Science.gov

Sample records for act potential impacts

  1. Potential impacts of the Energy Policy Act on electricity and natural gas provider fleets

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.D.; Wang, M.Q.

    1996-03-01

    Section 501 of the 1992 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPACT) mandates that alternative-fuel providers who may sell such fuels for transportation uses acquire alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs). The potential impacts of this mandate on the two largest groups of alternative-fuel providers--electricity and natural gas (NG) providers--are presented. Nationwide, 166 electric-only utility companies, 127 NG-only utility companies, and 55 dual-utility companies will be covered by EPACT. Together, these companies own/operate nearly 122,000 light-duty vehicles in the EPACT-defined metropolitan areas. Some 63 natural gas producers and transporters, which have 9700 light-duty vehicles, are also covered. We project that covered fuel providers will purchase 2710 AFVs in 1996 and 13, 650 AFVs by 2001. We estimate that natural gas companies already have 19.4% of their existing light-duty vehicle stocks as AFVs, dual companies have 10.0%, natural gas producers and transporters have 7. 0%, and electric companies have only 1.6%. If the existing AFVs count toward meeting the Section 501 requirements, NG providers (NG utilities, dual utilities, and NG producers and transporters) will need to make little additional effort, but electric companies will have to make substantial commitments to meet the requirements.

  2. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  3. The Affordable Care Act and Diabetes Diagnosis and Care: Exploring the Potential Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Laiteerapong, Neda

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews available data on the implications of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for the diagnosis and care of type 2 diabetes. We provide a general overview of the major issues for diabetes diagnosis and care, and describe the policies in the ACA that affect diabetes diagnosis and care. We also estimate that approximately 2.3 million of the 4.6 million people in the USA with undiagnosed diabetes aged 18–64 in 2009–2010 may have gained access to free preventive care under the ACA, which could increase diabetes detection. In addition, we note two factors that may limit the success of the ACA for improving access to diabetes care. First, many states with the highest diabetes prevalence have not expanded Medicaid eligibility, and second, primary care providers may not adequately meet the increase in Medicaid patients because federal funding to increase provider reimbursement for Medicaid visits recently expired. We close by discussing current gaps in the literature and future directions for research on the ACA’s impact on diabetes diagnosis, care, and health outcomes. PMID:26892908

  4. Summary of Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Potential Impacts Related to Hanford Cleanup and the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA)

    SciTech Connect

    IWATATE, D.F.

    2000-07-14

    This white paper provides an initial assessment of the potential impacts of the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) regulations (and proposed revisions) on the Hanford site cleanup and addresses concerns that MTCA might impose inappropriate or unachievable clean-up levels and drive clean-up costs higher. The white paper and supporting documentation (Appendices A and B) provide DOE with a concise and up-to-date review of potential MTCA impacts to cost and schedule for the Hanford site activities. MTCA, Chapter 70.105D RCW, is the State of Washington's risk based law governing clean-up of contaminated sites and is implemented by The Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the MTCA Clean-up Regulations, Chapter 173-340 WAC. Hanford cleanup is subject to the MTCA requirements as Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for those areas of Hanford being managed under the authority of the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the state Dangerous Waste Regulations. MTCA provides Ecology with authority to implement site clean-up actions under both the federal RCRA and CERCLA regulations as well as the state regulations. Most of the Hanford clean-up actions are being implemented under the CERCLA program, however, there is a trend is toward increased use of MTCA procedures and standards. The application of MTCA to the Hanford clean-up has been an evolving process with some of the Hanford clean-up actions considering MTCA standards as an ARAR and using MTCA procedures for remedy selection. The increased use and application of MTCA standards and procedures could potentially impact both cost and schedule for the Hanford cleanup.

  5. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  6. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  7. Potential Impacts of Pollution Aerosol and Dust Acting As Cloud-Nucleating Aerosol on Precipitation in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, V.; Cotton, W. R.; Carrio, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The southwest US has huge demands on water resources. The Colorado River Basin (CRB) is potentially affected by anthropogenic aerosol pollution and dust acting as cloud-nucleating aerosol as well as impacting snowpack albedo.The specific objective of this research is to quantify the impacts of both dust and pollution aerosols on wintertime precipitation in the Colorado Mountains for the years 2005-2006. We examine the combined effects of anthropogenic pollution aerosol and dust serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), ice nuclei (IN) and giant CCN(GCCN) on precipitation in the CRB. Anthropogenic pollution can enhance droplet concentrations, and decrease collision and coalescence and ice particle riming largely via the "spillover" effect. Dust can serve as IN and enhance precipitation in wintertime orographic clouds. Dust coated with sulfates or originating over dry lake beds can serve as GCCN which when wetted can result in larger cloud droplets and thereby enhance the warm-rain collision and coalescence process and ice particle riming. But smaller dust particles coated with sulfates, can decrease collision and coalescence and ice particle riming similar to anthropogenic pollution aerosols. The Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6.0 is used for this study. RAMS was modified to ingest GEOS-CHEM output data and periodically update aerosol fields. GEOS-CHEM is a chemical transport model which uses assimilated meteorological data from the NASA Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS). The aerosol data comprise a sum of hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon and organic aerosol, hydrophilic SOAs, hydrocarbon oxidation and inorganic aerosols (nitrate, sulfate and ammonium). In addition, a RAMS-based dust source and transport model is used. Preliminary analysis suggests pollution dominates over dust resulting in a decrease in precipitation via the spillover effect. Dust serving as GCCN and IN tend to enhance ice

  8. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  9. Examination of the potential impacts of dust and pollution aerosol acting as cloud nucleating aerosol on water resources in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Vandana

    In this study we examine the cumulative effect of dust acting as cloud nucleating aerosol (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), giant cloud condensation nuclei (GCCN), and ice nuclei (IN)) along with anthropogenic aerosol pollution acting primarily as CCN, over the entire Colorado Rocky Mountains from the months of October to April in the year 2004-2005; the snow year. This ˜6.5 months analysis provides a range of snowfall totals and variability in dust and anthropogenic aerosol pollution. The specific objectives of this research is to quantify the impacts of both dust and pollution aerosols on wintertime precipitation in the Colorado Mountains using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). In general, dust enhances precipitation primarily by acting as IN, while aerosol pollution reduces water resources in the CRB via the so-called "spill-over" effect, by enhancing cloud droplet concentrations and reducing riming rates. Dust is more episodic and aerosol pollution is more pervasive throughout the winter season. Combined response to dust and aerosol pollution is a net reduction of water resources in the CRB. The question is by how much are those water resources affected? Our best estimate is that total winter-season precipitation loss for for the CRB the 2004-2005 winter season due to the combined influence of aerosol pollution and dust is 5,380,00 acre-feet of water. Sensitivity studies for different cases have also been run for the specific cases in 2004-2005 winter season to analyze the impact of changing dust and aerosol ratios on precipitation in the Colorado River Basin. The dust is varied from 3 to 10 times in the experiments and the response is found to be non monotonic and depends on various environmental factors. The sensitivity studies show that adding dust in a wet system increases precipitation when IN affects are dominant. For a relatively dry system high concentrations of dust can result in over-seeding the clouds and reductions in precipitation

  10. The Potential Impact of Increased Phosphorus Loads in Lakes Acting as Heavy Metal Reservoirs: A case study from west-central Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, D. A.; Latimer, J. C.; Smith, E.; Stone, J.

    2015-12-01

    Green Valley Lake is a designated state fishing area in west-central Indiana. Prior to this designation, the lake was a water supply reservoir for the adjacent and now abandoned Green Valley Coal Mine (Operating from 1948-1963). The Green Valley Coal Mine property continues to produce excess acidity despite reclamation efforts. The former mine property and the lake are connected by a channel that discharges acidic drainage directly into Green Valley Lake. To evaluate temporal variability in metal and phosphorus (P) geochemistry, two short cores were collected in spring 2014 (38cm) and spring 2015 (39cm). Metal concentrations were determined by a hand-held X-ray fluorescence analyzer after the samples had been dried and crushed. Approximately 20% of these metal concentrations will be verified by ICP-OES following extraction in 50% aqua regia. Detailed P geochemistry was determined using a sequential extraction technique (SEDEX). The sediments in Green Valley Lake are characterized by heavy metal concentrations that are elevated above typical background levels. These metals tend to be concentrated near the sediment water interface, often 3-5 times greater than the average concentration for the rest of the core, which suggests that they are diagenetically mobile and possibly diffusing out of the sediments under dysoxic to anoxic conditions and returning to the sediments under oxic conditions. Total sedimentary P averages 57 umol/g, but oscillates between 20 - 110 umol/g. The most dramatic shift in the detailed P geochemistry is the significant reduction of mineral P at 15 cm and the increasing importance of oxide-associated and adsorbed P upcore. Diatom assemblages suggest that the lake has become increasingly more eutrophic over time. As nutrient loads continue to increase, the oxygen depleted zone may expand impacting fish populations and changing water geochemistry significantly, in particular, mobilizing heavy metals.

  11. Impact of Florida's Clean Indoor Air Act on Student Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Steven B.; Daly, Janice; Lee, Dae Taek

    1997-01-01

    Surveys college students to determine the impact of the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act on student life. Results show that smoking regulations were well supported by the majority of students, represented an inconvenience to smokers rather than a deterrent to smoking and that such restrictions are unlikely to lead to conflict among students. (MKA)

  12. Potential impact of HITECH security regulations on medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Prior, Fred; Ingeholm, Mary Lou; Levine, Betty A; Tarbox, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Title XIII of Division A and Title IV of Division B of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 [1] include a provision commonly referred to as the "Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act" or "HITECH Act" that is intended to promote the electronic exchange of health information to improve the quality of health care. Subtitle D of the HITECH Act includes key amendments to strengthen the privacy and security regulations issued under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The HITECH act also states that "the National Coordinator" must consult with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in determining what standards are to be applied and enforced for compliance with HIPAA. This has led to speculation that NIST will recommend that the government impose the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) [2], which was created by NIST for application within the federal government, as requirements to the public Electronic Health Records (EHR) community in the USA. In this paper we will describe potential impacts of FISMA on medical image sharing strategies such as teleradiology and outline how a strict application of FISMA or FISMA-based regulations could have significant negative impacts on information sharing between care providers.

  13. Storm Impacts on Potential Pathogens in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, J. Stephen; Noble, Rachel T.; Kelly, Ginger M.; Hsieh, Jennifer L.

    2007-02-01

    Estuarine and coastal environments are susceptible to a variety of changes driven by tropical storms and hurricanes. The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season impressed upon the public the devastating impacts of storms on coastal populations and the possible social and public health costs. Storm surges and subsequent flooding have the potential to redistribute water and associated contaminants, including a wide range of chemicals and microorganisms. While this impact is difficult to observe through monitoring during larger storms, smaller storms provide opportunities to observe the mechanisms responsible for contaminant and microbial transport.

  14. Bioenergy sustainability in China: potential and impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Gentry, Randall W; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sayler, Gary S; Bickham, John W

    2010-10-01

    The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China's bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts as well as potential barriers to its development. Five general themes are covered: status and goals, biomass resources, energy plants, environmental impacts, and economic and social impacts. The potential for bioenergy production in China is huge, particularly in the central north and northwest. China plans to develop a bioenergy capacity of 30GW by 2020. However, realization of this goal will require breakthroughs in bioenergy landscape design, energy plant biotechnology, legislation, incentive policy, and conversion facilities. Our analyses suggest that (1) the linkage between bioenergy, environment, and economy are often circular rather than linear in nature; (2) sustainability is a core concept in bioenergy design and the ultimate goal of bioenergy development; and (3) each bioenergy development scheme must be region-specific and designed to solve local environmental and agricultural problems.

  15. Bioenergy Sustainability in China: Potential and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jie; Gentry, Randall W.; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sayler, Gary S.; Bickham, John W.

    2010-10-01

    The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China’s bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts as well as potential barriers to its development. Five general themes are covered: status and goals, biomass resources, energy plants, environmental impacts, and economic and social impacts. The potential for bioenergy production in China is huge, particularly in the central north and northwest. China plans to develop a bioenergy capacity of 30GW by 2020. However, realization of this goal will require breakthroughs in bioenergy landscape design, energy plant biotechnology, legislation, incentive policy, and conversion facilities. Our analyses suggest that (1) the linkage between bioenergy, environment, and economy are often circular rather than linear in nature; (2) sustainability is a core concept in bioenergy design and the ultimate goal of bioenergy development; and (3) each bioenergy development scheme must be region-specific and designed to solve local environmental and agricultural problems.

  16. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure.

  17. Untapped potential of health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to “green economy” and “institutional framework” strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century’s sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  18. Improvisational Acting Exercises and Their Potential Use in Family Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, James R.; Ruby, Nanci Carol

    2009-01-01

    Expressive therapy interventions are a useful resource for counselors working with a wide range of presenting issues. This article illustrates a series of improvisational acting exercises that can be used within a family counseling context. Clear directions for specific exercises are provided, along with illustrative case examples.

  19. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.

    2012-10-01

    Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

  20. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised.

  1. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised. PMID:27418864

  2. The Clean Air Act impacts on rail coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    These factors are examined in this article. In November 1990, President Bush signed the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 into law. Title IV, concerning acid rain control, calls for a two-phase reduction in power plant sulfur-dioxide emissions, culminating in a nationwide cap after the year 2000. A large part of this reduction will be obtained through substituting low-sulfur coals for the higher-sulfur fuels now used. Most commentators have characterized this legislation as a boon for low-sulfur coal producers and the railroads serving them. If, as projected, up to one-eighth of existing coal-burning plants shift to more distant suppliers, a surge in rail traffic would ensue. Whether this traffic originates at eastern or western mines, rail carriers would obtain longer hauls and greater coal volumes. We have examined the rail transport implications of the amendments and found that the potential rail benefits may be exaggerated. Although traffic volume will grow, margins on some new traffic are likely to be eroded by continued rate competition and reduced productivity. To satisfy coal transport needs in the 1990s, factors that challenge rail productivity must be recognized and resolved.

  3. Budget Impact of Long-Acting Insulin Analogues: The Case in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Everton Nunes; Pereira, Maurício G

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-acting insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes (T1D) treatment have been available on the Brazilian market since 2002. However, the population cannot access the analogues through the public health system. Objective To estimate the incremental budget impact of long-acting insulin analogues coverage for T1D patients in the Brazilian public health system compared to NPH insulin. Methods We performed a budget impact analysis of a five-year period. The eligible population was projected using epidemiological data from the International Diabetes Federation estimates for patients between 0–14 and 20–79 years old. The prevalence of T1D was estimated in children, and the same proportion was applied to the 15-19-year-old group due to a gap in epidemiological information. We considered 4,944 new cases per year and a 34.61/100,000 inhabitants mortality rate. Market share for long-acting insulin analogues was assumed as 20% in the first year, reaching 40% in the fifth year. The mean daily dose was taken from clinical trials. We calculated the bargaining power of the Ministry of Health by dividing the price paid for human insulin in the last purchase by the average regulated price. We performed univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. Results The incremental budget impact of long-acting insulin analogues was US$ 28.6 million in the first year, and reached US$ 58.7 million in the fifth year. The total incremental budget impact was US$ 217.9 million over the five-year period. The sensitivity analysis showed that the percentage of T1D among diabetic adults and the insulin analogue price were the main factors that affected the budget impact. Conclusions The cost of the first year of long-acting insulin analogue coverage would correspond to 0.03% of total public health expenditure. The main advantage of this study is that it identifies potential bargaining power because it features more realistic profiles of resource usage, once centralized purchasing is

  4. Impact of the Occupational Safety and Health Act on U. S. Naval Construction Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) effective 29 December 1970 (P. L. 91-596) and its impact on the U.S. Naval Construction Force (NCF...is examined. The history of occupational safety legislation in the United States is summarized and discussed. The OSH Act is condensed and interpreted

  5. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 and Its Impact on Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978--which amends Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964--and its impact on educational institutions are discussed. The Act prohibits discrimination against women employees because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. It covers hiring, promotion, firing, and seniority rights as well as…

  6. Potential Impact of Repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    partners, homosexual , constitutionality, benefits, Don’t Ask Don’t Tell, gay, lesbian, Soldier 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...Count: 52 Word Count: 9,470 Key Terms: Same-sex partners, homosexual , constitutionality, benefits, Don’t Ask Don’t Tell...spouses of now openly-serving homosexual Soldiers. Notwithstanding the extensive work that the Department of Defense has already done to "extend

  7. Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Alain

    2004-06-01

    As experts in the health care of children and adolescents, pediatricians may be called on to advise legislators concerning the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents, too, may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes or to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization, and the accompanying technical report (available online) reviews what is currently known about the relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and its legal status to better understand how change might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future.

  8. Potential environmental impacts of future halocarbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, K.J.; Ellis, J.H.

    1996-08-01

    An integrated analysis of future halocarbon emissions and their environmental impacts shows that strict global compliance is required if the Montreal Protocol is to accomplish the goal of eliminating the lower stratospheric ozone hole. This analysis is integrated in the sense that demographic, economic, and regulatory processes controlling future production were linked explicitly to the technological factors translating production into emissions and the environmental processes transforming emissions into environmental impacts. Given current models of halocarbon transformation and atmospheric response, this research suggests that if a small percentage of nations continues to expand production at modest rates, the ozone hole will not be eliminated. In addition, high growth rate assumptions for halocarbon production by noncompliance nations will result in significantly increased ozone depletion. This research also shows that the continued use of small amounts of ozone-depleting substances for essential uses and the failure to adequately replace all ozone-depleting substances can eliminate the possibility of returning the atmosphere to pre-ozone hole conditions. The global climate change potential of halocarbons is fairly small if growth rates for chlorofluorocarbon substitutes remain low. If growth rates return to precontrol levels, these substitutes could contribute significantly to global climate change. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed.

  10. Pyrimidine derivatives as potential agents acting on central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Pyrimidine and its derivatives are present in many of the bioactive aromatic compounds that are of wide interest because of their diverse biological and clinical applications. The utility of pyrimidines as synthon for various biologically active compounds has given impetus to these studies. The review article aims to review the work reported on pharmacological activities of central nervous system (CNS) such as anticonvulsant and antidepressant, which created interest among researchers to synthesize variety of pyrimidine and their derivatives. The present study shows, objective of the work can be summarized as pyrimidine derivative constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. These observations have been given novel idea for the development of new pyrimidine derivative that possess varied biological activities. This article aims to review the recent works on pyrimidine moiety together with the biological potential during the past year.

  11. Meaning in the Making: Meaning Potential Emerging from Acts of Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with how meaning potential, in particular an individual's personalized meaning potential, emerges from acts of meaning. This happens during different time frames: logogenetic--the creation of meaning in text; ontogenetic--the learning of a personalized meaning potential; and phylogenetic--the evolution of the collective…

  12. The Potential Psychological Impact of Skin Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and skin cancer often have a substantial psychologic and social impact on our patients. Some of these patients limit their life because they feel self-conscious about their symptoms. Sometimes, greater life satisfaction comes from accepting that perhaps some symptoms will remain or recur, even in an individual who responds well to treatment. This acceptance involves acknowledging the existence of symptoms, thereby allowing the patient to pursue a meaningful life that is not overly limited by their potential presence. This is not only liberating for the patient but also for the medical professional, who can sometimes feel pressured by patients' unrealistic expectations to achieve symptom reductions that are not possible. We discuss how to talk with patients about their expectations regarding treatment and whether relief of symptoms is a necessary component to living a better life. Helping patients to find the right words to explain their visible symptoms to others can sometimes help them feel less self-conscious in public settings and thereby more comfortable going out into the world to pursue a meaningful life.

  13. Potential impacts of iron biofortification in India.

    PubMed

    Stein, Alexander J; Meenakshi, J V; Qaim, Matin; Nestel, Penelope; Sachdev, H P S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2008-04-01

    Iron deficiency is a widespread nutrition and health problem in developing countries, causing impairments in physical activity and cognitive development, as well as maternal mortality. Although food fortification and supplementation programmes have been effective in some countries, their overall success remains limited. Biofortification, that is, breeding food crops for higher micronutrient content, is a relatively new approach, which has been gaining international attention recently. We propose a methodology for ex ante impact assessment of iron biofortification, building on a disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) framework. This methodology is applied in an Indian context. Using a large and representative data set of household food consumption, the likely effects of iron-rich rice and wheat varieties are simulated for different target groups and regions. These varieties, which are being developed by an international public research consortium, based on conventional breeding techniques, might be ready for local distribution within the next couple of years. The results indicate sizeable potential health benefits. Depending on the underlying assumptions, the disease burden associated with iron deficiency could be reduced by 19-58%. Due to the relatively low institutional cost to reach the target population, the expected cost-effectiveness of iron biofortification compares favourably with other micronutrient interventions. Nonetheless, biofortification should not be seen as a substitute for other interventions. Each approach has its particular strengths, so they complement one another.

  14. Faces of the Recovery Act: The Impact of Smart Grid

    ScienceCinema

    President Obama

    2016-07-12

    On October 27th, Baltimore Gas & Electric was selected to receive $200 million for Smart Grid innovation projects under the Recovery Act. Watch as members of their team, along with President Obama, explain how building a smarter grid will help consumers cut their utility bills, battle climate change and create jobs.

  15. Retirement Equity Act of 1984: Its Impact on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This booklet was written to help readers understand how the Retirement Equity Act of 1984 makes it easier for both women and men to collect retirement benefits under private pension plans. Since women have had special problems in the pension area, it emphasizes how the retirement law works to their advantage by preventing loss of coverage during…

  16. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Freedom of Information Act Online

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This system collects the name and contact information for Freedom of Information Act requestors. Learn how the data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies.

  17. Faces of the Recovery Act: The Impact of Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    President Obama

    2009-11-24

    On October 27th, Baltimore Gas & Electric was selected to receive $200 million for Smart Grid innovation projects under the Recovery Act. Watch as members of their team, along with President Obama, explain how building a smarter grid will help consumers cut their utility bills, battle climate change and create jobs.

  18. 77 FR 31039 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United... under investigation No. 332-352, Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on...

  19. L-tyrosine potentiates the anorexia induced by mixed-acting sympathomimetic drugs in hyperphagic rats.

    PubMed

    Hull, K M; Maher, T J

    1990-11-01

    The effects of L-tyrosine (L-TYR) on the anorectic activity of several mixed-acting sympathomimetics were determined during the dark cycle in rats made hyperphagic by food deprivation. L-TYR (200 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the anorectic activity of phenylpropanolamine, (-)-ephedrine and (+)-amphetamine by 48, 50 and 37%, respectively. When the dose of L-TYR was varied (25-400 mg/kg), a significant dose-dependent relationship was noted. The observed potentiation was positively correlated with increases in brain TYR concentrations; blockade of L-TYR uptake into the brain by the coadministration of L-valine prevented this potentiation. Various other L-amino acids, as well as D-TYR, failed to mimic the potentiating action of L-TYR. As determined by alpha-methyl-p-TYR pretreatment, the L-TYR-induced potentiation was dependent upon increased catecholamine synthesis. Although various other mixed-acting sympathomimetic anorexiants were similarly potentiated by L-TYR, the direct-acting beta-2 adrenoceptor anorexiants, salbutamol and methoxyphenamine, were not. These results indicate that L-TYR specifically potentiates the anorectic activity of the studied mixed-acting sympathomimetics and are consistent with the requirement of the central conversion of L-TYR to catecholamines via TYR hydroxylase for this response. The possibility that the effect of mixed-acting sympathomimetics is normally limited by the availability of L-TYR is suggested.

  20. The Impact of CBT and ACT Models Using Psychology Trainee Therapists: A Preliminary Controlled Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Raimo; Lehtonen, Tuula; Skarp, Eerika; Taubert, Eija; Ojanen, Markku; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study compares the impact of individualized treatment provided by trainee therapists based on a traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) model. Fourteen therapists were given initial training in CBT and ACT. Outpatients (N = 28) were randomized to either approach, with each therapist…

  1. 75 FR 32306 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 46 Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Commodities Act (PACA) was enacted in 1930 to promote fair trading in the marketing of fresh and frozen...

  2. 76 FR 29008 - Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and on Beneficiary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and on Beneficiary... the economic impact of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA). AGENCY: United States... the economic impact of the Act on U.S. industries and U.S. consumers and on the economy of...

  3. 78 FR 26392 - Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and on Beneficiary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... COMMISSION Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and on Beneficiary... September 30 of each reporting year on the economic impact of the Act on U.S. industries and U.S. consumers.... 332-227, Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and...

  4. The Americans with Disabilities Act: the impact on radiologic technologists and managers.

    PubMed

    Wedel, C S

    1993-01-01

    On July 26, 1990, President Bush signed the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. The act is being cited as one of the most extensive changes in personnel law since the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The law will impact hiring, promotion, and retention practices in the U.S. work force. Popular press reports have focused on the hiring of disabled workers, but the author argues that retaining healthy workers who become disabled will be the major impact for radiology managers. This article discusses the ADA with a specific emphasis on the retention of disabled radiologic technologists.

  5. Impact of America Invents Act on Biotech Intellectual Property.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Amanda; Stramiello, Michael; Stroud, Jonathan; Lewis, Stacy; Irving, Tom

    2015-04-27

    This review introduces the America Invents Act (AIA), a comprehensive reform of U.S. law on patentability and patent enforceability that Congress enacted in 2011. The AIA's most publicized change transforms the United States from a "first-to-invent" system to a "first-inventor-to-file" regime, bringing U.S. patent law more in line with the patent systems of nearly every other industrialized country in the world. This new system requires small companies and independent inventors to toe the line against larger competitors in what many have called a "race to the patent office." But a closer look at the AIA reveals several opportunities for smaller entities that may even the playing field, particularly for innovators in the biotech sector. This article addresses changes that the AIA brings to U.S. patent law, keeping an eye toward issues relevant to biotech companies.

  6. 76 FR 74069 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... quality of the human environment and that an environmental impact statement is not required. The proposed... Central Utah Project Completion Act; Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the Environmental... which documents the selection of the Proposed Action as presented in the Final Environmental...

  7. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the Computer Security Act of 1987: Impact on incident response efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.E.

    1991-10-11

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate two Federal statutes, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the Computer Security Act of 1987, from the perspective of computer security incident response efforts. First, the major relevant provisions of each statute are presented. Next, revisions to each statute are proposed, and additional areas needing to be addressed in future legislation are presented. The major conclusion is that these statutes represent a start in the legislative process to deter and prevent computer offenses such as unauthorized access to systems. However, many revisions and additions are needed before such legislation will significantly impact incident response efforts. In addition, legislation alone cannot bring about the degree of change necessary to address the range of computer security threats that presently exist.

  8. Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Alain; Yancy, W Samuel

    2004-06-01

    This technical report provides historical perspectives and comparisons of various approaches to the legal status of marijuana to aid in forming public policy. Information on the impact that decriminalization and legalization of marijuana could have on adolescents, in addition to concerns surrounding medicinal use of marijuana, are also addressed in this report. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.

  9. The Human Rights Act (1998) and its impact on reproductive issues.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, G

    2001-04-01

    The Human Rights Act (HR Act) 1998 (UK) (Human Rights Act, 1998) came into effect on October 2, 2000. Instead of taking a case to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, litigants can enforce their rights in the UK. The Act will have an unprecedented effect in virtually all areas of the UK legal systems. In line with those countries who have incorporated the 'Convention' in domestic law, litigation is expected to increase. The extensive body of Convention law, as well as decisions of the domestic courts of other states which have incorporated the Convention, now becomes an integral part of UK jurisprudence. Broadly, the Act applies to public and not private bodies. The relevant bodies which embody reproductive issues and concerns are for example the National Health Service (NHS) and the regulatory bodies such as the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) (Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority Act, 1990) and the Human Genetics Advisory Commission (HGAC). A profound impact on the NHS practice, interpretations of the HFEA Act and its Code of Practice can be envisaged in relation to the Convention rights. Cases involving reproductive issues are already emerging in relation to the HR Act and which include sex selection, the present embryo transfer policy, interpretation of fatherless offspring and the provision of fertility services under the NHS. This review is intended to raise awareness of the HR Act 1998 for persons interested in human reproductive issues and how the HR Act could impact on the current laws and practice. Whilst it is only possible to speculate on what might happen in relation to the HR Act, what is certain is that UK law will radically change to accommodate the requirements of the HR Act 1998.

  10. 75 FR 24967 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY.... 332-352, Andean ] Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication...) of the Act requires that each report include: (1) The actual effect of ATPA on the U.S....

  11. Social impact evaluation of the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppitti, James; Dietz, Thomas

    1983-11-01

    Debate over environmental policy often focuses on social impacts of those policies, but few empirical studies examine the impacts of environmental regulations once they are implemented. A quasi-experimental design based on survey data is used to assess the social impacts of the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) on the West Virginia chemical industry. Changes in employment, manufacturing process, product line, and manufacturing costs are evaluated. RCRA seems to have produced changes in manufacturing processes, but we find no statistically significant impacts on.jobs, product line, or manufacturing costs.

  12. Potential Impacts of Accelerated Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, L. R.; Vail, L. W.

    2016-05-31

    This research project is part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) Probabilistic Flood Hazard Assessment (PFHA) Research plan in support of developing a risk-informed licensing framework for flood hazards and design standards at proposed new facilities and significance determination tools for evaluating potential deficiencies related to flood protection at operating facilities. The PFHA plan aims to build upon recent advances in deterministic, probabilistic, and statistical modeling of extreme precipitation events to develop regulatory tools and guidance for NRC staff with regard to PFHA for nuclear facilities. The tools and guidance developed under the PFHA plan will support and enhance NRC’s capacity to perform thorough and efficient reviews of license applications and license amendment requests. They will also support risk-informed significance determination of inspection findings, unusual events, and other oversight activities.

  13. Climate-change impact potentials as an alternative to global warming potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.

    2014-03-01

    For policy applications, such as for the Kyoto Protocol, the climate-change contributions of different greenhouse gases are usually quantified through their global warming potentials. They are calculated based on the cumulative radiative forcing resulting from a pulse emission of a gas over a specified time period. However, these calculations are not explicitly linked to an assessment of ultimate climate-change impacts. A new metric, the climate-change impact potential (CCIP), is presented here that is based on explicitly defining the climate-change perturbations that lead to three different kinds of climate-change impacts. These kinds of impacts are: (1) those related directly to temperature increases; (2) those related to the rate of warming; and (3) those related to cumulative warming. From those definitions, a quantitative assessment of the importance of pulse emissions of each gas is developed, with each kind of impact assigned equal weight for an overall impact assessment. Total impacts are calculated under the RCP6 concentration pathway as a base case. The relevant climate-change impact potentials are then calculated as the marginal increase of those impacts over 100 years through the emission of an additional unit of each gas in 2010. These calculations are demonstrated for CO2, methane and nitrous oxide. Compared with global warming potentials, climate-change impact potentials would increase the importance of pulse emissions of long-lived nitrous oxide and reduce the importance of short-lived methane.

  14. Impact Crater Environments as Potential Sources of Hadean Detrital Zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, G. G.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Kamber, B. S.

    2016-08-01

    Here we show that contrary to previous suggestions, there is no reason to rule out impact melt sheets as major sources of Hadean detrital zircons. We then explore the potential of other impact crater-related environments in which zircons crystallise.

  15. Current California Drought: Impact on Citrus Trees and Potential Mitigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California is in another cycle of extended drought. The article reviews and discusses likely impact of the current drought on citrus growers and potential mitigation techniques. Citrus physiological responses to water stress is briefly reviewed. The direct impact of drought on citrus is reduced frui...

  16. Impact of the Kentucky Education Reform Act on Special Education Costs and Funding. State Analysis Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.; Duenas, Ixtlac E.

    This paper explores the impact of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) of 1990 on the funding and allocation of resources to special education. Overall, the results indicate that the revenues generated for the special education system by KERA are approximately equal to marginal costs of special education services statewide. However, there is…

  17. The Impact of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) on Two State Cooperative Extension Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, Sarah; Boyd, Heather H.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported here examined the impact of the Government Performance and Results Act on accountability and evaluation activities in two state Cooperative Extension Systems. Accountability was examined using five dimensions from Koppell's (2005) framework. Findings indicated both Extension systems transferred accountability activities to…

  18. National Association of Attorneys General Model Solicitation Act: Its Origin and Impact on Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suffern, Kevin A.

    1988-01-01

    The National Association of Attorneys' Model Solicitation Act, which covers college and university fund-raising and has been used for state legislation, is discussed. Its origins and basic concepts, impact on institutions, and reasons for eliminating college and university exemption are examined. (MSE)

  19. The Impact of Selected Academic and Demographic Variables on Mathematics College Readiness Predicted by ACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the degree to which academic and demographic variables affected the ACT results used in determining college readiness. This quantitative research study followed a non-experimental correlational design. A multiple regression was used to analyze archival data to determine the impact the combined Arkansas…

  20. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  1. The No Child Left Behind Act: Clarifying the Potential Role of Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, J. M.; Slater, T. F.

    2003-12-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 seeks to redefine the role the federal government plays in K-12 education. The four basic principles behind the NCLB's sweeping reform are: stronger accountability for results, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work. Beginning first by focusing on reading and mathematics and then following quickly in science, the full extent to which this act will impact schools is unclear. One clause in this act suggests that math and science achievement will be improved by having school districts forge partnerships with math and science departments at institutions of higher education, including research universities. However, it is also unclear how scientists who are committed to K-12 teacher education should respond to the directives in NCLB. We examine the NCLB Act in depth with the goals of providing a more clear overview of the roles scientists may be expected to take if NCLB becomes the model for education reform and stimulating discussion amongst scientists and educators about how best to rapidly respond to the immediate needs of students, teachers, and schools. Work supported in part by a grant from the Arizona Board of Regents and the Arizona Regents University to the University of Arizona Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team at Steward Observatory.

  2. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  3. 77 FR 28620 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... COMMISSION Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY... Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication. DATES: July 3, 2012: Deadline for...: (1) The actual effect of ATPA on the U.S. economy generally as well as on specific...

  4. The Impact of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on Legal Education and Law Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Christopher R.

    1986-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 changed the tax laws that affect how law schools raise revenue and how law faculty make expenditures. All law faculty should become familiar with the changes so as to minimize the potentially adverse consequences to themselves and their institutions. (MSE)

  5. Impact of Preservation of Subsoil Water Act on Groundwater Depletion: The Case of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Amarnath; Mishra, Ashok K.; Verma, Geetanjali

    2016-07-01

    Indian states like Punjab and Haryana, epicenters of the Green Revolution, are facing severe groundwater shortages and falling water tables. Recognizing it as a serious concern, the Government of Punjab enacted the Punjab Preservation of Subsoil Water Act in 2009 (or the 2009 act) to slow groundwater depletion. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of this policy on groundwater depletion, using panel data from 1985 to 2011. Results from this study find a robust effect of the 2009 act on reducing groundwater depletion. Our models for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and overall periods of analysis find that since implementation of the 2009 act, groundwater tables have improved significantly. Second, our study reveals that higher shares of tube wells per total cropped area and increased population density have led to a significant decline in the groundwater tables. On the other hand, rainfall and the share of area irrigated by surface water have had an augmenting effect on groundwater resources. In the two models, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon, this study shows that seasonality plays a key role in determining the groundwater table in Punjab. Specifically, monsoon rainfall has a very prominent impact on groundwater.

  6. Impacts of Modeled Provisions of H.R. 6 EH: The Energy Policy Act of 2005

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a May 2, 2005, request by Chairman Pete Domenici and Ranking Member Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for an assessment of the energy supply, consumption, import, price, and macroeconomic impacts of H.R. 6 EH, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, as passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on April 21, 2005.

  7. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S. 280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain for an estimate of the economic impacts of S.280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007. S. 280 would establish a series of caps on greenhouse gas emissions starting in 2012 followed by increasingly stringent caps beginning in 2020, 2030 and 2050. The report provides estimates of the effects of S. 280 on energy markets and the economy through 2030.

  8. Impacts of phylogenetic nomenclature on the efficacy of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Matthew S

    2015-02-01

    Cataloging biodiversity is critical to conservation efforts because accurate taxonomy is often a precondition for protection under laws designed for species conservation, such as the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Traditional nomenclatural codes governing the taxonomic process have recently come under scrutiny because taxon names are more closely linked to hierarchical ranks than to the taxa themselves. A new approach to naming biological groups, called phylogenetic nomenclature (PN), explicitly names taxa by defining their names in terms of ancestry and descent. PN has the potential to increase nomenclatural stability and decrease confusion induced by the rank-based codes. But proponents of PN have struggled with whether species and infraspecific taxa should be governed by the same rules as other taxa or should have special rules. Some proponents advocate the wholesale abandonment of rank labels (including species); this could have consequences for the implementation of taxon-based conservation legislation. I examined the principles of PN as embodied in the PhyloCode (an alternative to traditional rank-based nomenclature that names biological groups based on the results of phylogenetic analyses and does not associate taxa with ranks) and assessed how this novel approach to naming taxa might affect the implementation of species-based legislation by providing a case study of the ESA. The latest version of the PhyloCode relies on the traditional rank-based codes to name species and infraspecific taxa; thus, little will change regarding the main targets of the ESA because they will retain rank labels. For this reason, and because knowledge of evolutionary relationships is of greater importance than nomenclatural procedures for initial protection of endangered taxa under the ESA, I conclude that PN under the PhyloCode will have little impact on implementation of the ESA.

  9. Potential Environmental Impacts of Army Laser Operations: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010. AUTHORITY CRDEC ltr, 29 Mar 1990 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED AD CHEMICAL S SYSTEMS LA1BORATORY US Army Armament Research ...and Development Command Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 Lii TECHNICAL REPORT ARCSL-TR-83066 POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL MIACTS OF ARMY LASER...PERIOD COVERED Technical Report POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ARMY LASER 25 March 1982 - 30 June 1983 OPERATIONS. AN OVERVIEW *. PERFORMING ORG

  10. Cross-Polar Aircraft Trajectory Optimization and Potential Climate Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil; Ng, Hok

    2011-01-01

    Cross-Polar routes offer new opportunities for air travel markets. Transpolar flights reduce travel times, fuel burns, and associated environmental emissions by flying direct paths between many North American and Asian cities. This study evaluates the potential benefits of flying wind-optimal polar routes and assessed their potential impact on climate change. An optimization algorithm is developed for transpolar flights to generate wind-optimal trajectories that minimize climate impact of aircraft, in terms of global warming potentials (relative to warming by one kg of CO2) of several types of emissions, while avoiding regions of airspace that facilitate persistent contrail formation. Estimations of global warming potential are incorporated into the objective function of the optimization algorithm to assess the climate impact of aircraft emissions discharged at a given location and altitude. The regions of airspace with very low ambient temperature and areas favorable to persistent contrail formation are modeled as undesirable regions that aircraft should avoid and are formulated as soft state constraints. The fuel burn and climate impact of cross-polar air traffic flying various types of trajectory including flightplan, great circle, wind-optimal, and contrail-avoidance are computed for 15 origin-destination pairs between major international airports in the U.S. and Asia. Wind-optimal routes reduce average fuel burn of flight plan routes by 4.4% on December 4, 2010 and 8.0% on August 7, 2010, respectively. The tradeoff between persistent contrail formation and additional global warming potential of aircraft emissions is investigated with and without altitude optimization. Without altitude optimization, the reduction in contrail travel times is gradual with increase in total fuel consumption. When altitude is optimized, a one percent increase in additional global warming potential, a climate impact equivalent to that of 4070kg and 4220kg CO2 emission, reduces 135

  11. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  12. The Potential Impact of Health Care Reform on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reace, Diana

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 522 colleges and universities investigated the impact of health care reform proposals. Results provide an overview of typical current medical plan design, including coverage for part- and full-time employees, and give insight into attitudes toward the idea of regional health alliances, a potentially useful reform approach. (MSE)

  13. The Equal Rights Amendment: Its Potential Impact on Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myricks, Noel

    1977-01-01

    The potential impact of the proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) can be measured in areas such as alimony, child support, child custody, property ownership, divorce and rights of consortium. Statutes which use sex as the sole criterion would be unconstitutional. (Author)

  14. Impacts of Potential Future Droughts on Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tidwell, V. C.; King, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the state of Texas experienced the worst single-year drought on record. This recent extreme climate event raised questions as to how future droughts might impact ERCOT operations. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential future droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and power plants within the context of long-term transmission planning. The study identified three potential drought scenarios (single- and multiple-year droughts) based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Texas-Gulf river basin. The Texas-Gulf hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and 125 reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and cooling water for power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds (such as evapotranspiration, soil water, water yield from watersheds, stream flow, and water storage in reservoirs) provide a bases to assess if power plants potentially at risk of being of derated and watersheds are vulnerable to droughts. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of power plants at risk and vulnerable watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation. Beyond impacts to the existing

  15. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  16. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  17. 76 FR 21938 - Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and Associated Actions for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, FAA Orders 1050.1E, ``Environmental Impacts: Policies and... resources identified in accordance with FAA Order 1050.1E, Environmental Impacts: Policies and...

  18. Potential anti-obesity effects of a long-acting cocaine hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xirong; Deng, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Yao, Jianzhuang; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-11-25

    A long-acting cocaine hydrolase, known as CocH3-Fc(M3), engineered from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was tested, in this study, for its potential anti-obesity effects. Mice on a high-fat diet gained significantly less body weight when treated weekly with 1 mg/kg CocH3-Fc(M3) compared to control mice, though their food intake was similar. There is no correlation between the average body weight and the average food intake, which is consistent with the previously reported observation in BChE knockout mice. In addition, molecular modeling was carried out to understand how ghrelin binds with CocH3, showing that ghrelin binds with CocH3 in a similar mode as ghrelin binding with wild-type human BChE. The similar binding structures explains why CocH3 and BChE have similar catalytic activity against ghrelin.

  19. Potential impact of high temperature superconductors on MAGLEV transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the potential impact that high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) may have on transportation by magnetically levitated vehicles. It is not intended as a planning document, but rather as an overview of potential HTS applications to magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation. The present maglev program in the United States is summarized, and the present status of development of HTS's is described. Areas identified for possible impact on maglev technology are: (1) liquid-nitrogen-cooled levitation magnets; (2) magnetic-field shielding of the passenger compartment; (3) superconducting magnetic energy storage for wayside power; (4) superconducting bearings for flywheel energy storage for wayside power; (5) downleads to continuously powered liquid-helium-cooled levitation magnets; and (6) liquid-hydrogen-cooled levitation magnets and linear motor propulsion windings. Major technical issues that remain to be resolved for the use of HTS's in maglev applications include thermal magnetic stability, mechanical properties, and critical current density at liquid-nitrogen temperatures.

  20. Potential impact of high temperature superconductors on maglev transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the potential impact that high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) may have on transportation by magnetically levitated vehicles. It is not intended as a planning document, but rather as an overview of potential HTS applications to magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation. The present maglev program in the United States is summarized, and the present status of development of HTSs is described. Areas identified for possible impact on maglev technology are (1) liquid-nitrogen-cooled levitation magnets, (2) magnetic-field shielding of the passenger compartment, (3) superconducting magnetic energy storage for wayside power, (4) superconducting bearings for flywheel energy storage for wayside power, (5) downleads to continuously powered liquid-helium-cooled levitation magnets, and (6) liquid-hydrogen-cooled levitation magnets and linear motor propulsion windings. Major technical issues that remain to be resolved for the use of HTSs in maglev applications include thermal magnetic stability, mechanical properties, and critical current density at liquid-nitrogen temperatures.

  1. Potential dynamic impacts of wind turbines on utility systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaininger, H. W.; Bell, D. J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an initial assessment of potential wind power generation dynamic impacts on utility systems from a global utility perspective performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. Dynamic study of minute-to-minute ramping, frequency excursions, and short-term transient stability was performed using the isolated Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) system as an illustrative example. Potential minute-to-minute ramping requirements imposed on conventional generation units of two interconnected utilities, Kansas Gas and Electric (KG&E) and Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) were investigated, using interconnected utility operating criteria.

  2. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Appendices A--L.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report consists of appendices A-L of the final environmental impact statement for the Bonneville Power Administration. The appendices provide information on the following: Ninth circuit Court opinion in Forelaws on Board v. Johnson; guide to Northwest Power act contracts; guide to hydro operations; glossary; affected environment supporting documentation; environmental impacts of generic resource types; information on models used; technical information on analysis; public involvement activities; bibliography; Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act; and biological assessment. (CBS)

  3. Potential impact of seawater uranium extraction on marine life

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jiyeon; Jeters, Robert T.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Gill, Gary A.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2016-02-18

    A variety of adsorbent materials have been developed to extract uranium from seawater as an alternative traditional terrestrial mining. A large-scale deployment of these adsorbents would be necessary to recover useful quantities of uranium and this raises a number of concerns regarding potential impacts on the surrounding marine environment. Two concerns are whether or not the adsorbent materials are toxic and any potentially harmful effects that may result from depleting uranium or vanadium (also highly concentrated by the adsorbents) from the local environment. To test the potential toxicity of the adsorbent with or without bound metals, Microtox assays were used to test both direct contact toxicity and the toxicity of any leachate in the seawater. The Microtox assay was chosen because it the detection of non-specific mechanisms of toxicity. Toxicity was not observed with leachates from any of 68 adsorbent materials that were tested, but direct contact with some adsorbents at very high adsorbent con-centrations exhibited toxicity. These concentrations are, however, very unlikely to be seen in the actual marine deployment. Adsor-bents that accumulated uranium and trace metals were also tested for toxicity, and no toxic effect was observed. Biofouling on the adsorbents and in columns or flumes containing the adsorbents also indicates that the adsorbents are not toxic and that there may not be an obvious deleterious effect resulting from removing uranium and vanadium from seawater. An extensive literature search was also performed to examine the potential impact of uranium and vanadium extraction from seawater on marine life using the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) document analysis tool, IN-SPIRE™. Although other potential environmental effects must also be considered, results from both the Microtox assay and the literature search provide preliminary evidence that uranium extraction from seawater could be performed with minimal impact on

  4. Potential Impacts of Climatic Change on European Breeding Birds

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Brian; Collingham, Yvonne C.; Willis, Stephen G.; Green, Rhys E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Climatic change is expected to lead to changes in species' geographical ranges. Adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation require quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction and rates of these potential changes. Such estimates are of greatest value when they are made for large ensembles of species and for extensive (sub-continental or continental) regions. Methodology/Principal Findings For six climate scenarios for 2070–99 changes have been estimated for 431 European breeding bird species using models relating species' distributions in Europe to climate. Mean range centroid potentially shifted 258–882 km in a direction between 341° (NNW) and 45° (NE), depending upon the climate scenario considered. Potential future range extent averaged 72–89% of the present range, and overlapped the present range by an average of 31–53% of the extent of the present range. Even if potential range changes were realised, the average number of species breeding per 50×50 km grid square would decrease by 6·8–23·2%. Many species endemic or near-endemic to Europe have little or no overlap between their present and potential future ranges; such species face an enhanced extinction risk as a consequence of climatic change. Conclusions/Significance Although many human activities exert pressures upon wildlife, the magnitude of the potential impacts estimated for European breeding birds emphasises the importance of climatic change. The development of adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation in the face of climatic change is an urgent need; such strategies must take into account quantitative evidence of potential climatic change impacts such as is presented here. PMID:18197250

  5. The potential impact of hydrogen energy use on the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.

    2009-04-01

    Energy models show very different trajectories for future energy systems (partly as function of future climate policy). One possible option is a transition towards a hydrogen-based energy system. The potential impact of such hydrogen economy on atmospheric emissions is highly uncertain. On the one hand, application of hydrogen in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of local air pollutants, like SOx and NOx. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen from system leakages are expected to change the atmospheric concentrations and behaviour (see also Price et al., 2007; Sanderson et al., 2003; Schultz et al., 2003; Tromp et al., 2003). The uncertainty arises from several sources: the expected use of hydrogen, the intensity of leakages and emissions, and the atmospheric chemical behaviour of hydrogen. Existing studies to the potential impacts of a hydrogen economy on the atmosphere mostly use hydrogen emission scenarios that are based on simple assumptions. This research combines two different modelling efforts to explore the range of impacts of hydrogen on atmospheric chemistry. First, the potential role of hydrogen in the global energy system and the related emissions of hydrogen and other air pollutants are derived from the global energy system simulation model TIMER (van Vuuren, 2007). A set of dedicated scenarios on hydrogen technology development explores the most pessimistic and optimistic cases for hydrogen deployment (van Ruijven et al., 2008; van Ruijven et al., 2007). These scenarios are combined with different assumptions on hydrogen emission factors. Second, the emissions from the TIMER model are linked to the NCAR atmospheric model (Lamarque et al., 2005; Lamarque et al., 2008), in order to determine the impacts on atmospheric chemistry. By combining an energy system model and an atmospheric model, we are able to consistently explore the boundaries of both hydrogen use, emissions and impacts on atmospheric chemistry. References: Lamarque, J.-F., Kiehl, J. T

  6. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds.

