermal power development and use have been proposed or initiated. British engineers have proposed using North Sea oil rigs as geothermal power stations. These stations would use the low temperature heat from the water that now occupies the former oil reservoirs to generate electricity. NASA recently retrofitted its engine test facility to enable it to use warm water from an underground aquifer as source water in a heat pump. A major policy guideline regarding electricity is issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) every two years. This year, CEC appears to be revising its method for determining the total societal cost of various electricity supply options. The change may impact geothermal energy usage in a positive way. Virtually untapped geothermal resources in Preston, Idaho will be utilized for warm water catfish farming. Stockton State College in New Jersey will be the site of one of the nation's largest geothermal projects when it is completed in 1993. It is designed to satisfy the college's energy requirements at an estimated cost savings of $300,000 per year. Aquaculture projects using thermal springs are under consideration in Utah and Washington State. Utah may be the site of an alligator farm and Washington State is being considered for raising golden tilapia, a food fish.

  9. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI...

  10. 78 FR 42061 - Notice of Complaint; Chevron Products Company v. Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... 343.2(c) of the Commission's Procedural Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.1(a... Pipeline Company, LLC Take notice that on July 3, 2013, pursuant to sections 13(1), 15(1) and 16(1) of the... Products Pipeline Company, LLC (Respondent) challenging the lawfulness of the Respondent's FERC Tariff...

  11. 76 FR 17430 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activities: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...: 1010-0172, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau...: Title: 30 CFR Part 291, Open and Nondiscriminatory Access to Oil and Gas Pipelines under the OCS Lands... pipeline on or across the outer Continental Shelf of oil or gas shall require that the pipeline be...

  12. Oil Spill Dispersion Forecasting System for the Region of Installation of the Burgas Alexandroulopis Pipeline Outlet(N.E. Aegean) in the Framework of ``DIAVLOS'' Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzali, M.; Sofianos, S.; Kallos, G.; Mantziafou, A.; Zafeirakou, A.; Dermisis, V.; Koutitas, Ch.; Zervakis, V.

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the project DIAVLOS, a 48-hours oil spill dispersion forecasting system was developed and implemented in the Northern Aegean Sea aiming at oil spill dispersion management at the Burgas-Alexandroupolis oil-pipe terminal (N.E. Aegean Sea). The system is based on wind, wave and ocean circulation models coupled with the operational systems ALERMO and SKIRON of the University of Athens and an oil-spill dispersion model. The various components of the system were successfully developed, improved through sensitivity tests and coupled to form an operational oil spill dispersion forecasting system, available at an independent and interactive web-site (http://diavlos.oc.phys.uoa.gr), in order to be used by interested authorities. The system was also tested against field observations of special drifting floats that monitor the trajection and spreading of oil spills. It gives satisfactory results and in most cases the forecasting error is quite small, allowing the operational use of the system. Additionally, high-resolution atmospheric and oceanic forecasting in the region is provided, to facilitate operations to contain oil spill spreading/beaching.

  13. Evaluation of oil tanker routing per section 4111(b)(7) Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Part 2. Atlantic and Florida Gulf coasts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate oil tanker routing along the east coast and Florida Gulf Coast. It discusses whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be restricted to oil tankers.

  14. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  15. H. R. 2223: Oil Spill Resource Restoration Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 2223 would provide for expedited assessment of damages from major oil spills, and would amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to disallow deduction of the costs for cleanup of oil or hazardous substance discharges. Upon receiving a petition for expedited preliminary damage, the administrator would immediately initiate an assessment of the damages to natural resources. Within 20 days if it is found to be a major spill, the administrator designates trustees for overseeing both Federal and state natural resources that are affected, establishes a commission of these trustees, makes a determination regarding the party responsible for the spill, and directs that party to establish a trust fund accessible to the commission in an amount determined to be adequate to pay reasonable costs incurred by the commission for a full assessment of the damages and for preparing a restoration and replacement plan. Deductions for cleanup of spills would be allowed only if it can be certified that the taxpayer made good faith efforts to comply with the Clean Water Act for oil spills or with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act for hazardous substances spills or if it can be proved that the spill was caused by an act of God, and act of war, negligence on the part of the US government, or an act of omission of a third party. The bill would be applicable to spills occurring after March 23, 1989.

  16. Adequacy of the regulatory oversight of the Trans-Alaska pipeline and terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Exxon Valdez spill abruptly brought to the nation's attention the risks of transporting crude oil. While oil tanker transportation received many of the headlines, the safety of pipelines carrying oil and the terminals that store it have also been called into question. GAO testified on the adequacy of regulatory oversight of the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline System and the terminal at Valdez, Alaska. This paper reports increased and coordinated regulatory oversight as a major component of an effective operational and emergency response strategy for the pipeline. The current lack of comprehensive and systematic oversight is of particular concern because of recent revelations of significant corrosion problems in the pipeline.

  17. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges addresses the audience at the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center that will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile- long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS.

  18. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Solid gel pigs for cleaning production pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.E.; Bohon, W.M.; Chesnut, G.R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields, such as that at Kuparuk, on the North Slope of Alaska, have been built as a trunk and lateral gathering system, with many different pipeline diameters in a branched network. No launchers nor receivers were built for the Kuparuk oil production pipelines. The high cost of retrofitting launchers and receivers prompted investigation of alternative methods for cleaning the pipelines. This paper describes a novel approach to mold solid gelatin pigs in bypass lines, and to run those pigs through the production pipelines to the primary separators. The gelatin pigs would slowly melt, eliminating the need for receivers. Field and laboratory testing showed that gelatin pigs could not effectively clean the pipelines. The addition of cross linking agents could increase the mechanical integrity of the gelatin pigs, but also elevated the melting temperatures above the operating temperatures of the primary separators. As such, they were not meltable (in time), and no benefits could be obtained by the use of solid gelatin pigs for cleaning applications.

  20. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  1. 75 FR 13807 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or visit http... published in the Federal Register on July 2, 2009 (74 FR 31675) and comments were submitted to Docket No... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection...

  2. 76 FR 19338 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 18, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket No. CP11-142-000 pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act...

  3. 78 FR 13659 - Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Notice OF Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Notice OF Application Take notice that on February 7, 2013, Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC (Sierrita), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  4. 75 FR 74705 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application November 24, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... the Natural Gas Act for a certificate of public convenience and necessity to construct, and...

  5. 75 FR 18190 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application April 2, 2010. Take notice that on March 30, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting authorization to abandon...

  6. 78 FR 13658 - Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 8, 2013, Sierrita Gas Pipeline LLC (Sierrita), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to section 3 of the Natural Gas Act...

  7. 75 FR 80483 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application December 15, 2010. Take notice that on December 13, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and the Commission's regulations, an application for authority to convey...

  8. 75 FR 82378 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application December 22, 2010. Take notice that on December 15, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana... the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and the Commission Regulations, for authorization to abandon by sale...

  9. 75 FR 74027 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application November 23, 2010. Take notice that on November 17, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana...) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for authorization to construct a new 2,000 horsepower compressor...

  10. 75 FR 53281 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application August 24, 2010. On August 12, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act and section 157 of...

  11. 75 FR 38801 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Application June 24, 2010. Take notice that on June 11, 2010, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston... Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, requesting authorization to abandon...

  12. Innovative Techniques of Multiphase Flow in Pipeline System for Oil-Gas Gathering and Transportation with Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Bofeng; Guo, Liejin; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhang, Ximin; Gu, Hanyang

    2010-03-01

    Multiphase flow measurement, desanding, dehumidification and heat furnace are critical techniques for the oil and gas gathering and transportation, which influnce intensively the energy-saving and emission-reduction in the petroleum industry. Some innovative techniques were developed for the first time by the present research team, including an online recognation instrument of multiphase flow regime, a water fraction instrument for multuphase flow, a coiled tube desanding separator with low pressure loss and high efficiency, a supersonic swirling natural gas dehumifier, and a vacuum phase-change boiler. With an integration of the above techniques, a new oil gas gathering and transpotation system was proposed, which reduced the establishment of one metering station and several transfer stations compared with the tranditional system. The oil and gas mixture transpotation in single pipes was realized. The improved techniques were applied in the oilfields in China and promoted the productivity of the oilfields by low energy consumption, low emissions, high efficiency and great security.

  13. 50 CFR 29.21-9 - Rights-of-way for pipelines for the transportation of oil, natural gas, synthetic liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 29.21-9 Section 29.21-9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF.... Gathering lines and associated structures used solely in the production of oil and gas under valid leases on... adjacent foreign state and reenters the United States, shall be subject to all of the limitation...

  14. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  15. Pipeline padding apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Osadchuk, M.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a pipeline padding assembly for movement on a surface in a forward direction along the side of an excavated pipeline trough while separating fine material from excavated spoil piled on the underlying soil surface and placing the fine material in the pipeline trough. It comprises vehicle means adapted for movement on the surface along the pipeline trough; means for separating spoil into fine material and rough material; means for returning fine material from the separating means into the pipeline trough; means for transferring spoil piled along the pipeline trough to the separator means; a spoil guide positioned in the front of the transferring means and having an open bottom configuration which is open substantially the entire width of the transferring means; at least two spaced guide projections being on the spoil guide; a flat, planar extending ground engaging lower surface on each the guide projection.

  16. Multinode reconfigurable pipeline computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosenchuck, Daniel M. (Inventor); Littman, Michael G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multinode parallel-processing computer is made up of a plurality of innerconnected, large capacity nodes each including a reconfigurable pipeline of functional units such as Integer Arithmetic Logic Processors, Floating Point Arithmetic Processors, Special Purpose Processors, etc. The reconfigurable pipeline of each node is connected to a multiplane memory by a Memory-ALU switch NETwork (MASNET). The reconfigurable pipeline includes three (3) basic substructures formed from functional units which have been found to be sufficient to perform the bulk of all calculations. The MASNET controls the flow of signals from the memory planes to the reconfigurable pipeline and vice versa. the nodes are connectable together by an internode data router (hyperspace router) so as to form a hypercube configuration. The capability of the nodes to conditionally configure the pipeline at each tick of the clock, without requiring a pipeline flush, permits many powerful algorithms to be implemented directly.

