Science.gov

Sample records for act provisions shark

  1. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission referred the matter to NMFS, under... out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the measures it failed to...

  2. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Register (75 FR 9158, March 1, 2010). NMFS received one comment in response to that notice. The comment... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce...

  3. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22103), and are not repeated here. Activities Pursuant to the Atlantic... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the moratorium, as required by...

  4. 78 FR 36149 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... comment period for the proposed rule published at 78 FR 25685, May 2, 2013, is extended from June 17, 2013... rule in the Federal Register (78 FR 25685) to implement provisions of the SCA that prohibit any person... Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Correction AGENCY: National...

  5. 78 FR 40687 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... public comment period for the proposed rule published at 78 FR 25685, May 2, 2013, is extended from July... 2, 2013, NMFS published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (78 FR 25685) to implement... Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Extension of Comment Period...

  6. 78 FR 25685 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Caribbean Sea. However, in 2010, average annual gross revenue for headboats and charter vessels in the... of 2010 (SCA) and prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea, possessing..., transferring or receiving fins from one vessel to another at sea unless the fins are naturally attached to...

  7. Long-Term Changes in Species Composition and Relative Abundances of Sharks at a Provisioning Site

    PubMed Central

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today’s recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004–2006 and 2007–2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004–2006 and very rare in the period of 2007–2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion

  8. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    PubMed

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Abrantes, Kátya G; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark

  9. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    PubMed

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Abrantes, Kátya G; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark

  10. Variation in depth of whitetip reef sharks: does provisioning ecotourism change their behaviour?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Seymour, Jamie; Barnett, Adam

    2011-09-01

    In the dive tourism industry, shark provisioning has become increasingly popular in many places around the world. It is therefore important to determine the impacts that provisioning may have on shark behaviour. In this study, eight adult whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus were tagged with time-depth recorders at Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea, Australia. Tags collected time and depth data every 30 s. The absolute change in depth over 5-min blocks was considered as a proxy for vertical activity level. Daily variations in vertical activity levels were analysed to determine the effects of time of day on whitetip reef shark behaviour. This was done for days when dive boats were absent from the area, and for days when dive boats were present, conducting shark provisioning. Vertical activity levels varied between day and night, and with the presence of boats. In natural conditions (no boats present), sharks remained at more constant depths during the day, while at night animals continuously moved up and down the water column, showing that whitetip reef sharks are nocturnally active. When boats were present, however, there were also long periods of vertical activity during the day. If resting periods during the day are important for energy budgets, then shark provisioning may affect their health. So, if this behaviour alteration occurs frequently, e.g., daily, this has the potential to have significant negative effects on the animals' metabolic rates, net energy gain and overall health, reproduction and fitness.

  11. Learning from a provisioning site: code of conduct compliance and behaviour of whale sharks in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Schleimer, Anna; Araujo, Gonzalo; Penketh, Luke; Heath, Anna; McCoy, Emer; Labaja, Jessica; Lucey, Anna; Ponzo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    While shark-based tourism is a rapidly growing global industry, there is ongoing controversy about the effects of provisioning on the target species. This study investigated the effect of feeding on whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, in terms of arrival time, avoidance and feeding behaviour using photo-identification and focal follows. Additionally, compliance to the code of conduct in place was monitored to assess tourism pressure on the whale sharks. Newly identified sharks gradually arrived earlier to the provisioning site after their initial sighting, indicating that the animals learn to associate the site with food rewards. Whale sharks with a long resighting history showed anticipatory behaviour and were recorded at the site on average 5 min after the arrival of feeder boats. Results from a generalised linear mixed model indicated that animals with a longer resighting history were less likely to show avoidance behaviour to touches or boat contact. Similarly, sequential data on feeding behaviour was modelled using a generalised estimating equations approach, which suggested that experienced whale sharks were more likely to display vertical feeding behaviour. It was proposed that the continuous source of food provides a strong incentive for the modification of behaviours, i.e., learning, through conditioning. Whale sharks are large opportunistic filter feeders in a mainly oligotrophic environment, where the ability to use novel food sources by modifying their behaviour could be of great advantage. Non-compliance to the code of conduct in terms of minimum distance to the shark (2 m) increased from 79% in 2012 to 97% in 2014, suggesting a high tourism pressure on the whale sharks in Oslob. The long-term effects of the observed behavioural modifications along with the high tourism pressure remain unknown. However, management plans are traditionally based on the precautionary principle, which aims to take preventive actions even

  12. Learning from a provisioning site: code of conduct compliance and behaviour of whale sharks in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Gonzalo; Penketh, Luke; Heath, Anna; McCoy, Emer; Labaja, Jessica; Lucey, Anna; Ponzo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    While shark-based tourism is a rapidly growing global industry, there is ongoing controversy about the effects of provisioning on the target species. This study investigated the effect of feeding on whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, in terms of arrival time, avoidance and feeding behaviour using photo-identification and focal follows. Additionally, compliance to the code of conduct in place was monitored to assess tourism pressure on the whale sharks. Newly identified sharks gradually arrived earlier to the provisioning site after their initial sighting, indicating that the animals learn to associate the site with food rewards. Whale sharks with a long resighting history showed anticipatory behaviour and were recorded at the site on average 5 min after the arrival of feeder boats. Results from a generalised linear mixed model indicated that animals with a longer resighting history were less likely to show avoidance behaviour to touches or boat contact. Similarly, sequential data on feeding behaviour was modelled using a generalised estimating equations approach, which suggested that experienced whale sharks were more likely to display vertical feeding behaviour. It was proposed that the continuous source of food provides a strong incentive for the modification of behaviours, i.e., learning, through conditioning. Whale sharks are large opportunistic filter feeders in a mainly oligotrophic environment, where the ability to use novel food sources by modifying their behaviour could be of great advantage. Non-compliance to the code of conduct in terms of minimum distance to the shark (2 m) increased from 79% in 2012 to 97% in 2014, suggesting a high tourism pressure on the whale sharks in Oslob. The long-term effects of the observed behavioural modifications along with the high tourism pressure remain unknown. However, management plans are traditionally based on the precautionary principle, which aims to take preventive actions even