  7. Estimation of potential impacts and natural resource damages of oil.

    PubMed

    McCay, Deborah French; Rowe, Jill Jennings; Whittier, Nicole; Sankaranarayanan, Sankar; Etkin, Dagmar Schmidt

    2004-02-27

    Methods were developed to estimate the potential impacts and natural resource damages resulting from oil spills using probabilistic modeling techniques. The oil fates model uses wind data, current data, and transport and weathering algorithms to calculate mass balance of fuel components in various environmental compartments (water surface, shoreline, water column, atmosphere, sediments, etc.), oil pathway over time (trajectory), surface distribution, shoreline oiling, and concentrations of the fuel components in water and sediments. Exposure of aquatic habitats and organisms to whole oil and toxic components is estimated in the biological model, followed by estimation of resulting acute mortality and ecological losses. Natural resource damages are based on estimated costs to restore equivalent resources and/or ecological services, using Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) and Resource Equivalency Analysis (REA) methods. Oil spill modeling was performed for two spill sites in central San Francisco Bay, three spill sizes (20th, 50th, and 95th percentile volumes from tankers and larger freight vessels, based on an analysis of likely spill volumes given a spill has occurred) and four oil types (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The scenarios were run in stochastic mode to determine the frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation of fates, impacts, and damages. This work is significant as it demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method for estimating potential impacts and financial consequences that may be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analyses. The statistically-defined spill volumes and consequences provide an objective measure of the magnitude, range and variability of impacts to wildlife, aquatic organisms and shorelines for potential spills of four oil/fuel types, each having distinct environmental fates and effects.

  8. Heat shock protein 70 acts as a potential biomarker for early diagnosis of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongshi; Song, Yao; Xing, Rui; Yu, Haiyi; Zhang, Youyi; Li, Zijian; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Early identification for heart failure (HF) may be useful for disease modifying treatment in order to reduce heart disease progression or even to reverse it. In our previous studies, we have revealed a group of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which might be related to neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by proteomic approach. Here, we confirm that HSPs, including HSP27 and HSP70, altered in the early stage of cardiac remodeling in vivo animal model. Furthermore, plasma concentrations of those HSPs and their potential screening value were evaluated at different stages in 222 patient subjects. Plasma HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results indicate that HSP70 was positively correlated to the severity (progression) of HF (r = 0.456, p<0.001). The area under the rate of change (ROC) curve was 0.601 (p = 0.017) in patients with stage B HF and 0.835 (p<0.001) in those with stage C HF. However, HSP27 and HSP90 did not display significant changes in any stage of HF in this study. Taken together, plasma concentrations of HSP70 elevated with the progression of HF and might act as a potential screening biomarker for early diagnosis of HF.

  9. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  10. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Shinjiro; Hanasaki, Naota; Itsubo, Norihiro; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan

    2014-05-01

    The sustainability of freshwater use is often evaluated based on the total volume of water consumption or withdrawal. However, the renewable freshwater resource and potential impacts of water depletion differ with location and water source. In addition, most estimates of the environmental impacts of water use have focused on depletion from a single-source perspective without separating geographically different water sources. Therefore, comprehensive potential impacts from multiple water sources remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the potential impacts of the global food production on freshwater availability (water availability footprint), applying the Water Availability Factor (fwa). Each water source including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater had individual fwa, which is calculated based on the geophysical hydrological cycle, to reflect the differences among renewable freshwater resources by place and source. The fwa for each water source was estimated based on land area or time period required to obtain the reference volume of freshwater. The reference volume was regarded as 1 m3 of rainfall over an area of 1.0 m2 (1,000 mm/year), based on the global mean annual precipitation. This concept is consistent with the Ecological Footprint (EF), which measures how much biologically productive land area is required to provide the resources consumed. The EF concept is measured in global hectares, a standardized unit equal to one hectare with global average bioproductivity. We found that the current agriculture consumes freshwater resources at 1.3 times the rapid rate than sustainable water use. This rate can also indicate environmental water scarcity. Among environmentally water-scarce countries, well-financed countries tend to import cereal products as virtual water to compensate for their domestic water resources. Among water-abundant countries, well-financed countries tend to export cereal products by exploiting their freshwater availability. The fwa

  11. Intimations of the Potential Environmental Impact of Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolman, M. G.

    2006-05-01

    Roughly fifty years ago the hydrologic literature began to reflect growing recognition of the potential impact of urbanization on the environment. Documented impacts ranged from the urban heat island of several degrees Fahrenheit to doubling of the cross-sectional area of urban stream channels. Observers noted a broad spectrum of changes. Peak stages of small floods increased along with their volume and frequency. Increasing direct runoff was accompanied by decreasing elevation of the groundwater table. As the impermeable surface of streets and roof tops expands, sediment concentration declines as bank erosion, not the land surface, becomes the dominant source of supply. Runoff from streets and storm drains in places proved to be comparable to effluent from secondary treatment plants often containing pathogens as well as organics, salts, and metals. Ameliorating or reversing the negative hydrologic impacts has proven difficult. Creative design encompassing channel morphology and the scaling and disposition of reservoirs is the requisite mantra, not restoration. Unfortunately, hierarchical drainage nets and random spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation events are generally incompatible with sequential land development and equity in storage requirements for individual parcels of land. Nevertheless, in the last half-century the image of urban rivers has been transformed from drainage ditch to potential aesthetic treasure.

  12. Impact of the Clean Water Act on the levels of toxic metals in urban estuaries: The Hudson River estuary revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A.; Gill, G.A.

    1999-10-15

    To establish the impact of the Clean Water Act on the water quality of urban estuaries, dissolved trace metals and phosphate concentrations were determined in surface waters collected along the Hudson River estuary between 1995 and 1997 and compared with samples collected in the mid-1970s by Klinkhammer and Bender. The median concentrations along the estuary have apparently declined 36--56% for Cu, 55--89% for Cd, 53--85% for Ni, and 53--90% for Zn over a period of 23 years. These reductions appear to reflect improvements in controlling discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants since the Clean Water Act was enacted in 1972. In contrast, levels of dissolved nutrients (PO{sub 4}) have remained relatively constant during the same period of time, suggesting that wastewater treatment plant improvements in the New York/New Jersey Metropolitan area have not been as effective at reducing nutrient levels within the estuary. While more advanced wastewater treatment could potentially reduce the levels of Ag and PO{sub 4} along the estuary, these improvements would have a more limited effect on the levels of other trace metals.

  13. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    SciTech Connect

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors.

  14. Insurers' policies on coverage for behavior management services and the impact of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on dental insurance coverage for behavior management services depends upon the child's source of insurance (Medicaid, CHIP, private commercial) and the policies that govern each such source. This contribution describes historical and projected sources of pediatric dental coverage, catalogues the seven behavior codes used by dentists, compares how often they are billed by pediatric and general dentists, assesses payment policies and practices for behavioral services across coverage sources, and describes how ACA coverage policies may impact each source. Differences between Congressional intent to ensure comprehensive oral health services with meaningful consumer protections for all legal-resident children and regulatory action by the Departments of Treasury and Health and Human Services are explored to explain how regulations fail to meet Congressional intent as of 2014. The ACA may additionally impact pediatric dentistry practice, including dentists' behavior management services, by expanding pediatric dental training and safety net delivery sites and by stimulating the evolution of novel payment and delivery systems designed to move provider incentives away from procedure-based payments and toward health outcome-based payments.

  15. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. L.

    2011-12-01

    California's water resources are primarily from snowmelt runoff from the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains. Depending on the year, Sierra Nevada snowmelt provides seventy percent of the water resources needed to sustain urban, agricultural, ecological, and other sector needs. With increasing temperatures due to climate change the Sierra Nevada snowmelt is occurring earlier and with decreasing snow cover area. Such change may mimic drought scenarios and dramatically alter water resource availability and management in California. A fundamental requirement for drought water management is knowledge of the total groundwater resources and the rate in which it is depleted. Application of remote sensed Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data represents an important new approach toward quantifying these values. The primary uncertainties are the spatial scale required for an accurate GRACE analysis and an insufficient number and frequency of well observations for ground-truth. In this study, an initial quantification of long-term droughts - an analogue for climate change related snowpack reduction - has been performed to illustrate the potential for subsurface storage to limit the adverse impacts of drought and snowpack reduction on water supply in the California. This includes estimates of the impacts of changes in groundwater levels, surface supply, and crop water demands. Analysis of California Central Valley impacts of sustained droughts are based on a series of specified reductions in net surface flows corresponding to historical 30% (below average), 50% (dry), and 70% (critically dry) effective reduction, for periods ranging from 10 to 60 years, and applied to the California Department of Water Resource's California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model. The impacts of the droughts are modeled for four different regions in the Central Valley, including the Sacramento Basin, Eastside, the San Joaquin Basin, and the Tulare Basin. Results

  16. Potential impacts of Brayton and Stirling cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heft, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two engine technologies (Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle) are examined for their potential economic impact and fuel utilization. An economic analysis of the expected response of buyers to the attributes of the alternative engines was performed. Hedonic coefficients for vehicle fuel efficiency, performance and size were estimated for domestic cars based upon historical data. The marketplace value of the fuel efficiency enhancement provided by Brayton or Stirling engines was estimated. Under the assumptions of 10 years for plant conversions and 1990 and 1995 as the introduction data for turbine and Stirling engines respectively, the comparative fuel savings and present value of the future savings in fuel costs were estimated.

  17. The potential impact of MMICs on future satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Vernon E.

    1988-01-01

    This is the Final Report representing the results of a 17-month study on the future trends and requirements of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) for space communication applications. Specifically this report identifies potential space communication applications of MMICs, assesses the impact of MMIC on the classes of systems that were identified, determines the present status and probable 10-year growth in capability of required MMIC and competing technologies, identifies the applications most likely to benefit from further MMIC development and presents recommendations for NASA development activities to address the needs of these applications.

  18. Attenuation of cadmium-induced necrotic cell death by necrostatin-1: Potential necrostatin-1 acting sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, T.-S.; Yang, P.-M.; Tsai, J.-S.; Lin, L.-Y.

    2009-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) induces necrotic death in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells and we have established the responsible signaling pathway. Reportedly, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) rescues cells from necrotic death by mediating through the death domain receptor (DR) signaling pathway. We show here that Nec-1 also effectively attenuates necrotic death triggered by Cd. Two other treatments that cause necrotic cell death, one can (z-VAD-fmk/TNF-{alpha} on U937 cells) and the other cannot (etherynic acid (EA) on DLD-1 cells) be rescued by Nec-1, were also studied in parallel for comparison. Results show that Nec-1 is ineffectual in modulating intracellular calcium contents, calpain activity (a downstream protease), or reactive oxygen species production. It can counteract the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) caused by treating CHO K1 or U937 cells with necrosis-inducing agent. However, this effect was not found in EA-treated DLD-1 cells. Notably, Nec-1 elevates NF-{kappa}B activity in the presence or absence of necrosis-inducing agents. Our study shows that, in addition to DR-mediated necrosis, Nec-1 is effective in attenuating Cd-induced necrosis. It rescues cells with reduced MMP implying that mitochondrion is its major acting site.

  19. SLC7A5 act as a potential leukemic transformation target gene in myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Song, Jing; Chen, Bobin; Xu, Xiaoping; Lin, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogenous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by increased risk of leukemic transformation. This study identifies microRNAs(miRNA) and miRNA targets that might represent leukemic transformation markers for MDS. Methods Based on our previously established nested case-control study cohort of MDS patients, we chose paired patients to undergo Angilent 8 × 15K human miRNA microarrays. Target prediction analysis was administrated using targetscan 5.1 software. We further investigated the function of target gene in MDS cell line using siRNA method, including cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, cell cycle and electron microscope. Results Finally we screened a subset of 7 miRNAs to be significantly differentially expressed between the case (at the end of follow up with leukemic transformation) and control group (at the end of follow up without leukemic transformation). Target prediction analysis revealed SLC7A5 was the common target gene of these 7 miRNAs. Further study on the function of SLC7A5 gene in SKM-1 cell line showed that downregulation of SLC7A5 inhibited SKM-1 cells proliferation, increased apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 stage. Conclusion Our data indicate that SLC7A5 gene may act as a potential leukemic transformation target gene in MDS. PMID:26657287

  20. Spermbots: potential impact for drug delivery and assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Magdanz, Veronika; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2014-08-01

    Micromotors and nanomotors are an emerging research field that aims at achieving locomotion on the microscale for a variety of applications such as drug delivery, single cell manipulation, microsensors and lab-on-a-chip devices, just to point out a few. The enthusiastic development of hybrid micromotors harnessing biological power sources for physiologically compatible nano/microdevices has recently brought a lot of attention to the international research community that is looking for a solution for the actuation and locomotion on the microscale. This article describes the potential of sperm-driven micro-bio-robots in the biomedical field such as drug delivery or single cell manipulation. Herein, a specific potential of the sperm-driven micro-bio-robot is described that might have impact on the development of assisted reproductive technologies.

  1. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  2. Virtual impact: visualizing the potential effects of cosmic impact in human history

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, W Bruce; Janecky, David R; Forte, Maurizio; Barrientos, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Current models indicate that catastrophic impacts by asteroids and comets capable of killing more than one quarter of Earth's human population have occurred on average once every million years; smaller impacts, such the 1908 Tunguska impact that leveled more than 2,000 square km of Siberian forest, occur every 200-300 years. Therefore, cosmic impact likely significantly affected hominine evolution and conceivably played a role in Holocene period human culture history. Regrettably, few archaeologists are trained to appreciate the nature and potential effects of cosmic impact. We have developed a conceptual model for an extensible set of educational and research tools based on virtual reality collaborative environments to engage archaeologists and the general public on the topic of the role of cosmic impact in human history. Our initial focus is on two documented asteroid impacts in Argentina during the period of 4000 to 1000 B.C. Campo del Cicio resulted in an energy release of around 2-3 megatons (100-150 times the Hiroshima atomic weapon), and left several craters and a strewn field covering 493 km{sup 2} in northeastern Argentina. Rio Cuarto was likely more than 1000 megatons and may have devastated an area greater than 50,000 km{sup 2} in central Argentina. We are focusing on reconstructions of these events and their potential effects on contemporary hunter and gatherers. Our vinual reality tools also introduce interactive variables (e.g., impactor physical properties, climate, vegetation, topography, and social complexity) to allow researchers and students to better investigate and evaluate the factors that significantly influence cosmic impact effects.

  3. Rising soil temperature in China and its potential ecological impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Enli; Zhou, Daowei; Luo, Zhongkui; Zhang, Zhengxiang

    2016-10-01

    Global warming influences a series of ecological processes and ecosystems’ stability. Although comprehensive studies have been done to investigate responses of various ecosystem processes to rising air temperatures, less is known about changes in soil temperatures and their impact on below-ground processes, particularly in deep layers. Herein, we used 50 y of temperature data (1962–2011) from 360 sites in China to assess spatio-temporal changes in soil temperatures from the surface to a depth of 3.20 m. We determined, apparently for the first time, that soil surface temperature increased 31% more than air temperature, potentially leading to more carbon release to the atmosphere than predicted. Annual mean surface temperature increased by 2.07–4.04 and 0.66–2.21 °C in northern and southern China, respectively, with the greatest in winter. Warming occurred as deep as 3.20 m. The soil temperature rise was predicted to have increased soil respiration by up to 28%, reinforcing climate warming and extending the potential growing season by up to 20 d across China. However, use of only air temperature to estimate soil temperature changes would underestimate those impacts. In conclusion, these results highlighted the importance of soil warming and of using soil temperature to assess and predict soil processes.

  4. Potential impact of global climate change on malaria risk

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, W.J.M.; Rotmans, J. |; Niessen, L.W.; Jetten, T.H.; McMichael, A.J.

    1995-05-01

    The biological activity and geographic distribution of the malarial parasite and its vector are sensitive to climatic influences, especially temperature and precipitation. We have incorporated General Circulation Model-based scenarios of anthropogenic global climate change in an integrated linked-system model for predicting changes in malaria epidemic potential in the next century. The concept of the disability-adjusted life years is included to arrive at a single measure of the effect of anthropogenic climate change on the health impact of malaria. Assessment of the potential impact of global climate change on the incidence of malaria suggests a widespread increase of risk due to expansion of the areas suitable for malaria transmission. This predicted increase is most pronounced at the borders of endemic malaria areas and at higher altitudes within malarial areas. The incidence of infection is sensitive to climate changes in areas of Southeast Asia, South America, and parts of Africa where the disease is less endemic; in these regions the numbers of years of healthy life lost may increase significantly. However, the simulated changes in malaria risk must be interpreted on the basis of local environmental conditions, the effects of socioeconomic developments, and malaria control programs or capabilities. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-03

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential.

  6. Rising soil temperature in China and its potential ecological impact

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Enli; Zhou, Daowei; Luo, Zhongkui; Zhang, Zhengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Global warming influences a series of ecological processes and ecosystems’ stability. Although comprehensive studies have been done to investigate responses of various ecosystem processes to rising air temperatures, less is known about changes in soil temperatures and their impact on below-ground processes, particularly in deep layers. Herein, we used 50 y of temperature data (1962–2011) from 360 sites in China to assess spatio-temporal changes in soil temperatures from the surface to a depth of 3.20 m. We determined, apparently for the first time, that soil surface temperature increased 31% more than air temperature, potentially leading to more carbon release to the atmosphere than predicted. Annual mean surface temperature increased by 2.07–4.04 and 0.66–2.21 °C in northern and southern China, respectively, with the greatest in winter. Warming occurred as deep as 3.20 m. The soil temperature rise was predicted to have increased soil respiration by up to 28%, reinforcing climate warming and extending the potential growing season by up to 20 d across China. However, use of only air temperature to estimate soil temperature changes would underestimate those impacts. In conclusion, these results highlighted the importance of soil warming and of using soil temperature to assess and predict soil processes. PMID:27765953

  7. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts.

    PubMed

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; Frank, David; Mahecha, Miguel D; Smith, Pete; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Babst, Flurin; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Ibrom, Andreas; Miglietta, Franco; Poulter, Ben; Rammig, Anja; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin; Zavala, Miguel A; Zscheischler, Jakob

    2015-08-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance-induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well-defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta-analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land-cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground-based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub-)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global

  8. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; Frank, David; Mahecha, Miguel D; Smith, Pete; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Babst, Flurin; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Ibrom, Andreas; Miglietta, Franco; Poulter, Ben; Rammig, Anja; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin; Zavala, Miguel A; Zscheischler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance-induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well-defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta-analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land-cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground-based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub-)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global

  9. Early Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Oral Contraceptive Cost Sharing, Discontinuation, And Nonadherence.

    PubMed

    Pace, Lydia E; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-09-01

    The oral contraceptive pill is the contraceptive method most commonly used by US women, but inconsistent use of the pill is a contributor to high rates of unintended pregnancy. The relationship between consumer cost sharing and consistent use of the pill is not well understood, and the impact of the elimination of cost sharing for oral contraceptive pills in a mandate in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is not yet known. We analyzed insurance claims for 635,075 women with employer-sponsored insurance who were initiating use of the pill, to examine rates of discontinuation and nonadherence, their relationship with cost sharing, and trends before and during the first year after implementation of the ACA mandate. We found that cost sharing for oral contraceptives decreased markedly following implementation, more significantly for generic than for brand-name versions. Higher copays were associated with greater discontinuation of and nonadherence to generic pills than was the case with zero copayments. Discontinuation of the use of generic or brand-name pills decreased slightly but significantly following ACA implementation, as did nonadherence to brand-name pills. Our findings suggest a modest early impact of the ACA on improving consistent use of oral contraceptives among women initiating their use.

  10. Potential impacts of Title I nonattainment on the electric power industry: A Chicago case study (Phase 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernau, M.E.; Makofske, W.J.; South, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    This study uses version IV of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM-IV) to examine the potential impacts of Title I (nonattainment) and Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) on the utility industry. The UAM is run for a grid that covers the Commonwealth Edison Power Pool and encompasses the greater Chicago area and surrounding rural areas. Meteorological conditions are selected from an ozone (O{sub 3}) episode on July 5 and 6, 1988.

  11. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  12. Colours’ Impact on Morality: Evidence from Event-related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Tian; Fang, Wei; Ge, Liezhong

    2016-01-01

    Black and white have been shown to be representations of moral concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether colours other than black and white have similar effects on words related to morality and to determine the time course of these effects. We presented moral and immoral words in three colours (red, green and blue) in a Moral Stroop task and used the event-related potential (ERP) technique to identify the temporal dynamics of the impact of colours on moral judgement. The behavioural results showed that it took longer for people to judge immoral words than moral words when the words were coloured green than when they were red or blue. The ERP results revealed the time course of these effects. Three stages were identified in the significant effects of P200, N300 and LPC. These findings suggest a metaphorical association between the colour green and moral information. PMID:28004749

  13. Potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Chen, Jen-Ping; Tsai, I-Chun; He, Qingyang; Chi, Szu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Fu, Tzung-May

    2016-10-01

    The prospective impacts of electric vehicle (EV) penetration on the air quality in Taiwan were evaluated using an air quality model with the assumption of an ambitious replacement of current light-duty vehicles under different power generation scenarios. With full EV penetration (i.e., the replacement of all light-duty vehicles), CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 emissions in Taiwan from a fleet of 20.6 million vehicles would be reduced by 1500, 165, 33.9 and 7.2Ggyr(-1), respectively, while electric sector NOx and SO2 emissions would be increased by up to 20.3 and 12.9Ggyr(-1), respectively, if the electricity to power EVs were provided by thermal power plants. The net impacts of these emission changes would be to reduce the annual mean surface concentrations of CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 by about 260, 11.3, 3.3ppb and 2.1μgm(-3), respectively, but to increase SO2 by 0.1ppb. Larger reductions tend to occur at time and place of higher ambient concentrations and during high pollution events. Greater benefits would clearly be attained if clean energy sources were fully encouraged. EV penetration would also reduce the mean peak-time surface O3 concentrations by up to 7ppb across Taiwan with the exception of the center of metropolitan Taipei where the concentration increased by <2ppb. Furthermore, full EV penetration would reduce annual days of O3 pollution episodes by ~40% and PM2.5 pollution episodes by 6-10%. Our findings offer important insights into the air quality impacts of EV and can provide useful information for potential mitigation actions.

  14. Electron Impact Ionization of He atom using screening potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Hari P.

    2012-06-01

    We will report the results of our investigation on electron impact ionization of helium atom using our extended MCHF method [1] for electron impact ionization of atoms. The initial state wave function will be calculated with both HF and MCHF approximations and the electron correlation between the two final state continuum electrons will be obtained using the screening potential [2-4]. Calculations will be made for triple differential cross sections for 4 eV excess energy sharing equally by the two final state continuum electrons. The results will be presented for all scattering angles and all kinematics. Comparison will be made with available experimental and theoretical data. [4pt] [1] Hari P. Saha, Phys. Rev. A82, 042703 (2010); J.Phys. B44, 065202 (2011).[0pt] [2] M.R.H. Rudge and M.J. Seaton, Proc. Roy. Soc. A293. 262 (1965).[0pt] [3] M.R.H. Rudge, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 564 (1968).[0pt] [4] C.Pan and A.F Starace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 185 (1991); Phys. Rev. A45, 4588 (1992).

  15. China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

    2008-02-01

    In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to

  16. Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang

    2004-11-18

    ''Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry'' focuses on the potential for microbial communities that could be active in repository emplacement drifts to influence the in-drift bulk chemical environment. This report feeds analyses to support the inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), but this work is not expected to generate direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. The purpose was specified by, and the evaluation was performed and is documented in accordance with, ''Technical Work Plan For: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Analyses'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172402], Section 2.1). This report addresses all of the FEPs assigned by the technical work plan (TWP), including the development of exclusion arguments for FEPs that are not carried forward to the TSPA-LA. Except for an editorial correction noted in Section 6.2, there were no other deviations from the TWP. This report documents the completion of all assigned tasks, as follows (BSC 2004 DIRS 172402, Section 1.2.1): (1) Perform analyses to evaluate the potential for microbial activity in the waste emplacement drift under the constraints of anticipated physical and chemical conditions. (2) Evaluate uncertainties associated with these analyses. (3) Determine whether the potential for microbes warrants a feed to TSPA-LA to account for predicted effects on repository performance. (4) Provide information to address the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NUREG-1804) (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) and Key Technical Issues and agreements, as appropriate. (5) Develop information for inclusion or exclusion of FEPs.

  17. Using PHP/MySQL to Manage Potential Mass Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Benjamin I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new application using commercially available software to manage mass properties for spaceflight vehicles. PHP/MySQL(PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor and My Structured Query Language) are a web scripting language and a database language commonly used in concert with each other. They open up new opportunities to develop cutting edge mass properties tools, and in particular, tools for the management of potential mass impacts (threats and opportunities). The paper begins by providing an overview of the functions and capabilities of PHP/MySQL. The focus of this paper is on how PHP/MySQL are being used to develop an advanced "web accessible" database system for identifying and managing mass impacts on NASA's Ares I Upper Stage program, managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. To fully describe this application, examples of the data, search functions, and views are provided to promote, not only the function, but the security, ease of use, simplicity, and eye-appeal of this new application. This paper concludes with an overview of the other potential mass properties applications and tools that could be developed using PHP/MySQL. The premise behind this paper is that PHP/MySQL are software tools that are easy to use and readily available for the development of cutting edge mass properties applications. These tools are capable of providing "real-time" searching and status of an active database, automated report generation, and other capabilities to streamline and enhance mass properties management application. By using PHP/MySQL, proven existing methods for managing mass properties can be adapted to present-day information technology to accelerate mass properties data gathering, analysis, and reporting, allowing mass property management to keep pace with today's fast-pace design and development processes.

  18. 76 FR 27342 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select a Potential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Central Utah Project Completion Act; Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select a Potential Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at the Spanish Fork Flow Control Structure AGENCY: Office...

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment Under the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act: Deliberative Democracy in Canada's North?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sinclair, A. John; Mitchell, Bruce

    2008-07-01

    We consider the extent to which the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act (MVRMA) provides an opportunity for deliberative democracy to emerge within the context of resource management in Canada’s North. The focus is on the extent to which the tenets of deliberative democracy are exercised in the environmental assessment (EA) of the Snap Lake diamonds project. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with assessment participants, and a review of documentation surrounding the EA process, and the case study. Results combined four principles of deliberative democracy: generality, autonomy, power neutrality, and ideal role taking. The EA conducted under the MVRMA can serve as a deliberative process, as illustrated by opportunities for dialogue, access to different perspectives, and learning outcomes. However, many of these positive results occurred through nonmandated technical sessions. The absence of participant funding also limits the deliberative potential of the MVRMA.

  20. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest. PMID:25493391

  1. Historically Large Geomagnetic Storms and Potential Electric Power Grid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappenman, J. G.

    2004-05-01

    While recent work has been done to examine the possible Dst Intensity of historically large geomagnetic storms, the impacts caused to modern day electric power grids from these storms occurs due to rapid rate-of-change of regional geomagnetic fields which in most cases are driven by large ionospheric electrojet current intensifications. These temporally and spatially dynamic disturbance morphologies are not well-characterized by Dst or other broad geomagnetic storm indices. For estimates of storm intensity that correctly scale the threat potential to electric power grids, it is necessary to describe the rate-of-change of geomagnetic field. The rate-of-change of the geomagnetic field (dB/dt usually measured in nT/min) creates at ground level a geoelectric field that causes the flow of geomagnetically-induced currents (GIC) through ground connection points in electric power grids. Therefore in general, the larger the dB/dt, the larger the resulting geo-electric field and GIC in exposed power grid infrastructures and the greater the operational impact these induced currents will have on the power grid. Both extensive modeling analysis and recent operational experience suggests that power grids are becoming more vulnerable to geomagnetic storms as they grow in size and complexity. Also, large power grid blackouts have occurred at relatively low geomagnetic storm intensities. For example, the regional disturbance intensity that triggered the Hydro Quebec collapse during the March 13, 1989 Superstorm only reached an intensity of 479 nT/min. Large numbers of power system impacts in the United States were also observed for intensities that ranged from 300 to 600 nT/min during this storm. Yet both recent and historical data indicate that storms with disturbance levels that range from 2000 nT/min to as much ~5000 nT/min may be possible over extensive regions at latitudes of concern for large continental power grids across North America and Europe. Large GIC have also been

  2. 78 FR 34093 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska AGENCY... the revised draft document titled, ``An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of... potential impacts of large-scale mining on these resources. DATES: The public comment period began on...

  3. 77 FR 31353 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK AGENCY... of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004a-d). The... significance of Bristol Bay's ecological resources and evaluate the potential impacts of large-scale mining...

  4. Is it time to act? The potential of acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological problems following acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye

    2011-01-01

    Behaviour therapies have a well-established, useful tradition in psychological treatments and have undergone several major revisions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based approaches are considered a third wave of behavioural therapies. Emerging evidence for ACT has demonstrated that this paradigm has promising effectiveness in improving functionality and well-being in a variety of populations that have psychological disturbances and/or medical problems. In this review we first evaluate traditional cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions used to manage psychological problems in distressed individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI). We provide an overview of the ACT paradigm and the existent evidence base for this intervention. A rationale is outlined for why ACT-based interventions may have potential utility in assisting distressed individuals who have sustained a mild to moderate ABI to move forward with their lives. We also review emerging evidence that lends preliminary support to the implementation of acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions in the rehabilitation of ABI patient groups. On the basis of existent literature, we recommend that it is an opportune time for forthcoming research to rigorously test the efficacy of ACT-based interventions in facilitating ABI patient groups to re-engage in living a valued and meaningful life, in spite of their neurocognitive and physical limitations. The promising utility of testing the efficacy of the ACT paradigm in the context of multimodal rehabilitation programmes for ABI populations is also addressed. PMID:21246445

  5. Avoided Impacts in Ensembles of Tropical Cyclone Damage Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, J.; Paimazumder, D.; Holland, G. J.; Towler, E.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has the potential to alter current levels of Tropical Cyclone (TC) damage, yet the degree of change and its importance relative to changes in exposure and vulnerability are debated. This study isolates the climate drivers of TC damage and develops an approach to translate climate model data directly to a measure of Cyclone Damage Potential (CDP). The actual damage then depends on a given user's impacted exposure and vulnerability. Our approach is motivated by recent work that highlighted the importance of accounting for TC size and TC translation speed in addition to maximum wind speed in driving TC damage. Since coarse resolution climate models are not able to adequately capture many TC characteristics, these key damaging parameters are modeled in terms of large-scale climate variables, to sidestep the need for information on individual TCs and to enable assessments of CDP directly from large-scale climate model data. The CDP is applied to ensembles of future climates generated under a range of anthropogenic forcing scenarios to assess the degree of avoided CDP under lower emission pathways. Users may then translate avoided CDP to avoided losses using relationships between CDP and their specific exposure and vulnerability characteristics.

  6. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    PubMed

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  7. ACT Test Preparation Course and Its Impact on Students' College- and Career-Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Timothy Nolan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an ACT intervention course developed for high school juniors at Anderson County High School during the 2011-2012 school year. This study compared the ACT composite test scores of the treatment group to the ACT composite test scores of the control group by using their PLAN scores as a baseline, to determine…

  8. High-Stakes Testing under the No Child Left Behind Act: How Has It Impacted School Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingey, RaShel Anderson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of high-stakes testing under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act on school culture. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with first grade through sixth grade teachers and principals from two of Nebo School District's schools located in Utah. Their responses were categorized…

  9. 77 FR 68751 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Impact Evaluation of Race to the Top and School...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Impact Evaluation of Race to the Top and School Improvement Grants... Evaluation of Race to the Top and School Improvement Grants'' (18-13-32) (RTT-SIG). This notice corrects...

  10. 78 FR 13645 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Draft Clean Air Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Air Act General Conformity Determination for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast Homebasing AGENCY: Department...) General Conformity Regulations (40 CFR part 93, subpart B), the DoN has prepared a Draft CAA General Conformity Determination, which is included in the Draft EIS, to address air emission impacts associated...

  11. Impact of the Complete College Tennessee Act's Retention and Graduation Benchmarks on Budget Appropriations at Tennessee State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sedric D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the Tennessee State University (TSU) fall 2005 Freshmen Cohort (N = 1205) based on the variables of race, gender, persistence, retention and graduation, as well as to examine the impact of the newly implemented Complete College Tennessee Act's (CCTA) funding formula component on the university's budget…

  12. Mental Health Issues and the Foster Care System: An Examination of the Impact of the Adoption and Safe Families Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWey, Lenore M.; Henderson, Tammy L.; Tice, Susan N.

    2006-01-01

    Although marriage and family therapists are being called on to help at-risk families, some say that clinicians have insufficient knowledge about the impact of policies on families involved in the foster care system. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to identify how the Adoption and Safe Families Act informs decision making, to…

  13. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  14. Mineralogical Plasticity Acts as a Compensatory Mechanism to the Impacts of Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Russell, Bayden D; Connell, Sean D

    2017-02-15

    Calcifying organisms are considered particularly susceptible to the future impacts of ocean acidification (OA), but recent evidence suggests that they may be able to maintain calcification and overall fitness. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but may be attributed to mineralogical plasticity, which modifies the energetic cost of calcification. To test the hypothesis that mineralogical plasticity enables the maintenance of shell growth and functionality under OA conditions, we assessed the biological performance of a gastropod (respiration rate, feeding rate, somatic growth, and shell growth of Austrocochlea constricta) and analyzed its shell mechanical and geochemical properties (shell hardness, elastic modulus, amorphous calcium carbonate, calcite to aragonite ratio, and magnesium to calcium ratio). Despite minor metabolic depression and no increase in feeding rate, shell growth was faster under OA conditions, probably due to increased precipitation of calcite and trade-offs against inner shell density. In addition, the resulting shell was functionally suitable for increasingly "corrosive" oceans, i.e., harder and less soluble shells. We conclude that mineralogical plasticity may act as a compensatory mechanism to maintain overall performance of calcifying organisms under OA conditions and could be a cornerstone of calcifying organisms to acclimate to and maintain their ecological functions in acidifying oceans.

  15. Ranking potential impacts of priority and emerging pollutants in urban wastewater through life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; José Gómez, M; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2008-12-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), a feature of the Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, is used in this work outside the LCA framework, as a means to quantify the potential environmental impacts on ecotoxicity and human toxicity of wastewater containing priority and emerging pollutants. In order to do this, so-called characterisation factors are obtained for 98 frequently detected pollutants, using two characterisation models, EDIP97 and USES-LCA. The applicability of this methodology is shown in a case study in which wastewater influent and effluent samples from a Spanish wastewater treatment plant located in the Mediterranean coast were analysed. Characterisation factors were applied to the average concentration of each pollutant, obtaining impact scores for different scenarios: discharging wastewater to aquatic recipient, and using it for crop irrigation. The results show that treated wastewater involves a substantially lower environmental impact when compared to the influent, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are very important contributors to toxicity in this wastewater. Ciprofloxacin, fluoxetine, and nicotine constitute the main PPCPs of concern in this case study, while 2,3,7,8-TCDD, Nickel, and hexachlorobenzene are the priority pollutants with highest contribution. Nevertheless, it must be stressed that the new characterisation factors are based on very limited data, especially with regard to toxicology, and therefore they must be seen as a first screening to be improved in the future when more and higher quality data is available.

  16. Potential impacts of 316(B) regulatory controls on economics, electricity reliability, and the environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-03-19

    Nearly half of the US utility-owned steam electric generating capacity is cooled by once-through cooling systems. These plants withdraw cooling water primarily from surface water bodies. Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available (BTA) for minimizing adverse environmental impacts. At present, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has not yet promulgated applicable implementing regulations governing intake structures; however, the Agency is required by a Consent Decree to develop such regulations. EPA has presented a draft tiered regulatory framework approach that, depending on site-specific factors, may impose various regulatory burdens on affected utilities. Potential new requirements could range from compiling and submitting existing data to demonstrate that existing conditions at each unit represent BTA to retrofitting plants with closed-cycle cooling systems (primarily cooling towers). If the final regulations require installation of cooling towers or implementation of other costly plant modifications, utilities may elect to close some generating units rather than invest the finds necessary to upgrade them to meet the Section 316(b) requirements. Potentially, some regions of the country may then have a higher proportion of closed units than others, leading to a concern over the reliability of those regions' electricity supply. If a significant number of plants convert from once-through cooling systems to cooling towers, the environment will face secondary adverse impacts, such as additional fuel usage, air emissions, and water evaporation, and utilities will need to construct additional generating capacity. This paper describes a study that Argonne National Laboratory will conduct for the US Department of Energy to explore some of the potential outcomes of EPA's Section 316(b) regulatory process and their impact on economics

  17. Potential impacts of Brayton- and Stirling-cycle engines

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.C.

    1980-11-15

    Two engine technologies (Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle) currently being pursued by the US Department of Energy were examined for their potential impacts if they achieved commercial viability. An economic analysis of the expected response of buyers to the attributes of the alternative engines was performed. Hedonic coefficients for vehicle fuel efficiency, performance and size were estimated for domestic cars based upon historical data. The marketplace value of the fuel efficiency enhancement provided by Brayton or Stirling engines was estimated. The effect upon various economic sectors of a large scale change-over from conventional to alternate engines was estimated using an economic input-output analysis. Primary effects were found in fuels refining, non-ferroalloy ores and ferroalloy smelting. Secondary effects were found in mining, transport, and capital financing. Under the assumption of 10 years for plant conversions and 1990 and 1995 as the introduction date for turine and Stirling engines respectively, the comparative fuel savings and present value of the future savings in fuel costs were estimated.

  18. Potential impacts of bioprocessing of sweet potato: Review.

    PubMed

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Ray, Ramesh C

    2017-02-11

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is among the major food crops in the world and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Asia and Africa regions account for 95% of the world's production. Among the root and tuber crops grown in the world, sweet potato ranks second after cassava. In previous decades, sweet potato represented food and feed security, now it offers income generation possibilities, through bioprocessing products. Bioprocessing of sweet potato offers novel opportunities to commercialize this crop by developing a number of functional foods and beverages such as sour starch, lacto-pickle, lacto-juice, soy sauce, acidophilus milk, sweet potato curd and yogurt, and alcoholic drinks through either solid state or submerged fermentation. Sweet potato tops, especially leaves are preserved as hay or silage. Sweet potato flour and bagassae are used as substrates for production of microbial protein, enzymes, organic acids, monosodium glutamate, chitosan, etc. Additionally, sweet potato is a promising candidate for production of bioethanol. This review deals with the development of various products from sweet potato by application of bioprocessing technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review paper on the potential impacts of the sweet potato bioprocessing.

  19. A Comparative Study of the Impact of School Characteristics on the Development of Gifted Student Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Martha Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The impact of gifted education services is not monitored by accountability measures required by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2002), and giftedness is not a suspect class in equity concerns (Leslie, 2009). Therefore, a research base that measures the impact of well-designed practices on student outcomes may serve as the strongest…

  20. Ballistic parameters and trauma potential of direct-acting, powder-actuated fastening tools (nail guns).

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Franke, Ernst; Schönekess, Holger C; Jorczyk, Jörn; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel

    2012-03-01

    Since their introduction in the 1950s in the construction and building trade, powder-actuated fastening tools (nail guns) are of forensic and traumatological importance. There are countless reports on both accidental and intentional injuries and fatalities caused by these tools in medical literature. While the ballistic parameters of so-called low-velocity fastening tools, where the expanding gases act on a captive piston that drives the fastener into the material, are well known, ballistic parameters of "high-velocity" tools, which operate like a firearm and release the energy of the propellant directly on the fastener, are unknown. Therefore, it was the aim of this work to investigate external ballistic parameters of cal. 9 and 6-mm fastening bolts discharged from four different direct-acting nail guns (Type Ideal, Record Piccolo S, Rapid Hammer R300, Titan Type 1). Average muzzle velocity ranged from 400 to 580 m/s, while average kinetic energy of the projectiles ranged from 385 to 547 J. Mean energy density of the projectiles ranged from 9 to 18 J/mm(2). To conclude, this work demonstrates that the muzzle velocity of direct-acting high-velocity tools is approximately five times higher than the muzzle velocity of piston-type tools. Hence, the much-cited comparison to the ballistic parameters of a cal. 22 handgun might be understated and a comparison to the widespread and well-known cal. 9 mm Luger might be more appropriate.

  1. The money laundering control act and proposed amendments: Its impact on the casino industry.

    PubMed

    Mills, J

    1991-12-01

    In their efforts to track unreported income, Congress passed the Money Laundering Control Act in 1985. Because they are often involved in large cash transactions, casinos were required to report on cash transactions in amounts of $10,000 or more in much the same manner as banks and other financial institutions. However, because of the unique nature of cash and chip transactions within modern casinos, the Act, or state variants of it, have created significant compliance costs for casinos. This analysis examines the implications of the Act for the casino gaming industry, and evaluates some of the recent suggested Amendments to the Act.

  2. Impact of inorganic contaminants on microalgae productivity and bioremediation potential.

    PubMed

    Torres, Eric M; Hess, Derek; McNeil, Brian T; Guy, Tessa; Quinn, Jason C

    2017-05-01

    As underdeveloped nations continue to industrialize and world population continues to increase, the need for energy, natural resources, and goods will lead to ever increasing inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals, in various waste streams that can have damaging effects on plant life, wildlife, and human health. This work is focused on the evaluation of the potential of Nannochloropsis salina to be integrated with contaminated water sources for the concurrent production of a biofuel feedstock while providing an environmental service through bioremediation. Individual contaminants (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn) at various concentrations ranging from a low concentration (1X) to higher concentrations (10X, and 40X) found in contaminated systems (mine tailings, wastewater treatment plants, produced water) were introduced into growth media. Biological growth experimentation was performed in triplicate at the various contaminant concentrations and at 3 different light intensities. Results show that baseline concentrations of each contaminant slightly decreased biomass growth to between 89% and 99% of the control with the exception of Ni which dramatically reduced growth. Increased contaminant concentrations resulted in progressively lower growth rates for all contaminants tested. Lipid analysis shows most baseline contaminant concentrations slightly decrease or have minimal effects on lipid content at all light levels. Trace contaminant analysis on the biomass showed Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn were sorbed by the microalgae with minimal contaminants remaining in the growth media illustrating the effectiveness of microalgae to bioremediate these contaminants when levels are sufficiently low to not detrimentally impact productivity. The microalgae biomass was less efficient at sorption of As, Cr, Ni, and Se.

  3. An Iridium(III) Complex Inhibits JMJD2 Activities and Acts as a Potential Epigenetic Modulator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Juan; Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; He, Bingyong; Kwong, Daniel W J; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2015-08-27

    A novel iridium(III) complex was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to target JMJD2 enzymatic activity. The iridium(III) complex 1 can inhibit JMJD2 activity and was selective for JMJD2 activity over JARID, JMJD3, and HDAC activities. Moreover, 1 suppressed the trimethylation of the p21 promoter on H3K9me3 and interrupted the JMJD2D-H3K9me3 interactions in human cells, suggesting that it could act as an epigenetic modulator. To our knowledge, 1 represents the first metal-based JMJD2 inhibitor reported in the literature.

  4. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  5. Impact of opioid rescue medication for breakthrough pain on the efficacy and tolerability of long-acting opioids in patients with chronic non-malignant pain

    PubMed Central

    Devulder, J.; Jacobs, A.; Richarz, U.; Wiggett, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little evidence that short-acting opioids as rescue medication for breakthrough pain is an optimal long-term treatment strategy in chronic non-malignant pain. We compared clinical studies of long-acting opioids that allowed short-acting opioid rescue medication with those that did not, to determine the impact of opioid rescue medication use on the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of chronic opioid therapy in patients with chronic non-malignant pain. Methods We searched MEDLINE (1950 to July 2006) and EMBASE (1974 to July 2006) using terms for chronic non-malignant pain and long-acting opioids. Independent review of the search results identified 48 studies that met the study selection criteria. The effect of opioid rescue medication on analgesic efficacy and the incidence of common opioid-related side-effects were analysed using meta-regression. Results After adjusting for potentially confounding variables (study design and type of opioid), the difference in analgesic efficacy between the ‘rescue’ and the ‘no rescue’ studies was not significant, with regression coefficients close to 0 and 95% confidence intervals that excluded an effect of more than 18 points on a 0–100 scale in each case. There was also no significant difference between the ‘rescue’ and the ‘no rescue’ studies for the incidence of nausea, constipation, or somnolence in both the unadjusted and the adjusted analyses. Conclusions We found no evidence that rescue medication with short-acting opioids for breakthrough pain affects analgesic efficacy of long-acting opioids or the incidence of common opioid-related side-effects among chronic non-malignant pain patients. PMID:19736216

  6. Potential impacts on air quality of the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.

    1994-09-01

    The use of ethanol/gasoline mixtures in motor vehicles has been proposed as an alternative fuel strategy that might improve air quality while minimizing US dependence on foreign oil. New enzymatic production methodologies are being explored to develop ethanol as a viable, economic fuel. In an attempt to reduce urban carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone levels, a number of cities are currently mandating the use of ethanol/gasoline blends. However, it is not at all clear that these blended fuels will help to abate urban pollution. In fact, the use of these fuels may lead to increased levels of other air pollutants, specifically aldehydes and peroxyacyl nitrates. Although these pollutants are not currently regulated, their potential health and environmental impacts must be considered when assessing the impacts of alternative fuels on air quality. Indeed, formaldehyde has been identified as an important air pollutant that is currently being considered for control strategies by the State of California. This report focuses on measurements taken in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the summer of 1993 and the winter of 1994 as an initial attempt to evaluate the air quality effects of ethanol/gasoline mixtures. The results of this study have direct implications for the use of such fuel mixtures as a means to reduce CO emissions and ozone in a number of major cities and to bring these urban centers into compliance with the Clean Air Act.