  17. Natural Gas Pipeline Permitting Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Pompeo, Mike [R-KS-4

    2013-05-09

    12/09/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Environmental impact analysis; the example of the proposed Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, David A.

    1974-01-01

    The environmental impact analysis made as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline included consideration of the (1) technologically complex and geographically extensive proposed project, (2) extremely different physical environments across Alaska along the proposed route and elsewhere in Alaska and in Canada along alternative routes, (3) socioeconomic environment of the State of Alaska, and (4) a wide variety of alternatives. The analysis was designed specifically to fit the project and environment that would be affected. The environment was divided into two general parts--natural physical systems and superposed socioeconomic systems--and those parts were further divided into discipline-oriented systems or components that were studied and analyzed by scientists of the appropriate discipline. Particular attention was given to potential feedback loops in the impact network and to linkages between the project's impacting effects and the environment. The results of the analysis as reported in the final environmental impact statement were that both unavoidable and threatened environmental impacts would result from construction, operation, and maintenance of the proposed pipeline system and the developments related to it. The principal unavoidable effects would be (1) disturbances of terrain, fish and wildlife habitat, and human environs, (2) the results of the discharge of effluent from the tanker-ballast-treatment facility into Port Valdez and of some indeterminate amount of oil released into the ocean from tank-cleaning operations at sea, and (3) the results associated with increased human pressures of all kinds on the environment. Other unavoidable effects would be those related to increase of State and Native Corporation revenues, accelerated cultural change of the Native population, and extraction of the oil and gas resource. The main threatened environmental effects would all be related to unintentional oil

  19. 76 FR 30241 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Managing Challenges With Pipeline Seam Welds and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or view the... ``Call to Action'' to address pipeline infrastructure risks, drive for more aggressive safety efforts...

  20. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Masheder, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    Since the Piper Alpha disaster, more than 80 subsea isolation systems (SSIS) have been installed in subsea gas and oil pipelines in the U.K. continental shelf at an estimated cost in the region of {Brit_pounds}500 million. The reliability and costs of these installations have now been assessed between Dec. 1992 and Oct. 1993. This assessment was based upon comprehensive reliability and cost databases which were established so that the studies could be based upon factual information in order to obtain a current status as required by the sponsoring group. The study consultants report findings have now been consolidated into a report by the UKOOA Pipeline Valve Work Group. Probabilities of failure for different types of valves and systems have been assessed and expenditures broken down and compared. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  1. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI...

  2. 75 FR 17706 - Flint Hills Resources, LP, Complainant v. Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC, Respondent; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... 385.206; the Commission's Procedural Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.2 and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources, LP, Complainant v. Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC... Hills Resources, LP (Complainant) filed a complaint against Mid-America Pipeline Company,...

  3. 78 FR 46938 - St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC v. Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... 385.206, and section 343.1(a) of the Commission's Procedural Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline... Energy Regulatory Commission St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC v. Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC... a formal complaint against Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC (Respondent) pursuant to sections...

  4. European pipelines spill near record amounts in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-03-06

    European pipelines in 1993 spilled as much crude oil and petroleum products as in any year since 1971, when statistics first began to be reported. Final cost of cleanup will exceed $10 million, by far the most ever spent by western European oil pipelines operating on land. This cost figure is only preliminary: costs for three spills totaling nearly 2,600 cu m (approximately 16,380 bbl; 43.6% of total spilled) had not been reported through November 1994. Ten incidents of oil spills from pipelines occurred in 1993, compared with seven for 1992 and an average of 12.7/year since 1971. Total length of oil industry cross-country pipelines operating in Western Europe at the end of 1993 was 21,600 km, up from nearly 19,000 km in 1989. In all, 601 million cu m (3.8 billion bbl) of crude oil and refined products moved through the pipeline system. The paper briefly describes several of the accidents.

  5. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  6. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  7. The influence of petroleum acids and solid surface energy on pipeline wettability in relation to hydrate deposition.

    PubMed

    Aspenes, G; Høiland, S; Barth, T; Askvik, K M

    2009-05-15

    The mechanisms by which hydrates deposit in a petroleum production-line are probably related to pipeline surface properties, e.g. pipeline material, surface energy and roughness. In this work, the wettability alteration of pipeline surfaces from contact with oil, and the adhesion energy between water and solid in the presence of oil is investigated. Contact angles for model systems are determined as a function of solid material and oil composition. Although contact angles in oil/brine/solid systems have previously been extensively reported in the literature, the variety of solids that mimic a pipeline surface is limited. In this study, we include various metal surfaces in addition to glass and epoxy coating. The results show that both the presence of petroleum acids in the oil, and low surface free energy of the pipeline material, lead to more oil-wet systems and consequently reduced adhesion energy between water and solid.

  8. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Automated Monitoring of Pipeline Rights-of-Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Chard Ritchie

    2010-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. have partnered in the formation of a research program to identify and develop the key technologies required to enable automated detection of threats to gas and oil transmission and distribution pipelines. This presentation describes the Right-of-way Automated Monitoring (RAM) program and highlights research successes to date, continuing challenges to implementing the RAM objectives, and the program's ongoing work and plans.

  12. Kuparuk pipeline system features unique river crossing structure

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    Oil is delivered to the Trans Alaskan Pipeline System (TAPS) by utilizing a unique support structure designed to cross a one mile wide area of the Kuparuk River. Arctic permafrost conditions require that the pipeline be entirely above ground. Consisting of a bent supported by 2 vertical supports and cross bracing designed to withstand 100-year flood conditions during spring breakup, the Kuparuk river crossing was initially planned to be buried but massive ice was encountered during core sampling.

  13. Impact of nitrate on the structure and function of bacterial biofilm communities in pipelines used for injection of seawater into oil fields.

    PubMed

    Schwermer, Carsten U; Lavik, Gaute; Abed, Raeid M M; Dunsmore, Braden; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Stoodley, Paul; Gieseke, Armin; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-05-01

    We studied the impact of NO(3)(-) on the bacterial community composition, diversity, and function in in situ industrial, anaerobic biofilms by combining microsensor profiling, (15)N and (35)S labeling, and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting. Biofilms were grown on carbon steel coupons within a system designed to treat seawater for injection into an oil field for pressurized oil recovery. NO(3)(-) was added to the seawater in an attempt to prevent bacterial H(2)S generation and microbially influenced corrosion in the field. Microprofiling of nitrogen compounds and redox potential inside the biofilms showed that the zone of highest metabolic activity was located close to the metal surface, correlating with a high bacterial abundance in this zone. Upon addition, NO(3)(-) was mainly reduced to NO(2)(-). In biofilms grown in the absence of NO(3)(-), redox potentials of <-450 mV at the metal surface suggested the release of Fe(2+). NO(3)(-) addition to previously untreated biofilms induced a decline (65%) in bacterial species richness, with Methylophaga- and Colwellia-related sequences having the highest number of obtained clones in the clone library. In contrast, no changes in community composition and potential NO(3)(-) reduction occurred upon subsequent withdrawal of NO(3)(-). Active sulfate reduction was below detection levels in all biofilms, but S isotope fractionation analysis of sulfide deposits suggested that it must have occurred either at low rates or episodically. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that pitting corrosion occurred on all coupons, independent of the treatment. However, uniform corrosion was clearly mitigated by NO(3)(-) addition. PMID:18344353

  14. Numerical simulation of pipeline deformation caused by rockfall impact.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liang, Zheng; Han, Chuanjun

    2014-01-01

    Rockfall impact is one of the fatal hazards in pipeline transportation of oil and gas. The deformation of oil and gas pipeline caused by rockfall impact was investigated using the finite element method in this paper. Pipeline deformations under radial impact, longitudinal inclined impact, transverse inclined impact, and lateral eccentric impact of spherical and cube rockfalls were discussed, respectively. The effects of impact angle and eccentricity on the plastic strain of pipeline were analyzed. The results show that the crater depth on pipeline caused by spherical rockfall impact is deeper than by cube rockfall impact with the same volume. In the inclined impact condition, the maximum plastic strain of crater caused by spherical rockfall impact appears when incidence angle α is 45°. The pipeline is prone to rupture under the cube rockfall impact when α is small. The plastic strain distribution of impact crater is more uneven with the increasing of impact angle. In the eccentric impact condition, plastic strain zone of pipeline decreases with the increasing of eccentricity k.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Pipeline Deformation Caused by Rockfall Impact

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zheng; Han, Chuanjun

    2014-01-01

    Rockfall impact is one of the fatal hazards in pipeline transportation of oil and gas. The deformation of oil and gas pipeline caused by rockfall impact was investigated using the finite element method in this paper. Pipeline deformations under radial impact, longitudinal inclined impact, transverse inclined impact, and lateral eccentric impact of spherical and cube rockfalls were discussed, respectively. The effects of impact angle and eccentricity on the plastic strain of pipeline were analyzed. The results show that the crater depth on pipeline caused by spherical rockfall impact is deeper than by cube rockfall impact with the same volume. In the inclined impact condition, the maximum plastic strain of crater caused by spherical rockfall impact appears when incidence angle α is 45°. The pipeline is prone to rupture under the cube rockfall impact when α is small. The plastic strain distribution of impact crater is more uneven with the increasing of impact angle. In the eccentric impact condition, plastic strain zone of pipeline decreases with the increasing of eccentricity k. PMID:24959599

  16. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 RIN 2137-AE43 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... April 2, 2012, PHMSA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) seeking to revise the...

  17. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... pipeline operators. In 2003, similar IM regulations were enacted for gas pipelines (68 FR 69778; 12/15/2003...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...). SUMMARY: PHMSA is considering whether changes are needed to the regulations governing the safety of...