  13. Learning from a provisioning site: code of conduct compliance and behaviour of whale sharks in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Schleimer, Anna; Araujo, Gonzalo; Penketh, Luke; Heath, Anna; McCoy, Emer; Labaja, Jessica; Lucey, Anna; Ponzo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    While shark-based tourism is a rapidly growing global industry, there is ongoing controversy about the effects of provisioning on the target species. This study investigated the effect of feeding on whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, in terms of arrival time, avoidance and feeding behaviour using photo-identification and focal follows. Additionally, compliance to the code of conduct in place was monitored to assess tourism pressure on the whale sharks. Newly identified sharks gradually arrived earlier to the provisioning site after their initial sighting, indicating that the animals learn to associate the site with food rewards. Whale sharks with a long resighting history showed anticipatory behaviour and were recorded at the site on average 5 min after the arrival of feeder boats. Results from a generalised linear mixed model indicated that animals with a longer resighting history were less likely to show avoidance behaviour to touches or boat contact. Similarly, sequential data on feeding behaviour was modelled using a generalised estimating equations approach, which suggested that experienced whale sharks were more likely to display vertical feeding behaviour. It was proposed that the continuous source of food provides a strong incentive for the modification of behaviours, i.e., learning, through conditioning. Whale sharks are large opportunistic filter feeders in a mainly oligotrophic environment, where the ability to use novel food sources by modifying their behaviour could be of great advantage. Non-compliance to the code of conduct in terms of minimum distance to the shark (2 m) increased from 79% in 2012 to 97% in 2014, suggesting a high tourism pressure on the whale sharks in Oslob. The long-term effects of the observed behavioural modifications along with the high tourism pressure remain unknown. However, management plans are traditionally based on the precautionary principle, which aims to take preventive actions even

  14. Shark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color composite image from the Pathfinder lander shows the rock 'Shark' at upper right (Shark is about 0.69 m wide, 0.40 m high, and 6.4 m from the lander). The rock looks like a conglomerate in Sojourner rover images, but only the large elements of its surface textures can be seen here. This demonstrates the usefulness of having a robot rover geologist able to examine rocks up close.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  15. Population structure and residency patterns of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, at a provisioning site in Cebu, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Gonzalo; Lucey, Anna; Labaja, Jessica; So, Catherine Lee; Snow, Sally; Ponzo, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This study represents the first description of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, occurring at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines. Frequent observations of sharks are often difficult, even at tourism sites, giving rise to provisioning activities to attract them. The present study provides repeated longitudinal data at a site where daily provisioning activities took place, and whale sharks were present every day. A total of 158 individual whale sharks were photographically identified between Mar 2012 and Dec 2013, with 129 males (82%), 19 females (12%) and 10 (6%) of undetermined sex. Mean estimated total length was 5.5 m (±1.3 m S.D.). Twenty individuals were measured with laser photogrammetry to validate researchers' estimated sizes, yielding a good correlation (r (2) = 0.83). Fifty-four (34%) individuals were observed being hand-fed by local fishermen (provisioned), through in-water behavioural observations. Maximum likelihood methods were used to model mean residency time of 44.9 days (±20.6 days S.E.) for provisioned R. typus contrasting with 22.4 days (±8.9 days S.E.) for non-provisioned individuals. Propeller scars were observed in 47% of the animals. A mean of 12.7 (±4.3 S.D.) R. typus were present in the survey area daily, with a maximum of 26 individuals (Aug 10 2013) and a minimum of 2 (Dec 6 2012). Twelve (8%) individuals were seen on at least 50% of survey days (n = 621), with a maximum residency of 572 days for one individual (P-396). Twenty four individuals were photographically identified across regional hotsposts, highlighting the species' migratory nature and distribution. Extended residency and differences in lagged identification rates suggest behavioural modification on provisioned individuals, underlying the necessity for proper management of this tourism activity.

  16. Population structure and residency patterns of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, at a provisioning site in Cebu, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, Anna; Labaja, Jessica; So, Catherine Lee; Snow, Sally; Ponzo, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This study represents the first description of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, occurring at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines. Frequent observations of sharks are often difficult, even at tourism sites, giving rise to provisioning activities to attract them. The present study provides repeated longitudinal data at a site where daily provisioning activities took place, and whale sharks were present every day. A total of 158 individual whale sharks were photographically identified between Mar 2012 and Dec 2013, with 129 males (82%), 19 females (12%) and 10 (6%) of undetermined sex. Mean estimated total length was 5.5 m (±1.3 m S.D.). Twenty individuals were measured with laser photogrammetry to validate researchers’ estimated sizes, yielding a good correlation (r2 = 0.83). Fifty-four (34%) individuals were observed being hand-fed by local fishermen (provisioned), through in-water behavioural observations. Maximum likelihood methods were used to model mean residency time of 44.9 days (±20.6 days S.E.) for provisioned R. typus contrasting with 22.4 days (±8.9 days S.E.) for non-provisioned individuals. Propeller scars were observed in 47% of the animals. A mean of 12.7 (±4.3 S.D.) R. typus were present in the survey area daily, with a maximum of 26 individuals (Aug 10 2013) and a minimum of 2 (Dec 6 2012). Twelve (8%) individuals were seen on at least 50% of survey days (n = 621), with a maximum residency of 572 days for one individual (P-396). Twenty four individuals were photographically identified across regional hotsposts, highlighting the species’ migratory nature and distribution. Extended residency and differences in lagged identification rates suggest behavioural modification on provisioned individuals, underlying the necessity for proper management of this tourism activity. PMID:25279256

  17. 76 FR 14922 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries.... Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act require publication of this... Schulze-Haugen, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries...