  7. Excitatory amino acids acting on metabotropic glutamate receptors broaden the action potential in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Hu, G Y; Storm, J F

    1991-12-24

    Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs, QP or ACPD receptors) has recently been shown to cause depolarization, blockade of the slow after-hyperpolarization and depression of calcium currents in hippocampal pyramidal cells. Here, we report evidence for a new mGluR-mediated effect: slowing of the spike repolarization in CA1 cells in rat hippocampal slices. During blockade of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, the mGluR agonists trans-1-amino-cyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylate (t-ACPD), quisqualate or L-glutamate caused spike broadening. In contrast, the ionotropic receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) was ineffective. The spike broadening may act in concert with the other mGluR effects, e.g. by further increasing the influx of Ca2+ ions which, in turn, may contribute to synaptic modulation.

  8. Hospital and Health Plan Partnerships: The Affordable Care Act's Impact on Promoting Health and Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Michelle; White, Annesha; Kelley, Virginia P.; Hopper, Jennifer Kuca; Liu, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Background The Affordable Care Act (ACA) healthcare reforms, centered on achieving the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Triple Aim goals of improving patient care quality and satisfaction, improving population health, and reducing costs, have led to increasing partnerships between hospitals and insurance companies and the implementation of employee wellness programs. Hospitals and insurance companies have opted to partner to distribute the risk and resources and increase coordination of care. Objective To examine the ACA's impact on the health and wellness programs that have resulted from the joint ventures of hospitals and health plans based on the published literature. Method We conducted a review of the literature to identify successful mergers and best practices of health and wellness programs. Articles published between January 2007 and January 2015 were compiled from various search engines, using the search terms “corporate,” “health and wellness program,” “health plan,” “insurance plan,” “hospital,” “joint venture,” and “vertical merger.” Publications that described consolidations or wellness programs not tied to health insurance plans were excluded. Noteworthy characteristics of these programs were summarized and tabulated. Results A total of 44 eligible articles were included in the analysis. The findings showed that despite rising healthcare costs, joint ventures prevent hospitals from trading-off quality and services for cost reductions. Administrators believed that partnering would allow the companies to meet ACA standards for improving clinical outcomes at reduced costs. Before the implementation of the ACA, some employers had wellness programs, but these were not standardized and did not need to produce measurable results. The ACA encouraged improvement of employee wellness programs by providing funding for expanded health services and by mandating quality care. Successful workplace health and wellness

  9. Review of potential impacts to sea turtles from underwater explosive removal of offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Viada, Stephen T. Hammer, Richard M. Racca, Roberto Hannay, David Thompson, M. John Balcom, Brian J. Phillips, Neal W.

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to collect and synthesize existing information relevant to the explosive removal of offshore structures (EROS) in aquatic environments. Data sources were organized and summarized by topic - explosive removal methods, physics of underwater explosions, sea turtle resources, documented impacts to sea turtles, and mitigation of effects. Information was gathered via electronic database searches and literature source review. Bulk explosive charges are the most commonly used technique in EROS. While the physical principles of underwater detonations and the propagation of pressure and acoustic waves are well understood, there are significant gaps in the application of this knowledge. Impacts to sea turtles from explosive removal operations may range from non-injurious effects (e.g. acoustic annoyance; mild tactile detection or physical discomfort) to varying levels of injury (i.e. non-lethal and lethal injuries). Very little information exists regarding the impacts of underwater explosions on sea turtles. Effects of explosions on turtles often must be inferred from documented effects to other vertebrates with lungs or other gas-containing organs, such as mammals and most fishes. However, a cautious approach should be used when determining impacts to sea turtles based on extrapolations from other vertebrates. The discovery of beached sea turtles and bottlenose dolphins following an explosive platform removal event in 1986 prompted the initiation of formal consultation between the U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), authorized through the Endangered Species Act Section 7, to determine a mechanism to minimize potential impacts to listed species. The initial consultation resulted in a requirement for oil and gas companies to obtain a permit (through separate consultations on a case-by-case basis) prior to using explosives in Federal waters. Because many offshore

  10. The Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on University Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Patricia Todd

    1994-01-01

    Presents the fundamentals of the Americans with Disabilities Act for university continuing education in terms of determining disability, physical accessibility, and limitations on accommodation. Recommends evaluation of employment policies, student programs and services, and facilities. (SK)

  11. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Request and Appeal Files for the Freedom of Information Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This system collects contact information from Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requestors. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies for this data.

  12. Insulin acts as a myogenic differentiation signal for neural stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud; Kendall, Stephen E; Moore, Daniel P; Bellum, Stephen; Cowling, Rebecca A; Nikopoulos, George N; Kubu, Chris J; Vary, Calvin; Verdi, Joseph M

    2004-09-01

    Reports of non-neural differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) have been challenged by alternative explanations for expanded differentiation potentials. In an attempt to demonstrate the plasticity of NSC, neurospheres were generated from single retrovirally labeled embryonic cortical precursors. In a defined serum-free insulin-containing media, 40% of the neurospheres contained both myogenic and neurogenic differentiated progeny. The number of NSCs displaying multilineage differentiation potential declines through gestation but does exist in the adult animal. In this system, insulin appears to function as a survival and dose-dependent myogenic differentiation signal for multilineage NSCs (MLNSC). MLNSC-derived cardiomyocytes contract synchronously, respond to sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, and regenerate injured heart tissues. These studies provide support for the hypothesis that MLNSCs exist throughout the lifetime of the animal, and potentially provide a population of stem cells for cell-based regenerative medicine strategies inside and outside of the nervous system.

  13. Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-19

    Brookings Review, vol. 6 (summer 1988), p . 30. GAO also has discussed how incentives for policymakers “to negotiate seriously and reach agreement” may be...the Budget Enforcement Act, GAO-01-991T, July 19, 2001, p . 12. For further analysis, see CRS Report RL30339, Preventing Federal Government Shutdowns...05, p . 4 (attachment, Section 6). OMB might apportion funds at, essentially, greater than a daily rate, as the period of time covered by an interim

  14. Transitional lava flows as potential analogues for lunar impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neish, Catherine; Hughes, Scott; Hamilton, Christopher; Kobs Nawotniak, Shannon; Garry, William Brent; Skok, John Roma; Elphic, Richard; Carter, Lynn; Bandfield, Joshua; Osinski, Gordon; Lim, Darlene; Heldmann, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits are among the roughest surface materials on the Moon at the decimeter scale, even though they appear smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. Although there is no perfect archetype for lunar impact melts on Earth, certain terrestrial environments lend themselves as functional analogues. Specifically, a variety of transitional lava flow types develop if the surface of a pāhoehoe-like flow is disrupted, producing ‘slabby’ or ‘rubbly’ flows that are extremely rough at the decimeter scale. We investigated the surface roughness of transitional lava flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument, comparing radar imagery and high-resolution topographic profiles to similar data sets acquired by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter for impact melt deposits on the Moon. Results suggest that the lava flows at COTM have similar radar properties to lunar impact melt deposits, but the terrestrial flows are considerably rougher at the meter scale. It may be that lunar impact melts represent a unique lava type not observed on Earth, whose surface texture is influenced by their high emplacement temperatures and/or cooling in a vacuum. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  15. The exterior tidal potential acting on a satellite. [satellite orbits/satellite perturbation - gravitation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, P.

    1975-01-01

    A theory is presented that points out the existence of several long period and 'cross effects' in the coefficients in the expansion of the geopotential and in the motion of satellites. The tidal potential, defined as small periodic variations in the geopotential, was calculated. The influence of these geopotential variations on satellite perturbation is examined. Spherical harmonics were employed.

  16. Potentiation of local anesthetic activity of neosaxitoxin with bupivacaine or epinephrine: development of a long-acting pain blocker.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Alberto J; Lagos, Marcelo; Figueroa, Cristian; Garcia, Carlos; Recabal, Pedro; Silva, Pamela; Iglesias, Veronica; Lagos, Nestor

    2009-11-01

    Local anesthetics effectively block and relieve pain, but with a relatively short duration of action, limiting its analgesic effectiveness. Therefore, a long-acting local anesthetic would improve the management of pain, but no such agent is yet available for clinical use. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potentiation of the anesthetic effect of neosaxitoxin, with bupivacaine or epinephrine in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Ten healthy males were subcutaneously injected into the left and right forearms with a randomized pair of the following treatments: (i) bupivacaine (5 mg); (ii) neosaxitoxin (10 microg); (iii) neosaxitoxin (10 microg) plus bupivacaine (5 mg), and (iv) neosaxitoxin (10 microg) plus epinephrine (1:100.000), but all participant received all four formulations (in 2 ml; s.c.), with 1 month elapsing between the two round of experiments. A validated sensory and pain paradigm was used for evaluating the effect of the treatment 0-72 h after the injections, measuring sensory, pain, and mechanical touch perception threshold. The duration of the effect produced by combined treatments was longer than that by the single drugs. In conclusion, bupivacaine and epinephrine potentiate the local anesthetic effect of neosaxitoxin in humans when co-injected subcutaneously. The present results support the idea that neosaxitoxin is a new long-acting local pain blocker, with highly potential clinical use.

  17. The FKBP52 Cochaperone Acts in Synergy with β-Catenin to Potentiate Androgen Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arundhati; Olivares, Karen; Guy, Naihsuan; Sivils, Jeffrey C.; Dey, Prasenjit; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Fletterick, Robert J.; Strom, Anders M.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Webb, Paul; Cox, Marc B.

    2015-01-01

    FKBP52 and β-catenin have emerged in recent years as attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment. β-catenin interacts directly with the androgen receptor (AR) and has been characterized as a co-activator of AR-mediated transcription. FKBP52 is a positive regulator of AR in cellular and whole animal models and is required for the development of androgen-dependent tissues. We previously characterized an AR inhibitor termed MJC13 that putatively targets the AR BF3 surface to specifically inhibit FKBP52-regulated AR signaling. Predictive modeling suggests that β-catenin interacts with the AR hormone binding domain on a surface that overlaps with BF3. Here we demonstrate that FKBP52 and β-catenin interact directly in vitro and act in concert to promote a synergistic up-regulation of both hormone-independent and -dependent AR signaling. Our data demonstrate that FKBP52 promotes β-catenin interaction with AR and is required for β-catenin co-activation of AR activity in prostate cancer cells. MJC13 effectively blocks β-catenin interaction with the AR LBD and the synergistic up-regulation of AR by FKBP52 and β-catenin. Our data suggest that co-regulation of AR by FKBP52 and β-catenin does not require FKBP52 PPIase catalytic activity, nor FKBP52 binding to Hsp90. However, the FKBP52 proline-rich loop that overhangs the PPIase pocket is critical for synergy. PMID:26207810

  18. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  19. Hindcasting potential hurricane impacts on rapidly changing barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockdon, H.F.; Thompson, D.M.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Hindcasts of the coastal impact of Hurricane Ivan on Santa Rosa Island, Florida, using a storm-impact scaling model that compares hurricane-induced water levels to local dune morphology, were found to have an accuracy of 68% in predicting the occurrence of one of four impact regimes: swash, collision, overwash, and inundation. Errors were overwhelming under-predictions of the regime where the observed response was more extreme than had been expected. This is related to the evolution of the profile during the storm. Mean pre-storm dune elevations decreased by 1.9 m over the 75-km long island as most of the dunes were completely eroded during the storm. Dramatic morphologic change during a hurricane makes barrier islands more vulnerable to overwash and inundation than will be predicted based on pre-storm dune parameters. Incorporation of the timing of rising water levels relative to storm-induced profile evolution is required to improve model accuracy.

  20. Refinery Outages: Description and Potential Impact on Petroleum Product Prices

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This report responds to a July 13, 2006 request from Chairman Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested that the Energy Information Administration conduct a study of the impact that refinery shutdowns have had on the price of oil and gasoline.

  1. The Affordable Care Act's Impacts on Access to Insurance and Health Care for Low-Income Populations.

    PubMed

    Kominski, Gerald F; Nonzee, Narissa J; Sorensen, Andrea

    2017-03-20

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) expands access to health insurance in the United States, and, to date, an estimated 20 million previously uninsured individuals have gained coverage. Understanding the law's impact on coverage, access, utilization, and health outcomes, especially among low-income populations, is critical to informing ongoing debates about its effectiveness and implementation. Early findings indicate that there have been significant reductions in the rate of uninsurance among the poor and among those who live in Medicaid expansion states. In addition, the law has been associated with increased health care access, affordability, and use of preventive and outpatient services among low-income populations, though impacts on inpatient utilization and health outcomes have been less conclusive. Although these early findings are generally consistent with past coverage expansions, continued monitoring of these domains is essential to understand the long-term impact of the law for underserved populations.

  2. Atmospheric Effects and Potential Climatic Impact of the 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Measurements and studies of the 1980 Mount St. Helens volcanic eruptions and their atmospheric effects and climatic impact are addressed. Specific areas discussed include: (1) nature and impact of volcanic eruptions; (2) in situ measurements of effluents; (3) remote sensing measurements; (4) transport and dispersion of volcanic effluents; (5) chemistry of volcanic effluents; and (6) weather and potential climate impact.

  3. Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Jeffrey R.; Merckelbach, Lucas; Callies, Ulrich; Clark, Suzanna; Gaslikova, Lidia; Baschek, Burkard

    2016-01-01

    Advances in offshore wind farm (OWF) technology have recently led to their construction in coastal waters that are deep enough to be seasonally stratified. As tidal currents move past the OWF foundation structures they generate a turbulent wake that will contribute to a mixing of the stratified water column. In this study we show that the mixing generated in this way may have a significant impact on the large-scale stratification of the German Bight region of the North Sea. This region is chosen as the focus of this study since the planning of OWFs is particularly widespread. Using a combination of idealised modelling and in situ measurements, we provide order-of-magnitude estimates of two important time scales that are key to understanding the impacts of OWFs: (i) a mixing time scale, describing how long a complete mixing of the stratification takes, and (ii) an advective time scale, quantifying for how long a water parcel is expected to undergo enhanced wind farm mixing. The results are especially sensitive to both the drag coefficient and type of foundation structure, as well as the evolution of the pycnocline under enhanced mixing conditions—both of which are not well known. With these limitations in mind, the results show that OWFs could impact the large-scale stratification, but only when they occupy extensive shelf regions. They are expected to have very little impact on large-scale stratification at the current capacity in the North Sea, but the impact could be significant in future large-scale development scenarios. PMID:27513754

  4. Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Jeffrey R; Merckelbach, Lucas; Callies, Ulrich; Clark, Suzanna; Gaslikova, Lidia; Baschek, Burkard

    2016-01-01

    Advances in offshore wind farm (OWF) technology have recently led to their construction in coastal waters that are deep enough to be seasonally stratified. As tidal currents move past the OWF foundation structures they generate a turbulent wake that will contribute to a mixing of the stratified water column. In this study we show that the mixing generated in this way may have a significant impact on the large-scale stratification of the German Bight region of the North Sea. This region is chosen as the focus of this study since the planning of OWFs is particularly widespread. Using a combination of idealised modelling and in situ measurements, we provide order-of-magnitude estimates of two important time scales that are key to understanding the impacts of OWFs: (i) a mixing time scale, describing how long a complete mixing of the stratification takes, and (ii) an advective time scale, quantifying for how long a water parcel is expected to undergo enhanced wind farm mixing. The results are especially sensitive to both the drag coefficient and type of foundation structure, as well as the evolution of the pycnocline under enhanced mixing conditions-both of which are not well known. With these limitations in mind, the results show that OWFs could impact the large-scale stratification, but only when they occupy extensive shelf regions. They are expected to have very little impact on large-scale stratification at the current capacity in the North Sea, but the impact could be significant in future large-scale development scenarios.

  5. The defense of marriage act (DOMA): its impact on those seeking same sex marriages.

    PubMed

    Clarkson-Freeman, Pamela A

    2004-01-01

    Recognition of same-sex marriage has been a goal of many in the gay rights movement. With the passage of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), same-sex relationships will not be afforded the same opportunities as heterosexual relationships. This paper will discuss the process leading to the passage of the DOMA, and will argue that the passage of this piece of legislation was a misuse of Article IV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, "Full Faith and Credit". The Defense of Marriage Act represents an extraordinary act of Congress, as they have rarely passed legislation under this mandate and have never passed legislation that curtails full faith and credit. Strategies that can be utilized to overcome the constraints of the DOMA will also be included.

  6. 75 FR 54852 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Stockpile Disposals for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Bureau... Commerce and State, is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the proposed disposal... economic effects of all acquisitions and disposals of materials from the stockpile * * * .'' The...

  7. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario Partidario, Maria; Sheate, William R.

    2013-02-15

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning

  8. Bioenergy feedstock development scenarios & potential impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of ample groundwater supplies for irrigation can increase the productive potential of agricultural landscapes; however, excessive withdrawals threaten sustainable use, and shortages could be exacerbated by drier future conditions in some regions. Throughout the North American Great Pla...

  9. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  10. Potential environmental impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Tracey K; Shia, Run-Lie; Allen, Mark; Eiler, John M; Yung, Y L

    2003-06-13

    The widespread use of hydrogen fuel cells could have hitherto unknown environmental impacts due to unintended emissions of molecular hydrogen, including an increase in the abundance of water vapor in the stratosphere (plausibly by as much as approximately 1 part per million by volume). This would cause stratospheric cooling, enhancement of the heterogeneous chemistry that destroys ozone, an increase in noctilucent clouds, and changes in tropospheric chemistry and atmosphere-biosphere interactions.

  11. Effects of peripherally and centrally acting analgesics on somato-sensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, U J; Marsh, V R; Ashton, C H; Seymour, R A

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of aspirin 1000 mg, paracetamol 1000 mg, codeine 60 mg on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were measured in a four-way cross-over study. 2. SEPs were elicited by electrical stimulation of the skin overlying the digital nerve at intensities close to pain threshold. 3. Amplitudes and latencies of both early and late SEPs were recorded, as well as first sensory threshold and subjective pain threshold. 4. None of the study medications affected the amplitude or latency of the late SEP components (100-250 ms post-stimulus). The amplitude of early components (15-30 ms post-stimulus) was also unaffected, but aspirin shortened the latency 30 min after ingestion. 5. Sensory detection and pain threshold to electrical skin stimulation were also unaffected by any of the study medications despite subjective central effects with codeine. PMID:8562292

  12. Overlapping Regions in HIV-1 Genome Act as Potential Sites for Host–Virus Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Deeya; Podder, Soumita; Ghosh, Tapash C.

    2016-01-01

    More than a decade, overlapping genes in RNA viruses became a subject of research which has explored various effect of gene overlapping on the evolution and function of viral genomes like genome size compaction. Additionally, overlapping regions (OVRs) are also reported to encode elevated degree of protein intrinsic disorder (PID) in unspliced RNA viruses. With the aim to explore the roles of OVRs in HIV-1 pathogenesis, we have carried out an in-depth analysis on the association of gene overlapping with PID in 35 HIV1- M subtypes. Our study reveals an over representation of PID in OVR of HIV-1 genomes. These disordered residues endure several vital, structural features like short linear motifs (SLiMs) and protein phosphorylation (PP) sites which are previously shown to be involved in massive host–virus interaction. Moreover, SLiMs in OVRs are noticed to be more functionally potential as compared to that of non-overlapping region. Although, density of experimentally verified SLiMs, resided in 9 HIV-1 genes, involved in host–virus interaction do not show any bias toward clustering into OVR, tat and rev two important proteins mediates host–pathogen interaction by their experimentally verified SLiMs, which are mostly localized in OVR. Finally, our analysis suggests that the acquisition of SLiMs in OVR is mutually exclusive of the occurrence of disordered residues, while the enrichment of PPs in OVR is solely dependent on PID and not on overlapping coding frames. Thus, OVRs of HIV-1 genomes could be demarcated as potential molecular recognition sites during host–virus interaction. PMID:27867372

  13. Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Emer; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Culloty, Sarah C

    2013-01-01

    Climate variability and the rapid warming of seas undoubtedly have huge ramifications for biological processes such as reproduction. As such, gametogenesis and spawning were investigated at two sites over 200 km apart on the south coast of Ireland in an ecosystem engineer, the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Both sites are classed as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), but are of different water quality. Cerastoderma edule plays a significant biological role by recycling nutrients and affecting sediment structure, with impacts upon assemblage biomass and functional diversity. It plays a key role in food webs, being a common foodstuff for a number of marine birds including the oystercatcher. Both before and during the study (early 2010–mid 2011), Ireland experienced its two coldest winters for 50 years. As the research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between sites, despite site differences in water and environmental quality, temperature and variable climatic conditions were the dominant factor controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis commenced over winter rather than in spring. Extremely cold winters may impact on the cockle by accelerating and extending the onset and development of gametogenesis. Whether this impact is positive or negative would depend on the associated events occurring on which the cockle depends, that is, presence of primary producers and spring blooms, which would facilitate conversion of this extended gametogenesis into successful recruitment. PMID:23532482

  14. Potential tropical Atlantic impacts on Pacific decadal climate trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, T.; Timmermann, A.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.

    2016-07-01

    The tropical Pacific cooling from the early 1990s to 2013 has contributed to the slowdown of globally averaged sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The origin of this regional cooling trend still remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the remote impact of Atlantic SST anomalies, as well as local atmosphere-ocean interactions, contributed to the eastern Pacific cooling during this period. By assimilating observed three-dimensional Atlantic temperature and salinity anomalies into a coupled general circulation model, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the observed Pacific decadal trends of SST and sea level pressure (SLP), albeit with reduced amplitude. Although a major part of the Pacific SLP trend can be explained by equatorial Pacific SST forcing only, the origin of this low-frequency variability can be traced back further to the remote impacts of equatorial Atlantic and South Atlantic SST trends. Atlantic SST impacts on the atmospheric circulation can also be detected for the Northeastern Pacific, thus providing a linkage between Atlantic climate and Western North American drought conditions.

  15. The Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act and School Choice on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettett, Wendy Ruddell

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act, signed into law in January 2002, established a decade of test-driven school reform in an attempt to increase student achievement and reduce the student achievement gap. The state of Georgia created the Criterion Reference Competency Test (CRCT) to align with the guidelines of NCLB. This study examined…

  16. To Tell the Truth: The Impact of the Hatch Act on Secondary Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary E.

    The Hatch Act of 1887 established agricultural experiment stations to conduct agricultural research. It also called for the diffusion of agricultural information to the public. Land-grant university presidents and agricultural professors formalized the establishment of an association to improve communications and coordinate activities in regards…

  17. 76 FR 20217 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... necessitate that every time there is a past due debt, sellers will have to consult a PACA lawyer. 5. All... Act (PACA) to allow, if there is a default in payment as defined in the regulations, a seller... comments noted that there is no problem in the industry with post-default agreements to collect...

  18. The Impact of the Native American Languages Act on Public School Curriculum: A Different View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Responds to Scott Ferrin's argument (EJ 583 598) and, as the former policy director for the U.S. Office for Civil Rights (OCR), decries both Ferrin and OCR for their relentless and, in his view, unwarranted promotion of bilingual education. Contends that no civil-rights laws, including the Native American Languages Act (NALA), support or allow…

  19. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of the American Power Act of 2010

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senators Kerry, Graham, and Lieberman for an analysis of the American Power Act of 2010 (APA). APA, as released by Senators Kerry and Lieberman on May 12, 2010, regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and other economic incentives.

  20. The Impact of the Workforce Investment Act Training Program on Unemployment in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tormen, Francis T.

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is a major social problem in a small East Coast county, with lack of work experience and few marketable skills serving as the contributing factors. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) training program is a federal program implemented by the states to improve the occupational skills and the employability of the workforce. Scholars have…

  1. Understanding the Impacts of the Medicare Modernization Act: Concerns of Congressional Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Keith J.; Coburn, Andrew F.; MacKinney, A. Clinton; McBride, Timothy D.; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Wakefield, Mary K.

    2005-01-01

    Sweeping changes to the Medicare program embodied in the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA), including a new prescription drug benefit, changes in payment policies, and reform of the Medicare managed-care program, have major implications for rural health care. The most efficient mechanism for research to…

  2. Copyright and Distance Education: The Impact of the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Copyright in the United States can be traced back to the U.S. Constitution in 1787. To encourage authorship of creative works, Congress created a limited monopoly in Section 106 of the Copyright Act of 1790. To balance this monopoly, Congress drafted Section 107 which provides public access to creative works through fair use. Revisions were…

  3. Exploring the Impact of the Clinger-Cohen Act on Information Technology Governance: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Passage of the Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1996 was in direct response to Congressional inquiry into the perceived lack of proper management and oversight of information technology (IT) in the federal agencies. This current qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 IT professionals to determine if the…

  4. Tuition Tax Credits: A Review of Current Proposals and Their Potential Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Larry

    The Packwood/Moynihan/Roth Tuition Tax Relief Act of 1981 and the nearly 20 other tuition tax credit bills introduced since the beginning of the current session of Congress are intended to provide tax credits for a portion of the tuition paid for private education. Two major studies attempting to determine the impacts of passage of a tuition tax…

  5. The Pueblo Superfund program -- a Native American perspective on cultural impacts and environmental equity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, C.M.; Garcia, T.L.; Chavez, E.F.; Tso, K.; Francisco, C.L.; Allison, A.; Tso, D.

    1996-12-31

    The All Indian Pueblo Council (AIPC) through the Pueblo Office of Environmental Protection (POEP) implements and provides a variety of environmental programs and services to the 19 Indian Pueblos of New Mexico. Specifically, the POEP Superfund Program investigates and evaluates potential hazardous waste sites within Pueblo lands. The POEP Superfund Program began in September 1991 when the 19 Pueblo Governors signed a Superfund Memorandum of Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6. The goal of the POEP Superfund Program is to determine those sites that are eligible for Superfund-financed remedial action by placing those sites on the National Priorities List (NPL), while including the Pueblo perspective. Because the 19 Pueblos are each unique, sovereign nations, several differences and gaps associated with the current Superfund law and EPA methodologies exist. Currently, the Superfund Hazard Ranking System (HRS) model does not account for Indian religious and ceremonial impacts from these sites. Due to their importance in Pueblo life, culturally significant plants, animals, ceremonial surface water use, and sacred areas should be considered as critical impacts when evaluating the various pathways of exposure of the HRS. Tribal environmental equality is an aspect that will be included into all environmental laws. AIPC and POEP are working to address this issue under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA).

  6. Observing Campaign for Potential Deep Impact Flyby Target 163249 (2002 GT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittichova, Jana; Chesley, S. R.; Abell, P. A.; Benner, L. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft is currently on course for a Jan. 4, 2020 flyby of the sub-kilometer near-Earth asteroid 163249 (2002 GT). The re-targeting will be complete with a final small maneuver scheduled for Oct. 4, 2012. 2002 GT, which is also designated as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA), has a well-determined orbit and is approx 800 m in diameter (H=18.3). Little more is known about the nature of this object, but in mid-2013 it will pass near the Earth, affording an exceptional opportunity for ground-based characterization. At this apparition 2002 GT will be in range of Arecibo. In addition to Doppler measurements, radar delay observations with precisions of a few microseconds are expected and have a good chance of revealing whether the system is binary or not. The asteroid will be brighter than 16th mag., which will facilitate a host of observations at a variety of wavelengths. Light curve measurements across a wide range of viewing perspectives will reveal the rotation rate and ultimately lead to strong constraints on the shape and pole orientation. Visible and infrared spectra will constrain the mineralogy, taxonomy, albedo and size. Along with the radar observations, optical astrometry will further constrain the orbit, both to facilitate terminal guidance operations and to potentially reveal nongravitational forces acting on the asteroid. Coordinating all of these observations will be a significant task and we encourage interested observers to collaborate in this effort. The 2013 apparition of 2002 GT represents a unique opportunity to characterize a potential flyby target, which will aid interpretation of the high-resolution flyby imagery and aid planning and development of the flyby imaging sequence. The knowledge gained from this flyby will be highly relevant to the human exploration program at NASA, which desires more information on the physical characteristics of sub-kilometer near-Earth asteroids.

  7. Ice nucleation by cellulose and its potential impact on clouds and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Möhler, Ottmar; Yamashita, Katsuya; Tajiri, Takuya; Saito, Atsushi; Kiselev, Alexei; Hoose, Corinna; Murakami, Masataka

    2014-05-01

    Biological aerosol particles have recently been accentuated by their efficient ice nucleating activity as well as potential impact on clouds and global climate. Despite their potential importance, little is known about the abundance of biological particles in the atmosphere and their role compared to non-biological material and, consequently, their potential role in the cloud-hydrology and climate system is also poorly constrained. However, field observations show that the concentration of airborne cellulose, which is one of the most important derivatives of glucose and atmospherically relevant biopolymers, is consistently prevalent (>10 ng per cubic meter) throughout the whole year even at remote- and elevated locations. Here we use a novel cloud simulation chamber in Tsukuba, Japan to demonstrate that airborne cellulose of biological origin can act as efficient ice nucleating particles in super-cooled clouds of the lower and middle troposphere. In specific, we measured the surface-based ice nucleation activity of microcrystalline cellulose particles immersed in cloud droplets, which may add crucial importance to further quantify the role of biological particles as ice nuclei in the troposphere. Our results suggest that the concentration of ice nucleating cellulose to become significant (>0.1 per liter) below about -17 °C and nearly comparable to other known ice nucleating clay mineral particles (e.g., illite rich clay mineral - INUIT comparisons are also presented). An important and unique characteristic of microcrystalline cellulose compared to other particles of biological origin is its high molecular packing density, enhancing resistance to hydrolysis degradation. More in-depth microphysical understandings as well as quantitative observations of ice nucleating cellulose particles in the atmosphere are necessary to allow better estimates of their effects on clouds and the global climate. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge support by German Research Society (Df

  8. The impact of Roman Catholic moral theology on end-of-life care under the Texas Advance Directives Act.

    PubMed

    Zientek, David M

    2006-04-01

    This essay reviews the Roman Catholic moral tradition surrounding treatments at the end of life together with the challenges presented to that tradition by the Texas Advance Directives Act. The impact on Catholic health care facilities and physicians, and the way in which the moral tradition should be applied under this statute, particularly with reference to the provision dealing with conflicts over end-of-life treatments, will be critically assessed. I will argue, based on the traditional treatment of end-of-life issues, that Catholic physicians and institutions should appeal to the conflict resolution process of the Advance Directives Act only under a limited number of circumstances. The implications, under the Texas statute, of varied interpretations of Pope John Paul II's recent allocution on artificial feeding and hydration in the persistent vegetative state will also be considered.

  9. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Fade Compensation Protocol Impact on Very Small-Aperture Terminal Bit Error Rate Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Christina B.; Coney, Thom A.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) communications system operates at Ka band. ACTS uses an adaptive rain fade compensation protocol to reduce the impact of signal attenuation resulting from propagation effects. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an analysis characterizing the improvement in VSAT performance provided by this protocol. The metric for performance is VSAT bit error rate (BER) availability. The acceptable availability defined by communication system design specifications is 99.5% for a BER of 5E-7 or better. VSAT BER availabilities with and without rain fade compensation are presented. A comparison shows the improvement in BER availability realized with rain fade compensation. Results are presented for an eight-month period and for 24 months spread over a three-year period. The two time periods represent two different configurations of the fade compensation protocol. Index Terms-Adaptive coding, attenuation, propagation, rain, satellite communication, satellites.

  10. Direct-acting fibrinolytic enzymes in shark cartilage extract: potential therapeutic role in vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Ratel, David; Glazier, Geneviève; Provençal, Mathieu; Boivin, Dominique; Beaulieu, Edith; Gingras, Denis; Béliveau, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Fibrinogen and fibrin are molecules with overlapping roles in blood clotting, fibrinolysis, wound healing, inflammation, matrix and cellular interactions and neoplasia. There is currently much interest in the possible use of fibrinolytic agents in human therapeutics. In this study, we report the presence of fibrinolytic activities in shark cartilage extract (SCE). In vitro, SCE at 100 microg/ml completely degraded fibrin gel in an aprotinin-insensitive manner, suggesting a non-plasmin molecular nature. SCE was able to cleave all chains of fibrinogen and fibrin and the cleavage was completely inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting an essential role for metalloprotease(s) in this process. Using fibrinogen zymography, we show that SCE contains two plasmin-independent fibrinolytic activities and that these activities are correlated with the presence of 58 and 62 kDa proteases in the extract. SCE-fibrinolytic activities are inhibited by dithiothreitol, suggesting that disulfide bonds are necessary for the protease structure. Finally, using thromboelastography, SCE markedly induced retraction of human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot, this process being completely abolished by 1,10-phenanthroline. These data suggest the presence of novel non-plasmin fibrinolytic activities within SCE. This extract may thus represent a potential source of new therapeutic molecules to prevent and treat vaso-occlusive and thromboembolic disorders.

  11. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness <50%; unmodified or worsened seizure frequency). The average seizure reduction was 53.6 ± 62.0%. There were no significant differences in seizure reduction with IQ, etiology, or gender. We conclude that Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy.

  12. Report: Measuring the Impact of the Food Quality Protection Act: Challenges and Opportunities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2006-P-00028, August 1, 2006. The EPA OIG found that OPP has primarily measured its success and the impact of FQPA by adherence to its reregistration schedule rather than by reductions in risk to children’s health.

  13. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  14. Impact of the Freedom of Information Act on the National Intelligence Agencies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-16

    virtually all confidential information of the United States, whether military, diplomatic or economic, is transmitted at some time by secure communications ...in 1974, there was no major impact upon the day to day functioning of the Intelligence Community .1 Then, in 1974, during the post-Watergate period of...concern, however, in assessing the negative impact of FOIA on the national intel- ligence agencies. The Intelligence Community faces other problems

  15. Potential nanosilver impact on anaerobic digestion at moderate silver concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Chen, Qian; Wall, Judy D; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2012-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, nanosilver) entering the sewers and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are mostly accumulated in the sludge. In this study, we determined the impact of AgNPs on anaerobic glucose degradation, sludge digestion and methanogenic assemblages. At ambient (22 °C) and mesophilic temperatures (37 °C), there was no significant difference in biogas and methane production between the sludge treated with AgNPs at the concentrations up to 40 mg Ag/L (13.2 g silver/Kg biomass COD) and the control. In these anaerobic digestion samples, acetate and propionic acid were the only detectable volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and they were depleted in 3 days. On the other hand, more than 90% of AgNPs was removed from the liquid phase and associated with the sludge while almost no silver ions were released from AgNPs under anaerobic conditions. Quantitative PCR results indicated that Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobiales were the dominant methanogens, and the methanogenic diversity and population remained largely unchanged after nanosilver exposure and anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that AgNPs at moderate concentrations (e.g., ≤40 mg/L) have negligible impact on anaerobic digestion and methanogenic assemblages because of little to no silver ion release.

  16. Forest Management Shifts in the Western US and Potential Impacts on the Carbon Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.; Jones, M. O.; Yang, Z.; Berner, L. T.

    2015-12-01

    Forest harvest regimes are changing as land managers cope with fires, drought, and insect damage. Thinning on public lands, typically focused on removal of small trees that could act as fuel ladders, is increasing to reduce risk of crown fires and reduce competition for water in crowded stands. On private lands, drought and wildfires could lead to further shortening of harvest cycles (e.g. from 80 to 45 years) or thinning. To examine the effects of potential changes in management regimes vs climate on carbon processes in forests of Oregon, California and Washington, we used data from ancillary plots, inventories, and satellites to parameterize and test the CLM4.5 model. We first examined contemporary biomass loss over the western US to determine the baseline conditions prior to implementing harvest scenarios. Annual biomass mortality from fires and insects increased significantly (1996-2011), and mortality from insects was about twice that of fires. California, Oregon and Idaho were most impacted by fire-related biomass mortality, whereas Colorado, Montana and Washington were most impacted by insects. Harvest scenarios implemented in CLM4.5 include two thinning scenarios to reduce crown fire risk and drought stress, and a salvage scenario to remove trees remaining after recent beetle or fire related mortality; taking into account our previous work showing 70 - 85 % of salvaged biomass is removed and the remainder is left on-site. We simulated the effect of treatments on current and future net ecosystem carbon balance. Challenges of regional modeling of management effects on carbon and other important considerations are addressed.

  17. The Davis-Bacon Act: Cost Impact on the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    June 1977 issue of the Labor Law Journal, Donald Elisburg, then Assistant Secretary of Labor for Employment Standards, discussed an Executive Order...1992). 7. Elisburg, Donald. "Wage Protection Under the Davis- Bacon Act," Labor Law Journal, 28: 323-328 (June 1977). 8. Federal Acquisition...R. "Davis-Bacon: Labor’s Anachronism 1974," Labor Law Journal, 25: 404-407 (July 1974). 59 Vita Raymond Carpenter was born on 18 August 1953 in

  18. Impact of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 and Spectrum Allocation on Cellular Telephone Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    and their capacity was limited. Second generation cellular networks offer higher-quality signals, higher data rates for support of digital services , and...toward integrated high-speed or broadband networks offering advanced digital services ; required that all network operators coordinate facilities... digital services . To encourage the broadcasters to develop at least some free advanced television, the Act gives them preferential access to the

  19. Requirements and impacts of the Federal Facility Compliance Act on the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.; Tripp, S.C.

    1993-03-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA, the Act) was signed into law on October 6, 1992, primarily as a means of waiving sovereign immunity for federal facilities with respect to requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE`s implementation of the FFCA will have significant effects on current and future DOE waste management operations. DOE will need to rethink its strategy in the area of future compliance agreements to ensure commitments and deliverables are made consistent throughout the different DOE facilities. Several types of agreements that address mixed waste land disposal restriction (LDR) compliance have already been signed by both DOE and the regulators. These agreements are in place at the Hanford Reservation, the Savannah River Site, the Oak Ridge Reservation (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, K-25, Y-12), and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The Rocky Flats Agreement is now being renegotiated. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia/Albuquerque National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory agreements are in progress. Major components of the FFCA include provisions on: sovereign immunity waiver; cost reimbursements; mixed waste requirements, including inventory reports on mixed waste and treatment capacity and technologies; and plans for the development of treatment capacities and technologies. Each of these components is discussed within this paper.

  20. The impact of extreme environmental factors on the mineralization potential of the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinyakova, Natalia; Semenov, Vyacheslav

    2016-04-01

    Warming, drying, wetting are the prevalent disturbing natural impacts that affect the upper layers of uncultivated and arable soils. The effect of drying-wetting cycles act as a physiological stress for the soil microbial community and cause changes in its structure, the partial death or lysis of the microbial biomass. The mobilization of the SOM and the stabilization of the potentially mineralizable components lead to change of mineralization potential in the soil. To test the effects of different moisture regime on plant growth and soil biological properties, plot experiment with the gray forest soil including trials with plants (corn) and bare fallow was performed. Different regimes of soil moisture (conditionally optimal, relatively deficient soil moisture and repeated cycles of drying-wetting) were created. Control of soil moisture was taken every two or three days. Gas sampling was carried out using closed chambers. Soil samples were collected at the end of the pot experiment. The potentially mineralizable content of soil organic carbon (SOC) was measured by biokinetic method based on (1) aerobic incubation of soil samples under constant temperature and moisture conditions during 158 days, (2) quantitation of C-CO2, and (3) fitting of C-CO2 cumulative curve by a model of first-order kinetic. Total soil organic carbon was measured by Tyrin's wet chemical oxidation method. Permanent deficient moisture in the soil favored the preservation of potentially mineralizable SOC. Two repeated cycles of drying-wetting did not reduce the potentially mineralizable carbon content in comparison with control under optimal soil moisture during 90 days of experiment. The emission loss of C-CO2 from the soil with plants was 1.4-1.7 times higher than the decrease of potentially mineralizable SOC due to the contribution of root respiration. On the contrary, the decrease of potentially mineralized SOC in the soil without plants was 1.1-1.2 times larger than C-CO2 emissions from the

  1. Identification, definition and evaluation of potential impacts facing the US electric utility industry over the next decade. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grainger, J.J.; Lee, S.S.H.

    1993-11-26

    There are numerous conditions of the generation system that may ultimately develop into system states affecting system reliability and security. Such generation system conditions should also be considered when evaluating the potential impacts on system operations. The following five issues have been identified to impact system reliability and security to the greatest extent: transmission access/retail wheeling; non-utility generators and independent power producers; integration of dispersed storage and generation into utility distribution systems; EMF and right-of-way limitations; Clean Air Act Amendments. Strictly speaking, some issues are interrelated and one issue cannot be completely dissociated from the others. However, this report addresses individual issues separately in order to determine all major aspects of bulk power system operations affected by each issue. The impacts of the five issues on power system reliability and security are summarized. This report examines the five critical issues that the US electric utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility industry will be facing over the next decade. The investigation of their impacts on utility system reliability and security is limited to the system operation viewpoint. Those five issues will undoubtedly influence various planning aspects of the bulk transmission system. However, those subjects are beyond the scope of this report. While the issues will also influence the restructure and business of the utility industry politically, sociologically, environmentally, and economically, all discussion included in the report are focused only on technical ramifications.

  2. 34 CFR Appendix to Subpart K of... - Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid Payments Under State Equalization Programs Appendix to Subpart K of... Act Pt. 222, Subpt. K, App. Appendix to Subpart K of Part 222—Determinations Under Section 8009 of...

  3. Future Fuel Scenarios and Their Potential Impact to Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Lowery, Nathan; Daggett, David L.; Anast, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In recent years fuel prices have been growing at a rapid pace. Current conservative projections predict that this is only a function of the natural volatility of oil prices, similar to the oil price spikes experienced in the 1970s. However, there is growing concern among analysts that the current price increases may not only be permanent, but that prices may continue to increase into the future before settling down at a much higher level than today. At high enough fuel prices, the aircraft industry would become very sensitive to fuel price. In this paper, the likelihood of fuel price increase is considered in three different price increase scenarios: "low," "medium," and "high." The impact of these scenarios on the aviation industry and alternatives are also addressed.

  4. Future Fuel Scenarios and Their Potential Impact to Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Anast, Peter; Lowery, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years fuel prices have been growing at a rapid pace. Current conservative projections predict that this is only a function of the natural volatility of oil prices, similar to the oil price spikes experienced in the 1970s. However, there is growing concern among analysts that the current price increases may not only be permanent, but that prices may continue to increase into the future before settling down at a much higher level than today. At high enough fuel prices, the aircraft industry would become very sensitive to fuel price. In this paper, the likelihood of fuel price increase is considered in three different price increase scenarios: "low," "medium," and "high." The impact of these scenarios on the aviation industry and alternatives are also addressed.

  5. A study of the potential impacts of space utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheston, T. S.; Chafer, C. M.; Chafer, S. B.; Webb, D. C.; Stadd, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Because the demand for comprehensive impact analysis of space technologies will increase with the use of space shuttles, the academic social sciences/humanities community was surveyed in order to determine their interests in space utilization, to develop a list of current and planned courses, and to generate a preliminary matrix of relevant social sciences. The academic scope/focus of a proposed social science space-related journal was identified including the disciplines which should be represented in the editorial board/reviewer system. The time and funding necessary to develop a self-sustaining journal were assessed. Cost income, general organizational structure, marking/distribution and funding sources were analyzed. Recommendations based on the survey are included.

  6. Mercury from mineral deposits and potential environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Mercury deposits are globally distributed in 26 mercury mineral belts. Three types of mercury deposits occur in these belts: silica-carbonate, hot-spring, and Almaden. Mercury is also produced as a by-product from several types of gold-silver and massive sulfide deposits, which account for 5% of the world's production. Other types of mineral deposits can be enriched in mercury and mercury phases present are dependent on deposit type. During processing of mercury ores, secondary mercury phases form and accumulate in mine wastes. These phases are more soluble than cinnabar, the primary ore mineral, and cause mercury deposits to impact the environment more so than other types of ore deposits enriched in mercury. Release and transport of mercury from mine wastes occur primarily as mercury-enriched particles and colloids. Production from mercury deposits has decreased because of environmental concerns, but by-product production from other mercury-enriched mineral deposits remains important.

  7. The potential impact of microgravity science and technology on education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of educational support materials by NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division is discussed in the light of two programs. Descriptions of the inception and application possibilities are given for the Microgravity-Science Teacher's Guide and the program of Undergraduate Research Opportunities in Microgravity Science and Technology. The guide is intended to introduce students to the principles and research efforts related to microgravity, and the undergraduate program is intended to reinforce interest in the space program. The use of computers and electronic communications is shown to be an important catalyst for the educational efforts. It is suggested that student and teacher access to these programs be enhanced so that they can have a broader impact on the educational development of space-related knowledge.