  18. 77 FR 37472 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Workshop To Discuss Implementing Incorporation by Reference...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for..., Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011 AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Section 24 of the recently-passed Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and Job Creation Act of 2011...

  19. Deepwater pipeline recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McStravick, D.M.; Baugh, B.F.

    1997-07-01

    The paper gives a presentation of the tooling concepts used for the recovery of steel and flexible flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico Shell Tahoe I area in the summer of 1996 in 1,370 ft. of sea water. This offshore operation required a Global Grabber to engage and retrieve 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, an ROV Pipeline Spear to internally engage the end of the 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, and a FlexGrip Assembly to wrap and grab 5.566-in. OD flexible pipe. The design of the tooling emphasized the use of API 17D ROV interfaces.

  20. European pipeline spills in 1990 fewest on record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports that fewer spills from petroleum pipelines occurred in Western Europe in 1990 than in any of the previous 20 years for which such statistics have been compiled. Only three reportable spills occurred in 1990, the most recent year for which data have been compiled. Total amount of spilled crude oil and petroleum product amounted to 582 cu m (3,667 bbl), of which 520 cu m (3,276 bbl) were lost in the environment. The gross quantity spilled has only been lower once, in 1975. The results were reported by Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (Concawe), Brussels, in its annual report Performance of Oil Industry Cross-Country Pipelines in Western Europe. Sixty-three companies operating oil pipelines in Western Europe participated in the report.

  1. Impacts of recent environmental regulations on pipeline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Irion, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years pipeline facilities have been subjected to an increasing variety of interpretations by state and regional agencies concerning agency jurisdiction over the regulation of environmental activities at breakout tanks, pump stations, and terminals. The focus of agency interpretation is not on the pipelines themselves, but on loading and unloading activities and on auxiliary tankage. Loading and unloading activities can be to truck, railcar or barge. Tanks are used in a variety of pipeline operations. Tanks are used to collect from gathering lines and transport to a refinery. Tanks can be used to gather and offload to a truck, railcar or vessel. Other tanks are receipt for unloading by ship or barge, which is then transferred by pipeline to a refining or distribution facility. Pipelines, like other industries, were regulated solely by a single agency prior to the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Until recently, pipelines and their connecting tankage were regulated as transportation facilities under the Department of Transportation (DOT). Although the prevention of pollution of surface water by oil and petroleum products is one of the earliest environmental regulations, dating back to 1970, most of the pipeline facilities remained exempt from most environmental regulation by EPA until very recently. Within the last decade, and accelerating within the last five years, pipeline facilities have been increasingly affected by several burgeoning environmental regulations. A summary of the effects and consequences, as well as suggestions for avoiding unnecessary regulation, are presented.

  2. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS) presents an award of appreciation to H.T. Everett, KSC Propellants manager, at the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Center Director Roy Bridges;); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS.

  3. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  4. Commanding Constellations (Pipeline Architecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Tim; Condron, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Providing ground command software for constellations of spacecraft is a challenging problem. Reliable command delivery requires a feedback loop; for a constellation there will likely be an independent feedback loop for each constellation member. Each command must be sent via the proper Ground Station, which may change from one contact to the next (and may be different for different members). Dynamic configuration of the ground command software is usually required (e.g. directives to configure each member's feedback loop and assign the appropriate Ground Station). For testing purposes, there must be a way to insert command data at any level in the protocol stack. The Pipeline architecture described in this paper can support all these capabilities with a sequence of software modules (the pipeline), and a single self-identifying message format (for all types of command data and configuration directives). The Pipeline architecture is quite simple, yet it can solve some complex problems. The resulting solutions are conceptually simple, and therefore, reliable. They are also modular, and therefore, easy to distribute and extend. We first used the Pipeline architecture to design a CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Ground Telecommand system (to command one spacecraft at a time with a fixed Ground Station interface). This pipeline was later extended to include gateways to any of several Ground Stations. The resulting pipeline was then extended to handle a small constellation of spacecraft. The use of the Pipeline architecture allowed us to easily handle the increasing complexity. This paper will describe the Pipeline architecture, show how it was used to solve each of the above commanding situations, and how it can easily be extended to handle larger constellations.

  5. Virtual Astronomical Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Protopapas, P.; Lehner, M.

    2007-10-01

    The sheer magnitude of databases and data rates in new surveys makes it hard to develop pipelines to enable both the analysis of data and the federation of these databases for correlation and followup. There is thus a compelling need to facilitate the creation and management of dynamic workflow pipelines that enable correlating data between separate, parallel streams; changing the workflow in response to an event; using the NVO to obtain additional needed information from databases; and modifying the observing program of a primary survey to follow-up a transient or moving object. This paper describes such a Virtual Astronomical Pipeline (VAP) system which is running in the TAOS project. The software enables components in the pipeline to react to events encapsulated in XML messages, modifying and subsequently routing these messages to multiple other components. This architecture allows for the bootstrapping of components individually in the development process and for dynamic reconfiguration of the pipeline as a response to external and internal events. The software will be extended for future work in combining the results of surveys and followups into a global virtual pipeline.

  6. Four barges mobilized for job: Indian offshore pipeline work demands comprehensive coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. )

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the design, installation, and commissioning timeframe developed for the Oil and Natural Gas Commission of India. Offshore Hyundai International Inc. and Offshore Pipelines International have completed the installation of 47 pipelines, six platforms, and a single-point mooring system in the Arabian Sea. The coordination and work scheduling problems are described along with the engineered placement of the pipelines in an already congested area.

  7. 18 CFR 2.67 - Calculation of taxes for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired after January 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired after January 1, 1970. 2.67 Section 2.67... Natural Gas Act § 2.67 Calculation of taxes for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired..., 83 Stat. 487, 625, natural gas pipeline companies which have exercised the option provided by...

  8. 18 CFR 2.67 - Calculation of taxes for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired after January 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired after January 1, 1970. 2.67 Section 2.67... Natural Gas Act § 2.67 Calculation of taxes for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired..., 83 Stat. 487, 625, natural gas pipeline companies which have exercised the option provided by...

  9. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. 260.9 Section 260.9 Conservation of..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on... Director, Division of Pipeline Certificates, at the earliest feasible time: (i) Damage to...

  10. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. 260.9 Section 260.9 Conservation of..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on... Director, Division of Pipeline Certificates, at the earliest feasible time: (i) Damage to...

  11. 18 CFR 260.9 - Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pipeline companies on service interruptions and damage to facilities. 260.9 Section 260.9 Conservation of..., NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.9 Reports by natural gas pipeline companies on... Director, Division of Pipeline Certificates, at the earliest feasible time: (i) Damage to...

  12. 18 CFR 2.67 - Calculation of taxes for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired after January 1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired after January 1, 1970. 2.67 Section 2.67... Natural Gas Act § 2.67 Calculation of taxes for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired..., 83 Stat. 487, 625, natural gas pipeline companies which have exercised the option provided by...

  13. Mixtures of wine, essential oils, and plant polyphenolics do not act synergistically against Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella enterica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red wine or fortified red wine formulations containing some various essential oils from oregano or thyme or their pure active components, and a mixture of plant extract powders from apple skin, green tea, and olive, were evaluated for inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia c...

  14. Improved, Low-Stress Economical Submerged Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study has shown that the use of a high-strength composite fiber cloth material may greatly reduce fabrication and deployment costs of a subsea offshore pipeline. The problem is to develop an inexpensive submerged pipeline that can safely and economically transport large quantities of fresh water, oil, and natural gas underwater for long distances. Above-water pipelines are often not feasible due to safety, cost, and environmental problems, and present, fixed-wall, submerged pipelines are often very expensive. The solution is to have a submerged, compliant-walled tube that when filled, is lighter than the surrounding medium. Some examples include compliant tubes for transporting fresh water under the ocean, for transporting crude oil underneath salt or fresh water, and for transporting high-pressure natural gas from offshore to onshore. In each case, the fluid transported is lighter than its surrounding fluid, and thus the flexible tube will tend to float. The tube should be ballasted to the ocean floor so as to limit the motion of the tube in the horizontal and vertical directions. The tube should be placed below 100-m depth to minimize biofouling and turbulence from surface storms. The tube may also have periodic pumps to maintain flow without over-pressurizing, or it can have a single pump at the beginning. The tube may have periodic valves that allow sections of the tube to be repaired or maintained. Some examples of tube materials that may be particularly suited for these applications are non-porous composite tubes made of high-performance fibers such as Kevlar, Spectra, PBO, Aramid, carbon fibers, or high-strength glass. Above-ground pipes for transporting water, oil, and natural gas have typically been fabricated from fiber-reinforced plastic or from more costly high-strength steel. Also, previous suggested subsea pipeline designs have only included heavy fixed-wall pipes that can be very expensive initially, and can be difficult and expensive

  15. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements in 30 CFR 550.1011. No transfer will be recognized unless and until it is first approved, in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  16. 30 CFR 550.1011 - Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the bond coverage required in 30 CFR part 256 and 30 CFR part 556) that guarantees compliance with all... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and...

  17. 30 CFR 550.1011 - Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the bond coverage required in 30 CFR part 256 and 30 CFR part 556) that guarantees compliance with all... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in 30 CFR 550.1011. No transfer will be recognized unless and until it is first approved, in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1018 - Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in 30 CFR 550.1011. No transfer will be recognized unless and until it is first approved, in... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assignment of pipeline right-of-way grants. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines...

  20. 30 CFR 550.1011 - Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the bond coverage required in 30 CFR part 256 and 30 CFR part 556) that guarantees compliance with all... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bond requirements for pipeline right-of-way... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and...

  1. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory Bulletin. SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is...

  2. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: PHMSA and the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  3. H. R. 1921: A bill to amend the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to protect the environment of Antarctica from oil spills, and for other purposes, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, April 18, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on April 18, 1991 to amend the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to protect the environment of Antarctica from oil spills. Key features of this legislation address the following: civil penalty; removal, restoration, and compensation; financial responsibility; response plans; revolving fund; disclaimer; conforming and clerical amendments; and safety study.