  18. 76 FR 10874 - Implementation of Revised Lacey Act Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Implementation of Revised Lacey Act Provisions AGENCY: Animal... Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 amended the Lacey Act to expand its protections to a broader... INFORMATION: Background The Lacey Act (16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.), first enacted in 1900 and...

  19. Opportunistic Visitors: Long-Term Behavioural Response of Bull Sharks to Food Provisioning in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.; Barnett, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004–2011) underwater visual (n = 48 individuals) and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers) of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site) and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00–12:00) when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours) on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months) at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site. PMID:23516496

  20. Opportunistic visitors: long-term behavioural response of bull sharks to food provisioning in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Barnett, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004-2011) underwater visual (n = 48 individuals) and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers) of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site) and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00-12:00) when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours) on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months) at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site. PMID:23516496

  1. 50 CFR 600.1204 - Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. 600.1204 Section 600.1204 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1204 Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. (a)(1)...

  2. 50 CFR 600.1204 - Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. 600.1204 Section 600.1204 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1204 Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. (a)(1)...

  3. 50 CFR 600.1204 - Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. 600.1204 Section 600.1204 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1204 Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. (a)(1)...

  4. 50 CFR 600.1204 - Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. 600.1204 Section 600.1204 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1204 Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. (a)(1)...

  5. 50 CFR 600.1204 - Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. 600.1204 Section 600.1204 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1204 Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. (a)(1)...

  6. Enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, E.A.; Davis, H.P.

    1994-12-31

    In discussing the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, the authors focus on the following: EPA enforcement, including criminal and administrative civil penalties; NJDEPE enforcement authority, including criminal and administrative civil penalties, as well as economic benefit and judicial enforcement; citizens enforcement; and evidence of non compliance.

  7. The Reasonable Accommodations Provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Albert; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) provides broad-based protection for disabled persons by imposing far-reaching obligations on private-sector employers, public services and accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications. Provides a descriptive overview of the reasonable accommodations provisions of Title I and II of the ADA. (34…

  8. 75 FR 4626 - Order Granting a Temporary Exemption From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...) is issuing a temporary exemption from certain Government Securities Act of 1986 provisions and... amended by the Government Securities Act of 1986 (GSA). These regulations impose obligations concerning... Order Granting a Temporary Exemption From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

  9. 77 FR 5492 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA958 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION... notice is a revision to a previously published Federal Register notice (76 FR 65698). Complete...

  10. The munitions provisions of the Federal Facility Compliance Act

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Green, D.R.; Queen, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed by President Bush on October 6, 1992. This Act amends the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing hazardous waste management in the US The most significant provision of the FFCA was the waiver of sovereign immunity. This waiver subjects Federal facilities to the same ``incentives`` as the private sector for compliance. While the waiver has broad implications for all Federal facilities, other provisions of the FFCA impact specific sectors of the Federal complex. The focus of this paper is the FFCA Munitions Provisions, which have the potential to change some aspects of the structure of munitions management within the military. The Munitions Provisions, contained in Section 107 of the FFCA, modifies Section 3004 of RCRA by adding a new subsection (y) on Munitions. Section 107 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop, after consultation with the Department of Defense (DOD) and appropriate State officials, regulations identifying when military munitions (including conventional and chemical munitions) become hazardous waste, and to provide for the safe transportation and storage of such waste. The FFCA requires EPA to promulgate the final ``Munitions Rule`` by October 6, 1994. These are the only provisions of the FFCA that require a new rulemaking. It is clear that the Munitions Rule could have a significant effect on the way in which DOD manages munitions. Demilitarization, range management, training activities, and emergency response actions may be affected. It is important for DOD, the Services, and individual installations, to be aware of potential impacts of the FFCA on munitions management operations. The purpose of this paper is to review several important munitions Rule issues, and to discuss potential impacts of these issues.

  11. 78 FR 32364 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Interjurisdictional Fisheries Act; Disaster Assistance Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... proposed rule published on January 15, 2009 (74 FR 2467) is withdrawn as of May 30, 2013. FOR FURTHER... Management Act (MSA) and the Interjurisdictional Fisheries Act (IFA), NMFS (on behalf of the Secretary of... disaster assistance provisions of the MSA and the IFA through rulemaking and, thereby, ensure...

  12. 29 CFR 785.49 - Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. 785... WORKED Miscellaneous Provisions § 785.49 Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (a) Section 6. Section 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206) requires that each......

  13. 29 CFR 785.49 - Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. 785... WORKED Miscellaneous Provisions § 785.49 Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (a) Section 6. Section 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206) requires that each......

  14. 29 CFR 785.49 - Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. 785... WORKED Miscellaneous Provisions § 785.49 Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (a) Section 6. Section 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206) requires that each......

  15. 29 CFR 785.49 - Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. 785... WORKED Miscellaneous Provisions § 785.49 Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (a) Section 6. Section 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206) requires that each......

  16. 29 CFR 785.49 - Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. 785... WORKED Miscellaneous Provisions § 785.49 Applicable provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (a) Section 6. Section 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206) requires that each......

  17. 26 CFR 1.9006 - Statutory provisions; Tax Reform Act of 1969.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Reform Act of 1969 § 1.9006 Statutory provisions; Tax Reform Act of 1969. Section 946 of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 729) provides as follows: Sec. 946... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Tax Reform Act of 1969....

  18. 29 CFR 4.181 - Overtime pay provisions of other Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards Overtime Pay of Covered Employees § 4.181 Overtime pay provisions of other Acts. (a) Fair Labor... requiring compliance with the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, contractors and... overtime pay standards of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This is true with respect to......

  19. 29 CFR 4.181 - Overtime pay provisions of other Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards Overtime Pay of Covered Employees § 4.181 Overtime pay provisions of other Acts. (a) Fair Labor... requiring compliance with the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, contractors and... overtime pay standards of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This is true with respect to......

  20. 29 CFR 4.181 - Overtime pay provisions of other Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards Overtime Pay of Covered Employees § 4.181 Overtime pay provisions of other Acts. (a) Fair Labor... requiring compliance with the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, contractors and... overtime pay standards of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This is true with respect to......