  8. Potential climatic impacts of vegetation change: A regional modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Copeland, J.H.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The human species has been modifying the landscape long before the development of modern agrarian techniques. Much of the land area of the conterminous United States is currently used for agricultural production. In certain regions this change in vegetative cover from its natural state may have led to local climatic change. A regional climate version of the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System was used to assess the impact of a natural versus current vegetation distribution on the weather and climate of July 1989. The results indicate that coherent regions of substantial changes, of both positive and negative sign, in screen height temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation are a possible consequence of land use change throughout the United States. The simulated changes in the screen height quantities were closely related to changes in the vegetation parameters of albedo, roughness length, leaf area index, and fractional coverage. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Impact of chloride on denitrification potential in roadside wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Nakita A; Bushey, Joseph T; Tobias, Craig R; Song, Bongkeun; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-05-01

    Developed landscapes are exposed to changes in hydrology and water chemistry that limit their ability to mitigate detrimental impacts to coastal water bodies, particularly those that result from stormwater runoff. The elevated level of impervious cover increases not only runoff but also contaminant loading of nutrients, metals, and road salt used for deicing to water bodies. Here we investigate the impact that road salt has on denitrification in roadside environments. Sediments were collected from a series of forested and roadside wetlands and acclimated with a range of Cl(-) concentrations from 0 to 5000 mg L(-1) for 96 h. Denitrification rates were measured by the isotope pairing technique using (15)N-NO3(-), while denitrifying community structures were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ). Chloride significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited denitrification in forested wetlands at a Cl(-) dosage of 2500 or 5000 mg L(-1), but the decrease in denitrification rates was less and not significant for the roadside wetlands historically exposed to elevated concentrations of Cl(-). The difference could not be attributed to other significant changes in conditions, such as DOC concentrations, N species concentrations, or pH levels. Denitrifying communities, as measured by T-RFs of the nosZ gene, in the roadside wetlands with elevated concentration of Cl(-) were distinctly different and more diverse compared to forested wetlands, and also different in roadside wetlands after 96 h exposures to Cl(-). The shifts in denitrifying communities seem to minimize the decrease in denitrification rates in the wetlands previously exposed to Cl. As development results in more Cl(-) use and exposure to a broad range of natural or manmade wetland structures, an understanding of the seasonal effect of Cl on denitrification processes in these systems would aid in design or mitigation of the effects on N removal

  10. Potential impact of U.S. biofuels on regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.

    2009-11-01

    Recent work has shown that current bio-energy policy directives may have harmful, indirect consequences, affecting both food security and the global climate system. An additional unintended but direct effect of large-scale biofuel production is the impact on local and regional climate resulting from changes in the energy and moisture balance of the surface upon conversion to biofuel crops. Using the latest version of the WRF modeling system we conducted twenty-four, midsummer, continental-wide, sensitivity experiments by imposing realistic biophysical parameter limits appropriate for bio-energy crops in the Corn Belt of the United States. In the absence of strain/crop-specific parameterizations, a primary goal of this work was to isolate the maximum regional climate impact, for a trio of individual July months, due to land-use change resulting from bio-energy crops and to identify the relative importance of each biophysical parameter in terms of its individual effect. Maximum, local changes in 2 m temperature of the order of 1°C occur for the full breadth of albedo (ALB), minimum canopy resistance (RCMIN), and rooting depth (ROOT) specifications, while the regionally (105°W-75°W and 35°N-50°N) and monthly averaged response of 2 m temperature was most pronounced for the ALB and RCMIN experiments, exceeding 0.2°C. The full range of albedo variability associated with biofuel crops may be sufficient to drive regional changes in summertime rainfall. Individual parameter effects on 2 m temperature are additive, highlight the cooling contribution of higher leaf area index (LAI) and ROOT for perennial grasses (e.g., Miscanthus) versus annual crops (e.g., maize), and underscore the necessity of improving location- and vegetation-specific representation of RCMIN and ALB.

  11. Potential impact of climate change on marine dimethyl sulfide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Belviso, Sauveur; Monfray, Patrick

    2003-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a biogenic compound produced in sea-surface water and outgased to the atmosphere. Once in the atmosphere, DMS is a significant source of cloud condensation nuclei in the unpolluted marine atmosphere. It has been postulated that climate may be partly modulated by variations in DMS production through a DMS-cloud condensation nuclei-albedo feedback. We present here a modelled estimation of the response of DMS sea-water concentrations and DMS fluxes to climate change, following previous work on marine DMS modeling (Aumont et al., 2002) and on the global warming impact on marine biology (Bopp et al., 2001). An atmosphere ocean general circulation model (GCM) was coupled to a marine biogeochemical scheme and used without flux correction to simulate climate response to increased greenhouse gases (a 1% increase per year in atmospheric CO2 until it has doubled). The predicted global distribution of DMS at 1 × CO2 compares reasonably well with observations; however, in the high latitudes, very elevated concentrations of DMS due to spring and summer blooms of Phaeocystis can not be reproduced. At 2 × CO2, the model estimates a small increase of global DMS flux to the atmosphere (+2%) but with large spatial heterogeneities (from -15% to +30% for the zonal mean). Mechanisms affecting DMS fluxes are changes in (1) marine biological productivity, (2) relative abundance of phytoplankton species and (3) wind intensity. The mean DMS flux perturbation we simulate represents a small negative feedback on global warming; however, the large regional changes may significantly impact regional temperature and precipitation patterns.

  12. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses.

    PubMed

    Roux, Simon; Brum, Jennifer R; Dutilh, Bas E; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Duhaime, Melissa B; Loy, Alexander; Poulos, Bonnie T; Solonenko, Natalie; Lara, Elena; Poulain, Julie; Pesant, Stéphane; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Cruaud, Corinne; Alberti, Adriana; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Vaqué, Dolors; Bork, Peer; Acinas, Silvia G; Wincker, Patrick; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-09-29

    act as key players in nutrient cycling and trophic networks.

  13. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    they act as key players in nutrient cycling and trophic networks.

  14. Potential climatic impact of organic haze on early Earth.

    PubMed

    Hasenkopf, Christa A; Freedman, Miriam A; Beaver, Melinda R; Toon, Owen B; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2011-03-01

    We have explored the direct and indirect radiative effects on climate of organic particles likely to have been present on early Earth by measuring their hygroscopicity and cloud nucleating ability. The early Earth analog aerosol particles were generated via ultraviolet photolysis of an early Earth analog gas mixture, which was designed to mimic possible atmospheric conditions before the rise of oxygen. An analog aerosol for the present-day atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan was tested for comparison. We exposed the early Earth aerosol to a range of relative humidities (RHs). Water uptake onto the aerosol was observed to occur over the entire RH range tested (RH=80-87%). To translate our measurements of hygroscopicity over a specific range of RHs into their water uptake ability at any RH < 100% and into their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at RH > 100%, we relied on the hygroscopicity parameter κ, developed by Petters and Kreidenweis. We retrieved κ=0.22 ±0.12 for the early Earth aerosol, which indicates that the humidified aerosol (RH < 100 %) could have contributed to a larger antigreenhouse effect on the early Earth atmosphere than previously modeled with dry aerosol. Such effects would have been of significance in regions where the humidity was larger than 50%, because such high humidities are needed for significant amounts of water to be on the aerosol. Additionally, Earth organic aerosol particles could have activated into CCN at reasonable-and even low-water-vapor supersaturations (RH > 100%). In regions where the haze was dominant, it is expected that low particle concentrations, once activated into cloud droplets, would have created short-lived, optically thin clouds. Such clouds, if predominant on early Earth, would have had a lower albedo than clouds today, thereby warming the planet relative to current-day clouds.

  15. The Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970: Retrospective Assessments of Disparate Treatment and Consequential Impact.

    PubMed

    Yamatani, Hide; Feit, Marvin; Mann, Aaron

    2017-03-07

    Although the basic paradigm of the U.S. federal drug policy targeting the supply and demand reduction has not changed since its enactment in 1970, there have been seriously undesirable disparate treatments and impacts among various population groups. Although U.S. Congress could not define what is discrimination, it did provide two major criteria for the assessment of discriminatory practices as follows: (a) disparate treatment-basing a key decision on association with any of the five prohibited individual's demographic classifications (race, color, religion, sex, or national origin); and (b) disparate impact-correlation between any of the five prohibited demographic classifications and the key outcomes. In reference to those criteria, this article describes evidence-based indicators of national failure of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

  16. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thyroid hormone synthesis: a potential target of a Chinese herbal formula Haizao Yuhu Decoction acting on iodine-deficient goiter

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xia; Yan, Chen; Guo, Xiaodong; Guo, Qiuyan; Liu, Zhenli; Song, Zhiqian; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Haizao Yuhu Decoction (HYD), a famous multi-component herbal formula, has been widely used to treat various thyroid-related diseases, including iodine-deficient goiter. Herb pair Thallus Sargassi Pallidi (HZ) and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC), one of the so-called “eighteen antagonistic medicaments”, contains in HYD. To explore pharmacological mechanisms of HYD acting on iodine-deficient goiter and to provide evidence for potential roles of herb pair HZ and GC in HYD, our genome-wide microarray detection and network analysis identified a list of goiter-related genes, mainly involved into the alterations in hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid/gonad/growth axes. Then, the disease genes-drug genes interaction network illustrated the links between HYD regulating genes and goiter-related genes, and identified the candidate targets of HYD acting on goiter. Functionally, these candidate targets were closely correlated with thyroid hormone synthesis. Moreover, the potential regulating genes of herb pair HZ and GC were revealed to be crucial components in the pathway of thyroid hormone synthesis. The prediction results were all verified by following experiments based on goiter rats. Collectively, this integrative study combining microarray gene expression profiling, network analysis and experimental validations offers the convincing evidence that HYD may alleviate iodine-deficient goiter via regulating thyroid hormone synthesis, and explains the necessity of herb pair HZ and GC in HYD. Our work provides a novel and powerful means to clarify the mechanisms of action for multi-component drugs such as herbal formulae in a holistic way, which may improve drug development and applications. PMID:27384475

  18. Alternative Fuels and Their Potential Impact on Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D.; Hendricks, R.; Walther, R.

    2006-01-01

    With a growing gap between the growth rate of petroleum production and demand, and with mounting environmental needs, the aircraft industry is investigating issues related to fuel availability, candidates for alternative fuels, and improved aircraft fuel efficiency. Bio-derived fuels, methanol, ethanol, liquid natural gas, liquid hydrogen, and synthetic fuels are considered in this study for their potential to replace or supplement conventional jet fuels. Most of these fuels present the airplane designers with safety, logistical, and performance challenges. Synthetic fuel made from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstock shows significant promise as a fuel that could be easily integrated into present and future aircraft with little or no modification to current aircraft designs. Alternatives, such as biofuel, and in the longer term hydrogen, have good potential but presently appear to be better suited for use in ground transportation. With the increased use of these fuels, a greater portion of a barrel of crude oil can be used for producing jet fuel because aircraft are not as fuel-flexible as ground vehicles.

  19. Investigating impacts of positional error on potential health care accessibility.

    PubMed

    Bell, Scott; Wilson, Kathi; Shah, Tayyab Ikram; Gersher, Sarina; Elliott, Tina

    2012-04-01

    Accessibility to health services at the local or community level is an effective approach to measuring health care delivery in various constituencies in Canada and the United States. GIS and spatial methods play an important role in measuring potential access to health services. The Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method is a GIS based procedure developed to calculate potential (spatial) accessibility as a ratio of primary health care (PHC) providers to the surrounding population in urban settings. This method uses PHC provider locations in textual/address format supplied by local, regional, or national health authorities. An automated geocoding procedure is normally used to convert such addresses to a pair of geographic coordinates. The accuracy of geocoding depends on the type of reference data and the amount of value-added effort applied. This research investigates the success and accuracy of six geocoding methods as well as how geocoding error affects the 3SFCA method. ArcGIS software is used for geocoding and spatial accessibility estimation. Results will focus on two implications of geocoding: (1) the success and accuracy of different automated and value-added geocoding; and (2) the implications of these geocoding methods for GIS-based methods that generalise results based on location data.

  20. The Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 on the Business and Accounting Curriculums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Ronald O.; Bullock, Charles; Johnson, Gene; Iyer, Vish

    2007-01-01

    Business and accounting curriculums are designed to educate and train future business professionals and leaders. When Congress passed SOX in 2002, it dramatically impacted the responsibilities of corporate executives and CPAs and consequently required corresponding changes in the business schools prepare students to assume these roles. Because the…

  1. Projected impacts of climate change on hydropower potential in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Voisin, Nathalie; Cui, Huijuan

    2016-08-01

    Hydropower is an important renewable energy source in China, but it is sensitive to climate change, because the changing climate may alter hydrological conditions (e.g., river flow and reservoir storage). Future changes and associated uncertainties in China's gross hydropower potential (GHP) and developed hydropower potential (DHP) are projected using simulations from eight global hydrological models (GHMs), including a large-scale reservoir regulation model, forced by five general circulation models (GCMs) with climate data under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). Results show that the estimation of the present GHP of China is comparable to other studies; overall, the annual GHP is projected to change by -1.7 to 2 % in the near future (2020-2050) and increase by 3 to 6 % in the late 21st century (2070-2099). The annual DHP is projected to change by -2.2 to -5.4 % (0.7-1.7 % of the total installed hydropower capacity (IHC)) and -1.3 to -4 % (0.4-1.3 % of total IHC) for 2020-2050 and 2070-2099, respectively. Regional variations emerge: GHP will increase in northern China but decrease in southern China - mostly in south central China and eastern China - where numerous reservoirs and large IHCs currently are located. The area with the highest GHP in southwest China will have more GHP, while DHP will reduce in the regions with high IHC (e.g., Sichuan and Hubei) in the future. The largest decrease in DHP (in %) will occur in autumn or winter, when streamflow is relatively low and water use is competitive. Large ranges in hydropower estimates across GHMs and GCMs highlight the necessity of using multimodel assessments under climate change conditions. This study prompts the consideration of climate change in planning for hydropower development and operations in China, to be further combined with a socioeconomic analysis for strategic expansion.

  2. Analysis of the Lifecycle Impacts and Potential for Avoided Impacts Associated with Single Family Homes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how recovering construction and demolition materials from single-family homes and reusing them in building and road construction and other applications helps offset the environmental impacts associated with single-family homes.

  3. EPA Releases Draft Assessment on the Potential Impacts to Drinking Water Resources from Hydraulic Fracturing Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON-The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is releasing a draft assessment today on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing activities on drinking water resources in the United States. The assessment, done at the request of Congress, shows

  4. USE OF MODELING APPROACHES TO UNDERSTAND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANTS ON PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...

  5. Modeling prescribed fire impacts on local to regional air quality and potential climate effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass burning, including wildfires and prescribed burns, are of increasing concern due to the potential impacts on ambient air quality. The direct and indirect radiative forcings associated the particulate matter from biomass burning are also raising questions regarding the pot...

  6. Atmospheric Effects and Potential Climatic Impact of the 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Deepak, A.

    1982-10-01

    Measurements and studies of the 1980 Mount St. Helens volcanic eruptions and their atmospheric effects and climatic impact are addressed. Specific areas discussed include: (1) nature and impact of volcanic eruptions, (2) in situ measurements of effluents, (3) remote sensing measurements, (4) transport and dispersion of volcanic effluents, (5) chemistry of volcanic effluents, and (6) weather and potential climate impact. For individual titles, see N83-11535 through N83-11562.

  7. Projected impacts of climate change on hydropower potential in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Voisin, Nathalie; Cui, Huijuan

    2016-01-01

    Hydropower is an important renewable energy source in China, but it is sensitive to climate change, because the changing climate may alter hydrological conditions (e.g., river flow and reservoir storage). Future changes and associated uncertainties in China's gross hydropower potential (GHP) and developed hydropower potential (DHP) are projected using simulations from eight global hydrological models (GHMs), including a large-scale reservoir regulation model, forced by five general circulation models (GCMs) with climate data under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). Results show that the estimation of the present GHP of China is comparable to other studies; overall, the annual GHP is projected to change by −1.7 to 2 % in the near future (2020–2050) and increase by 3 to 6 % in the late 21st century (2070–2099). The annual DHP is projected to change by −2.2 to −5.4 % (0.7–1.7 % of the total installed hydropower capacity (IHC)) and −1.3 to −4 % (0.4–1.3 % of total IHC) for 2020–2050 and 2070–2099, respectively. Regional variations emerge: GHP will increase in northern China but decrease in southern China – mostly in south central China and eastern China – where numerous reservoirs and large IHCs currently are located. The area with the highest GHP in southwest China will have more GHP, while DHP will reduce in the regions with high IHC (e.g., Sichuan and Hubei) in the future. The largest decrease in DHP (in %) will occur in autumn or winter, when streamflow is relatively low and water use is competitive. Large ranges in hydropower estimates across GHMs and GCMs highlight the necessity of using multimodel assessments under climate change conditions. This study prompts the consideration of climate change in planning for hydropower development and operations in China, to be further combined with a socioeconomic analysis for strategic expansion.

  8. Potential health impacts of consuming desalinated bottled water.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Shomar, Basem

    2015-06-01

    This study compared physicochemical properties, anion and carbon content and major and trace elements in desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water available in Qatar, and assessed the potential health risks associated with prolonged consumption of desalinated water. Results indicate that Qatar's population is not at elevated risk of dietary exposure to As (mean = 666 ng/L), Ba (48.0 μg/L), Be (9.27 ng/L), Cd (20.1 ng/L), Cr (874 ng/L), Pb (258 ng/L), Sb (475 ng/L) and U (533 ng/L) from consumption of both desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water types available in the country. Consumers who primarily consume desalinated water brands further minimize risk of exposure to heavy metals as levels were significantly lower than in non-desalinated bottled water. Desalinated bottled water was not a significant contributor to recommended daily intakes for Ca, Mg and F(-) for adults and children and may increase risk of deficiencies. Desalinated bottled water accounted for only 3% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) adequate intake (AI) for Ca, 5-6% of the recommended daily allowance for Mg and 4% of the AI for F among adults. For children desalinated water contributed 2-3% of the IOM AICa, 3-10% of the RDA(Mg) and 3-9% of the AIF.

  9. The potential impact of washing machines on laundry malodour generation.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, K; Hill, K; Day, K; Perry, J D; Dean, J R

    2013-04-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has been adopted to investigate and identify the source of malodour in washing machines and the potential for cross-contamination of laundry. Four washing machines were olfactively graded, and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) bacteria was determined in four specific locations. Then, samples of terry-towel and fleece were washed, without the use of detergent, in the machines, and the occurrence of malodour over a 52-h period was assessed. Analysis of the scrapings from the four locations in the two malodorous machines identified a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by either olfactory detection or mass spectral identification post-gas chromatographic separation. In addition, microbiological analysis from the swabs from the four locations within all four washing machines was carried out. Quantitative analysis of VOCs from 66 microbiological isolates from either the washing machines or fabrics was carried out. In total, 10 VOCs were identified: dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,4-dithiapentane, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-tridecanone, indole, 2-phenylethanol, isovaleric acid, isobutyric acid and 1-undecene.

  10. Potential climate change impacts on temperate forest ecosystem processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Zhang, Shuxia; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Large changes in atmospheric CO2, temperature and precipitation are predicted by 2100, yet the long-term consequences for carbon, water, and nitrogen cycling in forests are poorly understood. We applied the PnET-CN ecosystem model to compare the long-term effects of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 on productivity, evapotranspiration, runoff, and net nitrogen mineralization in current Great Lakes forest types. We used two statistically downscaled climate projections, PCM B1 (warmer and wetter) and GFDL A1FI (hotter and drier), to represent two potential future climate and atmospheric CO2 scenarios. To separate the effects of climate and CO2, we ran PnET-CN including and excluding the CO2 routine. Our results suggest that, with rising CO2 and without changes in forest type, average regional productivity could increase from 67% to 142%, changes in evapotranspiration could range from –3% to +6%, runoff could increase from 2% to 22%, and net N mineralization could increase 10% to 12%. Ecosystem responses varied geographically and by forest type. Increased productivity was almost entirely driven by CO2 fertilization effects, rather than by temperature or precipitation (model runs holding CO2 constant showed stable or declining productivity). The relative importance of edaphic and climatic spatial drivers of productivity varied over time, suggesting that productivity in Great Lakes forests may switch from being temperature to water limited by the end of the century.

  11. The potential impacts of sodium management on Frit Development for Coupled Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F. C.; Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.

    2015-06-10

    In this report, Section 2.0 provides a description of sodium management and its impact on the glass waste form, Section 3.0 provides background information on phase separation, Section 4.0 provides the impact of sodium management on SB9 frit development efforts and the results of a limited scoping study investigating phase separation in potential DWPF frits, and Section 5.0 discusses potential technical issues associated with using a phase separated frit for DWPF operations.

  12. Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  13. Unequal Treatment or Uneven Consequence: A Content Analysis of Americans with Disabilities Act Title I Disparate Impact Cases from 1992-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sara Pfister

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the patterns and themes of litigation in Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) disability discrimination cases charged under the theory of disparate impact. Specifically, this study used Computer Assisted Legal Research (CALR) to identify and review all U.S. Appellate Court ADA disparate impact cases as…

  14. 77 FR 44562 - Public Meeting: Potential Regulatory Implications of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Lead in Drinking Water Act of 2011 AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... discuss and solicit input from States, manufacturers, drinking water systems, other interested groups and consumers on the implementation of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act of 2011 (``the Act'')....

  15. Current and potential ant impacts in the Pacific region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd L.; Krushelnycky, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    . They generally have multiple queens per colony, are unicolonial (lacking internest aggression), quickly recruit to food items, thrive in a variety of habitats including disturbed areas, and can be highly aggressive to other ant species (McGlynn 1999). Hawaii’s arthropod fauna evolved in the absence of ants and has been observed by many biologists to be highly vulnerable to displacement by non-native ants. Pacific island biotas have also very likely suffered greatly from displacement by ants. However, in contrast to Hawaii, virtually nothing has been published on effects of non-native ants on native arthropod fauna elsewhere on Pacific islands, with the exception of the Galapagos archipelago, which may have at least four species of endemic ants (Lubin 1984, Nishida and Evenhuis 2000) and New Caledonia (Jourdan et al. 2001, Le Breton et al. 2005). In addition, many ant species in the Pacific have long been a nuisance for humans, and significant agricultural impacts have occurred from ants tending hemipteran insects of crop plants.

  16. Potential Hydrogeomechanical Impacts of Geological CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, B. J.; Haerer, D.; Han, W.; Heath, J.; Morse, J.

    2006-12-01

    Long-term sequestration of anthropogenic "greenhouse gases" such as CO2 is a proposed approach to managing climate change. Deep brine reservoirs in sedimentary basins are possible sites for sequestration, given their ubiquitous nature. We used a mathematical sedimentary basin model, including coupling of multiphase CO2-groundwater flow and rock deformation, to evaluate residence times in possible brine reservoir storage sites, migration patterns and rates away from such sites, and effects of CO2 injection on fluid pressures and rock strain. Study areas include the Uinta and Paradox basins of Utah, the San Juan basin of New Mexico, and the Permian basin of west Texas. Regional-scale hydrologic and mechanical properties, including the presence of fracture zones, were calibrated using laboratory and field data. Our initial results suggest that, in general, long-term (~100 years or more) sequestration in deep brine reservoirs is possible, if guided by robust structural and hydrologic data. However, specific processes must be addressed to characterize and minimize risks. In addition to CO2 migration from target sequestration reservoirs into other reservoirs or to the land surface, another environmental issue is displacement of brines into freshwater aquifers. We evaluated the potential for such unintended aquifer contamination by displacement of brines out of adjacent sealing layers such as marine shales. Results suggest that sustained injection of CO2 may incur significant brine displacement out of adjacent sealing layers, depending on the injection history, initial brine composition, and hydrologic properties of both reservoirs and seals. Model simulations also suggest that as injection-induced overpressures migrate, effective stresses may follow this migration under some conditions, as will associated rock strain. Such "strain migration" may lead to induced or reactivated fractures or faults, but can be controlled through reservoir engineering.

  17. Impact of potential inappropriate NSAIDs use in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ussai, S; Miceli, L; Pisa, F E; Bednarova, R; Giordano, A; Della Rocca, G; Petelin, R

    2015-01-01

    Pain remains one of the main reasons for medical consultation worldwide: moderate- to severe-intensity pain occurs in 19% of adult Europeans, seriously affecting the quality of their social and working lives. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are not recommended for long-term use and a careful surveillance to monitor for toxicity and efficacy is critical. This study aims to assess: 1) the pattern of use of NSAIDs and opioids in a population covered by a cloud-based pharmacovigilance surveillance system; and 2) potential inappropriate use. A retrospective 18-months systematic analysis on patients' pain treatment was performed. The primary endpoint was evaluating the prevalence of NSAIDs and opioids use and the duration of therapy regimen. The secondary endpoint was to investigate the prevalence of NSAIDs taken for >21 consecutive days concomitant with drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or antiplatelet drugs. The yearly cost for individual users of concomitant NSAIDs for more than 21 consecutive days and of GORD medications has been estimated. A total of 3,050 subjects with chronic pain were enrolled; 97% of them took NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days; about one-fourth of these users also received drugs for peptic ulcer and GORD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A02B). The yearly cost foran individual who uses NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days as well as concomitant GORD medications is 61.23 euros. In total, 238 subjects (8%) using NSAIDs for >21 days also received one antiplatelet agent. About 11% of subjects received opioids at least once and only 2% of them carried on the therapy for more than 90 consecutive days. In evaluating the escalation in dosage as a proxy of dependence risk, this study shows no dosage escalation in our cohort of chronic pain population - that is to say we show no risk of dependence.

  18. End-of-Year 2010-11 Progress Report to the Legislature: Implementation and Impact of the Workforce Investment Act, Title II Adult Education and Family Literacy Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Title II: Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) provides funding for states and territories to provide instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), Adult Basic Education (ABE), and Adult Secondary Education (ASE) to adults in need of these literacy services. California State Budget Act…

  19. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  20. Impacts & Compliance Implementation Plans & Required Deviations for Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Regulation of Double Shell Tanks (DST)

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    2000-08-22

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held meetings regarding the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) contain waste which will become subject to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor (TFC) to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. Two components of the PCB management plans are this assessment of the operational impacts of TSCA regulation and the identifications of deviations from TSCA that are required to accommodate tank farm unique limitations. This plan provides ORP and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) with an outline of TSCA PCB requirements and their applicability to tank farm activities, and recommends a compliance/implementation approach. Where strict compliance is not possible, the need for deviations from TSCA PCB requirements is identified. The purpose of assembling this information is to enhance the understanding of PCB management requirements, identify operational impacts and select impact mitigation strategies. This information should be useful in developing formal agreements with EPA where required.

  1. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Mid-Atlantic region.

  2. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

  3. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

  4. Summary of impact markers and potential impact mechanisms for the YDB impact event at 12.9 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Schultz, P. H.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J.; Kennett, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Until the announcements of a possible impact event (Firestone et al. 2007; Kennett et al., 2009a; 2009b) at the beginning of the Younger Dryas (YD) around 12.9 ka, the KT impact layer (KTB) that resulted from the Chicxulub impact at 65 mya was the only geological boundary layer known to contain coeval peaks in various impact markers, including diamonds. Here, we compare impact markers from the KTB, YD boundary layer (YDB), and the 1908 Tunguska airburst layer (TAL). First order markers, related to impact and biomass burning, include: magnetic spherules, carbon spherules, nanodiamonds (cubic and lonsdaleite), iridium anomalies, charcoal, fullerenes (with high 3He to 4He ratio), grape-like soot, and widespread extinctions. Observations and analytical data for the YDB are consistent with all of the KTB markers, while the last three markers are unknown or inconclusive for the Tunguska layer. Selected markers for cratering events, e.g, Chicxulub, are: a visible crater, shocked minerals, impact breccia, and microtektites. None of these are known for the YD event or Tunguska. The discussion here is limited to possible origins of the impact markers and not with impact consequences (climate change, extinctions, etc.). Several origins may account for impact materials in the YDB: (1) An extraordinary accretion of micrometeorites (Pinter and Ishman, 2008). However, this is inconsistent with YDB carbon spherule compositions, including the large concentrations of nanodiamonds found embedded in those carbon spherules. (2) Oblique impact(s) into the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This model is consistent with the lack of a visible crater and apparent lack of cratering markers (above), and yet also provides for shock production of the many cubic nanodiamonds and lonsdaleite found in the YDB. (3) Impact-induced aerial burst. e.g, Boslough and Crawford (2007); Shuvalov (2008). The lack of high shock pressures in an aerial detonation does not necessarily preclude the formation of cubic and

  5. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: impact on mental health services demand and provider availability.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Shoshannah A

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will greatly increase the demand for mental health (MH) services, as 62.5 million Americans from relatively high-need populations will be newly eligible for MH benefits. Consequently, the supply of MH care provider services is expected to proportionately decrease by 18% to 21% in 2014. ACA funding does not demonstrate the ability to increase turnout of psychiatrists sufficiently to meet the need. Available data indicate that the numbers of advanced practice psychiatric nurses (APPNs) continue to increase at a much greater rate, but information from either a clinical perspective or a market perspective is complicated by the weak distinctions that are made between nurse practitioners (NPs) and other nonphysician care professionals. The following recommendations are made: (a) some of the ACA funding for research into efficient and effective care delivery systems should be allocated to acquiring data on APPNs in leadership roles or clinical settings in which they are ultimately responsible for management of MH care, as differentiated from settings in which they provide support for psychiatrists; and (b) since the available data indicate nurse practitioners achieve good outcomes and are more economically viable than psychiatrists, placement of psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioners in community settings should be recognized as a realistic solution to the shortfall of MH services.

  6. The Born-Alive Infant Protection Act: impact on fetal and live birth mortality.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Michael H

    2011-05-01

    The Born-Alive Infant Protection Act (BAIPA) of 2002 defined a live birth in the United States without regard to gestation. The objective of this analysis was to determine if a significant decline in the fetal death rate or an increase in the live born death rate at previable gestational ages of 17 to 22 weeks has occurred. U.S. public use fetal death files and linked birth and infant death files were obtained for the years 2000 to 2005 for gestations of 17 to 22 weeks. The fetal death rate declined from 53.8% in the 2000 to 2002 period to 52.6% for the period 2003 to 2005 and the live birth mortality rate increased from 46.2 to 47.4% ( P < 0.02). The average annual live birth death rate increased significantly only at 17 weeks gestation ( P < 0.02). Although there was a small but statistically significant change in the fetal and live birth death rates for infants considered to be previable for the period following the passage of the BAIPA, the change appears to be isolated to only the most immature at 17 weeks gestation.

  7. Exploring the potential impacts of tourism development on social and ecological change in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Amy; Aswani, Shankar

    2016-11-01

    Pacific Island communities may be vulnerable to negative impacts of economic development, which is often considered a strategy for reducing vulnerability to environmental change. Studies that evaluate potential impacts of economic development in isolated communities may be inaccurate to only focus on asking people to anticipate impacts of phenomena they have had minimal exposure to. We used an open-ended approach to evaluate how communities in the Solomon Islands perceived change, and used this information to anticipate potential impacts of the government's plans to develop tourism. Our results showed mostly negative expectations of change, particularly socio-cultural, which was perceived as being driven by diminishing social capital, foreign influence, and economic development. Despite minimal exposure, locals supported tourism and had more positive expectations of change associated with this activity. Our findings emphasize the need for locally appropriate planning to ensure intended positive impacts of tourism and other forms of economic development.

  8. Impact of climate change on UK estuaries: A review of past trends and potential projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Peter E.; Skov, Martin W.; Lewis, Matt J.; Giménez, Luis; Davies, Alan G.; Malham, Shelagh K.; Neill, Simon P.; McDonald, James E.; Whitton, Timothy A.; Jackson, Suzanna E.; Jago, Colin F.

    2016-02-01

    UK estuarine environments are regulated by inter-acting physical processes, including tidal, wave, surge, river discharge and sediment supply. They regulate the fluxes of nutrients, pollutants, pathogens and viruses that determine whether coastlines achieve the Good Environmental Status (GEnS) required by the EU's Marine Strategy Directive. We review 20th century trends and 21st century projections of changes to climatic drivers, and their potential for altering estuarine bio-physical processes. Sea-level rise will cause some marine habitats to expand, and others diminish in area extent. The overall consequences of estuarine morphodynamics to these habitat shifts, and vice-versa, are unknown. Increased temperatures could intensify microbial pathogen concentrations and increase public health risk. The patterns of change of other climatic drivers are difficult to predict (e.g., river flows and storm surges). Projected increased winter river flows throughout UK catchments will enhance the risks of coastal eutrophication, harmful algal blooms and hypoxia in some contexts, although there are spatial variabilities in river flow projections. The reproductive success of estuarine biota is sensitive to saline intrusion and corresponding turbidity maxima, which are projected to gradually shift landwards as a result of sea-level rise. Although more-frequent flushing events in winter and longer periods of drought in summer are predicted, whereby the subsequent estuarine mixing and recovery rates are poorly understood. With rising estuarine salinities, subtidal species can penetrate deeper into estuaries, although this will depend on the resilience/adaptation of the species. Many climate and impact predictions lack resolution and spatial cover. Long-term monitoring and increased research, which considers the catchment-river-estuary-coast system as a whole, is needed to support risk predicting and mitigatory strategies.

  9. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  10. A holistic look at minimizing adverse environmental impact under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Veil, John A; Puder, Markus G; Littleton, Debra J; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-04-18

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that "the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact." As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the cooling water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase "minimizing adverse environmental impact" in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms "environmental" and "minimizing." Congress chose "environmental" in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like "impingement and entrainment," "water quality," or "aquatic life." In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional electricity to achieve the same net output

  11. 78 FR 68028 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... foreign economic effects of all acquisitions and disposals involving the stockpile and related material... disposals of materials from the stockpile. . . .'' The Committee must also balance market impact concerns..., potential disposal, or potential upgrade) associated with each material in its proposed FY 2015...

  12. Clinical benefits and impact of early use of long‐acting injectable antipsychotics for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Gail; Zummo, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim Results from clinical trials support the use of oral antipsychotics for treatment of early or first‐episode psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. This paper will review literature on the advantages of early initiation of treatment for schizophrenia and the clinical benefits of early use of long‐acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs). Method A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify published literature on the use of LAIs early in the treatment of schizophrenia. Results Although there is a higher response rate to initial antipsychotic treatment for a first‐episode of schizophrenia than with subsequent antipsychotic treatment, we have not effectively addressed this issue. Poor adherence to treatment is a primary cause of relapse and rehospitalization in subsequent years and was associated with higher relapse rates resulting in devastating effects and substantial economic burden. The costs of nonadherence were estimated to be $1.48 billion. Thus, a major challenge with the treatment of schizophrenia is changing poor adherence to persistence with antipsychotic therapy. LAIs are known to be at least as effective as oral antipsychotics for treating schizophrenia, and yet are underutilized. Further, LAIs address many of the problems associated with adherence to oral therapy. Recent evidence suggests that LAIs are effective for treating first‐episode psychosis and for early initiation of treatment for schizophrenia. Conclusion Although consistent antipsychotic treatment represents a critical part of treatment, a person‐centred approach to treating schizophrenia is essential for all aspects of care, including establishing and maintaining a therapeutic alliance, strengthening shared decision‐making and adherence, and achieving long‐lasting recovery. PMID:26403538

  13. Preferences for a potential longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives from women, providers, and policy makers in Kenya and Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; McKenna, Kevin; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Lendvay, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Between 1995 and 2005, injectable use doubled worldwide. However, discontinuation rates remain high, partly because of side effects but also because of missed appointments for reinjection. A longer-acting injectable (LAI) may improve compliance by reducing the required number of reinjection visits, thereby reducing unintentional discontinuation. This study examined acceptability of LAI characteristics comprising the target product profile (TPP). Methods: In 2012, we conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda, consisting of 19 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 177 current, previous, or never users of injectables and 46 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with providers, program implementers, and policy makers. FGDs and IDIs assessed current injectable experiences; attitudes toward potential LAI products; and perceptions of TPP attributes, including ranking preferences for the most and least important characteristics. In addition, we obtained completed electronic surveys from 28 international family planning opinion leaders about the perceived need for an LAI, important product characteristics, and challenges to LAI development or introduction. Results: Many FGD participants and interviewees spontaneously expressed strong interest in an LAI, but there was some variation in TPP preferences. The majority of participants ranked effectiveness as the most important TPP attribute. Providers were generally more concerned about side effects than potential users; some potential users suggested that side effects were related less to the product than to their own body chemistry and that side effects were acceptable as long as they did not last a long time or disrupt daily activities. Women and providers, especially in Kenya, preferred a method with a predictable return to fertility. Some participants associated amenorrhea with delayed or reduced fertility. Most women and providers preferred delivery of the LAI in a single, prepackaged, disposable injection

  14. A Holistic Look at Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    DOE PAGES

    Veil, John A.; Puder, Markus G.; Littleton, Debra J.; ...

    2002-01-01

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that “the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.” As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the coolingmore » water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions. However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase “minimizing adverse environmental impact” in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms “environmental” and “minimizing.” Congress chose “environmental” in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like “impingement and entrainment,” “water quality,” or “aquatic life.” In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional

  15. Potential environmental impacts from the metals in incandescent, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-01-15

    Artificial lighting systems are transitioning from incandescent to compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs in response to the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act and the EU Ecodesign Directive, which leads to energy savings and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Although CFLs and LEDs are more energy-efficient than incandescent bulbs, they require more metal-containing components. There is uncertainty about the potential environmental impacts of these components and whether special provisions must be made for their disposal at the end of useful life. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the resource depletion and toxicity potentials from the metals in incandescent, CFL, and LED bulbs to complement the development of sustainable energy policy. We assessed the potentials by examining whether the lighting products are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing U.S. federal and California state regulations and by applying life cycle impact-based and hazard-based assessment methods (note that "life cycle impact-based method" does not mean a general life cycle assessment (LCA) but rather the elements in LCA used to quantify toxicity potentials). We discovered that both CFL and LED bulbs are categorized as hazardous, due to excessive levels of lead (Pb) leachability (132 and 44 mg/L, respectively; regulatory limit: 5) and the high contents of copper (111,000 and 31,600 mg/kg, respectively; limit: 2500), lead (3860 mg/kg for the CFL bulb; limit: 1000), and zinc (34,500 mg/kg for the CFL bulb; limit: 5000), while the incandescent bulb is not hazardous (note that the results for CFL bulbs excluded mercury vapor not captured during sample preparation). The CFLs and LEDs have higher resource depletion and toxicity potentials than the incandescent bulb due primarily to their high aluminum, copper, gold, lead, silver, and zinc. Comparing the bulbs on an equivalent quantity basis with respect to the expected lifetimes of

  16. Potential and Actual impacts of deforestation and afforestation on land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Maosheng; Mildrexler, David J.; Motesharrei, Safa; Mu, Qiaozhen; Kalnay, Eugenia; Zhao, Fang; Li, Shuangcheng; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-12-01

    Forests are undergoing significant changes throughout the globe. These changes can modify water, energy, and carbon balance of the land surface, which can ultimately affect climate. We utilize satellite data to quantify the potential and actual impacts of forest change on land surface temperature (LST) from 2003 to 2013. The potential effect of forest change on temperature is calculated by the LST difference between forest and nearby nonforest land, whereas the actual impact on temperature is quantified by the LST trend difference between deforested (afforested) and nearby unchanged forest (nonforest land) over several years. The good agreement found between potential and actual impacts both at annual and seasonal levels indicates that forest change can have detectable impacts on surface temperature trends. That impact, however, is different for maximum and minimum temperatures. Overall, deforestation caused a significant warming up to 0.28 K/decade on average temperature trends in tropical regions, a cooling up to -0.55 K/decade in boreal regions, a weak impact in the northern temperate regions, and strong warming (up to 0.32 K/decade) in the southern temperate regions. Afforestation induced an opposite impact on temperature trends. The magnitude of the estimated temperature impacts depends on both the threshold and the data set (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Landsat) by which forest cover change is defined. Such a latitudinal pattern in temperature impact is mainly caused by the competing effects of albedo and evapotranspiration on temperature. The methodology developed here can be used to evaluate the temperature change induced by forest cover change around the globe.

  17. International funding agencies: potential leaders of impact evaluation in protected areas?

    PubMed

    Craigie, Ian D; Barnes, Megan D; Geldmann, Jonas; Woodley, Stephen

    2015-11-05

    Globally, protected areas are the most commonly used tools to halt biodiversity loss. Yet, some are failing to adequately conserve the biodiversity they contain. There is an urgent need for knowledge on how to make them function more effectively. Impact evaluation methods provide a set of tools that could yield this knowledge. However, rigorous outcome-focused impact evaluation is not yet used as extensively as it could be in protected area management. We examine the role of international protected area funding agencies in facilitating the use of impact evaluation. These agencies are influential stakeholders as they allocate hundreds of millions of dollars annually to support protected areas, creating a unique opportunity to shape how the conservation funds are spent globally. We identify key barriers to the use of impact evaluation, detail how large funders are uniquely placed to overcome many of these, and highlight the potential benefits if impact evaluation is used more extensively.

  18. A National Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing Activities on Drinking Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, C.; Burden, S.; Fleming, M. M.; Knightes, C. D.; Koplos, J.; LeDuc, S. D.; Ring, S.; Stanek, J.; Tuccillo, M. E.; Weaver, J.; Frithsen, J.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently released a draft assessment of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. As part of the draft assessment, we reviewed, analyzed, and synthesized information from over 950 sources and concluded that there are above and below ground mechanisms by which hydraulic fracturing activities have the potential to impact drinking water resources. These mechanisms include: Water withdrawals in times of, or in areas with, low water availability; Spills of hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water; Fracturing directly into underground drinking water resources; Below ground migration of liquids and gases; and Inadequate treatment and discharge of wastewater. Of the potential mechanisms identified in this report, we found specific instances where one or more mechanisms led to impacts on drinking water resources, including contamination of drinking water wells. The number of identified cases, however, was small compared to the number of hydraulically fractured wells. This finding could reflect a rarity of effects on drinking water resources, but may also be due to other limiting factors. These factors include: insufficient pre- and post-fracturing data on the quality of drinking water resources; the paucity of long-term systematic studies; the presence of other sources of contamination precluding a definitive link between hydraulic fracturing activities and an impact; and the inaccessibility of some information on hydraulic fracturing activities and potential impacts. Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or polices of the EPA.

  19. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    PubMed

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  20. Surveys for sensitivity to fibers and potential impacts from fiber induced failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The surveys for sensitivities to fibers and potential impacts from fiber induced failures begins with a review of the survey work completed to date and then describes an impact study involving four industrial installations located in Virginia. The observations and results from both the surveys and the study provide guidelines for future efforts. The survey work was done with three broad objectives: (1) identify the pieces of potentially vulnerable equipment as candidates for test; (2) support the transfer function work by gaining an understanding of how fibers could get into a building; and (3) support the economic analysis by understanding what would happen if fibers precipitated a failure in an item of equipment.

  1. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of dual acting ligands targeting the adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors for the potential treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jörg, Manuela; May, Lauren T; Mak, Frankie S; Lee, Kiew Ching K; Miller, Neil D; Scammells, Peter J; Capuano, Ben

    2015-01-22

    A relatively new strategy in drug discovery is the development of dual acting ligands. These molecules are potentially able to interact at two orthosteric binding sites of a heterodimer simultaneously, possibly resulting in enhanced subtype selectivity, higher affinity, enhanced or modified physiological response, and reduced reliance on multiple drug administration regimens. In this study, we have successfully synthesized a series of classical heterobivalent ligands as well as a series of more integrated and "drug-like" dual acting molecules, incorporating ropinirole as a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and ZM 241385 as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. The best compounds of our series maintained the potency of the original pharmacophores at both receptors (adenosine A2A and dopamine D2). In addition, the integrated dual acting ligands also showed promising results in preliminary blood-brain barrier permeability tests, whereas the classical heterobivalent ligands are potentially more suited as pharmacological tools.

  2. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced nitric oxide production acts as a survival signal targeting mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Hardonnière, Kévin; Huc, Laurence; Podechard, Normand; Fernier, Morgane; Tekpli, Xavier; Gallais, Isabelle; Sergent, Odile; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), the prototype molecule of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, exhibits genotoxic and carcinogenic effects, which has led the International Agency for Research on Cancer to recognize it as a human carcinogen. Besides the well-known apoptotic signals triggered by B[a]P, survival signals have also been suggested to occur, both signals likely involved in cancer promotion. Our previous work showed that B[a]P induced an hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in rat hepatic epithelial F258 cells. Elevated ΔΨm plays a role in tumor development and progression, and nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested to be responsible for increases in ΔΨm. The present study therefore aimed at evaluating the impact of B[a]P on NO level in F258 cells, and at testing the putative role for NO as a survival signal, notably in link with ΔΨm. Our data demonstrated that B[a]P exposure resulted in an NO production which was dependent upon the activation of the inducible NO synthase. This enzyme activation involved AhR and possibly p53 activation. Preventing NO production not only increased B[a]P-induced cell death but also blocked mitochondrial hyperpolarization. This therefore points to a role for NO as a survival signal upon B[a]P exposure, possibly targeting ΔΨm.

  3. The impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from an annular or circular nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi

    2010-08-01

    With the indirect thrust measurement of electric thrusters working at a low vacuum chamber pressure as the research background, this paper analyses the impact force acting on a flat plate exposed normally to a rarefied plasma plume issuing from a thruster with an annular or circular exit section for the free-molecule flow regime (at large Knudsen numbers). The constraint relation proposed by Cai and Boyd (2007 J. Spacecr. Rockets 44 619, 1326) about the velocity components of gas particles leaving a location on the nozzle exit section and arriving at a given spatial point outside the nozzle has been employed here to derive the analytical expressions for calculating the impact force. Sample calculation results show that if the flat plate is sufficiently large, the impact force acting on the flat plate calculated for the case without accounting for gas particle reflection at the plate surface agrees well with the axial momentum flux calculated at the thruster exit or the theoretical thrust force of the studied thruster, while accounting for the contribution of gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production may significantly increase the calculated impact force acting on the flat plate. For a Hall-effect thruster in which the thrust force is dominantly produced by the ions with high directional kinetic energy and the ions are not directly reflected from the plate surface, the contribution to the impact force production of atom species and of gas particles reflected from the plate surface is negligibly small and thus the measured axial impact force acting on a sufficiently large plate can well represent the thrust force of the thruster. On the other hand, if the contribution of the gas particles reflected from the plate surface to the impact force production cannot be neglected (e.g. for the electric thrusters with comparatively low thruster exit temperatures), appreciable error would appear in the indirect thrust measurement.

  4. The potential economic impact of constructing and operating solar power generation facilities in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schwer, R. K.; Riddel, M.

    2004-02-01

    Nevada has a vast potential for electricity generation using solar power. An examination of the stock of renewable resources in Nevada proves that the state has the potential to be a leader in renewable-electric generation--one of the best in the world. This study provides estimates on the economic impact in terms of employment, personal income, and gross state product (GSP) of developing a portion of Nevada's solar energy generation resources.

  5. Potential Economic Impact of Constructing and Operating Solar Power Generation Facilities in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schwer, R. K.; Riddel, M.

    2004-02-01

    Nevada has a vast potential for electricity generation using solar power. An examination of the stock of renewable resources in Nevada proves that the state has the potential to be a leader in renewable-electric generation--one of the best in the world. This study provides estimates on the economic impact in terms of employment, personal income, and gross state product (GSP) of developing a portion of Nevada's solar energy generation resources.