  4. H. R. 1232: a Bill to provide a comprehensive system of liability and compensation for oil spill damage and removal costs, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, February 21, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Comprehensive Oil Pollution Liability and Compensation Act (H.R. 1232) deals with oil spill damage which occurs inside territorial and inland waters and is coordinated with international conventions. It covers claims of economic loss due to oil spills or water pollution by oil and removal costs. The Act describes the conditions for making a claim of injury by US and foreign claimants, with a special section covering Canadian claimants against the Trans-Alaska pipeline. Section 104 describes the rules and limits of liability; Section 105, the financial responsibility of vessels and facilities. Other sections provide for claims settlements and penalties. Title II establishes an insurance corporation and compensation fund to deal with marine oil pollution under this Act.

  5. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-04-20

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated carbon dioxide (CO2) pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale within the United States. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies (so called WRE450 and WRE550 stabilization scenarios) and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The analysis reveals that between 11,000 and 23,000 additional miles of dedicated CO2 pipeline might be needed in the U.S. before 2050 across these two cases. While that is a significant increase over the 3,900 miles that comprise the existing national CO2 pipeline infrastructure, it is critically important to realize that the demand for additional CO2 pipeline capacity will unfold relatively slowly and in a geographically dispersed manner as new dedicated CCS-enabled power plants and industrial facilities are brought online. During the period 2010-2030, the growth in the CO2 pipeline system is on the order of a few hundred to less than a thousand miles per year. In comparison during the period 1950-2000, the U.S. natural gas pipeline distribution system grew at rates that far exceed these projections in growth in a future dedicated CO2 pipeline system. This analysis indicates that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a major obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies in the U.S. Nevertheless, there will undoubtedly be some associated regulatory and siting issues to work through but these issues should not be unmanageable based on the size of infrastructure requirements alone.

  6. Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals Propagation in Buried Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, A. L.; Lapshin, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the issues concerning acoustic signals propagation in the large-diameter oil pipelines caused by mechanical action on the pipe body. Various mechanisms of signals attenuation are discussed. It is shown that the calculation of the attenuation caused only by internal energy loss, i.e, the presence of viscosity, thermal conductivity and liquid pipeline wall friction lead to low results. The results of experimental studies, carried out using the existing pipeline with a diameter of 1200 mm. are shown. It is experimentally proved that the main mechanism of signal attenuation is the energy emission into the environment. The numerical values of attenuation coefficients that are 0,14- 0.18 dB/m for the pipeline of 1200 mm in diameter, in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 500 Hz, are determined.

  7. Experience of cathodic protection, fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassen, S.; Pettersen, N.H.

    1996-08-01

    Statoil is the major operator of the oil and gas pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. Different coating systems have been used for external corrosion protection of the pipelines. The paper presents the company`s experience regarding cathodic protection design and fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines.

  8. Ekofisk pipelines undergo requalification

    SciTech Connect

    Tangeland, T.G.; Collberg, L.

    1996-09-23

    Requalification of 19 pipelines and 29 risers in the Ekofisk field required new approaches for loads, capacities, and deterioration evaluations and predictions. Requalification is a re-assessment of an installation`s design with changed design parameters so that the facility can continue to operate. In some cases, original design requirements may have been unrealistically conservative. The Ekofisk field experienced seabed subsidence as a result of compaction of the producing formation. A total of 25 pipeline systems with diameters of 6--36 inches now run within the subsidence bowl. The existing pipelines and the risers had to be requalified because of new design conditions. The paper describes Ekofisk subsidence, reasons and regulations for requalification, structural design, materials and corrosion, deterioration mechanisms, subsidence effects, calculation of forces, capacities, accumulated strain, local buckling, and mine lessons learned from the requalification projects.

  9. Recommissioning NPS 30 pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Z.A.; O`Rourke, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper will discuss all the steps taken to reclaim an 80 kilometer (50 Mile) NPS 30 pipeline loop, including the project planning, the labor requirements, the techniques utilized to complete the various stages of the project, some of the unique problems encountered, as well as some options that were examined for hydrostatic test leak detection and water treatment. This project was a component of the Trans Mountain, Cdn $30 million, Stage 2 capacity expansion. This component of Stage 2 resulted in an increase of 3,000 m{sup 3}/d (18,909 barrel/d) to the overall pipeline capacity achieving a 36,300 m{sup 3}/d sustainable pipeline pumping capacity (230,000 barrel/d).

  10. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... the ANPRM on this subject that PHMSA published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2009 (74 FR... April 2, 2012 Part III Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule...

  11. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  12. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants cut the lines to helium-filled balloons. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  13. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants watch as helium-filled balloons take to the sky after their lines were cut. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  14. Hydrogen pipeline compressors annual progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.

    2011-07-15

    The objectives are: (1) develop advanced materials and coatings for hydrogen pipeline compressors; (2) achieve greater reliability, greater efficiency, and lower capital in vestment and maintenance costs in hydrogen pipeline compressors; and (3) research existing and novel hydrogen compression technologies that can improve reliability, eliminate contamination, and reduce cost. Compressors are critical components used in the production and delivery of hydrogen. Current reciprocating compressors used for pipeline delivery of hydrogen are costly, are subject to excessive wear, have poor reliability, and often require the use of lubricants that can contaminate the hydrogen (used in fuel cells). Duplicate compressors may be required to assure availability. The primary objective of this project is to identify, and develop as required, advanced materials and coatings that can achieve the friction, wear, and reliability requirements for dynamically loaded components (seal and bearings) in high-temperature, high-pressure hydrogen environments prototypical of pipeline and forecourt compressor systems. The DOE Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop identified critical needs in the development of advanced hydrogen compressors - notably, the need to minimize moving parts and to address wear through new designs (centrifugal, linear, guided rotor, and electrochemical) and improved compressor materials. The DOE is supporting several compressor design studies on hydrogen pipeline compression specifically addressing oil-free designs that demonstrate compression in the 0-500 psig to 800-1200 psig range with significant improvements in efficiency, contamination, and reliability/durability. One of the designs by Mohawk Innovative Technologies Inc. (MiTi{reg_sign}) involves using oil-free foil bearings and seals in a centrifual compressor, and MiTi{reg_sign} identified the development of bearings, seals, and oil-free tribological coatings as crucial to the successful

  15. Tanker navigation safety standards: Tanker navigation safety research baseline: A study required by section 4111(b)(9) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 directed the Secretary of Transportation to review and incorporate the results of past studies, including studies by the Coast Guard and Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). This literature search and review focuses on materials pertinent to determining or evaluating current and/or `best` practices, and not on the adequacy of current statutes or regulations. In addition, it is not the intention of the report to assess best practices (e.g., suggest the appropriate crew sizes or what navigation equipment should be required on tankers), but to establish the baseline for future study of best practices. The report does not provide answers to new analytical quations, but presents the status of research so that questions addressed previoulsy will not be duplicated by future studies.

  16. Disorder in Milk Proteins: α-Lactalbumin. Part B. A Multifunctional Whey Protein Acting as an Oligomeric Molten Globular "Oil Container" in the Anti-Tumorigenic Drugs, Liprotides.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N; Permyakov, Serge E; Breydo, Leonid; Redwan, Elrashdy M; Almehdar, Hussein A; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2016-07-15

    This is a second part of the three-part article from a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. We continue to describe α-lactalbumin, a small globular Ca2+-binding protein, which besides being one of the two components of lactose synthase that catalyzes the final step of the lactose biosynthesis in the lactating mammary gland, possesses a multitude of other functions. In fact, recent studies indicated that some partially folded forms of this protein possess noticeable bactericidal activity and other forms might be related to induction of the apoptosis of tumor cells. In its anti-tumorigenic function, oligomeric α-lactalbumin serves as a founding member of a new family of anticancer drugs termed liprotides (for lipids and partially denatured proteins), where an oligomeric molten globular protein acts as an "oil container" or cargo for the delivery of oleic acid to the cell membranes.

  17. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1995-05-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non-contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with nine case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  18. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be an accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non- contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion areas surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  19. Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Smallidge, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

  20. UQ Pipeline Lorenz Portlet

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    This is web client software that can help initiate UQ Pipeline jobs on LLNL's LC compute systems and visually shows the status of such jobs in a browser window. The web client interacts with LC's interactive compute nodes using (LLNL) Lorenz REST API to initiate action and obtain status data in JSON format.

  1. Pneumatic freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.B.

    1994-12-31

    There is a great deal of technology and experience in and from the Pneumatic Tube System industry that must be tapped because it is directly and/or indirectly applicable to the Pneumatic Freight Pipeline industry. Otherwise a great deal of time will be spent re-inventing the wheel.

  2. The JWST Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Christine; Muzerolle, James; Dixon, William Van Dyke; Izela Diaz, Rosa; Bushouse, Howard A.

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will launch in 2018 and carry four science instruments that will observe the sky at 0.7 - 29 micron: the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), the Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS), the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec), and the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI). The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is currently building a data reduction pipeline that will provide not only basic calibrated data but also higher level science products. All of the JWST detectors will be operated in non-destructive readout mode. Therefore, the first step in the pipeline will be to calculate the slopes of indivudal non-destructive readout ramps or integrations. The next step will be to generate calibrated slope images that are represent the basic calibrated data. The final step will be to combine data taken across multiple integrations and exposure. For the direct imaging and integral field spectroscopy modes, the pipeline will produce calibrated mosaicks. For the coronagraphic modes, the pipeline will produce contrast curves and PSF subtracted images.