  1. 29 CFR 4.181 - Overtime pay provisions of other Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards Overtime Pay of Covered Employees § 4.181 Overtime pay provisions of other Acts. (a) Fair Labor... requiring compliance with the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, contractors and... overtime pay standards of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This is true with respect to......

  2. 29 CFR 4.181 - Overtime pay provisions of other Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards Overtime Pay of Covered Employees § 4.181 Overtime pay provisions of other Acts. (a) Fair Labor... requiring compliance with the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, contractors and... overtime pay standards of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This is true with respect to......

  3. Shark attack in Natal.

    PubMed

    White, J A

    1975-02-01

    The injuries in 5 cases of shark attack in Natal during 1973-74 are reviewed. Experience in shark attacks in South Africa during this period is discussed (1965-73), and the value of protecting heavily utilized beaches in Natal with nets is assessed. The surgical applications of elasmobranch research at the Oceanographic Research Institute (Durban) and at the Headquarters of the Natal Anti-Shark Measures Board (Umhlanga Rocks) are described. Modern trends in the training of surf life-guards, the provision of basic equipment for primary resuscitation of casualties on the beaches, and the policy of general and local care of these patients in Natal are discussed.

  4. 32 CFR 728.51 - General provisions-the “Economy Act.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General provisions-the âEconomy Act.â 728.51... Federal Agencies § 728.51 General provisions—the “Economy Act.” The Economy Act, 31 U.S.C. 1535, generally... convenient, or less expensive, than commercial procurement. Provisions of the Economy Act apply to...

  5. 32 CFR 728.51 - General provisions-the “Economy Act.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General provisions-the âEconomy Act.â 728.51... Federal Agencies § 728.51 General provisions—the “Economy Act.” The Economy Act, 31 U.S.C. 1535, generally... convenient, or less expensive, than commercial procurement. Provisions of the Economy Act apply to...

  6. 32 CFR 728.51 - General provisions-the “Economy Act.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General provisions-the âEconomy Act.â 728.51... Federal Agencies § 728.51 General provisions—the “Economy Act.” The Economy Act, 31 U.S.C. 1535, generally... convenient, or less expensive, than commercial procurement. Provisions of the Economy Act apply to...

  7. 32 CFR 728.51 - General provisions-the “Economy Act.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General provisions-the âEconomy Act.â 728.51... Federal Agencies § 728.51 General provisions—the “Economy Act.” The Economy Act, 31 U.S.C. 1535, generally... convenient, or less expensive, than commercial procurement. Provisions of the Economy Act apply to...

  8. 32 CFR 728.51 - General provisions-the “Economy Act.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions-the âEconomy Act.â 728.51... Federal Agencies § 728.51 General provisions—the “Economy Act.” The Economy Act, 31 U.S.C. 1535, generally... convenient, or less expensive, than commercial procurement. Provisions of the Economy Act apply to...

  9. A Guide to Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This revised guide to the child labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act contains general information useful to employers and coordinators of cooperative and work experience programs involving employment of youth under 18 years of age. Included in the document are provisions relating to: (1) age standards, (2) coverage of the act, (3)…

  10. 26 CFR 301.9001 - Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf... Rules Application of Internal Revenue Laws § 301.9001 Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978. Section 302 of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of...

  11. 26 CFR 301.9001 - Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf... Rules Application of Internal Revenue Laws § 301.9001 Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978. Section 302 of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of...

  12. 26 CFR 301.9001 - Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf... Rules Application of Internal Revenue Laws § 301.9001 Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978. Section 302 of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of...

  13. 26 CFR 301.9001 - Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf... Rules Application of Internal Revenue Laws § 301.9001 Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978. Section 302 of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of...

  14. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? 287.105 Section 287.105 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....105 What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? NEW Programs are subject...

  15. 26 CFR 301.9001 - Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf... Rules Application of Internal Revenue Laws § 301.9001 Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978. Section 302 of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of...

  16. 45 CFR 287.105 - What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? 287.105 Section 287.105 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE....105 What provisions of the Social Security Act govern the NEW Program? NEW Programs are subject...

  17. Provisions of the Food Security Act of 1985. Agricultural Information Bulletin Number 498.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Lewrene K.

    This report summarizes the 18 titles of the Food Security Act of 1985 and compares it with previous legislation where applicable. It describes the act's provisions for dairy; wool and mohair; wheat; feed grains; cotton; rice; peanuts; soybeans; sugar; other general commodity provisions; trade; conservation; credit; agricultural research,…

  18. 20 CFR 661.410 - What provisions of WIA and the Wagner-Peyser Act may be waived, and what provisions may not be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What provisions of WIA and the Wagner-Peyser... provisions of WIA and the Wagner-Peyser Act may be waived, and what provisions may not be waived? (a) The... statutory or regulatory requirements of sections 8 through 10 of the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C....

  19. 20 CFR 661.410 - What provisions of WIA and the Wagner-Peyser Act may be waived, and what provisions may not be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What provisions of WIA and the Wagner-Peyser... provisions of WIA and the Wagner-Peyser Act may be waived, and what provisions may not be waived? (a) The... statutory or regulatory requirements of sections 8 through 10 of the Wagner-Peyser Act (29 U.S.C....

  20. 78 FR 32374 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... fishing permit application contains all of the required information and warrants further consideration... notification to provide interested parties the opportunity to comment on applications for proposed...

  1. 78 FR 38693 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Marine Science and Technology. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management... INFORMATION: The University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology (SMAST... Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine...

  2. 78 FR 32375 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... and would be conducted by the University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and... of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology (SMAST) submitted a complete... Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine...