  6. Cross-Polar Aircraft Trajectory Optimization and the Potential Climate Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Sridhar, Banavar; Grabbe, Shon; Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Cross-Polar routes offer new opportunities for air travel markets. Transpolar flights reduce travel times, fuel burns, and associated environmental emissions by flying direct paths between many North American and Asian cities. This study evaluates the potential benefits of flying wind-optimal polar routes and assessed their potential impact on climate change. An optimization algorithm is developed for transpolar flights to generate wind-optimal trajectories that minimize climate impact of aircraft, in terms of global warming potentials (relative to warming by one kg of CO2) of several types of emissions, while avoiding regions of airspace that facilitate persistent contrail formation. Estimations of global warming potential are incorporated into the objective function of the optimization algorithm to assess the climate impact of aircraft emissions discharged at a given location and altitude. The regions of airspace with very low ambient temperature and areas favorable to persistent contrail formation are modeled as undesirable regions that aircraft should avoid and are formulated as soft state constraints. The fuel burn and climate impact of cross-polar air traffic flying various types of trajectory including flight plan, great circle, wind-optimal, and contrail-avoidance are computed for 15 origin-destination pairs between major international airports in the U.S. and Asia. Wind-optimal routes reduce average fuel burn of flight plan routes by 4.4% on December 4, 2010 and 8.0% on August 7, 2010, respectively. The tradeoff between persistent contrail formation and additional global warming potential of aircraft emissions is investigated with and without altitude optimization. Without altitude optimization, the reduction in contrail travel times is gradual with increase in total fuel consumption. When altitude is optimized, a one percent increase in additional global warming potential, a climate impact equivalent to that of 4070kg and 4220kg CO2 emission, reduces 135

  7. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  8. Infectious disease, shifting climates, and opportunistic predators: cumulative factors potentially impacting wild salmon declines

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristina M; Teffer, Amy; Tucker, Strahan; Li, Shaorong; Schulze, Angela D; Trudel, Marc; Juanes, Francis; Tabata, Amy; Kaukinen, Karia H; Ginther, Norma G; Ming, Tobi J; Cooke, Steven J; Hipfner, J Mark; Patterson, David A; Hinch, Scott G

    2014-01-01

    Emerging diseases are impacting animals under high-density culture, yet few studies assess their importance to wild populations. Microparasites selected for enhanced virulence in culture settings should be less successful maintaining infectivity in wild populations, as once the host dies, there are limited opportunities to infect new individuals. Instead, moderately virulent microparasites persisting for long periods across multiple environments are of greatest concern. Evolved resistance to endemic microparasites may reduce susceptibilities, but as barriers to microparasite distributions are weakened, and environments become more stressful, unexposed populations may be impacted and pathogenicity enhanced. We provide an overview of the evolutionary and ecological impacts of infectious diseases in wild salmon and suggest ways in which modern technologies can elucidate the microparasites of greatest potential import. We present four case studies that resolve microparasite impacts on adult salmon migration success, impact of river warming on microparasite replication, and infection status on susceptibility to predation. Future health of wild salmon must be considered in a holistic context that includes the cumulative or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors. These approaches will identify populations at greatest risk, critically needed to manage and potentially ameliorate the shifts in current or future trajectories of wild populations. PMID:25469162

  9. Long Acting Injection Versus Oral Risperidone in First-Episode Schizophrenia: Differential Impact on White Matter Myelination Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H.; Amar, Chetan P.; Raven, Erika P.; Detore, Nicole R.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Mintz, Jim; Ventura, Joseph; Casaus, Laurie R.; Luo, John S.; Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

    2011-01-01

    Context Imaging and post-mortem studies provide converging evidence that subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) have a dysregulated trajectory of frontal lobe myelination. Prior MRI studies suggested that early in treatment of SZ, antipsychotic medications initially increase frontal lobe white matter (WM) volume, which subsequently declines prematurely in chronic stages of the disease. Insofar as the trajectory of WM decline associated with chronic disease may be due to medication non-adherence, it may be modifiable by long acting injection (LAI) formulations. Objectives Examine the impact of antipsychotic formulation on the myelination trajectory during a randomized six-month trial of LAI risperidone (RLAI) versus oral risperidone (RisO) in first-episode SZ subjects. Design Two groups of SZ subjects (RLAI, N=11; and RisO, N=13) that were matched in pre-randomization oral medication exposure and 14 healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively examined. Frontal lobe WM volume was estimated using inversion recovery (IR) MRI images. A brief neuropsychological battery that focused on reaction times was performed at the end of the study. Main outcome measure WM volume change scores. Results WM volume remained stable in the RLAI and decreased significantly in the RisO groups resulting in a significant differential treatment effect, while the HC had a WM change intermediate and not significantly different from the two SZ groups. WM increase was associated with faster reaction times in tests involving frontal lobe function. Conclusions The results suggest that RLAI may improve the trajectory of myelination in first-episode patients and have a beneficial impact on cognitive performance. Better adherence provided by LAI may underlie the modified trajectory of myelin development. In vivo MRI biomarkers of myelination can help clarify mechanisms of action of treatment interventions. PMID:21767934

  10. Potential impacts of a scenario of CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change on Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.J.; Allsopp, T.R.

    1988-07-01

    In 1984, Environment Canada, Ontario Region, with financial and expert support from the Canadian Climate Program, initiated an interdisciplinary pilot study to investigate the potential impact, on Ontario, of a climate scenario which might be anticipated under doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ conditions.

  11. Human Short-Latency Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in Impact Acceleration Research: Equipment, Procedures and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Instrumentation Data Sheet .......................... 10 Figure 8. Human Physiology Screen One ....................................... 1I1 Figure 9. Human ... Physiology Screen Two...................................... 12 Figure 10. Human Physiology Screen Three ..................................... 12 Figure...Short-Latency Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in Impact Acceleration Research ***** HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY SCREEN***** Please Read First To move from one

  12. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Brockway, Anna M.; Ulrich, Elaine; Margolis, Robert

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  13. HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

  14. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Brockway, Anna M.; Ulrich, Elaine; Margolis, Robert

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  15. Human Communication Needs and Organizational Productivity: The Potential Impact of Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culnan, Mary J.; Bair, James H.

    1983-01-01

    This survey of potential impacts of office automation on organizational communication and productivity covers the following--(1) the relationship between office automation and organizational communication; (2) communication variables relevant to office automation; (3) benefits and caveats related to implementation of office automation. Thirty-four…

  16. THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal (MAC) region of the United States. In order of increasing uncertainty, it is projected that sea level, temperature and streamflow will increase in the MAC region in response to higher levels o...

  17. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GENOMICS ON EPA REGULATORY AND RISK ASSESSMENT APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gallagher, Kathryn and William Benson. In press. Potential Impacts of Genomics on EPA Regulatory and Risk Assessment (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington, DC. 1 p. (ERL,GB R991).

    Advances in ge...

  18. Using semi-analytic solutions to approximate the area of potential impact for carbon dioxide injection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines using the threshold critical pressure increase and the extent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) plume to delineate the area of potential impact (AoPI) for geologic CO2 storage projects. The combined area covering both the CO2 plume and the region where the pressure ...

  19. Media Impact on Fright Reactions and Belief in UFOs: The Potential Role of Mental Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Glenn G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores the potential role of mental imagery for media effects in emotional responses to frightening mass media, and in the effects of the media on beliefs in UFOs. Finds that individual differences in vividness of mental imagery may play a crucial role in moderating both types of media impact. (SR)

  20. The Impact of Biopsy on Human Embryo Developmental Potential during Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cimadomo, Danilo; Capalbo, Antonio; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Scarica, Catello; Palagiano, Antonio; Canipari, Rita; Rienzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening (PGD/PGS) for monogenic diseases and/or numerical/structural chromosomal abnormalities is a tool for embryo testing aimed at identifying nonaffected and/or euploid embryos in a cohort produced during an IVF cycle. A critical aspect of this technology is the potential detrimental effect that the biopsy itself can have upon the embryo. Different embryo biopsy strategies have been proposed. Cleavage stage blastomere biopsy still represents the most commonly used method in Europe nowadays, although this approach has been shown to have a negative impact on embryo viability and implantation potential. Polar body biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to embryo biopsy especially for aneuploidy testing. However, to date no sufficiently powered study has clarified the impact of this procedure on embryo reproductive competence. Blastocyst stage biopsy represents nowadays the safest approach not to impact embryo implantation potential. For this reason, as well as for the evidences of a higher consistency of the molecular analysis when performed on trophectoderm cells, blastocyst biopsy implementation is gradually increasing worldwide. The aim of this review is to present the evidences published to date on the impact of the biopsy at different stages of preimplantation development upon human embryos reproductive potential. PMID:26942198

  1. Final Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship, if any, between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. More specifically, the study has been designed to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources and to identif...

  2. POTENTIAL GRAZING IMPACT TO WATER QUALITY IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grazing is a widespread stressor on ecosystems in the western United States. As part of the US EP A's Western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), the potential for grazing impacts to surface water quality was modeled using commonly available data in a Geograph...

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF POTENTIAL GRAZING IMPACT TO WATER QUALITY IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grazing is a widespread stressor on ecosystems in the western United States. As part of the US EPA's Western Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), the potential for grazing impacts to surface water quality was modeled using commonly available data in a Geograph...

  4. Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (Monterey, CA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary of EPA's research relating to potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources will be presented. Background about the study plan development will be presented along with an analysis of the water cycle as it relates to hydraulic fracturing processe...

  5. The Potential Impact of Not Being Able to Create Parallel Tests on Expected Classification Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.

    2011-01-01

    In many practical testing situations, alternate test forms from the same testing program are not strictly parallel to each other and instead the test forms exhibit small psychometric differences. This article investigates the potential practical impact that these small psychometric differences can have on expected classification accuracy. Ten…

  6. Fostering EFL Learners' Autonomy in Light of Portfolio Assessment: Exploring the Potential Impact of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemian, Mahmood; Fadaei, Batool

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of portfolio assessment as a process-oriented mechanism on the autonomy of Iranian advanced EFL learners. A particular concern was to examine the potential effect of gender on portfolio assessment by taking the learners' writing ability into account. The participants were 80 male and female…

  7. The Potential Impact of Undiagnosed Vision Impairment on Reading Development in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of the literature surrounding the potential impact of undiagnosed and untreated vision impairment on reading development in the early years of primary school. Despite pre-school screening programmes, it is still possible for children to enter school with undiagnosed, uncorrected vision impairments. This can…

  8. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Southeast Region (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Southeast (defined here as Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia).

  9. Immigration: Studies of the Immigration Control Act's Impact on Mexico. Briefing Report to the Honorable Dennis DeConcini, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of National Security and International Affairs.

    This report describes research on the impact of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), Public Law 99-603, on Mexico's economy and social structure. The purpose of IRCA is to control illegal immigration to the United States, and a key provision makes it illegal for employers to knowingly hire or continue to employ undocumented…

  10. 34 CFR Appendix to Subpart K of... - Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid Payments Under State Equalization Programs Appendix to Subpart K of Part 222 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY...

  11. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of total US steam electric generating capacity operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report describes alternatives available to nuclear and coal-fired plants currently operating under variances. Data from 38 plants representing 14 companies are used to estimate the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Although there are other alternatives, most affected plants would be retrofitted with cooling towers. Assuming that all plants currently operating under variances would install cooling towers, the national capital cost estimate for these retrofits ranges from $22.7 billion to $24.4 billion (in 1992 dollars). The second report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. Little justification has been found for removing the Section 316(a) variance from the CWA.

  12. Modeling the budget impact of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mahlich, Jörg; Nishi, Masamichi; Saito, Yoshimichi

    2015-01-01

    Background The cost of schizophrenia in Japan is high and new long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics might be able to reduce costs by causing a reduction of hospital stays. We aim to estimate budget effects of the introduction of a new 1-month LAI, paliperidone palmitate, in Japan. Methods A budget impact analysis was conducted from a payer perspective. The model took direct costs of illness into account (ie, costs for inpatient and outpatient services, as well as drug costs). The robustness of the model was checked using a sensitivity analysis. Results According to our calculations, direct total costs of schizophrenia reach 710,500 million yen a year (US$6 billion). These costs decrease to 691,000 million yen (US$5.9 billion) 3 years after the introduction of paliperidone palmitate. Conclusion From a payer point of view, the introduction of a new treatment for schizophrenia in Japan helps to save resources and is not associated with a higher financial burden. PMID:26045674

  13. IMPACT Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2014-06-26

    06/26/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4994, which became Public Law 113-185 on 10/6/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. IMPACT Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH

    2009-08-06

    12/08/2009 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-330. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Potential impacts of global warming on water resources in southern California.

    PubMed

    Beuhler, M

    2003-01-01

    Global warming will have a significant impact on water resources within the 20 to 90-year planning period of many water projects. Arid and semi-arid regions such as Southern California are especially vulnerable to anticipated negative impacts of global warming on water resources. Long-range water facility planning must consider global climate change in the recommended mix of new facilities needed to meet future water requirements. The generally accepted impacts of global warming include temperature, rising sea levels, more frequent and severe floods and droughts, and a shift from snowfall to rain. Precipitation changes are more difficult to predict. For Southern California, these impacts will be especially severe on surface water supplies. Additionally, rising sea levels will exacerbate salt-water intrusion into freshwater and impact the quality of surface water supplies. Integrated water resources planning is emerging as a tool to develop water supplies and demand management strategies that are less vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. These tools include water conservation, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater and desalination of brackish water and possibly seawater. Additionally, planning for future water needs should include explicit consideration of the potential range of global warming impacts through techniques such as scenario planning.

  16. The Potential Impacts of a Scenario of C02-Induced Climatic Change on Ontafio, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S. J.; Allsopp, T. R.

    1988-07-01

    In 1984, Environment Canada, Ontario Region, with financial and expert support from the Canadian Climate Program, initiated an interdisciplinary pilot study to investigate the potential impact, on Ontario, of a climate scenario which might be anticipated under doubling of atmospheric C02 conditions.There were many uncertainties involved in the climate scenario development and the impacts modeling. Time and resource constraints restricted this study to one climate scenario and to the selection of several available models that could be adapted to these impact studies. The pilot study emphasized the approach and process required to investigate potential regional impacts in an interdisciplinary manner, rather than to produce a forecast of the future.The climate scenario chosen was adapted from experimental model results produced by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), coupled with current climate normals. Gridded monthly mean temperatures and precipitation were then used to develop projected biophysical effects. For example, existing physical and/or statistical models were adapted to determine impacts on the Great Lakes net basin supplies, levels and outflows, streamflow subbasin, snowfall and length of snow season.The second phase of the study addressed the impacts of the climate system scenario on natural resources and resource dependent activities. For example, the impacts of projected decreased lake levels and outflows on commercial navigation and hydroelectric generation were assessed. The impacts of the climate scenario on municipal water use, residential beating and cooling energy requirements opportunities and constraints for food production and tourism and recreation were determined quantitatively where models and methodologies were available, otherwise, qualitatively.First order interdependencies of the biophysical effects of the climate scenario and resource dependent activities were evaluated qualitatively in a workshop format culminating in a

  17. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  18. Special Report on The Department of Energy's Acquisition Workforce and its Impact on Implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    Signed by the President on February 17, 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) seeks to strengthen the U.S. economy through the creation of new jobs, aiding State and local governments with budget shortfalls, and investing in the long-term health of the Nation's economic prosperity. Under the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy will receive approximately $40 billion for various energy, environmental, and science programs and initiatives. To have an immediate stimulative impact on the U.S. economy, the Department's stated goal is to ensure that these funds are spent as expeditiously as possible, without risking transparency and accountability. Given the Department's almost total reliance on the acquisition process (contracts, grants, cooperative agreements, etc.) to carry out its mission, enhanced focus on contract administration and, specifically, the work performed by Federal acquisition officials is of vital importance as the unprecedented flow of funds begins under the Recovery Act.

  19. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  20. Environmental Impacts of Transportation to the Potential Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Sweeney; R. Best; P. Bolton; P. Adams

    2002-01-03

    The Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada analyzes a Proposed Action to construct, operate, monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. As part of the Proposed Action, the EIS analyzes the potential impacts of transporting commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain from 77 sites across the United States. The analysis includes information on the comparative impacts of transporting these materials by truck and rail and discusses the impacts of building a rail line or using heavy-haul trucks to move rail casks from a mainline railroad in Nevada to the site. This paper provides an overview of the analyses and the potential impacts of these transportation activities. The potential transportation impacts were looked at from two perspectives: transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste by legal-weight truck or by rail on a national scale and impacts specific to Nevada from the transportation of these materials from the State borders to the Yucca Mountain site. In order to address the range of impacts that could result from the most likely modes, legal-weight truck and rail, the EIS employed two analytical scenarios--mostly legal-weight truck and mostly rail. Estimated national transportation impacts were based on 24 years of transportation activities. Approximately 8 fatalities could occur from all causes in the nationwide general population from incident-free transportation activities of the mostly legal-weight truck scenario and about 4 from the mostly rail scenario. The analysis examined the radiological consequences under the maximum foreseeable accident scenario and also overall accident risk. The overall accident risk over the 24 year period would be about 0.0002 latent cancer fatality for

  1. Mapping Oil and Gas Development Potential in the US Intermountain West and Estimating Impacts to Species

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Holly E.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Naugle, David E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many studies have quantified the indirect effect of hydrocarbon-based economies on climate change and biodiversity, concluding that a significant proportion of species will be threatened with extinction. However, few studies have measured the direct effect of new energy production infrastructure on species persistence. Methodology/Principal Findings We propose a systematic way to forecast patterns of future energy development and calculate impacts to species using spatially-explicit predictive modeling techniques to estimate oil and gas potential and create development build-out scenarios by seeding the landscape with oil and gas wells based on underlying potential. We illustrate our approach for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the western US and translate the build-out scenarios into estimated impacts on sage-grouse. We project that future oil and gas development will cause a 7–19 percent decline from 2007 sage-grouse lek population counts and impact 3.7 million ha of sagebrush shrublands and 1.1 million ha of grasslands in the study area. Conclusions/Significance Maps of where oil and gas development is anticipated in the US Intermountain West can be used by decision-makers intent on minimizing impacts to sage-grouse. This analysis also provides a general framework for using predictive models and build-out scenarios to anticipate impacts to species. These predictive models and build-out scenarios allow tradeoffs to be considered between species conservation and energy development prior to implementation. PMID:19826472

  2. Assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin.

    PubMed

    Abah, Roland Clement; Petja, Brilliant Mareme

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture in the Lower Benue River Basin faces several challenges which threaten the future of agricultural development. This study was an assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin. Through analysis of physical and socioeconomic parameters, the study adapted an impact assessment model to rank potential impacts on agricultural development in the study area. Rainfall intensity seemed to be increasing with a gradual reduction in the number of rainy days. The average discharge at Makurdi hydrological station was 3468.24 cubic metres per second (m(3) s(-1)), and the highest peak flow discharge was 16,400 m(3) s(-1). The daily maximum temperature and annual temperature averages for the study area are gradually rising leading to increased heat stress. Physical and chemical analyses showed that the soils are moderately fertile but require effective application of inorganic and organic fertilisers. The main occupational activities in the study area are agricultural based. The identified potential impacts of climate change on agriculture were categorised under atmospheric carbon dioxides and oxides, rainfall intensity, frequency of floods and droughts, temperature intensity and variation, heat stress, surface water trends, and soil quality and fertility. The identified potential impacts related to population dynamics on agriculture were categorised under population growth, rural-urban migration, household income and infectious diseases and HIV and AIDS. Community-level mitigation strategies were proffered. Policy makers are advised to promote irrigation farming, support farmers with farm inputs and credit facilities and establish active agricultural extension services to support the sustainable development of agriculture.

  3. The impact of land use on estimates of pesticide leaching potential: Assessments and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loague, Keith

    1991-11-01

    This paper illustrates the magnitude of uncertainty which can exist for pesticide leaching assessments, due to data uncertainties, both between soil orders and within a single soil order. The current work differs from previous efforts because the impact of uncertainty in recharge estimates is considered. The examples are for diuron leaching in the Pearl Harbor Basin. The results clearly indicate that land use has a significant impact on both estimates of pesticide leaching potential and the uncertainties associated with those estimates. It appears that the regulation of agricultural chemicals in the future should include consideration for changing land use.

  4. Pile Driving at the New Bridge at Tappan Zee: Potential Environmental Impacts.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Krebs, Justin; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; Zeddies, David; MacGillivray, Alexander; Jacobs, Fred

    2016-01-01

    A new bridge will be constructed to replace the aging Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River in New York. Construction will potentially result in hydroacoustic impacts to the local fish fauna. As a consequence, a substantial environmental impact analysis had to be conducted to obtain construction permits. This paper describes the process of environmental analysis and some of the results of the studies that led up to the final permitting. The process included modeling of pile-driving acoustics, analysis of river ambient noise, analysis of test piling, and observations on fish behavior during these tests.

  5. Potential approaches to the management of third-party impacts from groundwater transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurray, James H.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater extraction can have varied and diffuse effects. Negative external effects may include costs imposed on other groundwater users and on surrounding ecosystems. Environmental damages are commonly not reflected in market transactions. Groundwater transfers have the potential to cause spatial redistribution, concentration, and qualitative transformation of the impacts from pumping. An economically and environmentally sound groundwater transfer scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, accounting for all third-party impacts, including those of a non-monetary nature as well as delayed effects. This paper proposes a menu of possible management strategies that would help preclude unacceptable impacts by restricting transfers with certain attributes, ideally ensuring that permitted transfers are at least welfare-neutral. Management tools would require that transfers limit or reduce environmental impacts, and provide for the compensation of financial impacts. Three management tools are described. While these tools can limit impacts from a given level of extraction, they cannot substitute for sustainable overall withdrawal limits. Careful implementation of transfer limits and exchange rates, and the strategic use of management area boundaries, may enable a transfer system to restrict negative externalities mainly to monetary costs. Provision for compensation of these costs could be built into the system.

  6. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    SciTech Connect

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter

    2010-09-01

    Rates, depths, erosion potential, increased subsurface transport rates, and annual exceedance probability for potential flooding scenarios have been evaluated for the on-site alternatives of Idaho National Laboratory’s proposed remote handled low-level waste disposal facility. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of flood impacts are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE-O 435.1), its natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95), and the Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) guidance in addition to being required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA). Potential sources of water evaluated include those arising from (1) local precipitation events, (2) precipitation events occurring off of the INL (off-site precipitation), and (3) increased flows in the Big Lost River in the event of a Mackay Dam failure. On-site precipitation events include potential snow-melt and rainfall. Extreme rainfall events were evaluated for the potential to create local erosion, particularly of the barrier placed over the disposal facility. Off-site precipitation carried onto the INL by the Big Lost River channel was evaluated for overland migration of water away from the river channel. Off-site precipitation sources evaluated were those occurring in the drainage basin above Mackay Reservoir. In the worst-case scenarios, precipitation occurring above Mackay Dam could exceed the dam’s capacity, leading to overtopping, and eventually complete dam failure. Mackay Dam could also fail during a seismic event or as a result of mechanical piping. Some of the water released during dam failure, and contributing precipitation, has the potential of being carried onto the INL in the Big Lost River channel. Resulting overland flows from these flood sources were evaluated for

  7. Macroscopic electric charge separation during hypervelocity impacts: Potential implications for planetary paleomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The production of transient magnetic fields by hypervelocity meteoroid impact has been proposed to possibly explain the presence of paleomagnetic fields in certain lunar samples as well as across broader areas of the lunar surface. In an effort to understand the lunar magnetic record, continued experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range allow characterizing magnetic fields produced by the 5 km/s impacts of 0.32-0.64 cm projectiles over a broad range of impact angles and projectile/target compositions. From such studies, another phenomenon has emerged, macroscopic electric charge separation, that may have importance for the magnetic state of solid-body surfaces. This phenomenon was observed during explosive cratering experiments, but the magnetic consequences of macroscopic electric charge separation (as opposed to plasma production) during explosion and impact cratering have not, to our knowledge, been explored before now. It is straightforward to show that magnetic field production due to this process may scale as a weakly increasing function of impactor kinetic energy, although more work is needed to precisely assess the scaling dependence. The original intent of our experiments was to assess the character of purely electrostatic signals for comparison with inferred electrostatic noise signals acquired by shielded magnetic sensors buried within particulate dolomite targets. The results demonstrated that electrostatic noise does affect the magnetic sensors but only at relatively short distances (less than 4 cm) from the impact point (our magnetic studies are generally performed at distances greater than approximately 5.5 cm). However, to assess models for magnetic field generation during impact, measurements are needed of the magnetic field as close to the impact point as possible; hence, work with an improved magnetic sensor design is in progress. In this paper, we focus on electric charge separation during hypervelocity impacts as a potential transient

  8. Assessing potential impacts associated with contamination events in water distribution systems : a sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Taxon, T. N.

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of the nature of the adverse effects that could be associated with contamination events in water distribution systems is necessary for carrying out vulnerability analyses and designing contamination warning systems. This study examines the adverse effects of contamination events using models for 12 actual water systems that serve populations ranging from about 104 to over 106 persons. The measure of adverse effects that we use is the number of people who are exposed to a contaminant above some dose level due to ingestion of contaminated tap water. For this study the number of such people defines the impact associated with an event. We consider a wide range of dose levels in order to accommodate a wide range of potential contaminants. For a particular contaminant, dose level can be related to a health effects level. For example, a dose level could correspond to the median lethal dose, i.e., the dose that would be fatal to 50% of the exposed population. Highly toxic contaminants may be associated with a particular response at a very low dose level, whereas contaminants with low toxicity may only be associated with the same response at a much higher dose level. This report focuses on the sensitivity of impacts to five factors that either define the nature of a contamination event or involve assumptions that are used in assessing exposure to the contaminant: (1) duration of contaminant injection, (2) time of contaminant injection, (3) quantity or mass of contaminant injected, (4) population distribution in the water distribution system, and (5) the ingestion pattern of the potentially exposed population. For each of these factors, the sensitivities of impacts to injection location and contaminant toxicity are also examined. For all the factors considered, sensitivity tends to increase with dose level (i.e., decreasing toxicity) of the contaminant, with considerable inter-network variability. With the exception of the population distribution (factor 4

  9. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Liming; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2011-07-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  10. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  11. NSAIDs and scavenging birds: potential impacts beyond Asia's critically endangered vultures.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Richard; Parry-Jones, Jemima; Green, Rhys E; Pain, Deborah J

    2007-02-22

    Veterinary treatment of livestock with diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has caused catastrophic declines of Gyps vultures in Asia. This has highlighted a lack of knowledge on the potential impacts of NSAIDs on scavenging birds. Surveys of veterinarians and zoos document the outcomes of the treatment of over 870 scavenging birds from 79 species. As well as diclofenac, carprofen and flunixin were associated with mortality, with deaths observed in 13 and 30% of cases, respectively. Mortality was also found following treatment with ibuprofen and phenylbutazone. NSAID toxicity was reported for raptors, storks, cranes and owls, suggesting that the potential conservation impact of NSAIDs may extend beyond Gyps vultures and could be significant for New World vultures. In contrast, there were no reported mortalities for the NSAID meloxicam, which was administered to over 700 birds from 60 species. The relative safety of meloxicam supports other studies indicating the suitability of this NSAID to replace diclofenac in Asia.

  12. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species.

  13. Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health

    PubMed Central

    Radhouani, Hajer; Silva, Nuno; Poeta, Patrícia; Torres, Carmen; Correia, Susana; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination, and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. These researchers address the issue of antimicrobial-resistant microorganism proliferation in the environment and the related potential human health and environmental impact. PMID:24550896

  14. Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity and Climate Change Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Leon, C.; Calvin, K. V.; Thomson, A. M.; Li, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Hydropower is a dominant renewable energy source at the global level, accounting for more than 15% of the world's total power supply. It is also very vulnerable to climate change. Improved understanding of climate change impact on hydropower can help develop adaptation measures to increase the resilience of energy system. In this study, we developed a comprehensive estimate of global hydropower potential using runoff and stream flow data derived from a global hydrologic model with a river routing sub-model, along with turbine technology performance, cost assumptions, and environmental consideration (Figure 1). We find that hydropower has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by regions. Resources in a number of countries exceed by multiple folds the total current demand for electricity, e.g., Russia and Indonesia. A sensitivity analysis indicates that hydropower potential can be highly sensitive to a number of parameters including designed flow for capacity, cost and financing, turbine efficiency, and stream flow. The climate change impact on hydropower potential was evaluated by using runoff outputs from 4 climate models (HadCM3, PCM, CGCM2, and CSIRO2). It was found that the climate change on hydropower shows large variation not only by regions, but also climate models, and this demonstrates the importance of incorporating climate change into infrastructure-planning at the regional level though the existing uncertainties.

  15. The potential for dams to impact lowland meandering river floodplain geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Marren, Philip M; Grove, James R; Webb, J Angus; Stewardson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the world's floodplains are dammed. Although some implications of dams for riverine ecology and for river channel morphology are well understood, there is less research on the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology. We review studies from dammed and undammed rivers and include influences on vertical and lateral accretion, meander migration and cutoff formation, avulsion, and interactions with floodplain vegetation. The results are synthesized into a conceptual model of the effects of dams on the major geomorphic influences on floodplain development. This model is used to assess the likely consequences of eight dam and flow regulation scenarios for floodplain geomorphology. Sediment starvation downstream of dams has perhaps the greatest potential to impact on floodplain development. Such effects will persist further downstream where tributary sediment inputs are relatively low and there is minimal buffering by alluvial sediment stores. We can identify several ways in which floodplains might potentially be affected by dams, with varying degrees of confidence, including a distinction between passive impacts (floodplain disconnection) and active impacts (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning). These active processes are likely to have more serious implications for floodplain function and emphasize both the need for future research and the need for an "environmental sediment regime" to operate alongside environmental flows.

  16. The Potential for Dams to Impact Lowland Meandering River Floodplain Geomorphology

    PubMed Central

    Marren, Philip M.; Grove, James R.; Webb, J. Angus; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the world's floodplains are dammed. Although some implications of dams for riverine ecology and for river channel morphology are well understood, there is less research on the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology. We review studies from dammed and undammed rivers and include influences on vertical and lateral accretion, meander migration and cutoff formation, avulsion, and interactions with floodplain vegetation. The results are synthesized into a conceptual model of the effects of dams on the major geomorphic influences on floodplain development. This model is used to assess the likely consequences of eight dam and flow regulation scenarios for floodplain geomorphology. Sediment starvation downstream of dams has perhaps the greatest potential to impact on floodplain development. Such effects will persist further downstream where tributary sediment inputs are relatively low and there is minimal buffering by alluvial sediment stores. We can identify several ways in which floodplains might potentially be affected by dams, with varying degrees of confidence, including a distinction between passive impacts (floodplain disconnection) and active impacts (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning). These active processes are likely to have more serious implications for floodplain function and emphasize both the need for future research and the need for an “environmental sediment regime” to operate alongside environmental flows. PMID:24587718

  17. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.

    PubMed

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; Worth, Devon E; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha(-1) decreased on average the emissions of N2O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact.

  18. Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2014-09-30

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While many studies have been conducted to assess and map tidal energy resources, efforts for quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts have been limited. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model and its application for assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with tidal energy extraction. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a tidally dominant estuary. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines installed in an idealized estuary were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes due to tidal energy extraction. Model results indicated that a large number of turbines are required to extract the maximum tidal energy and cause significant reduction of the volume flux. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in a stratified estuary. The tidal turbine model was applied to simulate tidal energy extraction in Puget Sound, a large fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast.

  19. The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattinger, I.

    1972-01-01

    The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind is discussed. The space shuttle mission profile is presented and the capabilities of the spacecraft to perform various maneuvers and operations are described. The cost effectiveness of the space shuttle operation is analyzed. The effects upon technological superiority and national economics are examined. Line drawings and artist concepts of space shuttle configurations are included to clarify the discussion.

  20. Potential Impact of the Elimination of the M Account on the Department of the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    reprogramming process be overburdened due to the elimination of the M account ? 123 LIST OF REFERENCES Adelman, Kenneth and Augustine, Norman, The Defense...AD-A246 599 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC fEL~cr1 THESIS POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE ELIMINATION OF THE M ACCOUNT ON THE DEPARTMENT...of the Elimination of the M Account on the Department of the Navy (Unclassified) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Fegurgur, Ben A. and Marinello, Anthony F. 13a

  1. Impacts of sand and dust storms on agriculture and potential agricultural applications of a SDSWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanski, R.; Sivakumar, M. V. K.

    2009-03-01

    This paper will give an overview of the various impacts of sand and dust storms on agriculture and then address the potential applications of a Sand and Dust Storm Warning System (SDSWS) for agricultural users. Sand and dust storms have many negative impacts on the agricultural sector including: reducing crop yields by burial of seedlings under sand deposits, the loss of plant tissue and reduced photosynthetic activity as a result of sandblasting, delaying plant development, increasing end-of-season drought risk, causing injury and reduced productivity of livestock, increasing soil erosion and accelerating the process of land degradation and desertification, filling up irrigation canals with sediments, covering transportation routes, affecting water quality of rivers and streams, and affecting air quality. One positive impact is the fertilization of soil minerals to terrestrial ecosystems. There are several potential agricultural applications of a SDSWS. The first is to alert agricultural communities farmers to take preventive action in the near-term such as harvesting maturing crops (vegetables, grain), sheltering livestock, and strengthening infrastructure (houses, roads, grain storage) for the storm. Also, the products of a SDSWS could be used in for monitoring potential locust movement and post-storm crop damage assessments. An archive of SDSWS products (movement, amount of sand and dust) could be used in researching plant and animal pathogen movement and the relationship of sand and dust storms to disease outbreaks and in developing improved soil erosion and land degradation models.

  2. Contributions to the Impact of the Javits Act by the National Research Center on the Gifted and the Talented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, E. Jean; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Renzulli, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    One component of the Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Act was provision for research on a national scale. In response, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT) was created to design and implement a research portfolio. Based on emphasis in the Javits Act on underrepresented populations, on issues of…

  3. The Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act--1983: Its Impact on the Economic/Political Stabilities within the Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-25

    otherwise had been opposed by President Reagan. The final public law 98-67 is titled: "INTEREST AND DIVIDEND TAX COMPLIANCE ACT OF 1983-CARIBBEAN BASIN...ECONOMIC RECOVERY ACT". Title I Is the "INTEREST AND DIVIDEND TAX COMPLIANCE ", and Title II contains the "CARIBBEAN BASIN INITIATIVE". Title II contains

  4. Climate Change Potential Impacts on the Built Environment and Possible Adaptation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment consists of components that exist at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. Thus, the impacts of climate change on the built environment may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, mechanisms may exist wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. This presentation surveys potential climate change impacts on the built environment from the perspective of the National Climate Assessment, and explores adaptation measures that can be employed to mitigate these impacts.

  5. The North Slope of Alaska and Tourism: Potential Impacts on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, L. R.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrocarbon industry of Alaska is currently the leading producer of revenue for the Alaskan state economy. Second only to hydrocarbons is the tourism industry. Tourism has been a viable industry since the 1890's when cruises touted the beauty of glaciers and icebergs along the Alaskan coastline. This industry has seen a steady growth for the past few decades throughout the state. The North Slope of Alaska, particularly Prudhoe Bay and the National Petroleum Reserve, has long been associated with hydrocarbon development and today displays a landscape dotted with gravel drill pads, gas and oil pipelines and housing for the oil workers. While tourism is not usually considered hand in hand with the hydrocarbon industry, it has mimicked the development of hydrocarbons almost since the beginning. Today one not only sees the effects of the oil industry on the North Slope, but also the tourist industry as planes unload dozens of tourists, or tour buses and private vehicles arrive daily via the Dalton Highway. In Deadhorse, hotels that once only housed the oil workers now welcome the tourist, offering tours of the oil fields and adjacent areas and have become jumping off sites for wilderness trips. Tourism will create jobs as well as revenue. However, at present, there are few restrictions or guidelines in place that will deal with the potential impacts of increased tourism. Because of this there are many concerns about the possible impacts tourism and the infrastructure development will have on the North Slope. To list several concerns: (1) What are the impacts of increased tourism and the infrastructure development? (2) What will the impacts be on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which sits a mere 60 miles to the east of Deadhorse? (3) Will hydrocarbon development in ANWR and the associated infrastructure exacerbate potential impact by encouraging greater use of the Refuge by tourists? (4) Will tourism itself have a negative impact on this fragile

  6. Genetic Evidence Highlights Potential Impacts of By-Catch to Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Martin; Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Wells, Randall S.; Stamper, Andrew; Bordino, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Incidental entanglement in fishing gear is arguably the most serious threat to many populations of small cetaceans, judging by the alarming number of captured animals. However, other aspects of this threat, such as the potential capture of mother-offspring pairs or reproductive pairs, could be equally or even more significant but have rarely been evaluated. Using a combination of demographic and genetic data we provide evidence that i) Franciscana dolphin pairs that are potentially reproductive and mother-offspring pairs form temporal bonds, and ii) are entangled simultaneously. Our results highlight potential demographic and genetic impacts of by-catch to cetacean populations: the joint entanglement of mother-offspring or reproductive pairs, compared to random individuals, might exacerbate the demographic consequences of by-catch, and the loss of groups of relatives means that significant components of genetic diversity could be lost together. Given the social nature of many odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), we suggest that these potential impacts could be rather general to the group and therefore by-catch could be more detrimental than previously considered. PMID:21179542

  7. Potential Clinical and Economic Value of Long-Acting Preexposure Prophylaxis for South African Women at High-Risk for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, Rochelle P.; Jacobsen, Margo M.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Parker, Robert A.; Wood, Robin; Resch, Stephen C.; Horstman, N. Kaye; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Paltiel, A. David

    2016-01-01

    Background. For young South African women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the few effective prevention options available. Long-acting injectable PrEP, which is in development, may be associated with greater adherence, compared with that for existing standard oral PrEP formulations, but its likely clinical benefits and additional costs are unknown. Methods. Using a computer simulation, we compared the following 3 PrEP strategies: no PrEP, standard PrEP (effectiveness, 62%; cost per patient, $150/year), and long-acting PrEP (effectiveness, 75%; cost per patient, $220/year) in South African women at high risk for HIV infection (incidence of HIV infection, 5%/year). We examined the sensitivity of the strategies to changes in key input parameters among several outcome measures, including deaths averted and program cost over a 5-year period; lifetime HIV infection risk, survival rate, and program cost and cost-effectiveness; and budget impact. Results. Compared with no PrEP, standard PrEP and long-acting PrEP cost $580 and $870 more per woman, respectively, and averted 15 and 16 deaths per 1000 women at high risk for infection, respectively, over 5 years. Measured on a lifetime basis, both standard PrEP and long-acting PrEP were cost saving, compared with no PrEP. Compared with standard PrEP, long-acting PrEP was very cost-effective ($150/life-year saved) except under the most pessimistic assumptions. Over 5 years, long-acting PrEP cost $1.6 billion when provided to 50% of eligible women. Conclusions. Currently available standard PrEP is a cost-saving intervention whose delivery should be expanded and optimized. Long-acting PrEP will likely be a very cost-effective improvement over standard PrEP but may require novel financing mechanisms that bring short-term fiscal planning efforts into closer alignment with longer-term societal objectives. PMID:26681778

  8. Open to the Public: How Communities, Parents, and Students Assess the Impact of the "No Child Left Behind Act," 2004-2007--"The Realities Left Behind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanik, Mary, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Accountability for educating all children to their full potential is essential, but this particular goal of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act cannot be achieved unless policymakers address fundamental issues of resources, capacities and will within the public education system. Over a three-year period, the Public Education Network (PEN), in…

  9. The potential impact of coinfection on antimicrobial chemotherapy and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Birger, Ruthie B; Kouyos, Roger D; Cohen, Ted; Griffiths, Emily C; Huijben, Silvie; Mina, Michael J; Mina, Michael; Volkova, Victoriya; Grenfell, Bryan; Metcalf, C Jessica E

    2015-09-01

    Across a range of pathogens, resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in both public health and animal health. Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, and its potential effects on within-host biology, the role played by coinfecting pathogens on the evolution of resistance and efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy is rarely considered. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms of interaction of coinfecting pathogens, ranging from immune modulation and resource modulation, to drug interactions. We discuss their potential implications for the evolution of resistance, providing evidence in the rare cases where it is available. Overall, our review indicates that the impact of coinfection has the potential to be considerable, suggesting that this should be taken into account when designing antimicrobial drug treatments.

  10. Exploratory study of some potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Y.; Jones, R.J.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; White, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production, using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). A high volatile bituminous coal, Pittsburgh No. 8, was reacted with synthetic produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40°C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilisation of toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction and chemical analysis of the synthetic produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilising toxic trace elements from coal beds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  11. The potential impact of coinfection on antimicrobial chemotherapy and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ted; Griffiths, Emily C.; Huijben, Silvie; Mina, Michael J.; Volkova, Victoriya; Grenfell, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Across a range of pathogens, resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in both public health and animal health. Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, and its potential effects on within-host biology, the role played by coinfecting pathogens on the evolution of resistance and efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy is rarely considered. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms of interaction of coinfecting pathogens, ranging from immune modulation and resource modulation, to drug interactions. We discuss their potential implications for the evolution of resistance, providing evidence in the rare cases where it is available. Overall, our review indicates that the impact of coinfection has the potential to be considerable, suggesting that this should be taken into account when designing antimicrobial drug treatments. PMID:26028590

  12. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment Mission and its Potential Contributions to Human Exploration of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andy S.

    2014-01-01

    The joint ESA and NASA Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission, involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. AIDA's primary objective is to demonstrate a kinetic impact deflection and characterize the binary NEA Didymos. The science and technical data obtained from AIDA will aid in the planning of future human exploration missions to NEAs and other small bodies. The dual robotic missions of AIDA, ESA's Asteroid Impact Monitor (AIM) and NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), will provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of the binary target Didymos both prior to and after the kinetic impact demonstration. The knowledge gained from this mission will help identify asteroidal physical properties in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for future small body missions. The AIDA data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations.

  13. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  14. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-10

    On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, “standard” and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a

  15. The potential impact of ocean acidification upon eggs and larvae of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromhead, Don; Scholey, Vernon; Nicol, Simon; Margulies, Daniel; Wexler, Jeanne; Stein, Maria; Hoyle, Simon; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy; Williamson, Jane; Havenhand, Jonathan; Ilyina, Tatiana; Lehodey, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are resulting in increasing absorption of CO2 by the earth's oceans, which has led to a decline in ocean pH, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). Evidence suggests that OA may have the potential to affect the distribution and population dynamics of many marine organisms. Early life history processes (e.g. fertilization) and stages (eggs, larvae, juveniles) may be relatively more vulnerable to potential OA impacts, with implications for recruitment in marine populations. The potential impact of OA upon tuna populations has not been investigated, although tuna are key components of pelagic ecosystems and, in the Pacific Ocean, form the basis of one of the largest and most valuable fisheries in the world. This paper reviews current knowledge of potential OA impacts on fish and presents results from a pilot study investigating how OA may affect eggs and larvae of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares. Two separate trials were conducted to test the impact of pCO2 on yellowfin egg stage duration, larval growth and survival. The pCO2 levels tested ranged from present day (~400 μatm) to levels predicted to occur in some areas of the spawning habitat within the next 100 years (<2500 μatm) to 300 years (~<5000 μatm) to much more extreme levels (~10,000 μatm). In trial 1, there was evidence for significantly reduced larval survival (at mean pCO2 levels≥4730 μatm) and growth (at mean pCO2 levels≥2108 μatm), while egg hatch time was increased at extreme pCO2 levels≥10,000 μatm (*intermediate levels were not tested). In trial 2, egg hatch times were increased at mean pCO2 levels≥1573 μatm, but growth was only impacted at higher pCO2 (≥8800 μatm) and there was no relationship with survival. Unstable ambient conditions during trial 2 are likely to have contributed to the difference in results between trials. Despite the technical challenges with these experiments, there is a need for future empirical work which

  16. Potential Impact of Diet on Treatment Effect from Anti-TNF Drugs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Vibeke; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in prospective observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted. PMID:28294972

  17. The EPA's Study on the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burden, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's clean energy future. The United States has vast reserves of natural gas that are commercially viable as a result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, which enable greater access to gas in rock formations deep underground. These advances have spurred a significant increase in the production of both natural gas and oil across the country. However, as the use of hydraulic fracturing has increased, so have concerns about its potential human health and environmental impacts, especially for drinking water. In response to public concern, the US Congress requested that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conduct scientific research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. In 2011, the EPA began research to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, if any, and to identify the driving factors that may affect the severity and frequency of such impacts. The study is organized around the five stages of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle, from water acquisition through the mixing of chemicals and the injection of fracturing fluid to post-fracturing treatment and/or disposal of wastewater. EPA scientists are using a transdisciplinary research approach involving laboratory studies, computer modeling, toxicity assessments, and case studies to answer research questions associated with each stage of the water cycle. This talk will provide an overview of the EPA's study, including a description of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle and a summary of the ongoing research projects.

  18. Assessment of the potential impact of Nuclear Power Plant accidents on aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Arnold, Delia; Maurer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear accidents in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 demonstrated the urgent need to provide adequate guidance for land-based, marine and airborne transport. Quick assessments of potential impacts are essential to avoid unnecessary traffic disruptions while guaranteeing appropriate safety levels for staff in the transport industry as well as travellers. Such estimates are to be provided under difficult circumstances, mostly due to the lack of reliable initial information on the severity of the accident and the exact source term of radionuclides. Regarding aviation, there are three equally relevant aspects to look at, namely aircraft in cruising altitude (about 40000 ft), aircraft approaching an airport, and finally the airports as such as critical infrastructure, including airport operations and ground transport. Based on the accident scenarios encountered in the Chernobyl and Fukushima cases, exemplary case studies shall be provided to assess the potential impacts of such events on aviation. The study is based on the Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Model (ATDM) FLEXPART and a simplified scheme to calculate effective dose rates based on a few key radionuclides (Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133). Besides the impact assessment, possible new products provided by WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres in the event of an accident shall be discussed as well.

  19. Potential Impact of Diet on Treatment Effect from Anti-TNF Drugs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vibeke; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-03-15

    We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73-4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66-5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in prospective observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.

  20. Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion and increased UVB radiation: potential impacts to human health.

    PubMed

    De Fabo, Edward C

    2005-12-01

    Contrary to popular belief, stratospheric ozone depletion, and the resultant increase in solar UV-B (280-320 nm), are unlikely to fully recover soon. Notwithstanding the success of the Montreal Protocol in reducing the amount of ozone destroying chemicals into the stratosphere, the life-times of these compounds are such that even with full compliance with the Protocol by all countries, it will be decades before stratospheric ozone could return to pre-1980 levels. This raises the question, therefore, of what will happen to biological processes essential to the maintenance of life on earth which are sensitive to damage by increased UV-B radiation, particularly those involved with human health? The polar regions, because of the vagaries of climate and weather, are the bellwether for stratospheric ozone depletion and will, therefore, be the first to experience impacts due to increases in solar UV-B radiation. The impacts of these are incompletely understood and cannot be predicted with certainty. While some UV-B impacts on human health are recognized, much is unknown, unclear and uncertain. Thus, this paper attempts, as a first approximation, to point out potential impacts to the health and welfare of human inhabitants of the Arctic due to increased solar UV-B radiation associated with stratospheric ozone depletion. As will be seen, much more data is critically needed before adequate risk assessment can occur.

  1. Potential impacts from tephra fall to electric power systems: a review and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardman, J. B.; Wilson, T. M.; Bodger, P. S.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.