  3. Suppressing turbulence and enhancing liquid suspension flow in pipelines with electrorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Gu, G. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Flows through pipes, such as crude oil through pipelines, are the most common and important method of transportation of fluids. To enhance the flow output along the pipeline requires reducing viscosity and suppressing turbulence simultaneously and effectively. Unfortunately, no method is currently available to accomplish both goals simultaneously. Here we show that electrorheology provides an efficient solution. When a strong electric field is applied along the flow direction in a small section of pipeline, the field polarizes and aggregates the particles suspended inside the base liquid into short chains along the flow direction. Such aggregation breaks the rotational symmetry and makes the fluid viscosity anisotropic. In the directions perpendicular to the flow, the viscosity is substantially increased, effectively suppressing the turbulence. Along the flow direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced; thus the flow along the pipeline is enhanced. Recent field tests with a crude oil pipeline fully confirm the theoretical results.

  4. Suppressing turbulence and enhancing liquid suspension flow in pipelines with electrorheology.

    PubMed

    Tao, R; Gu, G Q

    2015-01-01

    Flows through pipes, such as crude oil through pipelines, are the most common and important method of transportation of fluids. To enhance the flow output along the pipeline requires reducing viscosity and suppressing turbulence simultaneously and effectively. Unfortunately, no method is currently available to accomplish both goals simultaneously. Here we show that electrorheology provides an efficient solution. When a strong electric field is applied along the flow direction in a small section of pipeline, the field polarizes and aggregates the particles suspended inside the base liquid into short chains along the flow direction. Such aggregation breaks the rotational symmetry and makes the fluid viscosity anisotropic. In the directions perpendicular to the flow, the viscosity is substantially increased, effectively suppressing the turbulence. Along the flow direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced; thus the flow along the pipeline is enhanced. Recent field tests with a crude oil pipeline fully confirm the theoretical results.

  5. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  6. Offshore pipeline failures. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, R.D.

    1990-12-01

    An overview of current concerns in the regulation of offshore pipelines is presented along with tabulated summaries of pipeline failure causes, failure prevention techniques, and pipeline monitoring and early intervention techniques. A database of over 1000 offshore pipeline failures in the Gulf of Mexico Offshore waters has been compiled from combined records of the Department of Transportation Office of pipeline Safety, U.S. Coast Guard National Response Center, and the Department of Interior Minerals Management Service. The data has been analyzed to identify trends and initial recommendations for future data collection have been suggested.

  7. H. R. 1301: A bill to implement the National Energy Strategy Act, and for other purposes, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, March 6, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill contains the following: Title I - Residential, commercial, and Federal energy use: consumer and commercial products, and Federal energy management; Title II - Natural gas: natural gas pipeline regulatory reform, natural gas import/export deregulation, and structural reform of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Title III - Oil: Alaska coastal plain oil and gas leasing, Naval Petroleum Reserve leasing, and oil pipeline deregulation; Title IV - Electricity generation and use: Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and power marketing administration repayment reform; Title V - Nuclear power: licensing reform, nuclear waste management; Title VI - Renewable energy: PURPA size cap and co-firing reform, and hydroelectric power regulatory reform; Title VII - Alternative fuel: alternative and dual fuel vehicle credits, and alternative transportation fuels; Title VIII - Innovation and technology transfer; Title IX - Tax incentives.

  8. Insulated pipelines between the underwater Manifold Centre and Cormorant a platform in the northern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, G.J.; Brink, F.I.A.; Henry, D.

    1983-05-01

    Oil flows from the UMC to the Cormorant 'A' platform through a system of subsea pipelines. Therefore, oil from the wells must travel a considerable distance, up to ten kilometres, before reaching processing facilities on the platform. During this trip the oil could cool to the ambient seawater temperature of 5/sup 0/C. Studies have shown that the acceptance of crude oil at such a low temperature could cause unacceptable emulsion, hydrate, and wax deposition problems. To overcome these problems, a unique insulated pipeline was engineered to keep the crude oil temperature above 40/sup 0/C during production and above 13/sup 0/C for well testing. This paper describes efforts required to identify the problem and engineer a solution. The resultant pipeline incorporated an insulated pipe-withina-pipe bundle that was installed by a mid-depth tow method.

  9. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  10. World pipeline construction to slip for 1994 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.; True, W.R.

    1994-02-07

    World pipeline construction planned in 1994 and beyond has fallen in the past year, reflecting uncertainties in energy markets. Still, significant expansions are under way or planned for Latin America, Asia and the Pacific regions, and Europe. Latest Oil and Gas Journal data, derived from its survey of world pipeline operators, industry sources, and published information, show more than 55,000 miles of crude oil, product, and natural gas pipeline planned for 1994 and beyond. The data include projections for pipeline construction in Russia and former republics of the Soviet Union. Western Russia and all countries west of the Ural Mountains are included under totals for Europe, eastern Russia and countries east of the Urals under totals for the Asia-Pacific region. The paper discusses the following: European gas lines; North Sea projects; Gulf of Thailand; Yacheng subsea pipeline; Australian gas lines; other Asian lines; Russian activity; Algeria-Europe gas lines; Southeast US; Gulf gathering systems; Western US; South America; Trans-Ecuadorian expansion; Chilean gas network; and Bolivia-Brazil gas line.

  11. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  12. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  13. 75 FR 73117 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline Corporate Security Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ..., 74 FR 42086. The collection encompasses interviews and site visits with pipeline operators regarding...: Pipeline Corporate Security Review AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... Budget (OMB) for review and approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act. The ICR describes the nature...

  14. 76 FR 67160 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On October 19, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy...(c) of the Natural Gas Act and the Rules and Regulations of the Commission's Regulations...

  15. 78 FR 67350 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 18, 2013 Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), at 3250 Lacey Road... Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for a certificate of...

  16. 75 FR 51031 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application August 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 30, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural Gas...), and sections 157.7 and 157.18 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA)...

  17. 76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road... sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon and construct...

  18. 75 FR 36376 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application June 17, 2010. Take notice that on June 8, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural..., pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon two...

  19. 78 FR 8699 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Annual Report for Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477) or visit..., Revision to Annual Report for Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...) invites comments on its intention to revise form PHMSA F 7000-1.1--Annual Report for Hazardous...

  20. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  1. Sludge pipeline design.

    PubMed

    Slatter, P T

    2001-01-01

    The need for the design engineer to have a sound basis for designing sludge pumping and pipelining plant is becoming more critical. This paper examines both a traditional text-book approach and one of the latest approaches from the literature, and compares them with experimental data. The pipelining problem can be divided into the following main areas; rheological characterisation, laminar, transitional and turbulent flow and each is addressed in turn. Experimental data for a digested sludge tested in large pipes is analysed and compared with the two different theoretical approaches. Discussion is centred on the differences between the two methods and the degree of agreement with the data. It is concluded that the new approach has merit and can be used for practical design.

  2. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  3. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  4. Sludge pipeline design.

    PubMed

    Slatter, P T

    2001-01-01

    The need for the design engineer to have a sound basis for designing sludge pumping and pipelining plant is becoming more critical. This paper examines both a traditional text-book approach and one of the latest approaches from the literature, and compares them with experimental data. The pipelining problem can be divided into the following main areas; rheological characterisation, laminar, transitional and turbulent flow and each is addressed in turn. Experimental data for a digested sludge tested in large pipes is analysed and compared with the two different theoretical approaches. Discussion is centred on the differences between the two methods and the degree of agreement with the data. It is concluded that the new approach has merit and can be used for practical design. PMID:11794641

  5. Leak detection on petroleum pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Poynter, W.G.

    1995-12-01

    Accident statitics clearly show that pipelines are the safest method for transporting hydrocarbon fluids compared to trucking, rail or marine transportation. Even so, leaks and spills do occasionally happen and can be (1) very costly in terms of product loss and clean up, and (2) hazardous to life, property and the environment. The pipeline industry recognizes its responsibility to be proactive in technological advancements which promote public safety, and many pipeline operators either already have or are planning to install real-time methods for determining when leak occur. The intent is to detect leaks as soon as possible to permit the operator to shut down a pipeline and minimize the amount of stock loss and potential hazard to the public. Some federal and state regulations require some form of leak detection on pipelines which transport hazardous fluids through populated and otherwise sensitive areas. There are three basic methods for monitoring pipeline systems for leaks: (1) EXS (external sensors) which use acoustical devices or hydrocarbon sensors which may be buried with the pipe or placed at critical above ground locations along the path of the pipeline; (2) VIVO (volume in/volume out) which relies on volumetric measurement and comparison of everything which enters a pipeline system with everything that leaves the system; and (3) PPA (Pressure Point Analysis) is a dynamic method for monitoring the energy balance on a pipeline as represented by pressure and velocity readings at various points in the pipeline system. These systems are discussed.

  6. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://docketsinfo.dot.gov . Docket: For... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  7. Regional pipeline environmental assessment record: an aggregate analysis of major areas of pipeline concern and impact on the Outer Continental Shelf (Gulf of Mexico)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Oil and gas pipeline activities on the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) affect a wide range of living and nonliving environmental variables (i.e., water, biologically sensitive areas, and food-web relations). These industrial activities have been increasing steadily over the past 20 years. Much of the information included herein pertains to a description of the existing environment for offshore Louisiana and Texas and an analysis of potential pipeline proposals and alternatives. The document is not as complete as an environmental impact statement (EIS) but it is sufficient in scope to consider the analysis of impacts of the majority of pipeline activities occurring in the northern and western Gulf of Mexico OCS. This report will be useful in evaluating pipeline impacts on the regional environment in the future. Rather than treating each pipeline application extensively, the information included herein will be referenced, thereby reducing the paperwork involved in environmental analysis.

  8. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  9. Koch sued over oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    In one of the largest cases ever brought under the Clean Water Act, the federal government has charged a major oil distributor with nearly 400 separate oil spills in six states since 1990. Koch Industries, which disputes the allegations, faces fines of up to $55 million. The U.S.Dept. of Justice filed charges April 17 on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Coast Guard after attempts to negotiate a settlement broke down. A civil suit filed in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas charges Wichita, Kan.-based Koch, its subsidiaries and three pipeline companies with illegally dumping millions of gallons of oil into the waters of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Missouri and Alabama. All the spills have been cleaned up and there is no problem with contamination at any of the spill sites, says Donald P. Smith, senior on-scene coordinator for EPa`s Dallas office.