  3. Sharks and people: insight into the global practices of tourism operators and their attitudes to shark behaviour.

    PubMed

    Richards, Kirsty; O'Leary, Bethan C; Roberts, Callum M; Ormond, Rupert; Gore, Mauvis; Hawkins, Julie P

    2015-02-15

    Shark tourism is a popular but controversial activity. We obtained insights into this industry via a global e-mailed questionnaire completed by 45 diving/snorkelling operators who advertised shark experiences (shark operators) and 49 who did not (non-shark operators). 42% of shark operators used an attractant to lure sharks and 93% stated they had a formal code of conduct which 86% enforced "very strictly". While sharks were reported to normally ignore people, 9 operators had experienced troublesome behaviour from them. Whilst our research corroborates previous studies indicating minimal risk to humans from most shark encounters, a precautionary approach to provisioning is required to avoid potential ecological and societal effects of shark tourism. Codes of conduct should always stipulate acceptable diver behaviour and appropriate diver numbers and shark operators should have a moral responsibility to educate their customers about the need for shark conservation.

  4. Sharks and people: insight into the global practices of tourism operators and their attitudes to shark behaviour.

    PubMed

    Richards, Kirsty; O'Leary, Bethan C; Roberts, Callum M; Ormond, Rupert; Gore, Mauvis; Hawkins, Julie P

    2015-02-15

    Shark tourism is a popular but controversial activity. We obtained insights into this industry via a global e-mailed questionnaire completed by 45 diving/snorkelling operators who advertised shark experiences (shark operators) and 49 who did not (non-shark operators). 42% of shark operators used an attractant to lure sharks and 93% stated they had a formal code of conduct which 86% enforced "very strictly". While sharks were reported to normally ignore people, 9 operators had experienced troublesome behaviour from them. Whilst our research corroborates previous studies indicating minimal risk to humans from most shark encounters, a precautionary approach to provisioning is required to avoid potential ecological and societal effects of shark tourism. Codes of conduct should always stipulate acceptable diver behaviour and appropriate diver numbers and shark operators should have a moral responsibility to educate their customers about the need for shark conservation. PMID:25577473

  5. 75 FR 33242 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW45 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: On May 6, 2010, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (Commission) found the State...

  6. The enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act - not the same old Section 113

    SciTech Connect

    Benthul, H.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) of 1990 was in many respects a major overhaul of the previous versions of the Clean Air Act although it retained most of the preexisting major programs such as the basic National Ambient Air Quality Standards ({open_quotes}NAAQS{close_quotes}) scheme, PSD, new source performance standards, regulation of toxic air pollutants, and the like. The 1990 Act strengthened the enforcement provisions of the Act by enhancing the enforcement powers of the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) of {section}113. For example, the criminal enforcement provisions of {section}113 are expanded both in the range of punishment and in the kinds of activities which are subject to criminal enforcement. Moreover, the Act now contains a number of additional enforcement provisions in addition to those found in {section}113. The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the {section}113 provision and as well, identify those enforcement provisions found outside {section}113. The latter provisions will be taken up first and addressed by Titles of the Act. The discussion of specific sections and subsections of the CAA are necessarily brief and in the nature of highlighting of particular features; like the rest of the CAA, careful reading and analysis is a requirement for full understanding.

  7. Direct-acting fibrinolytic enzymes in shark cartilage extract: potential therapeutic role in vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Ratel, David; Glazier, Geneviève; Provençal, Mathieu; Boivin, Dominique; Beaulieu, Edith; Gingras, Denis; Béliveau, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Fibrinogen and fibrin are molecules with overlapping roles in blood clotting, fibrinolysis, wound healing, inflammation, matrix and cellular interactions and neoplasia. There is currently much interest in the possible use of fibrinolytic agents in human therapeutics. In this study, we report the presence of fibrinolytic activities in shark cartilage extract (SCE). In vitro, SCE at 100 microg/ml completely degraded fibrin gel in an aprotinin-insensitive manner, suggesting a non-plasmin molecular nature. SCE was able to cleave all chains of fibrinogen and fibrin and the cleavage was completely inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting an essential role for metalloprotease(s) in this process. Using fibrinogen zymography, we show that SCE contains two plasmin-independent fibrinolytic activities and that these activities are correlated with the presence of 58 and 62 kDa proteases in the extract. SCE-fibrinolytic activities are inhibited by dithiothreitol, suggesting that disulfide bonds are necessary for the protease structure. Finally, using thromboelastography, SCE markedly induced retraction of human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot, this process being completely abolished by 1,10-phenanthroline. These data suggest the presence of novel non-plasmin fibrinolytic activities within SCE. This extract may thus represent a potential source of new therapeutic molecules to prevent and treat vaso-occlusive and thromboembolic disorders. PMID:15567466

  8. 75 FR 34687 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... proposes to recommend that an EFP be issued. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation... of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-S...

  9. 75 FR 19939 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... accordance with the provisions of the Monkfish Research Set-Aside (RSA) Program, would grant exemptions from... methods: Email: NERO.EFP@noaa.gov . Include in the subject line ``Comments on Monkfish RSA Harvest EFP..., Gloucester, MA 01930. Mark the outside of the envelope ``Comments on Monkfish RSA Harvest and Gillnet...

  10. Implementing the Equal Access Act and State Constitutional Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the issue of whether implementation of the Equal Access Act would violate the constitutions of some states that require a stricter separation of church and state than the federal Constitution. (MLF)

  11. 78 FR 54454 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... for comments. SUMMARY: The Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, Northeast.... Dated: August 27, 2013. Kelly Denit, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries,...

  12. 77 FR 24465 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... for comments. SUMMARY: The Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, Northeast.... ] Dated: April 19, 2012. Emily H. Menashes, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries,...

  13. 77 FR 57557 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... for comments. SUMMARY: The Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, Northeast... Fullenkamp, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries...