    2012-12-01

    Modern society is highly dependent on a reliable electricity supply. During explosive volcanic eruptions, tephra contamination of power networks (systems) can compromise the reliability of supply. Outages can have significant cascading impacts for other critical infrastructure sectors and for society as a whole. This paper summarises known impacts to power systems following tephra falls since 1980. The main impacts are (1) supply outages from insulator flashover caused by tephra contamination, (2) disruption of generation facilities, (3) controlled outages during tephra cleaning, (4) abrasion and corrosion of exposed equipment and (5) line (conductor) breakage due to tephra loading. Of these impacts, insulator flashover is the most common disruption. The review highlights multiple instances of electric power systems exhibiting tolerance to tephra falls, suggesting that failure thresholds exist and should be identified to avoid future unplanned interruptions. To address this need, we have produced a fragility function that quantifies the likelihood of insulator flashover at different thicknesses of tephra. Finally, based on our review of case studies, potential mitigation strategies are summarised. Specifically, avoiding tephra-induced insulator flashover by cleaning key facilities such as generation sites and transmission and distribution substations is of critical importance in maintaining the integrity of an electric power system.

  2. Rotational and translational considerations in kinetic impact deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fei; Xu, Bo; Circi, Christian; Zhang, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Kinetic impact may be the most reliable and easily implemented method to deflect hazardous asteroids using current technology. Depending on warning time, it can be effective on asteroids with diameters of a few hundred meters. Current impact deflection research often focuses on the orbital dynamics of asteroids. In this paper, we use the ejection outcome of a general oblique impact to calculate how an asteroid's rotational and translational state changes after impact. The results demonstrate how small impactors affect the dynamical state of small asteroids having a diameter of about 100 m. According to these consequences, we propose using several small impactors to hit an asteroid continuously and gently, making the deflection mission relatively flexible. After calculating the rotational variation, we find that the rotational state, especially of slender non-porous asteroids, can be changed significantly. This gives the possibility of using multiple small impactors to mitigate a potentially hazardous asteroid by spinning it up into pieces, or to despin one for future in-situ investigation (e.g., asteroid retrieval or mining).

  3. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L. ); Kroutil, R.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  4. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L.; Kroutil, R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  5. The Potential Utility of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Reducing Stress and Improving Wellbeing in Cancer Patients in Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Datta, Arunima; Aditya, Chandana; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Das, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2016-12-01

    As soon as a patient comes to know that he/she has cancer, the stress starts and psychological intervention is required. The authors assessed how well a cancer patient can manage stress over the course of the psychological intervention. Data was collected among 107 patients during pre and post intervention and at 2 months follow-up. Intervention was required to measures include acceptance of the disease, managing stress, well -being, and meaning of life. Finally, effects of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) were defined in acceptance measured in terms of a significant difference between pre and post intervention scores in the meaning of life and the acceptance level. This acceptance and commitment therapy can be an effective intervention approach for cancer patients that increases acceptance regarding disease and simultaneously leads to improvement in the meaning of life.

  6. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act

    PubMed Central

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness. PMID:26388812

  7. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness.

  8. Global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5-30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross-McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for increased

  9. Global Climate Change and Its Potential Impact on Disease Transmission by Salinity-Tolerant Mosquito Vectors in Coastal Zones

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5–30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross–McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for

  10. Benzothiazoles as probes for the 5HT1A receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT): a search for new dual-acting agents as potential antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue Y; Etukala, Jagan R; Eyunni, Suresh V K; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2012-07-01

    The synthesis and evaluation of several benzothiazole-based compounds are described in an attempt to identify novel dual-acting 5HT(1A) receptor and SERT inhibitors as new antidepressants. Binding affinities at the 5HT(1A) receptor and the serotonin transporter do not appear to be congruent and other areas of the binding sites would need to be explored in order to improve binding simultaneously at both sites. Compounds 20 and 23 show moderate binding affinity at the 5HT(1A) receptor and the SERT site and thus, have the potential to be further explored as dual-acting agents. In addition, compound 20 binds with low affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT), the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and 5HT(2C) receptor, which are desirable properties as selectivity for SERT (and not DAT or NET) is associated with an absence of cardiovascular side effects.

  11. Occupant accelerations and injury potential during an ambulance-to-curb impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellen L; Hayes, Wilson C

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents real world acceleration data for an ambulance driving up and over a curb. A full scale reenactment was performed for a litigated case in which a patient on a gurney in an ambulance claimed a variety of bodily injuries after the ambulance struck a curb. A height and weight matched surrogate rode on the gurney during the tests. Results demonstrated that peak vehicle and occupant accelerations never exceeded 1.1g's. To address the claimed injuries, the accelerations likely sustained by the patient were compared to those experienced during daily life. Since ambulances are wide vehicles that travel fast on potentially narrow arterial, collector or local roadways, curb or median impacts may occur during the normal course of driving. Thus, these results may be useful for forensic experts in dealing with similar cases involving claimed injuries following curb impacts.

  12. Potential impacts of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Lai, Shiyu; Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-01

    To study the potential effects of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China, the field data analysis method is applied to data collected over a given monitoring period. Nine water quality parameters (water temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen) and three climate indicators for 20 years (1992-2011) are considered. The annual trends exhibit significant trends with respect to certain water quality and climate parameters. Five parameters exhibit significant seasonality differences in the monthly means between the two decades (1992-2001 and 2002-2011) of the monitoring period. Non-parametric regression of the statistical analyses is performed to explore potential key climate drivers of water quality in the reservoir. The results indicate that seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall may have positive impacts on water quality. However, an extremely cold spring and high wind speed are likely to affect the self-stabilising equilibrium states of the reservoir, which requires attention in the future. The results suggest that land use changes have important impact on nitrogen load. This study provides useful information regarding the potential effects of climate change on water quality in developing countries.

  13. Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Wiebe, Keith; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The projected rise in food-related greenhouse gas emissions could seriously impede efforts to limit global warming to acceptable levels. Despite that, food production and consumption have long been excluded from climate policies, in part due to concerns about the potential impact on food security. Using a coupled agriculture and health modelling framework, we show that the global climate change mitigation potential of emissions pricing of food commodities could be substantial, and that levying greenhouse gas taxes on food commodities could, if appropriately designed, be a health-promoting climate policy in high-income countries, as well as in most low- and middle-income countries. Sparing food groups known to be beneficial for health from taxation, selectively compensating for income losses associated with tax-related price increases, and using a portion of tax revenues for health promotion are potential policy options that could help avert most of the negative health impacts experienced by vulnerable groups, whilst still promoting changes towards diets which are more environmentally sustainable.

  14. Potential tsunami impact on a refinery in North-Eastern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, A. M.; Franchello, G.; Krausmann, E.

    2009-04-01

    Industrial facilities located in coastal areas subject to tsunami hazards may be at risk of tsunami impact and damage. Furthermore, if hazardous materials are present these can be accidentally released impacting nearby residents and dispersing into the environment. We have analysed the potential impact of two tsunami scenarios originating in the Tyrrhenian Sea and their consequences at an industrial facility located on the coast in North-Eastern Sicily. The results of the tsunami simulations indicate that in both scenarios there would be between 30-45 storage tanks at the industrial facility (potentially exposing up to 1.4 million m3 of chemicals) subject to flooding, with tanks closer to the beach suffering up to 1.6 m inundation. Flow velocities in most areas are less than 1 m/s. This indicates that any damage would occur due to hydrostatic uplift forces due to buoyancy particularly in the western part of the facility where inundation levels are higher and storage tanks are less protected. Damage to the facility due to impact of floating debris may be a problem at the eastern most tip of the refinery where the distance between the waterline and the refinery fence line is less than 20 m. Foundation soils and foundation systems could also be at risk from shear- and liquefaction-induced scour in this section of the plant. The likelihood for hazardous materials releases from inundated storage tanks is low but could occur due to breakage of connected pipelines and flanges due to floating off of storage tanks and other connected appurtenances. Flooding of electrical equipment such as control panels, pumps and motors, not raised above the inundation level could suffer water intrusion.

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11–4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

  16. Evaluating Potential Spectral Impacts of Various Artificial Lights on Melatonin Suppression, Photosynthesis, and Star Visibility

    PubMed Central

    Aubé, Martin; Roby, Johanne; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light at night can be harmful to the environment, and interferes with fauna and flora, star visibility, and human health. To estimate the relative impact of a lighting device, its radiant power, angular photometry and detailed spectral power distribution have to be considered. In this paper we focus on the spectral power distribution. While specific spectral characteristics can be considered harmful during the night, they can be considered advantageous during the day. As an example, while blue-rich Metal Halide lamps can be problematic for human health, star visibility and vegetation photosynthesis during the night, they can be highly appropriate during the day for plant growth and light therapy. In this paper we propose three new indices to characterize lamp spectra. These indices have been designed to allow a quick estimation of the potential impact of a lamp spectrum on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility. We used these new indices to compare various lighting technologies objectively. We also considered the transformation of such indices according to the propagation of light into the atmosphere as a function of distance to the observer. Among other results, we found that low pressure sodium, phosphor-converted amber light emitting diodes (LED) and LED 2700 K lamps filtered with the new Ledtech’s Equilib filter showed a lower or equivalent potential impact on melatonin suppression and star visibility in comparison to high pressure sodium lamps. Low pressure sodium, LED 5000 K-filtered and LED 2700 K-filtered lamps had a lower impact on photosynthesis than did high pressure sodium lamps. Finally, we propose these indices as new standards for the lighting industry to be used in characterizing their lighting technologies. We hope that their use will favor the design of new environmentally and health-friendly lighting technologies. PMID:23861808

  17. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic ethanol sources inNorth America and potential atmospheric impacts of ethanol fuel use.

    PubMed

    Millet, Dylan B; Apel, Eric; Henze, Daven K; Hill, Jason; Marshall, Julian D; Singh, Hanwant B; Tessum, Christopher W

    2012-08-07

    We used an ensemble of aircraft measurements with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to constrain present-day North American ethanol sources, and gauge potential long-range impacts of increased ethanol fuel use. We find that current ethanol emissions are underestimated by 50% in Western North America, and overestimated by a factor of 2 in the east. Our best estimate for year-2005 North American ethanol emissions is 670 GgC/y, with 440 GgC/y from the continental U.S. We apply these optimized source estimates to investigate two scenarios for increased ethanol fuel use in the U.S.: one that assumes a complete transition from gasoline to E85 fuel, and one tied to the biofuel requirements of the U.S. Energy Indepence and Security Act (EISA). For both scenarios, increased ethanol emissions lead to higher atmospheric acetaldehyde concentrations (by up to 14% during winter for the All-E85 scenario and 2% for the EISA scenario) and an associated shift in reactive nitrogen partitioning reflected by an increase in the peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) to NO(y) ratio. The largest relative impacts occur during fall, winter, and spring because of large natural emissions of ethanol and other organic compounds during summer. Projected changes in atmospheric PAN reflect a balance between an increased supply of peroxyacetyl radicals from acetaldehyde oxidation, and the lower NO(x) emissions for E85 relative to gasoline vehicles. The net effect is a general PAN increase in fall through spring, and a weak decrease over the U.S. Southeast and the Atlantic Ocean during summer. Predicted NO(x) concentrations decrease in surface air over North America (by as much 5% in the All-E85 scenario). Downwind of North America this effect is counteracted by higher NO(x) export efficiency driven by increased PAN production and transport. From the point of view of NO(x) export from North America, the increased PAN formation associated with E85 fuel use thus acts to offset the associated lower NO

  19. Class Acts: How Teachers Awaken Potential = Docentes al habla: Revelar a los alumnos el tesoro de su potencial = Performances d'enseignants: Comment eveiller un potential qui dort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This publication presents portraits of nine teachers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Jordan, Myanmar, New Zealand, Senegal, and Trinidad and Tobago who are opening up young minds and nurturing their potential. The portraits describe how these teachers created an educational situation in which students could thrive and grow. Some of the…

  20. Impact of river regulation on potential sediment mobilization and transport in an Alpine catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Lane, Stuart N.; Bakker, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The upper Rhône basin (upstream of Lake Geneva) has been heavily affected by human activities during the last century. The most evident impacts are related to river regulation, specifically flow impoundement, flow abstraction and channelization. In the last century and mainly since 1960, several large dams have been built along the main tributaries of the Rhône River, resulting in the water storage of a volume equal to 20% of the total annual river flow. The dams are part of hydropower systems which abstract water from streams and transfer it through complex networks (intakes, tunnels and pumping stations) to the reservoirs. Hydropower production leads to regulated flow in the Rhône: mostly an increase of winter flows, a reduction of summer flows, and a decrease of flood peaks. The sediment supply into Lake Geneva has decreased following dam construction (Loizeau & Dominik, 2000) due to the storage of sediment in upstream reservoirs, in rivers with reduced sediment transport capacity due to flow abstraction, and due to the development of sediment mining. Our hypothesis is that streamflow regulation itself has dramatically impacted the sediment transport dynamics of the system. We investigate the impacts of flow regulation on the sediment transport regime, by analysing the effects on potential sediment transport capacity (bedload). By the use of different bedload transport formulae (Meyer-Peter Müller, Wilcock and Crowe), the potential sediment transport capacity is computed at different cross sections within the basin. Potential sediment mobility occurs when the applied bed shear stress exceeds a critical value, τ>τc. The applied bed shear stress is computed as τ=ρghS, with water depth (h) measured from rating curves. We obtain an estimate of the energy slope (S) from the analysis of the river cross section, assuming uniform flow. The critical value of bed shear stress τc is computed using empirical formulae as a function of the grain diameter (ds). To

  1. Molecular dynamics study of force acting on a model nano particle immersed in fluid with temperature gradient: Effect of interaction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Tetsuro; Iseki, Hirotaka; Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Thermophoresis of a nano particle in a fluid is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. In order to elucidate effective factors on the characteristics of thermophoresis, simple models for both the fluid and the nano particle are considered, namely, the surrounding fluid consists of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles and the model nano particle is a cluster consisting of several tens of LJ particles. Interaction between the fluid particle and the model nano particle is described by the LJ interaction potential or repulsive interaction potential with the Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rule. As a preliminary result, the effect of mass on thermophoretic force acting on the model nano particle is investigated for both interaction potentials.

  2. Conserving intertidal habitats: What is the potential of ecological engineering to mitigate impacts of coastal structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Matthew J.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Dudgeon, David; Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.

    2015-12-01

    and services, prohibits quantification of absolute and relative magnitudes of ecological impacts due to coastal structures or effectiveness of mitigation interventions. This knowledge deficit restricts evaluation of the potential of ecological engineering to contribute to conservation policies for intertidal habitats. To improve mitigation design and effectiveness, a greater focus on in-situ research is needed, requiring stronger and timely collaboration between government agencies, construction partners and research scientists.

  3. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-23

    Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining

  4. The emergence and potential impact of medicine 2.0 in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    Stump, Terra; Zilch, Sarah; Coustasse, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Medicine 2.0 has emerged within healthcare information technology to enable more defined relationships among providers and patients. Physicians, hospitals, and patients are using Medicine 2.0 through social networking to maintain their foothold in the evolution of medical technologies. The authors' purpose was to determine potential improvements that Medicine 2.0 has on communication and collaboration of healthcare information. Research has shown that Medicine 2.0 has integrated into the healthcare industry and is enabling an increase in communication in healthcare matters. The provider-patient relationship is improving through the use of Medicine 2.0 and has positively impacted society so far.

  5. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    SciTech Connect

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  6. The potential impact of MMICs on future satellite communications: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Vernon E.

    1988-01-01

    This Executive Summary presents the results of a 17-month study on the future trends and requirments for Monolithic Microwave Integrated circuits (MMIC) for space communication application. Specifically this report identifies potential space communication applications of MMICs, assesses the impact of MMIC on the classes of systems that were identified, determines the present status and probable 10-year growth in capability of required MMIC and competing technologies, identifies the applications most likely to benefit from further MMIC development, and presents recommendations for NASA development activities to address the needs of these applications.

  7. Foxa2 acts as a co-activator potentiating expression of the Nurr1-induced DA phenotype via epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Hoon; He, Xi-Biao; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Park, Chang-Hwan; Takizawa, Takumi; Nakashima, Kinichi; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2014-02-01

    Understanding how dopamine (DA) phenotypes are acquired in midbrain DA (mDA) neuron development is important for bioassays and cell replacement therapy for mDA neuron-associated disorders. Here, we demonstrate a feed-forward mechanism of mDA neuron development involving Nurr1 and Foxa2. Nurr1 acts as a transcription factor for DA phenotype gene expression. However, Nurr1-mediated DA gene expression was inactivated by forming a protein complex with CoREST, and then recruiting histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1), an enzyme catalyzing histone deacetylation, to DA gene promoters. Co-expression of Nurr1 and Foxa2 was established in mDA neuron precursor cells by a positive cross-regulatory loop. In the presence of Foxa2, the Nurr1-CoREST interaction was diminished (by competitive formation of the Nurr1-Foxa2 activator complex), and CoREST-Hdac1 proteins were less enriched in DA gene promoters. Consequently, histone 3 acetylation (H3Ac), which is responsible for open chromatin structures, was strikingly increased at DA phenotype gene promoters. These data establish the interplay of Nurr1 and Foxa2 as the crucial determinant for DA phenotype acquisition during mDA neuron development.

  8. Characterization of Airborne Microbial Communities at a High-Elevation Site and Their Potential To Act as Atmospheric Ice Nuclei▿

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Robert M.; Lauber, Christian L.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Hamady, Micah; Hallar, Anna G.; Fall, Ray; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. The diversity and abundance of airborne microbes may be strongly influenced by atmospheric conditions or even influence atmospheric conditions themselves by acting as ice nucleators. However, few comprehensive studies have described the diversity and dynamics of airborne bacteria and fungi based on culture-independent techniques. We document atmospheric microbial abundance, community composition, and ice nucleation at a high-elevation site in northwestern Colorado. We used a standard small-subunit rRNA gene Sanger sequencing approach for total microbial community analysis and a bacteria-specific 16S rRNA bar-coded pyrosequencing approach (4,864 sequences total). During the 2-week collection period, total microbial abundances were relatively constant, ranging from 9.6 × 105 to 6.6 × 106 cells m−3 of air, and the diversity and composition of the airborne microbial communities were also relatively static. Bacteria and fungi were nearly equivalent, and members of the proteobacterial groups Burkholderiales and Moraxellaceae (particularly the genus Psychrobacter) were dominant. These taxa were not always the most abundant in freshly fallen snow samples collected at this site. Although there was minimal variability in microbial abundances and composition within the atmosphere, the number of biological ice nuclei increased significantly during periods of high relative humidity. However, these changes in ice nuclei numbers were not associated with changes in the relative abundances of the most commonly studied ice-nucleating bacteria. PMID:19502432

  9. Potential Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D.

    2012-12-01

    should: 1) provide meaningful, authoritative climate-relevant measures about the status, rates, and trends of key physical, ecological, and societal variables and values to inform decisions on management, research, and education at regional to national scales; 2) identify climate-related conditions and impacts to help develop effective mitigation and adaptation measures and reduce costs of management; and 3) document and communicate the climate-driven dynamic nature and condition of Earth's systems and societies, and provide a coordinated. This presentation will provide an overview of possible climate impacts on the built environment. Also, given that spatial analysis and remote sensing techniques will be of paramount importance in assessing these impacts and in preparing adaptation strategies, the presentation will provide examples of how these techniques can be used to identify potential impacts of climate change on the built environment.

  10. Potential Impacts of Highway Median Barriers on Wildlife: State of the Practice and Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenger, Anthony P.; Kociolek, Angela V.

    2013-11-01

    Median barriers separate lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions on multilane highways. Such traffic safety devices can reduce head-on collisions but also have the potential to reduce landscape permeability by impeding wildlife movements across highways. Median barriers may also increase the risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions if an animal becomes trapped or confused amid barriers searching for a place to cross. A 2002 Transportation Research Board report highlighted the need to better understand the potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife. This lack of information can cause significant project delays and increase transportation project costs. This study represents the first attempt in North America to bring together information about highway median and roadside barriers and wildlife and provide preliminary guidelines to balance the needs of motorist safety and wildlife movements.

  11. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health.

    PubMed

    Mrdjen, Igor; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-08-01

    High volume, hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) processes, used to extract natural gas and oil from underground shale deposits, pose many potential hazards to the environment and human health. HVHF can negatively affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air matrices with potential pollutants. Due to the relatively novel nature of the process, hazards to surface waters and human health are not well known. The purpose of this article is to link the impacts of HVHF operations on surface water integrity, with human health consequences. Surface water contamination risks include: increased structural failure rates of unconventional wells, issues with wastewater treatment, and accidental discharge of contaminated fluids. Human health risks associated with exposure to surface water contaminated with HVHF chemicals include increased cancer risk and turbidity of water, leading to increased pathogen survival time. Future research should focus on modeling contamination spread throughout the environment, and minimizing occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.

  12. Bisphenol A (BPA) in China: a review of sources, environmental levels, and potential human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y Q; Wong, C K C; Zheng, J S; Bouwman, H; Barra, R; Wahlström, B; Neretin, L; Wong, M H

    2012-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), identified as an endocrine disruptor, is an industrially important chemical that is used as a raw material in the manufacture of many products such as engineering plastics (e.g., epoxy resins/polycarbonate plastics), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites/sealants. The demand and production capacity of BPA in China have grown rapidly. This trend will lead to much more BPA contamination in the environmental media and in the general population in China. This paper reviews the current literature concerning the pollution status of BPA in China (the mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and its potential impact on human health. Due to potential human health risks from long-term exposure to BPA, body burden of the contaminant should be monitored.

  13. On the potential for climate change impacts on marine anthropogenic radioactivity in the Arctic regions.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Michael; Harms, Ingo; Standring, William J F; Dowdall, Mark; Strand, Per

    2010-08-01

    Current predictions as to the impacts of climate change in general and Arctic climate change in particular are such that a wide range of processes relevant to Arctic contaminants are potentially vulnerable. Of these, radioactive contaminants and the processes that govern their transport and fate may be particularly susceptible to the effects of a changing Arctic climate. This paper explores the potential changes in the physical system of the Arctic climate system as they are deducible from present day knowledge and model projections. As a contribution to a better preparedness regarding Arctic marine contamination with radioactivity we present and discuss how a changing marine physical environment may play a role in altering the current understanding pertaining to behavior of contaminant radionuclides in the marine environment of the Arctic region.

  14. Potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife: state of the practice and gap analysis.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Anthony P; Kociolek, Angela V

    2013-11-01

    Median barriers separate lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions on multilane highways. Such traffic safety devices can reduce head-on collisions but also have the potential to reduce landscape permeability by impeding wildlife movements across highways. Median barriers may also increase the risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions if an animal becomes trapped or confused amid barriers searching for a place to cross. A 2002 Transportation Research Board report highlighted the need to better understand the potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife. This lack of information can cause significant project delays and increase transportation project costs. This study represents the first attempt in North America to bring together information about highway median and roadside barriers and wildlife and provide preliminary guidelines to balance the needs of motorist safety and wildlife movements.

  15. Potential health and safety impacts from distribution and storage of alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.E.; Gasper, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment includes three major sections. Section 1 is a synopsis of literature on the health and safety aspects of neat alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends, and typical gasoline. Section 2 identifies the toxic properties of each fuel type and describes existing standards and regulations and suggests provisions for establishing others. Section 3 analyzes the major safety and health risks that would result from the increased use of each type of alcohol fuel. Potential accidents are described and their probable impacts on occupational and public populations are determined. An attempt was made to distill the important health and safety issues and to define gaps in our knowledge regarding alcohol fuels to highlight the further research needed to circumvent potential helth and safety problems.

  16. Adropin acts in brain to inhibit water drinking: potential interaction with the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR19.

    PubMed

    Stein, Lauren M; Yosten, Gina L C; Samson, Willis K

    2016-03-15

    Adropin, a recently described peptide hormone produced in the brain and liver, has been reported to have physiologically relevant actions on glucose homeostasis and lipogenesis, and to exert significant effect on endothelial function. We describe a central nervous system action of adropin to inhibit water drinking and identify a potential adropin receptor, the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR19. Reduction in GPR19 mRNA levels in medial basal hypothalamus of male rats resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effect of adropin on water deprivation-induced thirst. The identification of a novel brain action of adropin and a candidate receptor for the peptide should extend and accelerate the study of the potential therapeutic value of adropin or its mimetics for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  17. Electron Flow in Multiheme Bacterial Cytochromes is a Balancing Act Between Heme Electronic Interaction and Redox Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-14

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently microorganisms have adapted multi-heme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Angstroms. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces effciently, remains a mystery so far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive computer simulations to calculate Marcus theory quantities for electron transfer along the ten heme cofactors in the recently crystallized outer membrane cytochrome MtrF. The combination of electronic coupling matrix elements with free energy calculations of heme redox potentials and reorganization energies for heme-to-heme electron transfer allows the step-wise and overall electron transfer rate to be estimated and understood in terms of structural and dynamical characteristics of the protein. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104-105 s-1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related MtrCAB protein complex. Intriguingly, this flux must navigate thermodynamically uphill steps past low potential hemes. Our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: Thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well connected stacked heme pairs. This suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low potential

  18. Multi-Model Framework for Investigating Potential Climate Change Impacts on Interdependent Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, L.; Allen, M. R.; Wilbanks, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Built infrastructure consists of a series of interconnected networks with many coupled interdependencies. Traditionally, risk and vulnerability assessments are conducted one infrastructure at a time, considering only direct impacts on built and planned assets. However, extreme events caused by climate change affect local communities in different respects and stress vital interconnected infrastructures in complex ways that cannot be captured with traditional risk assessment methodologies. We employ a combination of high-performance computing, geographical information science, and imaging methods to examine the impacts of climate change on infrastructure for cities in two different climate regions: Chicago, Illinois in the Midwest and Portland, Maine (and Casco Bay area) in the Northeast. In Illinois, we evaluate effects of changes in regional temperature and precipitation, informed by an extreme climate change projection, population growth and migration, water supply, and technological development, on electricity generation and consumption. In Maine, we determine the aggregate effects of sea level rise, changing precipitation patterns, and population shifts on the depth of the freshwater-saltwater interface in coastal aquifers and the implications of these changes for water supply in general. The purpose of these efforts is to develop a multi-model framework for investigating potential climate change impacts on interdependent critical infrastructure assessing both vulnerabilities and alternative adaptive measures.

  19. Unstructured Grid Adaptation: Status, Potential Impacts, and Recommended Investments Toward CFD Vision 2030

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Krakos, Joshua A.; Michal, Todd; Loseille, Adrien; Alonso, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Unstructured grid adaptation is a powerful tool to control discretization error for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It has enabled key increases in the accuracy, automation, and capacity of some fluid simulation applications. Slotnick et al. provides a number of case studies in the CFD Vision 2030 Study: A Path to Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences to illustrate the current state of CFD capability and capacity. The authors forecast the potential impact of emerging High Performance Computing (HPC) environments forecast in the year 2030 and identify that mesh generation and adaptivity continue to be significant bottlenecks in the CFD work flow. These bottlenecks may persist because very little government investment has been targeted in these areas. To motivate investment, the impacts of improved grid adaptation technologies are identified. The CFD Vision 2030 Study roadmap and anticipated capabilities in complementary disciplines are quoted to provide context for the progress made in grid adaptation in the past fifteen years, current status, and a forecast for the next fifteen years with recommended investments. These investments are specific to mesh adaptation and impact other aspects of the CFD process. Finally, a strategy is identified to diffuse grid adaptation technology into production CFD work flows.

  20. Sources of biomass feedstock variability and the potential impact on biofuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. Luke; Westover, Tyler L.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Li, Chenlin

    2015-11-23

    In this study, terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a carbon neutral and domestic source of fuels and chemicals. However, the innate variability of biomass resources, such as herbaceous and woody materials, and the inconsistency within a single resource due to disparate growth and harvesting conditions, presents challenges for downstream processes which often require materials that are physically and chemically consistent. Intrinsic biomass characteristics, including moisture content, carbohydrate and ash compositions, bulk density, and particle size/shape distributions are highly variable and can impact the economics of transforming biomass into value-added products. For instance, ash content increases by an order of magnitude between woody and herbaceous feedstocks (from ~0.5 to 5 %, respectively) while lignin content drops by a factor of two (from ~30 to 15 %, respectively). This increase in ash and reduction in lignin leads to biofuel conversion consequences, such as reduced pyrolysis oil yields for herbaceous products as compared to woody material. In this review, the sources of variability for key biomass characteristics are presented for multiple types of biomass. Additionally, this review investigates the major impacts of the variability in biomass composition on four conversion processes: fermentation, hydrothermal liquefaction, pyrolysis, and direct combustion. Finally, future research processes aimed at reducing the detrimental impacts of biomass variability on conversion to fuels and chemicals are proposed.

  1. Sources of biomass feedstock variability and the potential impact on biofuels production

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, C. Luke; Westover, Tyler L.; Emerson, Rachel M.; ...

    2015-11-23

    In this study, terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a carbon neutral and domestic source of fuels and chemicals. However, the innate variability of biomass resources, such as herbaceous and woody materials, and the inconsistency within a single resource due to disparate growth and harvesting conditions, presents challenges for downstream processes which often require materials that are physically and chemically consistent. Intrinsic biomass characteristics, including moisture content, carbohydrate and ash compositions, bulk density, and particle size/shape distributions are highly variable and can impact the economics of transforming biomass into value-added products. For instance, ash content increases by anmore » order of magnitude between woody and herbaceous feedstocks (from ~0.5 to 5 %, respectively) while lignin content drops by a factor of two (from ~30 to 15 %, respectively). This increase in ash and reduction in lignin leads to biofuel conversion consequences, such as reduced pyrolysis oil yields for herbaceous products as compared to woody material. In this review, the sources of variability for key biomass characteristics are presented for multiple types of biomass. Additionally, this review investigates the major impacts of the variability in biomass composition on four conversion processes: fermentation, hydrothermal liquefaction, pyrolysis, and direct combustion. Finally, future research processes aimed at reducing the detrimental impacts of biomass variability on conversion to fuels and chemicals are proposed.« less

  2. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  3. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, David W.; de Moraes, Márcia M. G. Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S.; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G.; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M.; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production—from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.

  4. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Watkins, David W; de Moraes, Márcia M G Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production-from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.

  5. The potential impact of geological environment on health status of residents of the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Rapant, S; Cvečková, V; Dietzová, Z; Fajčíková, K; Hiller, E; Finkelman, R B; Škultétyová, S

    2014-06-01

    In order to assess the potential impact of the geological environment on the health of the population of the Slovak Republic, the geological environment was divided into eight major units: Paleozoic, Crystalline, Carbonatic Mesozoic and basal Paleogene, Carbonatic-silicate Mesozoic and Paleogene, Paleogene Flysch, Neovolcanics, Neogene and Quaternary sediments. Based on these geological units, the databases of environmental indicators (chemical elements/parameters in groundwater and soils) and health indicators (concerning health status and demographic development of the population) were compiled. The geological environment of the Neogene volcanics (andesites and basalts) has been clearly documented as having the least favourable impact on the health of Slovak population, while Paleogene Flysch geological environment (sandstones, shales, claystones) has the most favourable impact. The most significant differences between these two geological environments were observed, especially for the following health indicators: SMRI6364 (cerebral infarction and strokes) more than 70 %, SMRK (digestive system) 55 %, REI (circulatory system) and REE (endocrine and metabolic system) almost 40 % and REC (malignant neoplasms) more than 30 %. These results can likely be associated with deficit contents of Ca and Mg in groundwater from the Neogene volcanics that are only about half the level of Ca and Mg in groundwater of the Paleogene sediments.

  6. The importance of supratidal habitats for wintering shorebirds and the potential impacts of shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Yasué, M; Dearden, P

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal (N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  7. Feasibility of Deploying Inhaler Sensors to Identify the Impacts of Environmental Triggers and Built Environment Factors on Asthma Short-Acting Bronchodilator Use

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Barrett, Meredith A.; Henderson, Kelly; Humblet, Olivier; Smith, Ted; Sublett, James W.; Nesbitt, LaQuandra; Hogg, Chris; Van Sickle, David; Sublett, James L.

    2016-01-01

    . 2017. Feasibility of deploying inhaler sensors to identify the impacts of environmental triggers and built environment factors on asthma short-acting bronchodilator use. Environ Health Perspect 125:254–261; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP266 PMID:27340894

  8. Air Quality Impacts of Increased Use of Ethanol under the United States' Energy Independence and Security Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, “criteria” pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of...

  9. Regional Climate Change Scenarios for Mexico and Potential Impacts on Rainfed Maize Agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, C.; Estrada, F.; Martínez, B.; Sánchez, O.; Monterroso, A.; Rosales, G.; Gay, C.

    2010-03-01

    Regional climate change scenarios that were used to assess the potential impacts on different sectors in Mexico are presented, with an application of those scenarios for the agricultural sector. The results of that research were delivered to the Mexican government for the development of the Mexican Fourth National Communication, which will be presented to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). To generate regional climate change scenarios the models and criteria suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Fourth Assessment Report (4AR) were applied. Those criteria are: Consistency with global projections, Physical plausibility, Applicability in impact assessments, Representative of the potential range of changes in the future, Accessibility for the users of impacts assessments. The regional scenarios that were generated focus mainly on the applicability and accessibility criteria. A kick-off meeting was held at the beginning of the research work for the Fourth National Communication, to ensure that those criteria were fulfilled. Specifically, a set of climate change scenarios was generated using the outputs for temperature and precipitation of three General Circulation Models (GCMs): ECHAM5, HADGEM1 y GFDL CM2.0, for the horizons 2030 and 2050, and for the emission scenarios A1B, A2, B2 y B1. Those scenarios can be found in our web page in a low spatial resolution (2.5 º x 2.5º), and with high resolution (5’ x 5’). To assess the potential impacts on rainfed maize agriculture, the changes of the suitability of different regions in the country were evaluated, considering maize temperature and precipitation requirements at its different stages of development. Four categories of suitability (high, moderated, marginal, and no suitable) were characterized for current and future climatic conditions. Using the A2 and B2 emission scenarios, the three GCMs and the horizon 2050, results showed that around 67% of

  10. Wet weather impact on trihalomethane formation potential in tributaries to drinking water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, E; Peters, R

    2008-04-01

    During rain storm events, land surface runoff and resuspension of bottom sediments cause an increase in Trihalomethane (THM) precursors in rivers. These precursors, when chlorinated at water treatment facilities will lead to the formation of THMs and hence impact drinking water resources. In order to evaluate the wet weather impact on the potential formation of THMs, river samples were collected before, during and after three rain storms ranging from 15.2 to 24.9 mm precipitation. The samples were tested for THM formation potential and other indicators including UV254 absorbance, turbidity and volatile suspended solid (VSS). Average levels of THMs increased from 61 microg/l during dry weather to 131 microg/l during wet weather, and then went back to 81 microg/l after rain ended. Wet weather values of THM are well above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) 80 microg/l, set by EPA for drinking water. THM indicators also exhibited similar trends. Average levels increased from 0.6 to 1.8 abs; 2.6 to 6 ntu; and 7.5 to 15 mg/l respectively for UV254, turbidity and VSS. A positive correlation was observed between THM formation and THM indicators. The t-test of significance (p-value) was less than 0.05 for all indicators, and R values ranged from 0.85 to 0.92 between THMs and the indicators, and 0.72 to 0.9 among indicators themselves.

  11. Molecular road ecology: exploring the potential of genetics for investigating transportation impacts on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Balkenhol, Niko; Waits, Lisette P

    2009-10-01

    Transportation infrastructures such as roads, railroads and canals can have major environmental impacts. Ecological road effects include the destruction and fragmentation of habitat, the interruption of ecological processes and increased erosion and pollution. Growing concern about these ecological road effects has led to the emergence of a new scientific discipline called road ecology. The goal of road ecology is to provide planners with scientific advice on how to avoid, minimize or mitigate negative environmental impacts of transportation. In this review, we explore the potential of molecular genetics to contribute to road ecology. First, we summarize general findings from road ecology and review studies that investigate road effects using genetic data. These studies generally focus only on barrier effects of roads on local genetic diversity and structure and only use a fraction of available molecular approaches. Thus, we propose additional molecular applications that can be used to evaluate road effects across multiple scales and dimensions of the biodiversity hierarchy. Finally, we make recommendations for future research questions and study designs that would advance molecular road ecology. Our review demonstrates that molecular approaches can substantially contribute to road ecology research and that interdisciplinary, long-term collaborations will be particularly important for realizing the full potential of molecular road ecology.

  12. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  13. Estimating reflectivity values from wind turbines for analyzing the potential impact on weather radar services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, I.; Grande, O.; Jenn, D.; Guerra, D.; de la Vega, D.

    2015-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has repeatedly expressed concern over the increasing number of impact cases of wind turbine farms on weather radars. Current signal processing techniques to mitigate wind turbine clutter (WTC) are scarce, so the most practical approach to this issue is the assessment of the potential interference from a wind farm before it is installed. To do so, and in order to obtain a WTC reflectivity model, it is crucial to estimate the radar cross section (RCS) of the wind turbines to be built, which represents the power percentage of the radar signal that is backscattered to the radar receiver. For the proposed model, a representative scenario has been chosen in which both the weather radar and the wind farm are placed on clear areas; i.e., wind turbines are supposed to be illuminated only by the lowest elevation angles of the radar beam. This paper first characterizes the RCS of wind turbines in the weather radar frequency bands by means of computer simulations based on the physical optics theory and then proposes a simplified model to estimate wind turbine RCS values. This model is of great help in the evaluation of the potential impact of a certain wind farm on the weather radar operation.

  14. Estimating reflectivity values from wind turbines for analyzing the potential impact on weather radar services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, I.; Grande, O.; Jenn, D.; Guerra, D.; de la Vega, D.

    2015-02-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has repeatedly expressed concern over the increasing number of impact cases of wind turbine farms on weather radars. Since nowadays signal processing techniques to mitigate Wind Turbine Clutter (WTC) are scarce, the most practical approach to this issue is the assessment of the potential interference from a wind farm before it is installed. To do so, and in order to obtain a WTC reflectivity model, it is crucial to estimate the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the wind turbines to be built, which represents the power percentage of the radar signal that is backscattered to the radar receiver. This paper first characterizes the RCS of wind turbines in the weather radar frequency bands by means of computer simulations based on the Physical Optics theory, and then proposes a simplified model to estimate wind turbine RCS values. This model is of great help in the evaluation of the potential impact of a certain wind farm on the weather radar operation.

  15. The impact of sea surface currents in wave power potential modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros

    2015-11-01

    The impact of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of wave energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, wave, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main wave characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the wave energy and the wave parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the wave models. The obtained results prove that the impact of the sea surface currents is quite significant in wave energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.

  16. Climate change: Potential impacts and interactions in wetlands of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, Virginia; Kusler, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Wetlands exist in a transition zone between aquatic and terrestrial environments which can be altered by subtle changes in hydrology. Twentieth century climate records show that the United States is generally experiencing a trend towards a wetter, warmer climate; some climate models suggest that his trend will continue and possibly intensify over the next 100 years. Wetlands that are most likely to be affected by these and other potential changes (e.g., sea-level rise) associated with atmospheric carbon enrichment include permafrost wetlands, coastal and estuarine wetlands, peatlands, alpine wetlands, and prairie pothote wetlands. Potential impacts range from changes in community structure to changes in ecological function, and from extirpation to enhancement. Wetlands (particularly boreal peatlands) play an important role in the global carbon cycle, generally sequestering carbon in the form of biomass, methane, dissolved organic material and organic sediment. Wetlands that are drained or partially dried can become a net source of methane and carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, serving as a positive biotic feedback to global warming. Policy options for minimizing the adverse impacts of climate change on wetland ecosystems include the reduction of current anthropogenic stresses, allowing for inland migration of coastal wetlands as sea-level rises, active management to preserve wetland hydrology, and a wide range of other management and restoration options.

  17. Assessing the potential for fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): Insight from bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleton, M.A.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of annual food consumption and biomass were modeled for several fish species across representative rivers and lakes in eastern North America. Results were combined to assess the relative potential of fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Predicted annual food consumption by fishes in southern waters was over 100% greater than that in northern systems because of warmer annual water temperatures and presumed increases in metabolic demand. Although generally increasing with latitude, biomasses of several key zebra mussel fish predators did not change significantly across latitudes. Biomasses of some less abundant fish predators did increase significantly with latitude, but increases were not of the magnitude to offset predicted decreases in food consumption. Our results generally support the premise that fishes in rivers and lakes of the southern United States (U.S.) have inherently greater potential to impact zebra mussels by predation. Our simulations may provide a partial explanation of why zebra mussel invasions have not been as rapid and widespread in southern U.S. waters compared to the Great Lakes region. ?? Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  18. Derivation of groundwater threshold values for analysis of impacts predicted at potential carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G. V.; Murray, C. J.; Bott, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Project is developing reduced-order models to evaluate potential impacts to groundwater quality due to carbon dioxide (CO2) or brine leakage, should it occur from deep CO2 storage reservoirs. These efforts targeted two classes of aquifer – an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards Aquifer in Texas, and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas. Hypothetical leakage scenarios focus on wellbores as the most likely conduits from the storage reservoir to an underground source of drinking water (USDW). To facilitate evaluation of potential degradation of the USDWs, threshold values, below which there would be no predicted impacts, were determined for each of these two aquifer systems. These threshold values were calculated using an interwell approach for determining background groundwater concentrations that is an adaptation of methods described in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Unified Guidance for Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Monitoring Data at RCRA Facilities. Results demonstrate the importance of establishing baseline groundwater quality conditions that capture the spatial and temporal variability of the USDWs prior to CO2 injection and storage.

  19. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  20. Assessment of Flooded Areas Projections and Floods Potential Impacts Applying Remote Sensing Imagery and Demographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, D. A.; Carriello, F.; Fernandes, P. J. F.; Garofolo Lopes, L.; Siqueira Júnior, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Assessing vulnerability and potential impacts associated with extreme discharges requires an accurate topographic description in order to estimate the extension of flooded areas. However, in most populated regions, topographic data obtained by in-situ measurements is not available. In this case, digital elevation models derived from remote sensing date are usually applied. Moreover, this digital elevation models have intrinsic errors that introduce bigger uncertainty in results than the associated to hydrological projections. On the other hand, estimations of flooded areas through remote sensing images provide accurate information, which could be used for the construction of river level-flooded area relationships regarding vulnerability assessment. In this work, this approach is applied for the city of Porto Velho in the Brazilian Amazonia to assess potential vulnerability to floods associated with climate change projections. The approach is validated using census data, provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and information about socio-economical injuries associated to historical floods, provided by the Brazilian Civil Defence. Hydrological projections under climate change are carried out using several downscaling of climate projections as inputs in a hydrological model. Results show more accurate estimation of flood impacts than the obtained using digital elevation models derivate from remote sensing data. This reduces uncertainties in the assessment of vulnerability to floods associated with climate change in the region.

  1. Potential Clinical and Economic Impact of Switching Branded Medications to Generics.

    PubMed

    Straka, Robert J; Keohane, Denis J; Liu, Larry Z

    2015-06-05

    Switching branded to generic medications has become a common cost-containment measure. Although this is an important objective for health care systems worldwide, the impact of this practice on patient outcomes needs to be carefully considered. We reviewed the literature summarizing the potential clinical and economic consequences of switching from branded to generic medications on patient outcomes. A literature search of peer-reviewed articles published 2003-2013 using key words of "generic switching" or "substitution" was conducted using PubMed, OvidSP, and ScienceDirect. Of 30 articles identified and reviewed, most were related to the diseases of the central nervous system, especially epilepsy. Based on our review, potential impacts of switching fell into 3 broad categories: patient attitudes and adherence, clinical and safety outcomes, and cost and resource utilization. Although in many cases generics may represent an appropriate alternative to branded products, this may not always be the case. Specifically, several studies suggested that switching may negatively impact medication adherence, whereas other studies found that generic switching was associated with poorer clinical outcomes and more adverse events. In some instances, switching accomplished cost savings but did so at increased total cost of care because of increased physician visits or hospitalizations. Although in many cases generics may represent an appropriate alternative, mandatory generic switching may lead to unintended consequences, especially in certain therapeutic areas. Although further study is warranted, based on our review, it may be medically justifiable for physicians and patients to retain the right to request the branded product in certain cases.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The

  2. Exploring the potential impact of hospital ward-based pharmacy interns on drug safety.

    PubMed

    Schorr, S G; Eickhoff, C; Feldt, S; Hohmann, C; Schulz, M

    2014-04-01

    Clinical pharmacists play an important role in improving drug safety on hospital wards. However, little is known about the impact of pharmacy interns. The objective of our study was, therefore, to investigate the impact of hospital ward-based pharmacy interns on drug safety. This study was conducted as part of the project "P-STAT 2: Pharmacy interns on the ward" on 14 surgical wards in seven hospitals in Germany and a total of 27 pharmacy interns participated. All patients admitted to the participating wards from 1st June 2008 until 31st October 2008 and from 1st December 2008 till 30th April 2009 were included. The pharmacy interns were involved in medication reconciliation, and identifying, resolving, and preventing drug-related problems (DRPs) using the classification system APS-Doc. A total of 6,551 patients were included. Patients received on average (+/- SD) 4.4 +/- 3.9 drugs. The pharmacy interns detected a total of 4,085 DRPs and on average 0.6 +/- 1.2 DRPs per patient. Most frequently detected DRPs were potential drug-drug interactions (n = 591, 14%), missing drug strength, when different strengths were available (n = 373, 9%), and incomplete medication record (n = 296, 7%). The pharmacy interns conducted an intervention for 98% (n = 4,011) of all DRPs. According to their documentation, 74% of the DRPs (n = 3,038) were solved. Drugs which were most often related with DRPs were simvastatin, diclofenac, and ibuprofen. This is the very first study exploring the potential impact of pharmacy interns on drug safety on surgical wards in Europe. Pharmacy interns can play an important role to improve drug safety on hospital wards.

  3. Potential impact of climate and socioeconomic changes on future agricultural land use in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan Ahmed, Kazi; Wang, Guiling; You, Liangzhi; Yu, Miao

    2016-02-01

    Agriculture is a key component of anthropogenic land use and land cover changes that influence regional climate. Meanwhile, in addition to socioeconomic drivers, climate is another important factor shaping agricultural land use. In this study, we compare the contributions of climate change and socioeconomic development to potential future changes of agricultural land use in West Africa using a prototype land use projection (LandPro) algorithm. The algorithm is based on a balance between food supply and demand, and accounts for the impact of socioeconomic drivers on the demand side and the impact of climate-induced crop yield changes on the supply side. The impact of human decision-making on land use is explicitly considered through multiple "what-if" scenarios. In the application to West Africa, future crop yield changes were simulated by a process-based crop model driven with future climate projections from a regional climate model, and future changes of food demand is projected using a model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade. Without agricultural intensification, the climate-induced decrease in crop yield together with future increases in food demand is found to cause a significant increase in cropland areas at the expense of forest and grassland by the mid-century. The increase in agricultural land use is primarily climate-driven in the western part of West Africa and socioeconomically driven in the eastern part. Analysis of results from multiple scenarios of crop area allocation suggests that human adaptation characterized by science-informed decision-making can potentially minimize future land use changes in many parts of the region.