  10. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  11. The MIS Pipeline Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, M. W.; Storm, S.; Mundy, L. G.; Salter, D. M.; Lee, K.; Kwon, W.; Fernandez Lopez, M.; Plunkett, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pipeline toolkit was developed to help organizing, reducing and analyzing a large number of near-identical datasets. This is a very general problem, for which many different solutions have been implemented. In this poster we present one such solution that lends itself to users of the Unix command line, using the Unix "make" utility, and adapts itself easily to observational as well as theoretical projects. Two examples are given, one from the CARMA CLASSy survey, and another from a simulated kinematic survey of early galaxy forming disks. The CLASSy survey (discussed in more detail in three accompanying posters) consists of 5 different star forming regions, observed with CARMA, each containing roughly 10-20 datasets in continuum and 3 different molecular lines, that need to be combined in final data cubes and maps. The strength of such a pipeline toolkit shows itself as new data are accumulated, the data reduction steps are improved and easily re-applied to previously taken data. For this we employed a master script that was run nightly, and collaborators submitted improved script and/or pipeline parameters that control these scripts. MIS is freely available for download.

  12. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  13. Exporting Alaska's oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, S.F.; Copulos, M.; Watkins, D.J.

    1983-02-22

    Federal legislation that prohibits the commercial export of oil and gas is creating a glut and discouraging oil production in California, while raising energy costs by shipping the fuel to the East and Gulf Coasts. The historical security reasons for blocking the export of Alaskan oil no longer exist, yet they continue to impose costs for the taxpayer. The optimum solution appears to be to export liquefied natural gas, using a pipeline paralleling the oil pipeline to Valdez. This would encourage the use and manufacture in Alaska of urea and ammonia fertilizer for export to the Far East, which would enhance US/Japan relations. The possibility of exports of additional oil, bringing a higher return for producers, will encourage production, reduce the need for OPEC oil, and moderate world oil prices. 5 references.

  14. 3 CFR - Implementing Provisions of the Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the Keystone XL Pipeline Permit Presidential Documents Other... Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the Keystone XL Pipeline Permit Memorandum for the Secretary of State The... whether the Keystone XL pipeline project as set forth in the permit application filed on September...

  15. 77 FR 5677 - Implementing Provisions of the Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the Keystone XL Pipeline Permit #0; #0; #0... Provisions of the Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the Keystone XL Pipeline... requires a determination, within 60 days of enactment, of whether the Keystone XL pipeline project as...

  16. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  17. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  18. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  19. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  20. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  1. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  2. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  3. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  4. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  5. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  6. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  7. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  8. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  9. 18 CFR 341.11 - Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  10. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  11. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED... measured oil flow rate over the preceding 12-month period. For new pipelines, you should use the predicted... the total volume of oil that would leak from the pipeline after it is shut in. Calculate this...

  12. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE... measured oil flow rate over the preceding 12-month period. For new pipelines, you should use the predicted... the total volume of oil that would leak from the pipeline after it is shut in. Calculate this...

  13. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED... measured oil flow rate over the preceding 12-month period. For new pipelines, you should use the predicted... the total volume of oil that would leak from the pipeline after it is shut in. Calculate this...

  14. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR...) The volume of oil calculated to leak from a break in any pipelines connected to the facility...-month period. For new pipelines, you should use the predicted oil flow rate in the calculation. (3)...

  15. 30 CFR 254.47 - Determining the volume of oil of your worst case discharge scenario.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED... measured oil flow rate over the preceding 12-month period. For new pipelines, you should use the predicted... the total volume of oil that would leak from the pipeline after it is shut in. Calculate this...

  16. 75 FR 32836 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... regulatory oversight, learn about public interest and need for information about pipelines in their... share lessons learned from implementing their public awareness programs based on Federal regulations...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477)...

  17. Trans-oceanic pipeline: reaffirms Panama's strategic position

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-24

    The Trans-Panama Pipeline, which began in July 1980 and was finished October 1, 1982, will transport Alaskan crude from Puerto Armuelles, in the Pacific Ocean, to Chiriqui Grande, in the Atlantic. Built at a total cost of $400 million, the facility will speed deliveries of North Slope crude to refining centers in Houston, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and New Jersey; it is expected to move about 800,000 barrels/day by January 1983. With construction of a pump station near Chiriqui Grande, the pipeline could easily be altered for reverse-flow capability. This issue of Energy Detente reviews the use of the new pipeline, as it cuts crude oil transportation time and cost and provides an alternative to the Panama Canal. The issue also updates the fuel price/tax series for the countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  18. Use of FBG sensors for health monitoring of pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, Ferdinando; Paolozzi, Antonio; Vendittozzi, Cristian; Paris, Claudio; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The infrastructures for oil and gas production and distribution need reliable monitoring systems. The risks for pipelines, in particular, are not only limited to natural disasters (landslides, earthquakes, extreme environmental conditions) and accidents, but involve also the damages related to criminal activities, such as oil theft. The existing monitoring systems are not adequate for detecting damages from oil theft, and in several occasion the illegal activities resulted in leakage of oil and catastrophic environmental pollution. Systems based on fiber optic FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensors present a number of advantages for pipeline monitoring. FBG sensors can withstand harsh environment, are immune to interferences, and can be used to develop a smart system for monitoring at the same time several physical characteristics, such as strain, temperature, acceleration, pressure, and vibrations. The monitoring station can be positioned tens of kilometers away from the measuring points, lowering the costs and the complexity of the system. This paper describes tests on a sensor, based on FBG technology, developed specifically for detecting damages of pipeline due to illegal activities (drilling of the pipes), that can be integrated into a smart monitoring chain.

  19. 76 FR 75894 - Information Collection Activities: Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; Submitted for Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq. and 43 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.... Section 1334(e) authorizes the Secretary to grant ROWs through the submerged lands of the OCS for... pipeline, as constructed, will provide for safe transportation of minerals through the submerged lands...

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  1. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086) PHMSA published in the Federal Register an Advance Notice of Proposed... by email at mike.israni@dot.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 25, 2011, (76 FR 53086), PHMSA...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  2. The bacterial proteogenomic pipeline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteogenomics combines the cutting-edge methods from genomics and proteomics. While it has become cheap to sequence whole genomes, the correct annotation of protein coding regions in the genome is still tedious and error prone. Mass spectrometry on the other hand relies on good characterizations of proteins derived from the genome, but can also be used to help improving the annotation of genomes or find species specific peptides. Additionally, proteomics is widely used to find evidence for differential expression of proteins under different conditions, e.g. growth conditions for bacteria. The concept of proteogenomics is not altogether new, in-house scripts are used by different labs and some special tools for eukaryotic and human analyses are available. Results The Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline, which is completely written in Java, alleviates the conducting of proteogenomic analyses of bacteria. From a given genome sequence, a naïve six frame translation is performed and, if desired, a decoy database generated. This database is used to identify MS/MS spectra by common peptide identification algorithms. After combination of the search results and optional flagging for different experimental conditions, the results can be browsed and further inspected. In particular, for each peptide the number of identifications for each condition and the positions in the corresponding protein sequences are shown. Intermediate and final results can be exported into GFF3 format for visualization in common genome browsers. Conclusions To facilitate proteogenomics analyses the Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline is a set of comprehensive tools running on common desktop computers, written in Java and thus platform independent. The pipeline allows integrating peptide identifications from various algorithms and emphasizes the visualization of spectral counts from different experimental conditions. PMID:25521444

  3. Implementing a Workforce Development Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hix, Billy

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that the number of highly trained scientists and engineers has continued a steady decline during the 1990's. Furthermore, at the high school level, almost 40% of the total high school graduates are seeking technical skills in preparation of entering the workforce directly. The decrease of students in technology and science programs, along with the lack of viable vocational programs, haunts educators and businesses alike. However, MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) has the opportunity to become a leading edge model of workforce development by offering a unified program of apprenticeships, workshops, and educational initiatives. These programs will be designed to encourage young people of all backgrounds to pursue the fields of technology and science, to assist research opportunities, and to support teachers in the systemic changes that they are facing. The emphasis of our program based on grade levels will be: Elementary Level: Exposure to the workforce. Middle School: Examine the workforce. High School and beyond: Instruct the workforce. It is proposed that MSFC create a well-integrated Workforce Development Pipeline Program. The program will act to integrate the many and varied programs offered across MSFC directorates and offices. It will offer a clear path of programs for students throughout middle school, high school, technical training, and college and universities. The end result would consist of technicians, bachelors degrees, masters degrees, and PhDs in science and engineering fields entering the nation's workforce, with a focus on NASA's future personnel needs.

  4. Biotech pipeline: Bottleneck ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.

    1991-10-18

    A vast array of new genetically engineered drugs are heading for market - but an FDA backlog is holding them up. Patients may have to wait far longer than the biotech enthusiasts suggest before they reap the benefits of those new drugs. There is little hope the FDA will get the money it needs to do the job. The agency's pipeline is clogged with at least 58 monoclonal antibody-based drugs at all stages of testing to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases, including a half-dozen cancers, diabetes, and sepsis.

  5. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  6. Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights worldwide oil and gas developments during 1982, focusing on production, drilling, and other activities/projects in specific countries and regional areas. Indicates that the most political actions (other than the U.S. decision not to protest further the Siberian pipeline project) were the continued Afghanistan and Iraq-Iran wars.…

  7. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank).

    PubMed

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Pyle, Richard L; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker, Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper. PMID:26877662

  8. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    PubMed Central

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Pyle, Richard L.; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker, Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper. PMID:26877662

  9. 40 CFR 110.5 - Discharges of oil not determined “as may be harmful” pursuant to Section 311(b)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.5 Discharges of... 33 CFR part 151, subpart A; and (c) Any discharge of oil explicitly permitted by the Administrator in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Discharges of oil not determined...