  14. Sharks senses and shark repellents.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 70 years of research on shark repellents, few practical and reliable solutions to prevent shark attacks on humans or reduce shark bycatch and depredation in commercial fisheries have been developed. In large part, this deficiency stems from a lack of fundamental knowledge of the sensory cues that drive predatory behavior in sharks. However, the widespread use of shark repellents is also hampered by the physical constraints and technical or logistical difficulties of deploying substances or devices in an open-water marine environment to prevent an unpredictable interaction with a complex animal. Here, we summarize the key attributes of the various sensory systems of sharks and highlight residual knowledge gaps that are relevant to the development of effective shark repellents. We also review the most recent advances in shark repellent technology within the broader historical context of research on shark repellents and shark sensory systems. We conclude with suggestions for future research that may enhance the efficacy of shark repellent devices, in particular, the continued need for basic research on shark sensory biology and the use of a multi-sensory approach when developing or deploying shark repellent technology.

  15. Divided by Loyalty: The Debate Regarding Loyalty Provisions in the National Defense Education Act of 1958

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Brent D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958 was the first federal investment in low-interest student loans and became a precedent for expansion of student loans in the Higher Education Act of 1965. In its controversial loyalty provisions, the NDEA required loan recipients to affirm loyalty to the U.S. government. Between 1958 and 1962,…

  16. 76 FR 31941 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine... 10,000 horseshoe crabs from the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve (Reserve) for biomedical... crabs within the reserve. The Acting Director has also made a preliminary determination that...

  17. 76 FR 43745 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Part 648 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Amendment 15 to the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery... Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BA71 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...

  18. 76 FR 16703 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    .... See Notice of Grant Opportunities to States: STEP Grant Program, 76 FR 10082 (Feb. 23, 2011). These... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having... Jobs Act of 2010 (SBJA). On Monday, March 7, 2011, SBA announced a series of public meetings on...

  19. 76 FR 12715 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... non- ] target catch. The proposed work is to meet the following objectives: Catch and bycatch... non-target) will count against the appropriate groundfish sector allocation. No fish below the minimum... Species Act; and gear-specific fish possession restrictions. All non-compliant fish would be discarded...

  20. Implementing the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This handbook provides guidance and assistance to NASA officials in carrying out their responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act and the applicable NASA procedures (14 CFR 1216.3, Attachment A to NMI 8800.7). The handbook, as was contemplated by the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, stresses the need for environmental analysis from the time of early planning through environmental assessment and environmental impact statement preparation to implementation of the subject action, and provides for necessary follow up. It stresses the need for NASA officials to draw upon all the appropriate disciplines from the natural and social sciences plus the environmental design arts in planning and decision making on actions which may have an impact on the human environment. The handbook is applicable to NASA Headquarters and field installations.

  1. Act on employment, 29 December 1989. [Selected provisions].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    In Poland's Act on employment of December 1989, Part 6 of outlines the requirements for employment of Polish citizens by foreign employers and employment of foreigners of Poland. Employment abroad by foreign employers shall be based on: international agreement contracts between citizens and institutions authorized to engage workers on behalf of foreign employers or contracts of employment between citizens and foreign employers. Institutions seeking citizens for work abroad for foreign employers shall obtain permission from the Minister and Labour and Social Policy. Contracts between the institution and the citizen should stipulate: the duration of the employment abroad; the obligations of the worker and employers; reimbursement of costs incurred in connection with the employment, specifically; the cost of departure formalities, insurance against accidents and tropical diseases; and other costs resulting from requests by the person concerned. Work abroad under contract shall count as employment in Poland for the acquisition of workers' rights, based upon the employee's average remuneration while abroad, subject to specified limitations, e.g., documentation of foreign employment and payment of social insurance contributions on the declared income (not lower than the average remuneration) at the rates applicable to workers employed in Poland. Employers may employ foreigners on Polish territory, if so authorized by the voivodship employment service. In granting permission, the service shall take into account the labor market situation, and, when required, shall obtain necessary approval from the applicable professional body. The Scientific Secretary of the Polish Academy of Sciences shall determine the conditions for employment of foreigners by the Academy.

  2. Mental capacity and mental health acts part 2: a gap in statutory provision.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    The revised Mental Health Act 1983 code of practice will have a new chapter providing clearer information about the interface between the Mental Health Act 1983 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Both the House of Commons Health Select Committee (2013) and the House of Lords Mental Capacity Act Committee (2014) have argued that poor understanding of the interface has led to flawed decision making by doctors and nurses. In the second of a series of articles, the author discusses a gap in statutory provision that has been inadvertently created by Parliament's eagerness to avoid a conflict between these statutes in relation to a deprivation of liberty.

  3. Shark scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Close examination of the skin of a fast-swimming shark appears to confirm Langley's aerodynamically efficient Riblet concept. This view magnified 30 times, reveals that projections on the shark skin -dermal denticles- line up to form grooves similar to those that have reduced drag in wind tunnels. L83-9167: Mother Nature's riblet, this shark's dermal denticle has been magnified 3,000 times. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 123), by James Schultz.

  4. Analysis of Selected Provisions of the Domestic Manufacturing and Energy Jobs Act of 2010

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    This report responds to a letter dated August 16, 2010, from Janice Mays, Staff Director of the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Ways and Means, requesting that the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze several provisions included in the July 26, 2010, discussion draft of the Domestic Manufacturing and Energy Jobs Act of 2010.

  5. Recommendations for Choice Program Provisions in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Issue Brief No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition on School Diversity (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This policy brief addresses several key provisions in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act that provide policy support and funding to states and localities seeking to deconcentrate poverty and reduce racial isolation in schools. These "choice" programs which include the Magnet Schools Assistance Program and the Voluntary School Choice…

  6. 75 FR 12141 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... proposed rule for this action was published on October 26, 2009 (74 FR 54945), with public comments... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-AY01 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Monkfish...

  7. 75 FR 81505 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... FMP. The final rule implementing Amendment 1 to the FMP (74 FR 42580, August 24, 2009) established an... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BA42 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Tilefish...

  8. 75 FR 75727 - Implementing the Whistleblower Provisions of Section 23 of the Commodity Exchange Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission'' or ``CFTC'') is proposing rules to implement new statutory provisions enacted by Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. These proposed rules apply to the whistleblowers incentives and protection of section 748. The proposed rules establish a whistleblower program that enables the Commission to pay an......