  4. Potential impact of climate change on air pollution-related human health effects.

    PubMed

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Delucia, Anthony J; Deck, Leland; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-07-01

    The potential health impact of ambient ozone and PM2.5 concentrations modulated by climate change over the United States is investigated using combined atmospheric and health modeling. Regional air quality modeling for 2001 and 2050 was conducted using CMAQ Modeling System with meteorology from the GISS Global Climate Model, downscaled regionally using MM5,keeping boundary conditions of air pollutants, emission sources, population, activity levels, and pollution controls constant. BenMap was employed to estimate the air pollution health outcomes at the county, state, and national level for 2050 caused by the effect of meteorology on future ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. The changes in calculated annual mean PM2.5 concentrations show a relatively modest change with positive and negative responses (increasing PM2.5 levels across the northeastern U.S.) although average ozone levels slightly decrease across the northern sections of the U.S., and increase across the southern tier. Results suggest that climate change driven air quality-related health effects will be adversely affected in more then 2/3 of the continental U.S. Changes in health effects induced by PM2.5 dominate compared to those caused by ozone. PM2.5-induced premature mortality is about 15 times higher then that due to ozone. Nationally the analysis suggests approximately 4000 additional annual premature deaths due to climate change impacts on PM2.5 vs 300 due to climate change-induced ozone changes. However, the impacts vary spatially. Increased premature mortality due to elevated ozone concentrations will be offset by lower mortality from reductions in PM2.5 in 11 states. Uncertainties related to different emissions projections used to simulate future climate, and the uncertainties forecasting the meteorology, are large although there are potentially important unaddressed uncertainties (e.g., downscaling, speciation, interaction, exposure, and concentration-response function of the human health studies).

  5. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S. 280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007, Supplement to

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This paper responds to a September 18, 2007, letter from Senators Barrasso, Inhofe, and Voinovich, seeking further energy and economic analysis to supplement information presented in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) recent analysis of S.280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007.

  6. Impact of Mississippi Healthy Students Act of 2007 on District- and School-Level Health Policies: School Officials' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, Anne; McKee, Colleen; Ragsdale, Kathleen; Blanchard, Troy C.; Baggett, Dorris; Southward, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Annual evaluations of the Mississippi Healthy Students Act of 2007 (MHSA) were conducted during 2009-2011 (years 1-3) among 4 stakeholder groups: (1) parents of public school students, (2) adolescents, (3) state-level policymakers (ie, legislators and other state officials), and (4) public school officials (ie, superintendents and…

  7. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Confidential Business Information Records Access System for the Toxic Control Substances Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This system collects submission data from the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and contact information for EPA contractors and employees who are CBI cleared. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, and the purpose of data collection.

  8. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Chairman Henry Waxman and Chairman Edward Markey for an analysis of H.R. 2454, the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACESA). ACESA, as passed by the House of Representatives on June 26, 2009, is a complex bill that regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and economic incentives.

  9. Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S.2191, the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senators Lieberman and Warner for an analysis of S.2191, the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007. S.2191 is a complex bill regulating emissions of greenhouse gases through market- based mechanisms, energy efficiency programs, and economic incentives.

  10. Impacts of a 25% Renewable Electricity Standard as Proposed in the American Clean Energy and Security Act Discussion Draft

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to requests from Chairman Edward Markey, for an analysis of a 25% federal renewable electricity standard (RES). The RES proposal analyzed in this report is included in the discussion draft of broader legislation, the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACESA) of 2009, issued on the Energy and Commerce Committee website at the end of March 2009.

  11. Sarbanes-Oxley Act and Acquisition Trends: Information Technology Managers' Perceptions of the Impact on Information Technology Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui-Le, Linda Thanhthuy

    2010-01-01

    This research study provides a platform for extending the body of knowledge associated with the sourcing of Information Technology (IT) in the legal environment determined by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. This analysis of IT sourcing was conducted via consideration of legal and situational factors which may influence an IT manager's decision to…

  12. Progress and Impact. A Report of Programs Funded for 1995-96 by the Comprehensive Health Education Act of 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrill, Jerry L.; Connell, Karen

    During the 1995-96 school year, the Colorado Department of Education supported Comprehensive Health Education Programs as authorized by the Comprehensive Health Education Act of 1990. This report summarizes the projects funded under that grant along with additional observations and recommendations regarding the operation of such grants. Grant…

  13. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Čada, Glenn F.

    2007-04-01

    A new generation of hydropower technologies, the kinetic hydro and wave energy conversion devices, offers the possibility of generating electricity from the movements of water, without the need for dams and diversions. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 encouraged the development of these sources of renewable energy in the United States, and there is growing interest in deploying them globally. The technologies that would extract electricity from free-flowing streams, estuaries, and oceans have not been widely tested. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy convened a workshop to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave energy conversion devices and their stages of development, (2) identify where these technologies can best operate, (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures, and (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. The article reviews the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems, and we describe recent national and international developments.

  14. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy.

  15. Developing a model to estimate the potential impact of municipal investment on city health.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Malcolm; Machaczek, Katarzyna; Green, Geoff

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes a process which exemplifies the potential impact of municipal investment on the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in city populations. We report on Developing an evidence-based approach to city public health planning and investment in Europe (DECiPHEr), a project part funded by the European Union. It had twin objectives: first, to develop and validate a vocational educational training package for policy makers and political decision takers; second, to use this opportunity to iterate a robust and user-friendly investment tool for maximizing the public health impact of 'mainstream' municipal policies, programs and investments. There were seven stages in the development process shared by an academic team from Sheffield Hallam University and partners from four cities drawn from the WHO European Healthy Cities Network. There were five iterations of the model resulting from this process. The initial focus was CVD as the biggest cause of death and disability in Europe. Our original prototype 'cost offset' model was confined to proximal determinants of CVD, utilizing modified 'Framingham' equations to estimate the impact of population level cardiovascular risk factor reduction on future demand for acute hospital admissions. The DECiPHEr iterations first extended the scope of the model to distal determinants and then focused progressively on practical interventions. Six key domains of local influence on population health were introduced into the model by the development process: education, housing, environment, public health, economy and security. Deploying a realist synthesis methodology, the model then connected distal with proximal determinants of CVD. Existing scientific evidence and cities' experiential knowledge were 'plugged-in' or 'triangulated' to elaborate the causal pathways from domain interventions to public health impacts. A key product is an enhanced version of the cost offset model, named Sheffield Health Effectiveness Framework

  16. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: polarization sensitivity and potential impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) current geostationary imagers for operational weather forecasting, the next generation imager, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R), will have six reflective solar bands - five more than currently available. These bands will be used for applications such as aerosol retrievals, which are influenced by polarization effects. These effects are determined by two factors: instrument polarization sensitivity and the polarization states of the observations. The former is measured as part of the pre-launch testing program performed by the instrument vendor. We analyzed the results of the pre-launch polarization sensitivity measurements of the 0.47 μm and 0.64 μm channels and used them in conjunction with simulated scene polarization states to estimate potential on-orbit radiometric impacts. The pre-launch test setups involved illuminating the ABI with an integrating sphere through either one or two polarizers. The measurement with one (rotating) polarizer yields the degree of linear polarization of ABI, and the measurements using two polarizers (one rotating and one fixed) characterized the non-ideal properties of the polarizer. To estimate the radiometric performance impacts from the instrument polarization sensitivity, we simulated polarized scenes using a radiative transfer code and accounted for the instrument polarization sensitivity over its field of regard. The results show the variation in the polarization impacts over the day and by regions of the full disk can reach up to 3.2% for the 0.47μm channel and 4.8% for the 0.64μm channel. Geostationary orbiters like the ABI give the unique opportunity to show these impacts throughout the day compared to low earth orbiters, which are more limited to certain times of day. This work may enhance the ability to diagnose anomalies on-orbit.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

  18. Impacts of marine renewable energy scheme operation on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadiri, Margaret; Kay, David; Ahmadian, Reza; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Falconer, Roger; Bray, Michaela

    2013-04-01

    In recent years there has being growing global interest in the generation of electricity from renewable resources. Amongst these, marine energy resource is now being considered to form a significant part of the energy mix, with plans for the implementation of several marine renewable energy schemes such as barrages and tidal stream turbines around the UK in the near future. Although marine energy presents a great potential for future electricity generation, there are major concerns over its potential impacts, particularly barrages, on the hydro-environment. Previous studies have shown that a barrage could significantly alter the hydrodynamic regime and tidal flow characteristics of an estuary, with changes to sediment transport (Kadiri et al., 2012). However, changes to nutrients have been overlooked to date. Hence, considerable uncertainty remains as to how a barrage would affect the trophic status of an estuary. This is particularly important because eutrophication can lead to algal toxin production and increased mortality of aquatic invertebrates and fish populations. Therefore, this study examines the impacts of the two different modes of operation of a barrage (i.e. ebb generation and flood-ebb generation) on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary using a simplified model developed by the UK's Comprehensive Studies Task Team (CSTT). The model uses a set of equations and site-specific input data to predict equilibrium dissolved nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass, light-controlled phytoplankton growth rate and primary production which are compared against CSTT set standards for assessing the eutrophic status of estuaries and coastal waters. The estuary volume and tidal flushing time under the two operating modes were estimated using a hydrodynamic model and field surveys were conducted to obtain dissolved nitrate and phosphate concentrations which served as input data. The predicted equilibrium dissolved nitrate and phosphate

  19. Actual and potential use of population viability analyses in recovery of plant species listed under the US endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Sara L; Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2013-12-01

    Use of population viability analyses (PVAs) in endangered species recovery planning has been met with both support and criticism. Previous reviews promote use of PVA for setting scientifically based, measurable, and objective recovery criteria and recommend improvements to increase the framework's utility. However, others have questioned the value of PVA models for setting recovery criteria and assert that PVAs are more appropriate for understanding relative trade-offs between alternative management actions. We reviewed 258 final recovery plans for 642 plants listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to determine the number of plans that used or recommended PVA in recovery planning. We also reviewed 223 publications that describe plant PVAs to assess how these models were designed and whether those designs reflected previous recommendations for improvement of PVAs. Twenty-four percent of listed species had recovery plans that used or recommended PVA. In publications, the typical model was a matrix population model parameterized with ≤5 years of demographic data that did not consider stochasticity, genetics, density dependence, seed banks, vegetative reproduction, dormancy, threats, or management strategies. Population growth rates for different populations of the same species or for the same population at different points in time were often statistically different or varied by >10%. Therefore, PVAs parameterized with underlying vital rates that vary to this degree may not accurately predict recovery objectives across a species' entire distribution or over longer time scales. We assert that PVA, although an important tool as part of an adaptive-management program, can help to determine quantitative recovery criteria only if more long-term data sets that capture spatiotemporal variability in vital rates become available. Lacking this, there is a strong need for viable and comprehensive methods for determining quantitative, science-based recovery criteria for

  20. Impact of Diagenesis on Biosignature Preservation Potential in Playa Lake Evaporites of the Verde Formation, Arizona: Implications for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolyar, S.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    We studied evaporite subfacies in the Verde Fmn., AZ. We identified diagenetic pathways and assessed how diagenesis affected biosignature preservation potential (BPP) in each. Results revealed eight pathways, each with diverse impacts on BPP.

  1. Floating Offshore Wind in Oregon: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts in Oregon Coastal Counties from Two Future Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Tony; Keyser, David; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    This analysis examines the employment and potential economic impacts of large-scale deployment of offshore wind technology off the coast of Oregon. This analysis examines impacts within the seven Oregon coastal counties: Clatsop, Tillamook, Lincoln, Lane, Douglas, Coos, and Curry. The impacts highlighted here can be used in county, state, and regional planning discussions and can be scaled to get a general sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other deployment scenarios.

  2. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs.

  3. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  4. Framework for identifying chemicals with structural features associated with the potential to act as developmental or reproductive toxicants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengde; Fisher, Joan; Naciff, Jorge; Laufersweiler, Michael; Lester, Cathy; Daston, George; Blackburn, Karen

    2013-12-16

    Developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) end points are important hazard end points that need to be addressed in the risk assessment of chemicals to determine whether or not they are the critical effects in the overall risk assessment. These hazard end points are difficult to predict using current in silico tools because of the diversity of mechanisms of action that elicit DART effects and the potential for narrow windows of vulnerability. DART end points have been projected to consume the majority of animals used for compliance with REACH; thus, additional nonanimal predictive tools are urgently needed. This article presents an empirically based decision tree for determining whether or not a chemical has receptor-binding properties and structural features that are consistent with chemical structures known to have toxicity for DART end points. The decision tree is based on a detailed review of 716 chemicals (664 positive, 16 negative, and 36 with insufficient data) that have DART end-point data and are grouped into defined receptor binding and chemical domains. When tested against a group of chemicals not included in the training set, the decision tree is shown to identify a high percentage of chemicals with known DART effects. It is proposed that this decision tree could be used both as a component of a screening system to identify chemicals of potential concern and as a component of weight-of-evidence decisions based on structure-activity relationships (SAR) to fill data gaps without generating additional test data. In addition, the chemical groupings generated could be used as a starting point for the development of hypotheses for in vitro testing to elucidate mode of action and ultimately in the development of refined SAR principles for DART that incorporate mode of action (adverse outcome pathways).

  5. Sildenafil acts as potentiator and corrector of CFTR but might be not suitable for the treatment of CF lung disease.

    PubMed

    Leier, Geraldine; Bangel-Ruland, Nadine; Sobczak, Katja; Knieper, Yvonne; Weber, Wolf-Michael

    2012-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil is an established and approved drug to treat symptoms of a variety of human diseases. In the context of cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic disease caused by a defective CFTR gene (e.g. ΔF508-CFTR), it was assumed that sildenafil could be a promising substance to correct impaired protein expression. This study focuses on the molecular mechanisms of sildenafil on CFTR recovery. We used ΔF508-CFTR/wt-CFTR expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes and human bronchial epithelial cell lines (CFBE41o(-)/16HBE14o(-)) to investigate the pathways of sildenafil action. Cells were treated with sildenafil and cAMP-mediated current (I(m)), conductance (G(m)), and capacitance (C(m)) were determined. Sildenafil increased I(m), G(m), and C(m) of wt-CFTR and functionally restored ΔF508-CFTR in oocytes. These effects were also seen in CFBE41o(-) and 16HBE14o(-) cells. Transepithelial measurements revealed that sildenafil mediated increase (wt-CFTR) and restoration (ΔF508-CFTR) of channel activity. cGMP pathway blocker inhibited the activity increase but not CFTR/ΔF508-CFTR exocytosis. From these data we conclude that sildenafil mediates potentiation of CFTR activity by a cGMP-dependent and initiates cGMP-independent functional insertion of CFTR/ΔF508-CFTR molecules into the apical membranes. Thus, sildenafil is a corrector and potentiator of CFTR/ΔF508-CFTR. Yet, the necessary high doses of the drug for CFTR recovery demonstrate that sildenafil might not be suited as a therapeutic drug for CF lung disease.

  6. Electron flow in multiheme bacterial cytochromes is a balancing act between heme electronic interaction and redox potentials

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently, microorganisms have adapted multiheme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Å. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level, how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces efficiently, remains a mystery thus far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations to calculate stepwise heme-to-heme electron transfer rates in the recently crystallized outer membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrF. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104–105 s−1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related multiheme protein complex MtrCAB. Intriguingly, our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well-connected stacked heme pairs. This observation suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low-potential hemes without slowing down electron flow. These findings are particularly profound in light of the apparently well-conserved staggered cross-heme wire structural motif in functionally related outer membrane proteins. PMID:24385579

  7. Impacts of Climate Change on the Global Invasion Potential of the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Ihlow, Flora; Courant, Julien; Secondi, Jean; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Measey, G John; Lillo, Francesco; De Villiers, F André; Vogt, Solveig; De Busschere, Charlotte; Backeljau, Thierry; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By altering or eliminating delicate ecological relationships, non-indigenous species are considered a major threat to biodiversity, as well as a driver of environmental change. Global climate change affects ecosystems and ecological communities, leading to changes in the phenology, geographic ranges, or population abundance of several species. Thus, predicting the impacts of global climate change on the current and future distribution of invasive species is an important subject in macroecological studies. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), native to South Africa, possesses a strong invasion potential and populations have become established in numerous countries across four continents. The global invasion potential of X. laevis was assessed using correlative species distribution models (SDMs). SDMs were computed based on a comprehensive set of occurrence records covering South Africa, North America, South America and Europe and a set of nine environmental predictors. Models were built using both a maximum entropy model and an ensemble approach integrating eight algorithms. The future occurrence probabilities for X. laevis were subsequently computed using bioclimatic variables for 2070 following four different IPCC scenarios. Despite minor differences between the statistical approaches, both SDMs predict the future potential distribution of X. laevis, on a global scale, to decrease across all climate change scenarios. On a continental scale, both SDMs predict decreasing potential distributions in the species' native range in South Africa, as well as in the invaded areas in North and South America, and in Australia where the species has not been introduced. In contrast, both SDMs predict the potential range size to expand in Europe. Our results suggest that all probability classes will be equally affected by climate change. New regional conditions may promote new invasions or the spread of established invasive populations, especially in France and Great Britain.

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on the Global Invasion Potential of the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Ihlow, Flora; Courant, Julien; Secondi, Jean; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Measey, G. John; Lillo, Francesco; De Villiers, F. André; Vogt, Solveig; De Busschere, Charlotte; Backeljau, Thierry; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By altering or eliminating delicate ecological relationships, non-indigenous species are considered a major threat to biodiversity, as well as a driver of environmental change. Global climate change affects ecosystems and ecological communities, leading to changes in the phenology, geographic ranges, or population abundance of several species. Thus, predicting the impacts of global climate change on the current and future distribution of invasive species is an important subject in macroecological studies. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), native to South Africa, possesses a strong invasion potential and populations have become established in numerous countries across four continents. The global invasion potential of X. laevis was assessed using correlative species distribution models (SDMs). SDMs were computed based on a comprehensive set of occurrence records covering South Africa, North America, South America and Europe and a set of nine environmental predictors. Models were built using both a maximum entropy model and an ensemble approach integrating eight algorithms. The future occurrence probabilities for X. laevis were subsequently computed using bioclimatic variables for 2070 following four different IPCC scenarios. Despite minor differences between the statistical approaches, both SDMs predict the future potential distribution of X. laevis, on a global scale, to decrease across all climate change scenarios. On a continental scale, both SDMs predict decreasing potential distributions in the species’ native range in South Africa, as well as in the invaded areas in North and South America, and in Australia where the species has not been introduced. In contrast, both SDMs predict the potential range size to expand in Europe. Our results suggest that all probability classes will be equally affected by climate change. New regional conditions may promote new invasions or the spread of established invasive populations, especially in France and Great

  9. Potential impacts of artificial intelligence expert systems on geothermal well drilling costs:

    SciTech Connect

    Satrape, J.V.

    1987-11-24

    The Geothermal research Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as one of its goals to reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells by 25 percent. To attain this goal, DOE continuously evaluates new technologies to determine their potential in contributing to the Program. One such technology is artifical intelligence (AI), a branch of computer science that, in recent years, has begun to impact the marketplace in a number of fields. Expert systems techniques can (and in some cases, already have) been applied to develop computer-based ''advisors'' to assist drilling personnel in areas such as designing mud systems, casing plans, and cement programs, optimizing drill bit selection and bottom hole asssembly (BHA) design, and alleviating lost circulation, stuck pipe, fishing, and cement problems. Intelligent machines with sensor and/or robotic directly linked to AI systems, have potential applications in areas of bit control, rig hydraulics, pipe handling, and pipe inspection. Using a well costing spreadsheet, the potential savings that could be attributed to each of these systems was calculated for three base cases: a dry steam well at The Geysers, a medium-depth Imerial Valley well, and a deep Imperial Valley well. Based on the average potential savings to be realized, expert systems for handling lost circulations problems and for BHA design are the most likely to produce significant results. Automated bit control and rig hydraulics also exhibit high potential savings, but these savings are extremely sensitive to the assumptions of improved drilling efficiency and the cost of these sytems at the rig. 50 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output from October 2012 Through December 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 ESTIMATED IMPACT OF ARRA ON EMPLOYMENT AND ECONOMIC OUTPUT FROM OCTOBER...www.house.gov/ jct /x-19-09.pdf). The economic impact of three tax provisions with budgetary costs over $5 billion was analyzed using a different

  11. Impacts of future climate change on potential yields of major crops in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.; Tang, Q.; Liu, X.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change may affect crop development and yield, and consequently cast a shadow of doubt over China's food self-sufficiency efforts. In this study we used the model projections of a couple of global gridded crop models (GGCMs) to assess the effects of future climate change on the potential yields of the major crops (i.e. wheat, rice, maize and soybean) over China. The GGCMs were forced with the bias-corrected climate data from 5 global climate models (GCMs) under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 which were made available by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). The results show that the potential yields of rice may increase over a large portion of China. Climate change may benefit food productions over the high-altitude and cold regions where are outside current main agricultural area. However, the potential yield of maize, soybean and wheat may decrease in a large portion of the current main crop planting areas such as North China Plain. Development of new agronomic management strategy may be useful for coping with climate change in the areas with high risk of yield reduction.

  12. Photochemical Grid Modelling Study to Assess Potential Air Quality Impacts Associated with Energy Development in Colorado and Northern New Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L. K.; Morris, R. E.; Zapert, J.; Cook, F.; Koo, B.; Rasmussen, D.; Jung, J.; Grant, J.; Johnson, J.; Shah, T.; Pavlovic, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Colorado Air Resource Management Modeling Study (CARMMS) was funded by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to predict the impacts from future federal and non-federal energy development in Colorado and Northern New Mexico. The study used the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) photochemical grid model (PGM) to quantify potential impacts from energy development from BLM field office planning areas. CAMx source apportionment technology was used to track the impacts from multiple (14) different emissions source regions (i.e. field office areas) within one simulation, as well as to assess the cumulative impact of emissions from all source regions combined. The energy development emissions estimates were for the year 2021 for three different development scenarios: (1) low; (2) high; (3) high with emissions mitigation. Impacts on air quality (AQ) including ozone, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, and air quality related values (AQRVs) such as atmospheric deposition, regional haze and changes in Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) of lakes were quantified, and compared to establish threshold levels. In this presentation, we present a brief summary of the how the emission scenarios were developed, we compare the emission totals for each scenario, and then focus on the ozone impacts for each scenario to assess: (1). the difference in potential ozone impacts under the different development scenarios and (2). to establish the sensitivity of the ozone impacts to different emissions levels. Region-wide ozone impacts will be presented as well as impacts at specific locations with ozone monitors.

  13. Flooding and subsidence in the Thames Gateway: impact on insurance loss potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royse, Katherine; Horn, Diane; Eldridge, Jillian; Barker, Karen

    2010-05-01

    In the UK, household buildings insurance generally covers loss and damage to the insured property from a range of natural and human perils, including windstorm, flood, subsidence, theft, accidental fire and winter freeze. Consequently, insurers require a reasoned view on the likely scale of losses that they may face to assist in strategic planning, reinsurance structuring, regulatory returns and general risk management. The UK summer 2007 flood events not only provided a clear indication of the scale of potential losses that the industry could face from an individual event, with £3 billion in claims, but also identified a need for insurers and reinsurers to better understand how events may correlate in time and space, and how to most effectively use the computational models of extreme events that are commonly applied to reflect these correlations. In addition to the potential for temporal clustering of events such as windstorms and floods, there is a possibility that seemingly uncorrelated natural perils, such as floods and subsidence, may impact an insurer's portfolio. Where aggregations of large numbers of new properties are planned, such as in the Thames Gateway, consideration of the potential future risk of aggregate losses due to the combination of perils such as subsidence and flood is increasingly important within the insurance company's strategic risk management process. Whilst perils such as subsidence and flooding are generally considered independent within risk modelling, the potential for one event to influence the magnitude and likelihood of the other should be taken into account when determining risk level. In addition, the impact of correlated, but distinctive, loss causing events on particular property types may be significant, particularly if a specific property is designed to protect against one peril but is potentially susceptible to another. We suggest that flood events can lead to increased subsidence risk due to the weight of additional water

  14. Understanding the Impact of Subsidizing Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies (ACTs) in the Retail Sector – Results from Focus Group Discussions in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kedenge, Sarah V.; Kangwana, Beth P.; Waweru, Evelyn W.; Nyandigisi, Andrew J.; Pandit, Jayesh; Brooker, Simon J.; Snow, Robert W.; Goodman, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups. Conclusions/Significance This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care. PMID:23342143

  15. Prospects for vaccination against the ticks of pets and the potential impact on pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Villar, Margarita; Contreras, Marinela; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Merino, Octavio; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; de la Fuente, Gabriela; Galindo, Ruth C

    2015-02-28

    Diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as ticks greatly impact human and animal health. In particular, many diseases of dogs and cats are potentially transmissible to people by arthropod vectors and therefore their control is important for the eradication of vector-borne diseases (VBD). Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several VBD by targeting their common vector. Recent results have shown that it is possible to use vector protective antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations and pathogen infection. However, as reviewed in this paper, very little progress has been made for the control of ectoparasite infestations and VBD in pets using vaccination with vector protective antigens. The growing interaction between pets and people underlines the importance of developing new interventions for the monitoring and control of VBD.

  16. The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian

    Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.

  17. Using patient safety indicators to estimate the impact of potential adverse events on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Peter E; Luther, Stephen L; Christiansen, Cindy L; Shibei Zhao; Loveland, Susan; Elixhauser, Anne; Romano, Patrick S; Rosen, Amy K

    2008-02-01

    The authors estimated the impact of potentially preventable patient safety events, identified by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost. The PSIs were applied to all acute inpatient hospitalizations at Veterans Health Administration (VA) facilities in fiscal 2001. Two methods-regression analysis and multivariable case matching- were used independently to control for patient and facility characteristics while predicting the effect of the PSI on each outcome. The authors found statistically significant (p < .0001) excess mortality, LOS, and cost in all groups with PSIs. The magnitude of the excess varied considerably across the PSIs. These VA findings are similar to those from a previously published study of nonfederal hospitals, despite differences between VA and non-VA systems. This study contributes to the literature measuring outcomes of medical errors and provides evidence that AHRQ PSIs may be useful indicators for comparison across delivery systems.

  18. Potential impacts of climate change on the winter distribution of Afro-Palaearctic migrant passerines.

    PubMed

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Walther, Bruno A; Thuiller, Wilfried; Rahbek, Carsten; Jiguet, Frédéric

    2009-04-23

    We modelled the present and future sub-Saharan winter distributions of 64 trans-Saharan migrant passerines to predict the potential impacts of climate change. These predictions used the recent ensemble modelling developments and the latest IPCC climatic simulations to account for possible methodological uncertainties. Results suggest that 37 species would face a range reduction by 2100 (16 of these by more than 50%); however, the median range size variation is -13 per cent (from -97 to +980%) under a full dispersal hypothesis. Range centroids were predicted to shift by 500+/-373 km. Predicted changes in range size and location were spatially structured, with species that winter in southern and eastern Africa facing larger range contractions and shifts. Predicted changes in regional species richness for these long-distance migrants are increases just south of the Sahara and on the Arabian Peninsula and major decreases in southern and eastern Africa.

  19. The Potential Impact of an Anthrax Attack on Real Estate Prices and Foreclosures in Seattle.

    PubMed

    Dormady, Noah; Szelazek, Thomas; Rose, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a methodology for the economic analysis of the potential consequences of a simulated anthrax terrorism attack on real estate within the Seattle metropolitan area. We estimate spatially disaggregated impacts on median sales price of residential housing within the Seattle metro area following an attack on the central business district (CBD). Using a combination of longitudinal panel regression and GIS analysis, we find that the median sales price in the CBD could decline by as much as $280,000, and by nearly $100,000 in nearby communities. These results indicate that total residential property values could decrease by over $50 billion for Seattle, or a 33% overall decline. We combine these estimates with HUD's 2009 American Housing Survey (AHS) to further predict 70,000 foreclosures in Seattle spatial zones following the terrorism event.

  20. Potential impact of human mitochondrial replacement on global policy regarding germline gene modification.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    Previous discussions regarding human germline gene modification led to a global consensus that no germline should undergo genetic modification. However, the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, having conducted at the UK Government's request a scientific review and a wide public consultation, provided advice to the Government on the pros and cons of Parliament's lifting a ban on altering mitochondrial DNA content of human oocytes and embryos, so as to permit the prevention of maternal transmission of mitochondrial diseases. In this commentary, relevant ethical and biomedical issues are examined and requirements for proceeding with this novel procedure are suggested. Additionally, potentially significant impacts of the UK legalization on global policy concerning germline gene modification are discussed in the context of recent advances in genome-editing technology. It is concluded that international harmonization is needed, as well as further ethical and practical consideration, prior to the legalization of human mitochondrial replacement.

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  2. Small manufacturer concerns. [Potential impacts of DOE's certification and enforcement programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-04

    Visits were made to 4 small manufacturers to ascertain the potential impacts on small consumer-product manufacturers of the certification and enforcement portions of DOE's energy-efficiency-standards program. Particular concern was expressed about the possible need for large capital investments in new test facilities in which to perform the tests and the extent to which manufacturer test facilities and technical staff may be diverted from necessary research and development and quality-control activities. Subsequent to the visits, several requirements were added to the proposed rule for the retention of units of covered basic models, involving such actions as retaining the certification batch sample for various times and measured efficiencies. Discussions and results of the visits are presented in the appendices.

  3. Low-gravity Orbiting Research Laboratory Environment Potential Impact on Space Biology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol

    2006-01-01

    One of the major objectives of any orbital space research platform is to provide a quiescent low gravity, preferably a zero gravity environment, to perform fundamental as well as applied research. However, small disturbances exist onboard any low earth orbital research platform. The impact of these disturbances must be taken into account by space research scientists during their research planning, design and data analysis in order to avoid confounding factors in their science results. The reduced gravity environment of an orbiting research platform in low earth orbit is a complex phenomenon. Many factors, among others, such as experiment operations, equipment operation, life support systems and crew activity (if it is a crewed platform), aerodynamic drag, gravity gradient, rotational effects as well as the vehicle structural resonance frequencies (structural modes) contribute to form the overall reduced gravity environment in which space research is performed. The contribution of these small disturbances or accelerations is precisely why the environment is NOT a zero gravity environment, but a reduced acceleration environment. This paper does not discuss other factors such as radiation, electromagnetic interference, thermal and pressure gradient changes, acoustic and CO2 build-up to name a few that affect the space research environment as well, but it focuses solely on the magnitude of the acceleration level found on orbiting research laboratory used by research scientists to conduct space research. For ease of analysis this paper divides the frequency spectrum relevant to most of the space research disciplines into three regimes: a) quasi-steady, b) vibratory and c) transient. The International Space Station is used as an example to illustrate the point. The paper discusses the impact of these three regimes on space biology research and results from space flown experiments are used to illustrate the potential negative impact of these disturbances (accelerations

  4. Evaluation of potential impacts on Great Lakes water resources based on climate scenarios of two GCMs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, B.M.; Quinn, F.H.; Clites, A.H.; Assel, R.A.; Eberhardt, A.J.; Luukkonen, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    The results of general circulation model predictions of the effects of climate change from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (model CGCM1) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's Hadley Centre (model HadCM2) have been used to derive potential impacts on the water resources of the Great Lakes basin. These impacts can influence the levels of the Great Lakes and the volumes of channel flow among them, thus affecting their value for interests such as riparians, shippers, recreational boaters, and natural ecosystems. On one hand, a hydrological modeling suite using input data from the CGCM1 predicts large drops in lake levels, up to a maximum of 1.38 m on Lakes Michigan and Huron by 2090. This is due to a combination of a decrease in precipitation and an increase in air temperature that leads to an increase in evaporation. On the other hand, using input from HadCM2, rises in lake levels are predicted, up to a maximum of 0.35 m on Lakes Michigan and Huron by 2090, due to increased precipitation and a reduced increase in air temperature. An interest satisfaction model shows sharp decreases in the satisfaction of the interests of commercial navigation, recreational boating, riparians, and hydropower due to lake level decreases. Most interest satisfaction scores are also reduced by lake level increases. Drastic reductions in ice cover also result from the temperature increases such that under the CGCM1 predictions, most of Lake Erie has 96% of its winters ice-free by 2090. Assessment is also made of impacts on the groundwater-dependent region of Lansing, Michigan.

  5. Climate change impacts and potential benefits of heat-tolerant maize in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfaye, Kindie; Zaidi, P. H.; Gbegbelegbe, Sika; Boeber, Christian; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Getaneh, Fite; Seetharam, K.; Erenstein, Olaf; Stirling, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Maize is grown by millions of smallholder farmers in South Asia (SA) under diverse environments. The crop is grown in different seasons in a year with varying exposure to weather extremes, including high temperatures at critical growth stages which are expected to increase with climate change. This study assesses the impact of current and future heat stress on maize and the benefit of heat-tolerant varieties in SA. Annual mean maximum temperatures may increase by 1.4-1.8 °C in 2030 and 2.1-2.6 °C in 2050, with large monthly, seasonal, and spatial variations across SA. The extent of heat stressed areas in SA could increase by up to 12 % in 2030 and 21 % in 2050 relative to the baseline. The impact of heat stress and the benefit from heat-tolerant varieties vary with the level of temperature increase and planting season. At a regional scale, climate change would reduce rainfed maize yield by an average of 3.3-6.4 % in 2030 and 5.2-12.2 % in 2050 and irrigated yield by 3-8 % in 2030 and 5-14 % in 2050 if current varieties were grown under the future climate. Under projected climate, heat-tolerant varieties could minimize yield loss (relative to current maize varieties) by up to 36 and 93 % in 2030 and 33 and 86 % in 2050 under rainfed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Heat-tolerant maize varieties, therefore, have the potential to shield maize farmers from severe yield loss due to heat stress and help them adapt to climate change impacts.

  6. The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Air Quality in the Upper Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotamonsak, Chakrit; Salathé, Eric P.; Kreasuwun, Jiemjai

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used as regional climate model to dynamically downscale the ECHAM5 Global Climate Model projection for the regional climate change impact on air quality-related meteorological conditions in the upper northern Thailand. The analyses were focused on meteorological variables that potentially impact on the regional air quality such as sea level pressure, planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), surface temperature, wind speed and ventilation. Comparisons were made between the present (1990-2009) and future (2045-2064) climate downscaling results during majority air pollution season (dry season, January-April). Analyses showed that the sea level pressure will be stronger in the future, suggesting more stable atmosphere. Increases in temperature were obvious observed throughout the region. Decreases in the surface wind and PBLH were predicted during air pollution season, indicating weaker ventilation rate in this region. Consequently, air quality-related meteorological variables were predicted to change in almost part of the upper northern Thailand, yielding a favorable meteorological condition for pollutant accumulation in the future.

  7. The Potential Impact of Labor Choices on the Efficacy of Marine Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Zachary D.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Gerber, Leah R.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of marine resources is critical to the wellbeing of human communities. Coastal artisanal fishing communities are particularly reliant on marine resources for food and for their livelihoods. Management actions aimed at marine conservation may lead to unanticipated changes in human behavior that influence the ability of conservation programs to achieve their goals. We examine how marine conservation strategies may impact labor decisions that influence both the ecosystem and human livelihoods using simulation modeling. We consider two conservation strategies in the model: direct action through fisheries regulation enforcement, and indirect action through land conservation. Our results indicate that both strategies can increase the abundance of fish, and thus contribute to the maintenance of marine resources. However, our results also show that marine fisheries enforcement may negatively impact the livelihoods of human communities. Land conservation, on the other hand, potentially enhances the livelihood of the human populations. Thus, depending on management objectives, indirect or a combination of direct and indirect conservation strategies may be effective at achieving conservation and sustainability goals. These results highlight the importance of accounting for changes in human behavior resulting from management actions in conservation and management. PMID:21887306

  8. Aging of Stem and Progenitor Cells: Mechanisms, Impact on Therapeutic Potential, and Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Volarevic, Vladislav; Lako, Majlinda; Armstrong, Lyle; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-02-01

    It was once suggested that adult or tissue-specific stem cells may be immortal; however, several recently published data suggest that their efficacy is limited by natural aging in common with most other somatic cell types. Decreased activity of stem cells in old age raises questions as to whether the age of the donor should be considered during stem cell transplantation and at what age the donor stem cells should be harvested to ensure the largest possible number of viable, functional, and non-altered stem cells. Although stem cells remain active into old age, changes in stem cells and their microenvironments inhibit their regenerative potential. The impact of aging on stem cell populations differs between tissues and depends on a number intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including systemic changes associated with immune system alterations. In this review, we describe key mechanisms of stem and progenitor cell aging and techniques that are currently used to identify signs of stem cells aging. Furthermore, we focus on the impact of aging on the capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and clinical use of stem cells. Finally, we detail the aging of embryonic, mesenchymal, and induced pluripotent stem cells, with particular emphasis on aging mechanisms and rejuvenation.

  9. Globalization and the marginalization of unskilled labor: potential impacts on health in developed nations.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Aleck Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the impacts of economic globalization on labor markets and outline potential pathways for these changes to affect health status in industrialized nations. A systematic review of the economic globalization and health literature revealed that, under the impact of globalization and market deregulation, the past 25 years have witnessed de-industrialization, shifts to nontraditional, insecure work arrangements, and relatively high levels of unemployment in most developed nations. This has occurred in the context of hypermobility of capital, relative immobility of labor, and declining market position for unskilled labor. Such structural changes in the labor markets in conjunction with shifts in educational opportunities and requirements have resulted in the increasing marginalization of unskilled workers from the labor market. Aside from direct effects on health due to the threat and experience of unemployment, and given that income inequality within nations is a main driver of national health status, lowered relative wages for the unskilled will probably affect national health status through increased income inequality.

  10. Wildlife friendly roads: the impacts of roads on wildlife in urban areas and potential remedies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Seth P D; Brown, Justin L.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Schoonmaker, Catherine M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Roads are one of the most important factors affecting the ability of wildlife to live and move within an urban area. Roads physically replace wildlife habitat and often reduce habitat quality nearby, fragment the remaining habitat, and cause increased mortality through vehicle collisions. Much ecological research on roads has focused on whether animals are successfully crossing roads, or if the road is a barrier to wildlife movement, gene flow, or functional connectivity. Roads can alter survival and reproduction for wildlife, even among species such as birds that cross roads easily. Here we examine the suite of potential impacts of roads on wildlife, but we focus particularly on urban settings. We report on studies, both in the literature and from our own experience, that have addressed wildlife and roads in urban landscapes. Although road ecology is a growing field of study, relatively little of this research, and relatively few mitigation projects, have been done in urban landscapes. We also draw from the available science on road impacts in rural areas when urban case studies have not fully addressed key topics.

  11. Questions concerning the potential impact of glyphosate-based herbicides on amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Norman; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Teichmann, Hanka; Tappeser, Beatrix; Lötters, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide. The authors review the available data related to potential impacts of these herbicides on amphibians and conduct a qualitative meta-analysis. Because little is known about environmental concentrations of glyphosate in amphibian habitats and virtually nothing is known about environmental concentrations of the substances added to the herbicide formulations that mainly contribute to adverse effects, glyphosate levels can only be seen as approximations for contamination with glyphosate-based herbicides. The impact on amphibians depends on the herbicide formulation, with different sensitivity of taxa and life stages. Effects on development of larvae apparently are the most sensitive endpoints to study. As with other contaminants, costressors mainly increase adverse effects. If and how glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides contribute to amphibian decline is not answerable yet due to missing data on how natural populations are affected. Amphibian risk assessment can only be conducted case-specifically, with consideration of the particular herbicide formulation. The authors recommend better monitoring of both amphibian populations and contamination of habitats with glyphosate-based herbicides, not just glyphosate, and suggest including amphibians in standardized test batteries to study at least dermal administration.

  12. Potential impacts of the Arctic on interannual and interdecadal summer precipitation over China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuefeng; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-02-01

    After the end of the 1970s, there has been a tendency for enhanced summer precipitation over South China and the Yangtze River valley and drought over North China and Northeastern China. Coincidentally, Arctic ice concentration has decreased since the late 1970s, with larger reduction in summer than spring. However, the Arctic warming is more significant in spring than summer, suggesting that spring Arctic conditions could be more important in their remote impacts. This study investigates the potential impacts of the Arctic on summer precipitation in China. The leading spatial patterns and time coefficients of the unfiltered, interannual, and interdecadal precipitation (1960-2008) modes were analyzed and compared using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, which shows that the first three EOFs can capture the principal precipitation patterns (northern, central and southern patterns) over eastern China. Regression of the Arctic spring and summer temperature onto the time coefficients of the leading interannual and interdecadal precipitation modes shows that interdecadal summer precipitation in China is related to the Arctic spring warming, but the relationship with Arctic summer temperature is weak. Moreover, no notable relationships were found between the first three modes of interannual precipitation and Arctic spring or summer temperatures. Finally, correlations between summer precipitation and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index from January to August were investigated, which indicate that summer precipitation in China correlates with AO only to some extent. Overall, this study suggests important relationships between the Arctic spring temperature and summer precipitation over China at the interdecadal time scale.

  13. Rare, threatened, and endangered vertebrates of southwest Florida and potential OCS activity impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, G.E.

    1983-02-01

    The eight southwestern Florida counties include populations of 68 vertebrates considered in this report as rare, threatened, or endangered. The terrestrial and near-shore habitats of the study area and the habitat preferences of each of the 68 vertebrates are described. Each vertebrate is listed in the habitats it occupies, and information about reproduction, feeding, and where available, population estimates, is given under the habitat considered most important for each species. The distributions of the rare, threatened and endangered vertebrates by county and habitat demonstrate the relative importance of the southernmost counties (Monroe and Collier) and wetland and coastal habitats (strand, mangrove/marsh, estuaries). Activities contributing to the decline of these 68 vertebrates are assessed and habitat loss is overwhelmingly more important for all. Potential impacts of OCS development are assessed by estimating the effects OCS activities might have on various habitats. Direct impact of OCS development is estimated to be small. Oil spills are considered the most dangerous result of development and the habitats continguous with marine waters (strand, mangrove/marsh, estuaries) are the most susceptible to damage. These are also the habitats identified as harboring the largest, number of rare and endangered vertebrates in southwest Florida.

  14. A cis-acting element present within the Gag open reading frame negatively impacts on the activity of the HIV-1 IRES.

    PubMed

    Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Monette, Anne; Pino, Karla; Letelier, Alejandro; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo; Mouland, Andrew J; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Translation initiation from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mRNA can occur through a cap or an IRES dependent mechanism. Cap-dependent translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA can be inhibited by the instability element (INS)-1, a cis-acting regulatory element present within the gag open reading frame (ORF). In this study we evaluated the impact of the INS-1 on HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Using heterologous bicistronic mRNAs, we show that the INS-1 negatively impact on HIV-1 IRES-driven translation in in vitro and in cell-based experiments. Additionally, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the INS-1 is not general to all IRESes since it does not hinder translation driven by the HCV IRES. The inhibition by the INS-1 was partially rescued in cells by the overexpression of the viral Rev protein or hnRNPA1.

  15. A cis-Acting Element Present within the gag Open Reading Frame Negatively Impacts on the Activity of the HIV-1 IRES

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Monette, Anne; Pino, Karla; Letelier, Alejandro; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Mouland, Andrew J.; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Translation initiation from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mRNA can occur through a cap or an IRES dependent mechanism. Cap-dependent translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA can be inhibited by the instability element (INS)-1, a cis-acting regulatory element present within the gag open reading frame (ORF). In this study we evaluated the impact of the INS-1 on HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Using heterologous bicistronic mRNAs, we show that the INS-1 negatively impact on HIV-1 IRES-driven translation in in vitro and in cell-based experiments. Additionally, our results show that the inhibitory effect of the INS-1 is not general to all IRESes since it does not hinder translation driven by the HCV IRES. The inhibition by the INS-1 was partially rescued in cells by the overexpression of the viral Rev protein or hnRNPA1. PMID:23451120

  16. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Native Plant Distributions in the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Upson, Rebecca; Williams, Jennifer J; Wilkinson, Tim P; Clubbe, Colin P; Maclean, Ilya M D; McAdam, Jim H; Moat, Justin F

    2016-01-01

    The Falkland Islands are predicted to experience up to 2.2°C rise in mean annual temperature over the coming century, greater than four times the rate over the last century. Our study investigates likely vulnerabilities of a suite of range-restricted species whose distributions are associated with archipelago-wide climatic variation. We used present day climate maps calibrated using local weather data, 2020-2080 climate predictions from regional climate models, non-climate variables derived from a digital terrain model and a comprehensive database on local plant distributions. Weighted mean ensemble models were produced to assess changes in range sizes and overlaps between the current range and protected areas network. Target species included three globally threatened Falkland endemics, Nassauvia falklandica, Nastanthus falklandicus and Plantago moorei; and two nationally threatened species, Acaena antarctica and Blechnum cordatum. Our research demonstrates that temperature increases predicted for the next century have the potential to significantly alter plant distributions across the Falklands. Upland species, in particular, were found to be highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. No known locations of target upland species or the southwestern species Plantago moorei are predicted to remain environmentally suitable in the face of predicted climate change. We identify potential refugia for these species and associated gaps in the current protected areas network. Species currently restricted to the milder western parts of the archipelago are broadly predicted to expand their ranges under warmer temperatures. Our results emphasise the importance of implementing suitable adaptation strategies to offset climate change impacts, particularly site management. There is an urgent need for long-term monitoring and artificial warming experiments; the results of this study will inform the selection of the most suitable locations for these. Results are also helping

  17. Assessing Potential Impact of Bt Eggplants on Non-Target Arthropods in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Navasero, Mario V.; Candano, Randolph N.; Hautea, Desiree M.; Hautea, Randy A.; Shotkoski, Frank A.; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on potential adverse effects of genetically engineered crops are part of an environmental risk assessment that is required prior to the commercial release of these crops. Of particular concern are non-target organisms (NTOs) that provide important ecosystem services. Here, we report on studies conducted in the Philippines over three cropping seasons with Bt eggplants expressing Cry1Ac for control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis, to examine potential effects on field abundance, community composition, structure and biodiversity of NTO’s, particularly non-target arthropod (NTA) communities. We document that many arthropod taxa are associated with Bt eggplants and their non-Bt comparators and that the number of taxa and their densities varied within season and across trials. However, we found few significant differences in seasonal mean densities of arthropod taxa between Bt and non-Bt eggplants. As expected, a lower abundance of lepidopteran pests was detected in Bt eggplants. Higher abundance of a few non-target herbivores was detected in non-Bt eggplants as were a few non-target beneficials that might control them. Principal Response Curve (PRC) analyses showed no statistically significant impact of Bt eggplants on overall arthropod communities through time in any season. Furthermore, we found no significant adverse impacts of Bt eggplants on species abundance, diversity and community dynamics, particularly for beneficial NTAs. These results support our previous studies documenting that Bt eggplants can effectively and selectively control the main pest of eggplant in Asia, the EFSB. The present study adds that it can do so without adverse effects on NTAs. Thus, Bt eggplants can be a foundational component for controlling EFSB in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program and dramatically reduce dependence on conventional insecticides. PMID:27798662

  18. Potential changes in forest composition could reduce impacts of climate change on boreal wildfires.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Aurélie; Girardin, Martin P; Périé, Catherine; Legendre, Pierre; Bergeron, Yves

    2013-01-01

    There is general consensus that wildfires in boreal forests will increase throughout this century in response to more severe and frequent drought conditions induced by climate change. However, prediction models generally assume that the vegetation component will remain static over the next few decades. As deciduous species are less flammable than conifer species, it is reasonable to believe that a potential expansion of deciduous species in boreal forests, either occurring naturally or through landscape management, could offset some of the impacts of climate change on the occurrence of boreal wildfires. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of this offsetting effect through a simulation experiment conducted in eastern boreal North America. Predictions of future fire activity were made using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) with fire behavior indices and ecological niche models as predictor variables so as to take into account the effects of changing climate and tree distribution on fire activity. A regional climate model (RCM) was used for predictions of future fire risk conditions. The experiment was conducted under two tree dispersal scenarios: the status quo scenario, in which the distribution of forest types does not differ from the present one, and the unlimited dispersal scenario, which allows forest types to expand their range to fully occupy their climatic niche. Our results show that future warming will create climate conditions that are more prone to fire occurrence. However, unlimited dispersal of southern restricted deciduous species could reduce the impact of climate change on future fire occurrence. Hence, the use of deciduous species could be a good option for an efficient strategic fire mitigation strategy aimed at reducing fire Propagation in coniferous landscapes and increasing public safety in remote populated areas of eastern boreal Canada under climate change.