  10. 40 CFR 110.5 - Discharges of oil not determined “as may be harmful” pursuant to Section 311(b)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.5 Discharges of... 33 CFR part 151, subpart A; and (c) Any discharge of oil explicitly permitted by the Administrator in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharges of oil not determined...

  11. 40 CFR 110.5 - Discharges of oil not determined “as may be harmful” pursuant to Section 311(b)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.5 Discharges of... 33 CFR part 151, subpart A; and (c) Any discharge of oil explicitly permitted by the Administrator in... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharges of oil not determined...

  12. 40 CFR 110.5 - Discharges of oil not determined “as may be harmful” pursuant to Section 311(b)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.5 Discharges of... 33 CFR part 151, subpart A; and (c) Any discharge of oil explicitly permitted by the Administrator in... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges of oil not determined...

  13. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge of... discharges of oil that: (a) Violate applicable water quality standards; or (b) Cause a film or sheen upon or... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge of oil in such quantities...

  14. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge of... discharges of oil that: (a) Violate applicable water quality standards; or (b) Cause a film or sheen upon or... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Discharge of oil in such quantities...

  15. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge of... discharges of oil that: (a) Violate applicable water quality standards; or (b) Cause a film or sheen upon or... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge of oil in such quantities...

  16. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge of... discharges of oil that: (a) Violate applicable water quality standards; or (b) Cause a film or sheen upon or... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge of oil in such quantities...

  17. Pipeline To Environmental Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Elaine; Brewer, Carol; Berkey, Jim; Brown, Fletcher

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary project involving the harnessing of petroleum energy. Necessitates research into exploration, production, transport, and conversion of the energy resource and incorporates such topics as the biological and environmental effects of oil spills. (DDR)

  18. Desiccant drying of gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    LaCasse, G.A.; Ingvordsen, T.

    1988-09-01

    Prevention of hydrates buildup and corrosion in gas pipelines after hydrostatic testing is increasingly important to those in the gas industry. This paper outlines a dry air method used in Denmark for drying gas pipelines. The psychrometric principles, drying method, and humidity measurements are described.

  19. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The report concludes that, to effectively deal with our national energy problems, gas rate structures should be designed to reflect the costs which the nation avoids if gas is efficiently used and substituted for oil. Current pipeline and distribution company rate structures generally do not meet this test. Although gas is a substitute for oil in many applications, and conserved gas can reduce oil imports, gas rate structures often fail to convey to consumers the fact that, from a national perspective, gas is as valuable as oil. The provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) take a strong first step in correcting these problems. But, as clearly recognized in both NGPA and PURPA, these provisions need to be supplemented by updating pipeline and distribution company rate designs to address the problems of the 1980's - rather than the problems of the 1950's. In this regard, NGPA mandates incremental pricing, which raises the average price of gas to certain industrial users only. The Department of Energy (DOE) study suggests an alternate approach: pipeline and distribution rate structures that reflect in their tailblocks, for all customer classes, the economic costs of gas usage. Such rates would convey to all users the costs incurred by the nation as a consequence of their decisions to use or conserve gas. Such rate structures should promote the three purposes of PURPA - end-use conservation, efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates - to a greater extent than do traditional accounting cost rate designs, which reflect decisions made in the distant past.

  20. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  1. Pipeline system insulation: thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. December 1985-February 1988 (citations from the rubber and plastics research association data base). Report for December 1985-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulating of pipeline systems used to transfer liquids and gases. Thermal aging of polyurethane foam for insulating heating pipes, extrusion-film pipeline-insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile-rubber pipeline insulation with class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass-reinforced polyester insulated-pipeline systems are among the topics discussed. Applications in solar-heating systems, underground water, oil, and gas, interior hot water and cold water lines under seawater, and chemical-plant pipeline-system insulation are included. (This updated bibliography contains 139 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Sequential piggyback, dual lay used for Irish Sea pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Guinard, M.

    1995-09-04

    Piggyback and dual pipe lay were used sequentially for the first time in 1993 aboard the lay vessel DLB 1601 in the North Morecambe project, Block 110/2a of the Irish Sea. Development was by British Gas Exploration and Production Ltd. A 3-in. OD pipeline was laid piggybacked onto a 36-in. pipeline for the offshore pull operation and then separated in an unconventional transition operation for dual lay for the offshore section. Detailed engineering studies along with well developed installation procedures resulted in successful pipelaying. Increasing complexities of laying, trenching, and burying offshore pipelines suggest the techniques used in the North Morecambe project will find further applications. In fact, McDermott International Inc.-ETPM Services (U.K.) Ltd. (MET), which executed the North Morecambe project, developed the techniques further in 1994 for the Liverpool Bay development of Hamilton Oil Co. In that project, DLB 1601 laid in dual lay tow 3-in. pipelines in a bundle with a 20-in. pipeline. This first of two articles on the North Morecambe project discusses its background an engineering, primarily for the piggyback and dual lay phases. The conclusion covers the innovative transition operation and reports shore-testing results and observations.

  3. Resilient reaction of a pipeline to an internal impact pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganiev, R. F.; Ilgamov, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of dynamic stability of a the pipeline is developed on the basis of the linear bending equation, an assumption that the cross section is normal to the deformed axis of the pipe, the incompressibility of the transported fluid, and the instant establishment of impact pressure along its entire length. The calculation scheme is as follows: a pipe connecting two volumes and a pipe with one closed end and with a piston acting at a fluid at the other end. The relations between the input parameters for determining the dynamic reaction and the stress-strained state of the pipeline under the action of the internal shock wave are presented.

  4. Scour below submerged skewed pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azamathulla, H. Md.; Yusoff, M. A. M.; Hasan, Z. A.

    2014-02-01

    Local scour below pipelines commonly occurs due to the erosive action of currents and waves. Scour is a major cause for the failure of underwater pipelines which is very important in water resources management. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of four different pipeline orientations (30°, 45°, 60° and 90°) across a channel. The data sets of the laboratory measurements were also collected from published works. The temporal variation of local pipelines scour depth was studied to estimate the scour depth. The scour depth below the pipeline was determined using a regression model with five dimensionless parameters. A regression model with a coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.55) and a low root mean square error (RMSE = 0.47) produced fairly good predictions of the relative scour depth. The proposed equation gave satisfactory results when compared with the existing predictors.

  5. Mudslide effects on offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R.C.; Jones, W.T.

    1982-11-01

    In regions of unstable soils such as portions of the Mississippi Delta, occasional pipeline failures during periods of severe weather have been attributed to mudslides. The effects of such downslope soil movements on the deflection and resulting stress in a pipeline have been studied in an attempt to reveal methods of routing or design which would reduce the risk of failure. Results show that the chances of surviving a slide are increased if the pipeline outer diameter is reduced to as small a value as possible, if the pipe wall thickness is increased, and if some slack is available in the line. The chance of survival is greatest if the slide occurs in a direction perpendicular to the pipeline route since the failure mode is primarily one of tension. When the slide crosses the pipeline at other angles of incidence, the chance of survival is significantly lessened.

  6. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that they must make their pipeline emergency response...

  7. 75 FR 66425 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... received from Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP, a natural gas pipeline operator, seeking relief from... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant...

  8. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  9. Method and device for detecting leaks from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.J.

    1983-05-31

    To detect leaks from pipelines carrying fluids, especially oil, light is transmitted through a fibre-optic held in proximity with the pipeline. The fibre-optic is surrounded by a medium of which the refractive index is altered by the influence of the leaked fluid. In a preferred embodiment the medium is a silicone rubber (4) of which the refractive index is normally lower than that of a quartz fibre optic (3), but of which the index increases to that of the quartz or above when oil (7) soaks into it through a permeable cladding (1) and elastomeric protective layer (2), thus rendering the fibre optic non-internally-reflective so that light (6) is absorbed. Control means linked to a light receiver detect that change and the position of the leak is located to within the length of the optic. In another embodiment the medium is a liquid which is expelled from around the optic by the action of leaked fluid.

  10. Use of hand-held calculator program aids analysis of subsea pipeline design

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, V.B.

    1983-02-14

    The presented SEALINE program (developed for the Hewlett Packard HP-41 calculator) simulates the behavior of the developed transport pipeline after the installation phase. It is often necessary to review the behavior of pipe during the operating phase concerning the proposed environmental condition of the proposed location. It is pointed out that analyses of pipelines designed for transportation of liquid median such as crude oil or deballast water are usually addressed with sophisticated programs for large computers.

  11. Effect of stress corrosion cracking on integrity and remaining life of natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jaske, C.E.; Beavers, J.A.; Harle, B.A.

    1996-08-01

    External stress-corrosion cracking of pipelines is a serious problem for the gas transmission industry. Longitudinal cracks initiate on the outside surface of the pipe and link up to form flaws that, in some cases, can lead to pipe rupture. This paper presents a model that quantifies the effect of stress-corrosion cracking on pipe failure stress. The model is an extension of those that have been developed for oil and gas pipelines and considers both flow-stress and fracture-toughness dependent failure modes. A methodology also is presented to calculate the remaining life of a pipeline containing flaws of known size.

  12. Design check against the construction code (DNV 2012) of an offshore pipeline using numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, L. C.; Călimănescu, I.; Velcea, D. D.

    2016-08-01

    The production of oil and gas from offshore oil fields is, nowadays, more and more important. As a result of the increasing demand of oil, and being the shallow water reserves not enough, the industry is pushed forward to develop and exploit more difficult fields in deeper waters. In this paper, there will be deployed the new design code DNV 2012 in terms of checking an offshore pipeline as compliance with the requests of this new construction code, using the Bentley Autopipe V8i. The August 2012 revision of DNV offshore standard, DNV- OS-F101, Submarine Pipeline Systems is supported by AutoPIPE version 9.6. This paper provides a quick walk through for entering input data, analyzing and generating code compliance reports for a model with piping code selected as DNV Offshore 2012. As seen in the present paper, the simulations comprise geometrically complex pipeline subjected to various and variable loading conditions. At the end of the designing process the Engineer has to answer to a simple question: is that pipeline safe or not? The pipeline set as an example, has some sections that are not complying in terms of size and strength with the code DNV 2012 offshore pipelines. Obviously those sections have to be redesigned in a manner to meet those conditions.