  9. 26 CFR 3.0 - Statutory provisions; section 607, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statutory provisions; section 607, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended. 3.0 Section 3.0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.0 Statutory...

  10. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Register on September 10, 2012 (77 FR 55457), and thus are not repeated here. Data collected under previous... Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit, 2013 AGENCY: National... 10,000 horseshoe crabs from the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve (Reserve) for...

  11. 75 FR 31421 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... the Federal Register on June 2, 2008 (73 FR 31434), and thus are not repeated here. Data collected... Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit; Horseshoe Crabs AGENCY: National Marine... harvest of up to 10,000 horseshoe crabs from the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve for...

  12. 76 FR 26948 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Federal Register of March 25, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-7135, on page 16703, in the second column, correct the...-0006 must be received on or before June 6, 2011. In the Federal Register of March 25, 2011, in FR Doc... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions...

  13. 75 FR 48920 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... 2011. A notice of intent (NOI) was published in the Federal Register (73 FR 26082, May 8, 2008... impacts of Amendment 4, was published in the Federal Register on December 28, 2009 (74 FR 68577). The... Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic...

  14. 76 FR 71501 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) in the Federal Register (74 FR 67) to notify the... Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes new Federal American lobster regulations that would limit...

  15. 29 CFR 4902.9 - Privacy Act provisions for which PBGC claims an exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act provisions for which PBGC claims an exemption. 4902.9 Section 4902.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... required by statute or executive order of the President. (e) Subsection (e)(2) of 5 U.S.C. 552a requires...

  16. Shark attack.

    PubMed

    Guidera, K J; Ogden, J A; Highhouse, K; Pugh, L; Beatty, E

    1991-01-01

    Shark attacks are rare but devastating. This case had major injuries that included an open femoral fracture, massive hemorrhage, sciatic nerve laceration, and significant skin and muscle damage. The patient required 15 operative procedures, extensive physical therapy, and orthotic assistance. A review of the literature pertaining to shark bites is included.

  17. Shark Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Dia

    2005-01-01

    Oceans are often considered mysterious, fascinating places filled with unique and scary animals. One of the most misunderstood and therefore scariest animals is the shark, yet the whale shark, the world's largest fish, is considered harmless to humans. This student-directed activity involves research, deductive reasoning, and students' own…

  18. Provisions of the Balanced Budget Act challenge IDS care coordination patterns.

    PubMed

    Rovinsky, M

    1999-08-01

    Provisions of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 that focus on postacute services have important ramifications for integrated delivery systems (IDSs) because changes in payment rates for such services create financial incentives to alter patient-flow patterns among acute and postacute care services. In particular, IDSs should understand the provisions of the act that deal with a prospective payment system for skilled nursing services, the definition of a transfer from an acute care hospital, interim and prospective payment systems for home health care, limits imposed by the 1982 Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act for acute rehabilitation providers, a PPS for acute rehabilitation providers, TEFRA limits for long-term acute care, and limits on outpatient therapy services. PMID:10557797

  19. Provisions of Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988 Relating to Drug Law Enforcement. Information Memorandum 89-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, Mary

    This document describes major provisions of the Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988, a federal law relating to enforcement of controlled substances laws which authorizes over two billion dollars for anti-drug activities. Provisions of the Act relating primarily to drug abuse education, prevention or treatment and regulation of the manufacture,…

  20. 78 FR 11023 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... AIA in a separate rulemaking. See Changes To Implement Derivation Proceedings, 77 FR 56068 (Sept. 11... Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR... First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 43759 (July 26,...

  1. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum...

  2. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum...

  3. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum...

  4. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum...

  5. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum...

  6. The Ecological Role of Sharks on Coral Reefs.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Doropoulos, Christopher; Rogers, Alice; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Krueck, Nils C; Aurellado, Eleanor; Priest, Mark; Birrell, Chico; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Sharks are considered the apex predator of coral reefs, but the consequences of their global depletion are uncertain. Here we explore the ecological roles of sharks on coral reefs and, conversely, the importance of reefs for sharks. We find that most reef-associated shark species do not act as apex predators but instead function as mesopredators along with a diverse group of reef fish. While sharks perform important direct and indirect ecological roles, the evidence to support hypothesised shark-driven trophic cascades that benefit corals is weak and equivocal. Coral reefs provide some functional benefits to sharks, but sharks do not appear to favour healthier reef environments. Restoring populations of sharks is important and can yet deliver ecological surprise. PMID:26975420

  7. The Ecological Role of Sharks on Coral Reefs.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Doropoulos, Christopher; Rogers, Alice; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Krueck, Nils C; Aurellado, Eleanor; Priest, Mark; Birrell, Chico; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Sharks are considered the apex predator of coral reefs, but the consequences of their global depletion are uncertain. Here we explore the ecological roles of sharks on coral reefs and, conversely, the importance of reefs for sharks. We find that most reef-associated shark species do not act as apex predators but instead function as mesopredators along with a diverse group of reef fish. While sharks perform important direct and indirect ecological roles, the evidence to support hypothesised shark-driven trophic cascades that benefit corals is weak and equivocal. Coral reefs provide some functional benefits to sharks, but sharks do not appear to favour healthier reef environments. Restoring populations of sharks is important and can yet deliver ecological surprise.

  8. Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Hussey, Nigel E; Turner, John R; Beckett, Alison J

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by "circular-stance-swimming," presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays. PMID:21423796

  9. Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Hussey, Nigel E; Turner, John R; Beckett, Alison J

    2011-03-14

    Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by "circular-stance-swimming," presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays.

  10. Oceanic Sharks Clean at Coastal Seamount

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Hussey, Nigel E.; Turner, John R.; Beckett, Alison J.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by “circular-stance-swimming,” presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays. PMID:21423796

  11. 76 FR 82353 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...In this document, the Commission adopts rules that implement provisions of section 104 of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA), Public Law 111-260, the most significant accessibility legislation since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990. A Proposed Rule relating to implementation of section 718 of the Communications Act......