  19. Oxidative potential and inflammatory impacts of source apportioned ambient air pollution in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyang; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Liu, Yanju; Sun, Yongjun; Zhang, Meigen

    2014-11-04

    Air pollution exposure is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Knowledge of the chemical components and sources of air pollution most responsible for these health effects could lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of such effects and more targeted risk reduction strategies. We measured daily ambient fine particulate matter (<2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5) for 2 months in peri-urban and central Beijing, and assessed the contribution of its chemical components to the oxidative potential of ambient air pollution using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The composition data were applied to a multivariate source apportionment model to determine the PM contributions of six sources or factors: a zinc factor, an aluminum factor, a lead point factor, a secondary source (e.g., SO4(2-), NO3(2-)), an iron source, and a soil dust source. Finally, we assessed the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity-related PM sources and inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. In peri-urban Beijing, the soil dust source accounted for the largest fraction (47%) of measured ROS variability. In central Beijing, a secondary source explained the greatest fraction (29%) of measured ROS variability. The ROS activities of PM collected in central Beijing were exponentially associated with in vivo inflammatory responses in epithelial cells (R2=0.65-0.89). We also observed a high correlation between three ROS-related PM sources (a lead point factor, a zinc factor, and a secondary source) and expression of an inflammatory marker (r=0.45-0.80). Our results suggest large differences in the contribution of different PM sources to ROS variability at the central versus peri-urban study sites in Beijing and that secondary sources may play an important role in PM2.5-related oxidative potential and inflammatory health impacts.

  20. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Native Plant Distributions in the Falkland Islands

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Rebecca; Williams, Jennifer J.; Wilkinson, Tim P.; Maclean, Ilya M. D.; McAdam, Jim H.; Moat, Justin F.

    2016-01-01

    The Falkland Islands are predicted to experience up to 2.2°C rise in mean annual temperature over the coming century, greater than four times the rate over the last century. Our study investigates likely vulnerabilities of a suite of range-restricted species whose distributions are associated with archipelago-wide climatic variation. We used present day climate maps calibrated using local weather data, 2020–2080 climate predictions from regional climate models, non-climate variables derived from a digital terrain model and a comprehensive database on local plant distributions. Weighted mean ensemble models were produced to assess changes in range sizes and overlaps between the current range and protected areas network. Target species included three globally threatened Falkland endemics, Nassauvia falklandica, Nastanthus falklandicus and Plantago moorei; and two nationally threatened species, Acaena antarctica and Blechnum cordatum. Our research demonstrates that temperature increases predicted for the next century have the potential to significantly alter plant distributions across the Falklands. Upland species, in particular, were found to be highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. No known locations of target upland species or the southwestern species Plantago moorei are predicted to remain environmentally suitable in the face of predicted climate change. We identify potential refugia for these species and associated gaps in the current protected areas network. Species currently restricted to the milder western parts of the archipelago are broadly predicted to expand their ranges under warmer temperatures. Our results emphasise the importance of implementing suitable adaptation strategies to offset climate change impacts, particularly site management. There is an urgent need for long-term monitoring and artificial warming experiments; the results of this study will inform the selection of the most suitable locations for these. Results are also helping

  1. Impacts devalue the potential of large-scale terrestrial CO2 removal through biomass plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boysen, L. R.; Lucht, W.; Gerten, D.; Heck, V.

    2016-09-01

    Large-scale biomass plantations (BPs) are often considered a feasible and safe climate engineering proposal for extracting carbon from the atmosphere and, thereby, reducing global mean temperatures. However, the capacity of such terrestrial carbon dioxide removal (tCDR) strategies and their larger Earth system impacts remain to be comprehensively studied—even more so under higher carbon emissions and progressing climate change. Here, we use a spatially explicit process-based biosphere model to systematically quantify the potentials and trade-offs of a range of BP scenarios dedicated to tCDR, representing different assumptions about which areas are convertible. Based on a moderate CO2 concentration pathway resulting in a global mean warming of 2.5 °C above preindustrial level by the end of this century—similar to the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5—we assume tCDR to be implemented when a warming of 1.5 °C is reached in year 2038. Our results show that BPs can slow down the progression of increasing cumulative carbon in the atmosphere only sufficiently if emissions are reduced simultaneously like in the underlying RCP4.5 trajectory. The potential of tCDR to balance additional, unabated emissions leading towards a business-as-usual pathway alike RCP8.5 is therefore very limited. Furthermore, in the required large-scale applications, these plantations would induce significant trade-offs with food production and biodiversity and exert impacts on forest extent, biogeochemical cycles and biogeophysical properties.

  2. The Potential Impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) on public health.

    PubMed

    De Vogli, Roberto; Renzetti, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to examine the potential health effects of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment partnership (TTIP). Our review indicates that, although proponents of the TTIP claim that the treaty will produce benefits to health-enhancing determinants such as economic growth and employment, evidence shows that previous trade liberalization policies are associated with increasing economic inequities. By reducing Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and by promoting increased cooperation between US and EU governmental agencies in the pharmaceutical sector, the TTIP could result in improved research cooperation and reduced duplication of processes. However, the TTIP chapter on Intellectual Property (IP) and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) that expand and extend patent monopolies, and delay the availability of generic drugs, are likely to cause underutilization of needed medications among vulnerable populations. The TTIP's Investor to State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) arbitration system, a mechanism that allows transnational companies (TNCs) to sue governments when a policy or law reduces the value of their investment, is likely to generate a negative impact on regulations aimed at increasing access to healthcare, and reducing tobacco, alcohol consumption, and diet-related diseases. The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPS) of the TTIP is expected to weaken regulations in the food and agricultural sectors especially in the EU, with potentially negative effects on food safety and foodborne diseases. Finally, the ISDS is likely to infringe the ability of governments to tackle environmental problems such as climate change deemed to be the most important global health threat of the century. Our review concludes by discussing policy implications and the effect of the TTIP on democracy, national sovereignty and the balance of power between large TNCs and governments. It also discusses the adoption of an evidence-based precautionary principle

  3. Impacts of tree rows on grassland birds and potential nest predators: a removal experiment.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Kevin S; Ribic, Christine A; Sample, David W; Fawcett, Megan J; Dadisman, John D

    2013-01-01

    Globally, grasslands and the wildlife that inhabit them are widely imperiled. Encroachment by shrubs and trees has widely impacted grasslands in the past 150 years. In North America, most grassland birds avoid nesting near woody vegetation. Because woody vegetation fragments grasslands and potential nest predator diversity and abundance is often greater along wooded edge and grassland transitions, we measured the impacts of removing rows of trees and shrubs that intersected grasslands on potential nest predators and the three most abundant grassland bird species (Henslow's sparrow [Ammodramus henslowii], Eastern meadowlark [Sturnella magna], and bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) at sites in Wisconsin, U.S.A. We monitored 3 control and 3 treatment sites, for 1 yr prior to and 3 yr after tree row removal at the treatment sites. Grassland bird densities increased (2-4 times for bobolink and Henslow's sparrow) and nesting densities increased (all 3 species) in the removal areas compared to control areas. After removals, Henslow's sparrows nested within ≤50 m of the treatment area, where they did not occur when tree rows were present. Most dramatically, activity by woodland-associated predators nearly ceased (nine-fold decrease for raccoon [Procyon lotor]) at the removals and grassland predators increased (up to 27 times activity for thirteen-lined ground squirrel [Ictidomys tridecemlineatus]). Nest success did not increase, likely reflecting the increase in grassland predators. However, more nests were attempted by all 3 species (175 versus 116) and the number of successful nests for bobolinks and Henslow's sparrows increased. Because of gains in habitat, increased use by birds, greater production of young, and the effective removal of woodland-associated predators, tree row removal, where appropriate based on the predator community, can be a beneficial management action for conserving grassland birds and improving fragmented and degraded grassland ecosystems.

  4. Impacts of tree rows on grassland birds & potential nest predators: A removal experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine; Sample, David W.; Fawcett, Megan J.; Dadisman, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, grasslands and the wildlife that inhabit them are widely imperiled. Encroachment by shrubs and trees has widely impacted grasslands in the past 150 years. In North America, most grassland birds avoid nesting near woody vegetation. Because woody vegetation fragments grasslands and potential nest predator diversity and abundance is often greater along wooded edge and grassland transitions, we measured the impacts of removing rows of trees and shrubs that intersected grasslands on potential nest predators and the three most abundant grassland bird species (Henslow’s sparrow [Ammodramus henslowii], Eastern meadowlark [Sturnella magna], and bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) at sites in Wisconsin, U.S.A. We monitored 3 control and 3 treatment sites, for 1 yr prior to and 3 yr after tree row removal at the treatment sites. Grassland bird densities increased (2–4 times for bobolink and Henslow’s sparrow) and nesting densities increased (all 3 species) in the removal areas compared to control areas. After removals, Henslow’s sparrows nested within ≤50 m of the treatment area, where they did not occur when tree rows were present. Most dramatically, activity by woodland-associated predators nearly ceased (nine-fold decrease for raccoon [Procyon lotor]) at the removals and grassland predators increased (up to 27 times activity for thirteen-lined ground squirrel [Ictidomys tridecemlineatus]). Nest success did not increase, likely reflecting the increase in grassland predators. However, more nests were attempted by all 3 species (175 versus 116) and the number of successful nests for bobolinks and Henslow’s sparrows increased. Because of gains in habitat, increased use by birds, greater production of young, and the effective removal of woodland-associated predators, tree row removal, where appropriate based on the predator community, can be a beneficial management action for conserving grassland birds and improving fragmented and degraded grassland

  5. Impacts of Tree Rows on Grassland Birds and Potential Nest Predators: A Removal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine A.; Sample, David W.; Fawcett, Megan J.; Dadisman, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, grasslands and the wildlife that inhabit them are widely imperiled. Encroachment by shrubs and trees has widely impacted grasslands in the past 150 years. In North America, most grassland birds avoid nesting near woody vegetation. Because woody vegetation fragments grasslands and potential nest predator diversity and abundance is often greater along wooded edge and grassland transitions, we measured the impacts of removing rows of trees and shrubs that intersected grasslands on potential nest predators and the three most abundant grassland bird species (Henslow’s sparrow [Ammodramus henslowii], Eastern meadowlark [Sturnella magna], and bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) at sites in Wisconsin, U.S.A. We monitored 3 control and 3 treatment sites, for 1 yr prior to and 3 yr after tree row removal at the treatment sites. Grassland bird densities increased (2–4 times for bobolink and Henslow’s sparrow) and nesting densities increased (all 3 species) in the removal areas compared to control areas. After removals, Henslow’s sparrows nested within ≤50 m of the treatment area, where they did not occur when tree rows were present. Most dramatically, activity by woodland-associated predators nearly ceased (nine-fold decrease for raccoon [Procyon lotor]) at the removals and grassland predators increased (up to 27 times activity for thirteen-lined ground squirrel [Ictidomys tridecemlineatus]). Nest success did not increase, likely reflecting the increase in grassland predators. However, more nests were attempted by all 3 species (175 versus 116) and the number of successful nests for bobolinks and Henslow’s sparrows increased. Because of gains in habitat, increased use by birds, greater production of young, and the effective removal of woodland-associated predators, tree row removal, where appropriate based on the predator community, can be a beneficial management action for conserving grassland birds and improving fragmented and degraded grassland

  6. Chemical dispersant potentiates crude oil impacts on growth, reproduction, and gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Chen, Dongliang; Ennis, Adrien C; Polli, Joseph R; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Baohong; Stellwag, Edmund J; Overton, Anthony; Pan, Xiaoping

    2013-02-01

    The economic, environmental, and human health impacts of the deepwater horizon (DWH) oil spill have been of significant concern in the general public and among scientists. This study employs parallel experiments to test the effects of crude oil from the DWH oil well, chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-oil mixture on growth and reproduction in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Both the crude oil and the dispersant significantly inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans. Dose-dependent inhibitions of hatched larvae production were observed in worms exposed to both crude oil and dispersant. Importantly, the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A potentiated crude oil effects; dispersant-oil mixture induced more significant effects than oil or dispersant-alone exposures. While oil-alone exposure and dispersant-alone exposure have none to moderate inhibitory effects on hatched larvae production, respectively, the mixture of dispersant and oil induced much more significant inhibition of offspring production. The production of hatched larvae was almost completely inhibited by several high concentrations of the dispersant-oil mixture. This suggests a sensitive bioassay for future investigation of oil/dispersant impacts on organisms. We also investigated the effects of crude oil/dispersant exposure at the molecular level by measuring the expressions of 31 functional genes. Results showed that the dispersant and the dispersant-oil mixture induced aberrant expressions of 12 protein-coding genes (cat-4, trxr-2, sdhb-1, lev-8, lin-39, unc-115, prdx-3, sod-1, acr-16, ric-3, unc-68, and acr-8). These 12 genes are associated with a variety of biological processes, including egg-laying, oxidative stress, muscle contraction, and neurological functions. In summary, the toxicity potentiating effect of chemical dispersant must be taken into consideration in future crude oil cleanup applications.

  7. Estimating The Potential Impact Of Insurance Expansion On Undiagnosed And Uncontrolled Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Daniel R; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Clarke, Philip M; Jha, Ashish K; Salomon, Joshua A

    2015-09-01

    Policy makers have paid considerable attention to the financial implications of insurance expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), but there is little evidence of the law's potential health effects. To gain insight into these effects, we analyzed data for 1999-2012 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to evaluate relationships between health insurance and the diagnosis and management of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. People with insurance had significantly higher probabilities of diagnosis than matched uninsured people, by 14 percentage points for diabetes and hypercholesterolemia and 9 percentage points for hypertension. Among those with existing diagnoses, insurance was associated with significantly lower hemoglobin A1c (-0.58 percent), total cholesterol (-8.0 mg/dL), and systolic blood pressure (-2.9 mmHg). If the number of nonelderly Americans without health insurance were reduced by half, we estimate that there would be 1.5 million more people with a diagnosis of one or more of these chronic conditions and 659,000 fewer people with uncontrolled cases. Our findings suggest that the ACA could have significant effects on chronic disease identification and management, but policy makers need to consider the possible implications of those effects for the demand for health care services and spending for chronic disease.

  8. Assessing the Potential Impact of Hormonal-Based Contraceptives on HIV Transmission Dynamics Among Heterosexuals.

    PubMed

    Malunguza, Noble J; Hove-Musekwa, Senelani D; Mukandavire, Zindoga

    2017-03-03

    HIV susceptibility linked to hormonal contraception (HC) has been studied before, but with mixed results. Reports from some of the recent findings have prompted the World Health Organisation to encourage women who use HC to concurrently use condoms in order to prevent HIV infection in the light of possible increased HIV risk of infection associated with hormone-based contraceptives. A two-sex HIV model classifying women into three risk groups consisting of individuals who use condoms, natural methods, and hormone-based contraceptives is formulated and analysed to assess the possible effects of various birth control strategies on the transmission dynamics of the disease. Our model results showed that women who use HC could be key drivers of the epidemic and that their increased infectivity may be critical in driving the epidemic. Women who use hormone-based contraceptives potentially act as a core group from which men get infected and in turn transmit the disease to other population groups. We fitted the model to HIV prevalence data for Zimbabwe reported by UNAIDS and Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care and used the model fit to project HIV prevalence. Predictions using HIV data for Zimbabwe suggest that a hypothesised increase in susceptibility and infectivity of two-, three-, and fourfold would result in a 25, 50, and 100% increase in baseline HIV prevalence projection, respectively, thus suggesting possible increased disease burden even in countries reporting plausible HIV prevalence declines. Although a possible causal relationship between HIV susceptibility and HC use remains subject of continuing scientific probe, its inclusion as part of birth control strategy has been shown in this study, to possibly increase HIV transmission. If proven, HC use may potentially explain the inordinate spread of HIV within the sub-Saharan Africa region and therefore compel for urgent assessment with a view to reorienting birth control methods in use in settings with

  9. CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

  10. Assessing the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water calcareous red algae using species specific impact categories and measured oceanographic and discharge data.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Ingunn; dos Santos, Francisco; Coutinho, Ricardo; Gomes, Natalia; Cabral, Marcelo Montenegro; Eide, Ingvar; Figueiredo, Marcia A O; Johnsen, Geir; Johnsen, Ståle

    2015-12-01

    The potential impact of drill cuttings on the two deep water calcareous red algae Mesophyllum engelhartii and Lithothamnion sp. from the Peregrino oil field was assessed. Dispersion modelling of drill cuttings was performed for a two year period using measured oceanographic and discharge data with 24 h resolution. The model was also used to assess the impact on the two algae species using four species specific impact categories: No, minor, medium and severe impact. The corresponding intervals for photosynthetic efficiency (ΦPSIImax) and sediment coverage were obtained from exposure-response relationship for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage for the two algae species. The temporal resolution enabled more accurate model predictions as short-term changes in discharges and environmental conditions could be detected. The assessment shows that there is a patchy risk for severe impact on the calcareous algae stretching across the transitional zone and into the calcareous algae bed at Peregrino.

  11. PROBABILISTIC ANALYSES OF WASTE PACKAGE QUANTITIES IMPACTED BY POTENTIAL IGNEOUS DISRUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Wallace

    2005-08-26

    A probabilistic analysis was conducted to estimate ranges for the numbers of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The first scenario, igneous intrusion, investigated the case where one or more igneous dikes intersect the repository. A swarm of dikes was characterized by distributions of length, width, azimuth, and number of dikes and the spacings between them. Through the use in part of a latin hypercube simulator and a modified video game engine, mathematical relationships were built between those parameters and the number of waste packages hit. Corresponding cumulative distribution function curves (CDFs) for the number of waste packages hit under several different scenarios were calculated. Variations in dike thickness ranges, as well as in repository magma bulkhead positions were examined through sensitivity studies. It was assumed that all waste packages in an emplacement drift would be impacted if that drift were intersected by a dike. Over 10,000 individual simulations were performed. Based on these calculations, out of a total of over 11,000 planned waste packages distributed over an area of approximately 5.5 km{sup 2} , the median number of waste packages impacted was roughly 1/10 of the total. Individual cases ranged from 0 waste packages to the entire inventory being impacted. The igneous intrusion analysis involved an explicit characterization of dike-drift intersections, built upon various distributions that reflect the uncertainties associated with the inputs. The second igneous scenario, volcanic eruption (eruptive conduits), considered the effects of conduits formed

  12. Probablistic Analyses of Waste Package Quantities Impacted by Potential Igneous Disruption at Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, M. G.; Iuzzolina, H.

    2005-12-01

    A probabilistic analysis was conducted to estimate ranges for the numbers of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analysis includes disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The first scenario, igneous intrusion, investigated the case where one or more igneous dikes intersect the repository. A swarm of dikes was characterized by distributions of length, width, azimuth, and number of dikes and the spacings between them. Through the use in part of a latin hypercube simulator and a modified video game engine, mathematical relationships were built between those parameters and the number of waste packages hit. Corresponding cumulative distribution function curves (CDFs) for the number of waste packages hit under several different scenarios were calculated. Variations in dike thickness ranges, as well as in repository magma bulkhead positions were examined through sensitivity studies. It was assumed that all waste packages in an emplacement drift would be impacted if that drift was intersected by a dike. Over 10,000 individual simulations were performed. Based on these calculations, out of a total of over 11,000 planned waste packages distributed over an area of approximately 5.5 km2 , the median number of waste packages impacted was roughly 1/10 of the total. Individual cases ranged from 0 waste packages to the entire inventory being impacted. The igneous intrusion analysis involved an explicit characterization of dike-drift intersections, built upon various distributions that reflect the uncertainties associated with the inputs. The second igneous scenario, volcanic eruption (eruptive conduits), considered the effects of conduits formed in

  13. Atmospheric ethanol in London and the potential impacts of future fuel formulations.

    PubMed

    Dunmore, Rachel E; Whalley, Lisa K; Sherwen, Tomás; Evans, Mathew J; Heard, Dwayne E; Hopkins, James R; Lee, James D; Lewis, Alastair C; Lidster, Richard T; Rickard, Andrew R; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2016-07-18

    increased concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde from primary emissions impacts both radical and NOx cycling over Europe, resulting in significant regional impacts on NOy speciation and O3 concentrations, with potential changes to human exposure to air pollutants.

  14. What Is Measured Is Treasured: The Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act on Nonassessed Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Patricia Velde

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reports the results of a national survey taken by state assessment directors on the impact of No Child Left Behind on nonassessed subjects between the years 2001-5. Results indicate that during this time, statewide assessment of science and writing increased whereas it decreased in the social studies, arts and…

  15. An Exploration of the Impact of Contextual School Factors on Students' Ways of Thinking, Speaking and Acting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learoyd-Smith, Susannah

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing concern that the emphasis schools place on academic attainment has impacted negatively on children's mental well-being in the UK. In a bid to address society's growing concern for the mental well-being of children, the government has introduced policies into schools aimed at enhancing social and emotional…

  16. Perceptions of Alternative School Teachers and Administrators about the Impact of the No Child Left behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queenan, Carla Glover

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate and examine the perceptions of alternative school teachers and administrators about the impact of No Child Left Behind on their students and school. Through the lens of alternative school practitioners, this study examined the intersection of at-risk students, alternative education programs,…

  17. The current and potential impact of genetics and genomics on neuropsychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    One justification for the major scientific and financial investments in genetic and genomic studies in medicine is their therapeutic potential, both for revealing novel targets for drugs which treat the disease process, as well as allowing for more effective and safe use of existing medications. This review considers the extent to which this promise has yet been realised within psychopharmacology, how things are likely to develop in the foreseeable future, and the key issues involved. It draws primarily on examples from schizophrenia and its treatments. One observation is that there is evidence for a range of genetic influences on different aspects of psychopharmacology in terms of discovery science, but far less evidence that meets the standards required before such discoveries impact upon clinical practice. One reason is that results reveal complex genetic influences that are hard to replicate and usually of very small effect. Similarly, the slow progress being made in revealing the genes that underlie the major psychiatric syndromes hampers attempts to apply the findings to identify novel drug targets. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing positive findings of various kinds, and clear potential for genetics and genomics to play an increasing and major role in psychiatric drug discovery.

  18. Potential water quality impacts originating from land burial of cattle carcasses.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qi; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L

    2013-07-01

    Among the conventional disposal methods for livestock mortalities, on-farm burial is a preferred method, but the potential water quality impacts of animal carcass burial are not well understood. Typically, on-farm burial pits are constructed without liners and any leachate produced may infiltrate into soil and groundwater. To date, no information is available on temporal trends for contaminants in leachate produced from livestock mortality pits. In our study, we examined the concentrations of conventional contaminants including electrical conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, TP, and solids, as well as veterinary antimicrobials and steroid hormones in leachate over a period of 20 months. Most of the contaminants were detected in leachate after 50 days of decomposition, reaching a peak concentration at approximately 200 days and declined to baseline levels by 400 days. The estrogen 17β-estradiol and a veterinary antimicrobial, monensin, were observed at maximum concentrations of 20,069 ng/L and 11,980 ng/L, respectively. Estimated mass loading of total steroid hormone and veterinary pharmaceuticals were determined to be 1.84 and 1.01 μg/kg of buried cattle carcass materials, respectively. These data indicate that leachate from carcass burial sites represents a potential source of nutrients, organics, and residues of biologically active micro-contaminants to soil and groundwater.

  19. Reviews and Syntheses: Ocean acidification and its potential impacts on marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostofa, Khan M. G.; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Zhai, WeiDong; Minella, Marco; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Minakata, Daisuke; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Yoshioka, Takahito; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Konohira, Eiichi; Tanoue, Eiichiro; Akhand, Anirban; Chanda, Abhra; Wang, Baoli; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Ocean acidification, a complex phenomenon that lowers seawater pH, is the net outcome of several contributions. They include the dissolution of increasing atmospheric CO2 that adds up with dissolved inorganic carbon (dissolved CO2, H2CO3, HCO3-, and CO32-) generated upon mineralization of primary producers (PP) and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aquatic processes leading to inorganic carbon are substantially affected by increased DOM and nutrients via terrestrial runoff, acidic rainfall, increased PP and algal blooms, nitrification, denitrification, sulfate reduction, global warming (GW), and by atmospheric CO2 itself through enhanced photosynthesis. They are consecutively associated with enhanced ocean acidification, hypoxia in acidified deeper seawater, pathogens, algal toxins, oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species, and thermal stress caused by longer stratification periods as an effect of GW. We discuss the mechanistic insights into the aforementioned processes and pH changes, with particular focus on processes taking place with different timescales (including the diurnal one) in surface and subsurface seawater. This review also discusses these collective influences to assess their potential detrimental effects to marine organisms, and of ecosystem processes and services. Our review of the effects operating in synergy with ocean acidification will provide a broad insight into the potential impact of acidification itself on biological processes. The foreseen danger to marine organisms by acidification is in fact expected to be amplified by several concurrent and interacting phenomena.

  20. Potential impact of Dare County landfills on Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Augspurger, T.

    2005-01-01

    Runoff of leachate from East Lake and Dare County Construction and Demolition Debris landfills has the potential to impact wildlife resources at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Dare and Hyde Counties, North Carolina. Sediment quality of samples collected in August 2000 at 14 locations down-gradient from the landfills was assessed by measuring metal and organic contaminants in the sediments, chronic toxicity of solid-phase sediment (28-d static-renewal exposures; survival and growth as test endpoints) and acute toxicity of sediment porewater (96-h static exposures) to Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda). In addition, contaminant bioaccumulation from 4 sediments was determined using 28-d exposures of Lumbriculus variegatus (freshwater oligochaete). Although survival was not impaired, length of H. azteca was significantly reduced in sediments from 5 locations. Pore water from 4 locations was acutely toxic to H. azteca. Metals and a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were bioaccumulated by L. variegatus from the sediments. Several metals and PAHs exceeded sediment quality guidelines, and metals in porewater from several sites exceeded water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic wildlife. Runoff of leachate from the landfills has reduced sediment quality and has the potential to adversely affect wildlife resources at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge.

  1. Modeling the Potential Impact of Vaccination on the Epidemiology of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R.; Gambhir, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the potential for vaccination to change cytomegalovirus (CMV) epidemiology is important for developing CMV vaccines and designing clinical trials. Methods We constructed a deterministic, age-specific and time-dependent mathematical model of pathogen transmission, parameterized using CMV seroprevalence from the United States and Brazil, to predict the impact of vaccination on congenital CMV infection. Findings Concurrent vaccination of young children and adolescents would result in the greatest reductions in congenital CMV infections in populations with moderate and high baseline maternal seroprevalence. Such a vaccination strategy, assuming 70% vaccine efficacy, 90% coverage and 5-year duration of protection, could ultimately prevent 30%-50% of congenital CMV infections. At equilibrium, this strategy could result in a 30% reduction in congenital CMV infections due to primary maternal infection in the United States but a 3% increase in Brazil. The potential for an increase in congenital CMV infections due to primary maternal infections in Brazil was not predicted with use of a vaccine that confers protection for greater than 5 years. Interpretation Modeling suggests that vaccination strategies that include young children will result in greater declines in congenital CMV infection than those restricted to adolescents or women of reproductive age. Our study highlights the critical need for better understanding of the relative contribution of type of maternal infection to congenital CMV infection and disease, the main focus of vaccine prevention. PMID:24837782

  2. The dual roles of rural midwives: the potential for role conflict and impact on retention.

    PubMed

    Yates, Karen; Usher, Kim; Kelly, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Nurses and midwives continue to make up the largest proportion of the health workforce. As a result, shortages of nurses and midwives have a significant impact on the delivery of effective health care. Shortages of nurses and midwives are known to be more pronounced in rural and remote areas where recruitment and retention remain problematic. However, rural nurses are often required to be multi-skilled, which has led to expectations that nurses who are also midwives, are required to work across areas of the hospital to help to address shortages. For midwives this issue is even more problematic as they may actually end up spending a very small percentage of their working day involved in the delivery of maternity care. This workforce strategy has the potential to seriously erode the skills of the midwives. Situations such as this are implicated in attrition of midwives because of the role stress that results when they are required to work in models of care where they experience the constant pull to work between departments and across roles. This paper addresses the requirement for midwives in some rural facilities to work across roles of general nurse and midwife and outlines the issues that arise as a result. In particular, the paper links the concepts of Role Theory to the requirement for midwives to work in dual roles and the potential for role stress to develop.

  3. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND.

  4. Reviews and Syntheses: Ocean acidification and its potential impacts on marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostofa, K. M. G.; Liu, C.-Q.; Zhai, W. D.; Minella, M.; Vione, D.; Gao, K.; Minakata, D.; Arakaki, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Konohira, E.; Tanoue, E.; Akhand, A.; Chanda, A.; Wang, B.; Sakugawa, H.

    2015-07-01

    Ocean acidification, a complex phenomenon that lowers seawater pH, is the net outcome of several contributions. They include the dissolution of increasing atmospheric CO2 that adds up with dissolved inorganic carbon (dissolved CO2, H2CO3, HCO3-, and CO32-) generated upon mineralization of primary producers (PP) and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aquatic processes leading to inorganic carbon are substantially affected by increased DOM and nutrients via terrestrial runoff, acidic rainfall, increased PP and algal blooms, nitrification, denitrification, sulfate reduction, global warming (GW), and by atmospheric CO2 itself through enhanced photosynthesis. They are consecutively associated with enhanced ocean acidification, hypoxia in acidified deeper seawater, pathogens, algal toxins, oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species, and thermal stress caused by longer stratification periods as an effect of GW. We discuss the mechanistic insights into the aforementioned processes and pH changes, with particular focus on processes taking place with different time scales (including the diurnal one) in surface and subsurface seawater. This review also discusses these collective influences to assess their potential detrimental effects to marine organisms, and of ecosystem processes and services. Our review of the effects operating in synergy with ocean acidification will provide a broad insight into the potential impact of acidification itself on biological processes. The foreseen danger to marine organisms by acidification is in fact expected to be amplified by several concurrent and interacting phenomena.

  5. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution of marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicole M; Hess, Matthias; Bouskill, Nick J; Mason, Olivia U; Jansson, Janet K; Gilbert, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    During hydrocarbon exposure, the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential within the surface layer of marine sediments causing anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems.

  6. Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

  7. Diagnostic Changes to DSM-5: The Potential Impact on Juvenile Justice.

    PubMed

    Haney-Caron, Emily; Brogan, Leah; NeMoyer, Amanda; Kelley, Sharon; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2016-12-01

    Legal decision-makers have discretion at every stage of processing in the juvenile justice system, and individual youth characteristics (e.g., a particular psychiatric diagnosis) influence how a youth progresses through the system. As a result, changes in diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) may affect the rates of diagnoses among justice-involved youths and subsequently influence youths' experiences within the justice system. In this article, we identify the diagnoses most likely to exert such influences and review the prevalence of diagnosis and psychiatric disorder symptomatology in justice-involved youths. We highlight the DSM-5 changes in diagnostic criteria for internalizing and externalizing disorders that commonly occur among justice-involved youths and the potential impact of these changes on the rates of diagnoses within this population. Finally, we address the limitations of using psychiatric diagnoses in juvenile justice decision making, including the potential for biasing legal decision-makers and the importance of considering context as part of diagnosis.

  8. Numerical assessment of potential impacts of hydraulically fractured Bowland Shale on overlying aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zuansi; Ofterdinger, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    The success of unconventional gas extracted from shale formations (shale gas) over the last decade has changed the energy landscape in the United States. Shale gas rose from 2% of US gas production in 2000 to 30% in 2011, and is projected to rise to more than 50% by 2030. On the global scale, shale gas could increase total natural gas resources by approximately 32%, with an estimate of the total 7,299 trillion cubic feet (~200 trillion cubic meter) technically recoverable gas worldwide. In the UK, onshore shale gas reserve potential was first estimated to be 150 billion cubic meter by the British Geological Survey (BGS) in 2010. A recent study by BGS revised the previous estimates, with best estimate (50% probability) of total in-place gas resource of 37.6 trillion cubic meters in the Bowland Shale across central Britain. However, there are concerns of potential environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing of the shale formations, particularly those related to water quality, such as gas migration, contaminant transport through induced and natural fractures. To evaluate the potential impact of hydraulically fractured shale on overlying aquifers, we conduct numerical modelling simulations to assess flow and solute transport from a synthetic Bowland Shale over a period of 1000 years. The synthetic fractured shale was represented by a three-dimensional discrete fracture model that was developed by using the data from a Bowland Shale gas exploration in Lancashire, UK. The assessment was carried out to investigate chloride mass fluxes from the fractured Bowland Shale for a range of upward fracture height growths from 200 to 1850 meters, with three sets of hydraulic conductivities over three orders of magnitude for a multi-layered geological system. Of eighteen scenario analyses, the maximum upward mass flux towards the overlying Sherwood Sandstone aquifer is < 0.02 ton Cl-/ yr when a constant chloride concentration of 100 g Cl-/L is applied for the brine in the

  9. Drug pricing reform in China: analysis of piloted approaches and potential impact of the reform

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yixi; Hu, Shanlian; Dong, Peng; Kornfeld, Åsa; Jaros, Patrycja; Yan, Jing; Ma, Fangfang; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In 2009, the Chinese government launched a national healthcare reform programme aiming to control healthcare expenditure and increase the quality of care. As part of this programme, a new drug pricing reform was initiated on 1 June 2015. The objective of this study was to describe the changing landscape of drug pricing policy in China and analyse the potential impact of the reform. Methods The authors conducted thorough research on the drug pricing reform using three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang, and Weipu), Chinese health authority websites, relevant press releases, and pharmaceutical blogs and discussion forums. This research was complemented with qualitative research based on targeted interviews with key Chinese opinion leaders representing the authorities’ and prescribers’ perspectives. Results With the current reform, the government has attempted to replace its direct control over the prices of reimbursable drugs with indirect, incentive-driven influence. Although the exact implementation of the reform remains unclear at the moment, the changes introduced so far and the pilot project designs indicate that China is considering adaptation of some form of internal and external reference pricing policies, commonly used in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Several challenges related to the potential new mechanism were identified: 1) the risk of hospital underfunding, if hospital funding reform is not prioritised; 2) the risk of promoting the use of cheap, low-quality drugs, if a reliable quality control system is not in place and discrepancy between the available drugs is present; 3) the risk of increasing disparity in access to care between poor and rich regions, in case of country-wide price convergence; and 4) the risk of industry underinvestment, resulting in reduced competition, issues with quality and sustainability of supply, and potentially negative social impact. Conclusions Foreign pricing policies

  10. Permafrost in the Himalayas: specific characteristics, evolution vs. climate change and impacts on potential natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Mountain environments are very sensitive to climate change, yet assessing the potential impacts of these changes is not easy because of the complexity and diversity of mountain systems. The Himalayan permafrost belt presents three main specificities: (1) it develops in a geodynamically active mountain, which means that the controlling factors are not only temperature but also seismo-tectonic activity; (2) due to the steepness of the southern flank of the Greater Himalaya and potential large scale rock failures, permafrost evidence manifests itself best in the inner valleys and on the northern, arid side of the Himalayas (elevations >4000m); (3) the east-west strike of the mountain range creates large spatial discontinuity in the "cold" belt, mostly related to precipitation nature and availability. Only limited studies have been carried to date, and there is no permanent "field laboratory", nor continuous records but a few local studies. Based on preliminary observations in the Nepal Himalayas (mostly in Mustang and Dolpo districts), and Indian Ladakh, we present the main features indicating the existence of permafrost (either continuous or discontinuous). Rock-glaciers are quite well represented, though their presence may be interpreted as a combined result from both ground ice and large rock collapse. The precise altitudinal zonation of permafrost belt (specifying potential permafrost, probable permafrost, observed permafrost belts) still requires careful investigations in selected areas. Several questions arise when considering the evolution of permafrost in a context of climate change, with its impacts on the development of potential natural hazards that may affect the mountain population. Firstly, permafrost degradation (ground ice melting) is a cause of mountain slope destabilization. When the steep catchments are developed in frost/water sensitive bedrock (shales and marls) and extend to high elevations (as observed in Mustang or Dolpo), it would supply more

  11. Modeling potential impacts of the Garrison Diversion Unit project on Sand Lake and Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuges: a feasibility analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.

    1987-01-01

    the growth and survival of ducklings and young grebes. the workshop discussions also helped identify some suggestions for modifying project features that, if feasible from an engineering and operational standpoint, would reduce impacts on Refuge lands. These suggestions included: designing drains with control structures or small "reregulation" reservoirs to hold winter return flows that might adversely affect rough fish control, spreading construction activities over a number of years to reduce potential impacts of turbidity on sago pondweed in any single year, scheduling construction to occur after the spring sprouting and elongation growth stages to reduce impacts on sago pondweed, and installing "quick acting" control structures at Arrowwood NWR to reduce pool level fluctuations that might destroy nests of some over-water nesting waterfowl.

  12. The impact of surface area, volume, curvature, and Lennard-Jones potential to solvation modeling.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc D; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2017-01-05

    This article explores the impact of surface area, volume, curvature, and Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential on solvation free energy predictions. Rigidity surfaces are utilized to generate robust analytical expressions for maximum, minimum, mean, and Gaussian curvatures of solvent-solute interfaces, and define a generalized Poisson-Boltzmann (GPB) equation with a smooth dielectric profile. Extensive correlation analysis is performed to examine the linear dependence of surface area, surface enclosed volume, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, mean curvature, and Gaussian curvature for solvation modeling. It is found that surface area and surfaces enclosed volumes are highly correlated to each other's, and poorly correlated to various curvatures for six test sets of molecules. Different curvatures are weakly correlated to each other for six test sets of molecules, but are strongly correlated to each other within each test set of molecules. Based on correlation analysis, we construct twenty six nontrivial nonpolar solvation models. Our numerical results reveal that the LJ potential plays a vital role in nonpolar solvation modeling, especially for molecules involving strong van der Waals interactions. It is found that curvatures are at least as important as surface area or surface enclosed volume in nonpolar solvation modeling. In conjugation with the GPB model, various curvature-based nonpolar solvation models are shown to offer some of the best solvation free energy predictions for a wide range of test sets. For example, root mean square errors from a model constituting surface area, volume, mean curvature, and LJ potential are less than 0.42 kcal/mol for all test sets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Potential impact of soil microbial heterogeneity on the persistence of hydrocarbons in contaminated subsurface soils.

    PubMed

    Aleer, Sam; Adetutu, Eric M; Weber, John; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2014-04-01

    In situ bioremediation is potentially a cost effective treatment strategy for subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, however, limited information is available regarding the impact of soil spatial heterogeneity on bioremediation efficacy. In this study, we assessed issues associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation and soil spatial heterogeneity (samples designated as FTF 1, 5 and 8) from a site in which in situ bioremediation was proposed for hydrocarbon removal. Test pit activities showed similarities in FTF soil profiles with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations detected in all soils at 2 m below ground surface. However, PCR-DGGE-based cluster analysis showed that the bacterial community in FTF 5 (at 2 m) was substantially different (53% dissimilar) and 2-3 fold more diverse than communities in FTF 1 and 8 (with 80% similarity). When hydrocarbon degrading potential was assessed, differences were observed in the extent of (14)C-benzene mineralisation under aerobic conditions with FTF 5 exhibiting the highest hydrocarbon removal potential compared to FTF 1 and 8. Further analysis indicated that the FTF 5 microbial community was substantially different from other FTF samples and dominated by putative hydrocarbon degraders belonging to Pseudomonads, Xanthomonads and Enterobacteria. However, hydrocarbon removal in FTF 5 under anaerobic conditions with nitrate and sulphate electron acceptors was limited suggesting that aerobic conditions were crucial for hydrocarbon removal. This study highlights the importance of assessing available microbial capacity prior to bioremediation and shows that the site's spatial heterogeneity can adversely affect the success of in situ bioremediation unless area-specific optimizations are performed.

  14. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  15. Geochemical control processes and potential sediment toxicity in a mine-impacted lake.

    PubMed

    Adeleke, Solomon Babatunde; Svensson, Bo H; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Adeleye, Michael Mayowa

    2016-03-01

    Geochemical parameters and major ion concentrations from sediments of a freshwater lake in the town of Åtvidaberg, southeastern, Sweden, were used to identify the geochemical processes that control the water chemistry. The lake sediments are anoxic, characterized by reduced sulfur and sulfidic minerals. The hypothesis tested is that in sulfidic-anaerobic contaminated sediments, the presence of redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulfide oxidation, resulting in the release of potentially toxic metals. The acid volatile sulfide (AVS) contents ranged from 5.5 μmol/g to 16 μmol/g of dry sediment. Comparison of total mine tailing metals (∑mine tailing metals) with simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediments indicates that up to 20% of the ∑mine tailing metals are bound to the solid phase as AVS. Consequently, the AVS and SEM analysis classified all sediment samples as potentially toxic in terms of heavy metal concentrations (i.e., SEM to AVS ratio distribution > 1). Evaluation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that calcite dissolution, iron (III) oxyhydroxysulfate mineral jarosite (H-jarosite) precipitation, hematite precipitation, and siderite precipitation are the most prevailing geochemical processes that control the geochemical interactions between the water column and sediment in a mine-impacted lake. The geochemical processes were verified and quantified using a chemical equilibrium modeling program, Visual MINTEQ, Ver 3.1, beta. The identified geochemical processes create an environment in which the characteristics of sulfate-rich waters and acidic-iron produce the geochemical conditions for acid mine drainage and mobilization of toxic metals.

  16. Privacy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  17. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3, Appendix M, Contract Copies.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report, is part of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration, consists of an appendix of contract copies related to the following: Detailed Index to Generic Utility Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic Utility Contract, Detailed Index to Generic DSI Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic DSI Contract, Text of Residential Purchase and Sale Agreement (Residential Exchange), and Detailed Index to General Contract Provisions -- GCP Form PSC-2 (Incorporated into all three types of contracts as an Exhibit).

  18. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; LLoyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2014-02-01

    This document contains the analysis details and summary of analyses conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts for the Resumption of Transient Fuel and Materials Testing Program. It provides an assessment of the impacts for the two action alternatives being evaluated in the environmental assessment. These alternatives are (1) resumption of transient testing using the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and (2) conducting transient testing using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL/NM). Analyses are provided for radiologic emissions, other air emissions, soil contamination, and groundwater contamination that could occur (1) during normal operations, (2) as a result of accidents in one of the facilities, and (3) during transport. It does not include an assessment of the biotic, cultural resources, waste generation, or other impacts that could result from the resumption of transient testing. Analyses were conducted by technical professionals at INL and SNL/NM as noted throughout this report. The analyses are based on bounding radionuclide inventories, with the same inventories used for test materials by both alternatives and different inventories for the TREAT Reactor and ACRR. An upper value on the number of tests was assumed, with a test frequency determined by the realistic turn-around times required between experiments. The estimates provided for impacts during normal operations are based on historical emission rates and projected usage rates; therefore, they are bounding. Estimated doses for members of the public, collocated workers, and facility workers that could be incurred as a result of an accident are very conservative. They do not credit safety systems or administrative procedures (such as evacuation plans or use of personal protective equipment) that could be used to limit worker doses. Doses estimated for transportation are conservative and are based on

  19. Impact of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on academic radiology departments' clinical, research, and education missions.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Bahar; Vidal, Lorenna L; Applegate, Kimberly; Rawson, James V; Novak, Ronald D; Ros, Pablo R

    2013-10-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) generated significant media attention since its inception. When the law was approved in 2010, the U.S. health care system began facing multiple changes to adapt and to incorporate measures to meet the new requirements. These mandatory changes will be challenging for academic radiology departments (ARDs) since they will need to promote a shift from a volume-focused to a value-focused practice. This will affect all components of the mission of ARDs, including clinical practice, education, and research. A unique key element to success in this transition is to focus on both quality and safety, thus improving the value of radiology in the post-ACA era. Given the changes ARDs will face during the implementation of ACA, suggestions are provided on how to adapt ARDs to this new environment.

  20. Quantifying potential human health impacts of animal antibiotic use: enrofloxacin and macrolides in chickens.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony; Popken, Douglas A

    2006-02-01

    Use of similar or identical antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has come under increasing scrutiny by regulators concerned that bacteria resistant to animal antibiotics will infect people and resist treatment with similar human antibiotics, leading to excess illnesses and deaths. Scientists, regulators, and interest groups in the United States and Europe have urged bans on nontherapeutic and some therapeutic uses of animal antibiotics to protect human health. Many regulators and public health experts have also expressed dissatisfaction with the perceived limitations of quantitative risk assessment and have proposed alternative qualitative and judgmental approaches ranging from "attributable fraction" estimates to risk management recommendations based on the precautionary principle or on expert judgments about the importance of classes of compounds in human medicine. This article presents a more traditional quantitative risk assessment of the likely human health impacts of continuing versus withdrawing use of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in production of broiler chickens in the United States. An analytic framework is developed and applied to available data. It indicates that withdrawing animal antibiotics can cause far more human illness-days than it would prevent: the estimated human BENEFIT:RISK health ratio for human health impacts of continued animal antibiotic use exceeds 1,000:1 in many cases. This conclusion is driven by a hypothesized causal sequence in which withdrawing animal antibiotic use increases illnesses rates in animals, microbial loads in servings from the affected animals, and hence human health risks. This potentially important aspect of human health risk assessment for animal antibiotics has not previously been quantified.