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  14. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  15. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  16. Reliability prediction of corroding pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Strutt, J.E.; Allsopp, K.; Newman, D.; Trille, C.

    1996-12-01

    Recent data collection studies relating to loss of containment of pipeline and risers indicate that corrosion is now the dominant failure mode for steel pipelines in the North Sea area. As the North Sea pipeline infrastructure ages, it is expected that the proportion of pipelines failing by corrosion will increase further and this raises the question of the relationship between probability of pipeline corrosion failure and the reliability of the corrosion control and monitoring systems used by operators to prevent corrosion failures. This paper describes a methodology for predicting the probability of corrosion failure of a specific submarine pipeline or riser system. The paper illustrates how the model can be used to predict the safe life of a pipeline, given knowledge of the underlying corrosion behavior and corrosion control system and how the time to failure can be updated in the light of inspection and monitoring results enabling inspection policy to be evaluated for its impact on risk. The paper also shows how different assumptions concerning the underlying cause of failure influences the estimation of the probability of failure.

  17. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  18. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  19. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  20. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  1. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  2. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  3. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  4. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... amendments to the pipeline safety regulations (76 FR 73570). On January 12, 2012, the Interstate Natural Gas... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192 and 195 RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  5. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. This notice provides updates to the information... the Federal Register (75 FR 72878) titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and...

  6. 76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of... Improvement Act of 2002, and the Pipeline Hazardous Material Safety Administration, Brian...

  7. New pipeline policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefgen, J.R. Jr.; Colucci, D.M.

    1996-04-01

    This article outlines regulations addressing the sale, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas in Mexico. The regulations were issued in November 1995 by the Comision Reguladora de Energia. The major policy decisions of the regulations are summarized. The current role of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state owned oil and gas entity, which formerly monopolized the Mexican industry, is discussed.

  8. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  9. Nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Brady J.; Smart, Lucinda J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing need to quantitatively and nondestructively evaluate the strength and toughness properties of pipeline steels, particularly in aging pipeline infrastructure. These strength and toughness properties, namely yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and toughness, are essential for determining the safe operating pressure of the pipelines. For some older pipelines crucial information can be unknown, which makes determining the pressure rating difficult. Current inspection techniques address some of these issues, but they are not comprehensive. This paper will briefly discuss current inspection techniques and relevant literature for relating nondestructive measurements to key strength and toughness properties. A project is in progress to provide new in-trench tools that will give strength properties without the need for sample removal and destructive testing. Preliminary experimental ultrasonic methods and measurements will be presented, including velocity, attenuation, and backscatter measurements.

  10. 40 CFR 110.5 - Discharges of oil not determined “as may be harmful” pursuant to Section 311(b)(3) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in the bilges of a vessel discharged in compliance with MARPOL 73/78, Annex I, as provided in 33 CFR... 33 CFR part 151, subpart A; and (c) Any discharge of oil explicitly permitted by the Administrator in... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharges of oil not determined...

  11. 40 CFR 110.3 - Discharge of oil in such quantities as “may be harmful” pursuant to section 311(b)(4) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge of oil in such quantities as... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.3 Discharge of... may be harmful to the public health or welfare or the environment of the United States...

  12. S. 686: A bill to consolidate and improve Federal laws providing compensation and establishing liability for oil spills. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, April 4, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bill is for the purpose of consolidating and improving Federal laws which provide compensation and establish liability for oil spills. The owner or operator of a vessel or onshore/offshore facility from which there is an oil spill shall be liable for all costs incurred for spill removal and all damages for economic loss or loss of natural resources resulting from the discharge. There is no liability for the person otherwise liable if it can be established that the discharge or threat of discharge resulted from an act of God, an act of war, or an act of omission of a third party other than an employee or agent of the owner/operator. The law sets maximum limits to this liability, for example, 100 million dollars is the maximum liability for any deep water port facility. An oil spill compensation fund and regional oil spill response teams are established by this act and are described. Required amendments to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Fund, the Intervention on the High Seas Act, Clean Water Act, Deepwater Port Act, and Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act are included.

  13. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period.

  14. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

  15. Creating a pipeline rehabilitation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, W.F.

    1997-05-01

    This paper will highlight the various aspects of planning a pipeline rehabilitation project to maximize used resources. The paper will visit in some detail the aspect of pipeline data collection to make rehabilitation decisions, including intelligent pig data and its use, close interval survey and its use, hydrotest data and its use, etc. This paper will also review the analysis of the hydrotest data, the close interval survey data, and its meaning to the overall rehabilitation design and plan. The paper will also assess the various types of pipeline coatings and methods of recoating and typical and innovative cathodic protection methods. The paper will stress analysis of pipeline structural integrity prior to making rehabilitation decisions. It will review cost estimating for various types of pipeline rehabilitation, and look at various alternatives. Finally, this paper will review typical results from various types of rehabilitation and soil conditions. It will emphasize the need to assess the results of the different rehabilitation methods and detail the future pipeline rehabilitation project decision making. The paper will discuss the use of RAP sheets (rehabilitation analysis profile) for data review and suggest various methods to invest rehabilitation dollars to get the greatest quantity of rehabilitation work done for the least cost.

  16. 76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... provides guidance for Calendar Year 2010 National Pipeline Mapping System (NPMS) submissions. FOR FURTHER...: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas Transmission and Gathering Systems and Liquefied Natural Gas Annual Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  17. Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341

    SciTech Connect

    Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J.

    2013-07-01

    Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

  18. Pipeliners beat designers across Panama's jungle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-27

    Hard-driving pipeline crews are slashing a path down the steep slopes of the Andes range on Panama's Caribbean coast for the final leg of an 80-mile Pacific-Atlantic oil link that will reduce shipping times for North Slope crude to Gulf Coast refineries. When completed in late August, the trans-isthmus tube will be able to drain the Panama Canal of Alaskan oil, which currently must be pumped from large tankers to 65,000 ton ships before passage through the 50-mile cut. The 36 and 40-in.-dia pipe will connect an existing Northville oil transshipment terminal at Puerto Armuelles, near Costa Rica on the Pacific Coast, with a new 2.5-million-bbl storage area at Chiriqui Grande on the Caribbean coast. Two pumping stations, one at Puerto Armuelles and another at the base of the Serrania de Tabasara mountains, will lift the oil 4,000 ft over the Continental Divide. Gravity flows of 7 1/2 ft per second down the steep drop to the swamps along the Caribbean will feed three 833,000-bbl tanks being built on a hillside overlooking Chiriqui Bay. From there, two 36-in. lines will feed concrete-coated pipe sections trenched into the surf zone and placed on the muddy bottom for the remaining distance to two marine loading buoys over a mile offshore. The catenary anchor-leg mooring buoys are designed to handle tankers of up to 160,000 tons in 65 ft of water at maximum fill rates of 120,000 bbl per hour.

  19. Monitoring of pipeline ruptures by means of a Robust Satellite Technique (RST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizzola, C.; Baldassarre, G.; Corrado, R.; Mazzeo, G.; Marchese, F.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2009-04-01

    Pipeline ruptures have deep economic and ecologic consequences so that pipeline networks represent critical infrastructures to be carefully monitored particularly in areas which are frequently affected by natural disasters like earthquakes, hurricanes, landslide, etc. In order to minimize damages, the detection of harmful events along pipelines should be as rapid as possible and, at the same time, what is detected should be an actual incident and not a false alarm. In this work, a Robust Satellite Technique (RST), already applied to the prevision and NRT (Near Real Time) monitoring of major natural and environmental hazards (such as seismically active areas, volcanic activity, hydrological risk, forest fires and oil spills) has been employed to automatically identify, from satellite, anomalous Thermal Infrared (TIR) transients related to explosions of oil/gas pipelines. In this context, the combination of the RST approach with high temporal resolution, offered by geostationary satellites, seems to assure both a reliable and timely detection of such events. The potentials of the technique (applied to MSG-SEVIRI data) were tested over Iraq, a region which is sadly known for the numerous (mainly manmade) accidents to pipelines, in order to have a simulation of the effects (such as fires or explosions near or directly involving a pipeline facility) due to natural disasters.

  20. Developing your leadership pipeline.

    PubMed

    Conger, Jay A; Fulmer, Robert M

    2003-12-01

    Why do so many newly minted leaders fail so spectacularly? Part of the problem is that in many companies, succession planning is little more than creating a list of high-potential employees and the slots they might fill. It's a mechanical process that's too narrow and hidebound to uncover and correct skill gaps that can derail promising young executives. And it's completely divorced from organizational efforts to transform managers into leaders. Some companies, however, do succeed in building a steady, reliable pipeline of leadership talent by marrying succession planning with leadership development. Eli Lilly, Dow Chemical, Bank of America, and Sonoco Products have created long-term processes for managing the talent roster throughout their organizations--a process Conger and Fulmer call succession management. Drawing on the experiences of these best-practice organizations, the authors outline five rules for establishing a healthy succession management system: Focus on opportunities for development, identify linchpin positions, make the system transparent, measure progress regularly, and be flexible. In Eli Lilly's "action-learning" program, high-potential employees are given a strategic problem to solve so they can learn something of what it takes to be a general manager. The company--and most other best-practice organizations--also relies on Web-based succession management tools to demystify the succession process, and it makes employees themselves responsible for updating the information in their personnel files. Best-practice organizations also track various metrics that reveal whether the right people are moving into the right jobs at the right time, and they assess the strengths and weaknesses not only of individuals but of the entire group. These companies also expect to be tweaking their systems continually, making them easier to use and more responsive to the needs of the organization.