  12. 77 FR 68768 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Commission Meeting Room at 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. \\1\\ Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act, Order No. 768, 77 FR 61896 (Oct. 11, 2012), FERC Stats... Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the...

  13. 26 CFR 2.1 - Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes. 2.1 Section 2.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1 Statutory provisions; sections 511 and...

  14. 26 CFR 2.1 - Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes. 2.1 Section 2.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1 Statutory provisions; sections 511 and...

  15. 26 CFR 2.1 - Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes. 2.1 Section 2.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1 Statutory provisions; sections 511 and...

  16. 26 CFR 2.1 - Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes. 2.1 Section 2.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1 Statutory provisions; sections 511 and...

  17. 26 CFR 2.1 - Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statutory provisions; sections 511 and 905, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, and related statutes. 2.1 Section 2.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1 Statutory provisions; sections 511 and...

  18. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  19. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  20. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  1. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  2. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  3. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  4. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  5. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  6. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  7. 76 FR 13799 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...In this document, the Commission proposes to adopt rules that implement provisions in section 104 of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA), the most significant piece of accessibility legislation since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990. This proceeding would update and amend the Commission's rules to ensure that individuals......

  8. 77 FR 5677 - Implementing Provisions of the Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the Keystone XL Pipeline Permit #0; #0; #0... Provisions of the Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the Keystone XL Pipeline... requires a determination, within 60 days of enactment, of whether the Keystone XL pipeline project as...

  9. 77 FR 43742 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Declaration Provisions of the Leahy- Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 982, 989-90 (Jan. 6, 2012). Section 1.55... program. See Changes to Implement Priority Document Exchange Between Intellectual Property Offices, 72 FR... Examination Timing Control Procedures Under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 76 FR 59050 (Sept. 23,...

  10. 50 CFR 635.24 - Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial retention limits for sharks and... Management Measures § 635.24 Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish. The retention limits in this section are subject to the quotas and closure provisions in §§ 635.27 and 635.28. (a) Sharks....

  11. The acid precipitation provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and minorities' energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 Congress passed a comprehensive set of amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1977 with potentially very high compliance costs. The provisions pertaining to control of acid precipitation have been specified with sufficient detail to examine their cost impacts. These provisions will require investment in emissions control technology, mainly by electric utilities. Production costs will increase due to the required investment, resulting in higher electricity prices. This paper examines the possible magnitude of these effects and whether there might be differential impacts on racial/ethnic minority groups. Differential impacts were considered a possibility because of the differences in the percentage of total income spent on energy by various population subgroups. In 1989, the Majority group (defined as non-Black, non-Hispanic) spent about three percent of household income on energy, while Blacks spent double that, six percent, and Hispanics spent about four percent. (The differences in income underlying these figures are greater, however, than the differences in energy expenditures). To address these issues, we compare projected electricity consumption and expenditures and total energy expenditures for Black, Hispanic, and Majority households. The distribution of benefits from reducing acid precipitation is not addressed since the possible effects on ambient air quality in specific geographical areas that are directly attributable to reducing utilities' sulfur dioxide emissions are highly uncertain.

  12. The acid precipitation provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and minorities` energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.

    1991-12-31

    In November 1990 Congress passed a comprehensive set of amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1977 with potentially very high compliance costs. The provisions pertaining to control of acid precipitation have been specified with sufficient detail to examine their cost impacts. These provisions will require investment in emissions control technology, mainly by electric utilities. Production costs will increase due to the required investment, resulting in higher electricity prices. This paper examines the possible magnitude of these effects and whether there might be differential impacts on racial/ethnic minority groups. Differential impacts were considered a possibility because of the differences in the percentage of total income spent on energy by various population subgroups. In 1989, the Majority group (defined as non-Black, non-Hispanic) spent about three percent of household income on energy, while Blacks spent double that, six percent, and Hispanics spent about four percent. (The differences in income underlying these figures are greater, however, than the differences in energy expenditures). To address these issues, we compare projected electricity consumption and expenditures and total energy expenditures for Black, Hispanic, and Majority households. The distribution of benefits from reducing acid precipitation is not addressed since the possible effects on ambient air quality in specific geographical areas that are directly attributable to reducing utilities` sulfur dioxide emissions are highly uncertain.

  13. The essential health benefits provisions of the Affordable Care Act: implications for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Teitelbaum, Joel; Hayes, Katherine

    2011-03-01

    In establishing minimum coverage standards for health insurance plans, the Affordable Care Act includes an "essential health benefits" statute that directs the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services not to make coverage decisions, determine reimbursement rates, establish incentive programs, or design benefits in ways that discriminate against individuals because of their age, disability, or expected length of life. This issue brief examines how this statute will help Americans with disabilities, who currently are subject to discrimination by insurers based on health status and health care need. The authors also discuss the complex issues involved in implementing the essential benefits provision and offer recommendations to federal policymakers for ensuring that people with disabilities receive the full insurance benefits to which they are entitled.

  14. Achieving a deeper understanding of the implemented provisions of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang Qin; Polite, Blase N

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Since that time, numerous regulations have been promulgated, legal battles continue to be fought and the major provisions of the law are being implemented. In the following article, we outline components of the ACA that are relevant to cancer health care, review current implementation of the new health care reform law, and identify challenges that may lie ahead in the post-ACA era. Specifically, among the things we explore are Medicaid expansion, health insurance exchanges, essential health benefits and preventive services, subsidies, access to clinical trials, the Medicare Part D donut hole, and physician quality payment reform. PMID:24857142

  15. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in...

  16. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 216 RIN 0648-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries..., in order to provide additional opportunities for the public, foreign nations that export fish...

  17. Educational Rights of Parents under Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Including the Amendments of 1997 (Special Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. Office of Indian Education Programs.

    This pamphlet describes the educational rights of parents provided under provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, including the amendments of 1997. It discusses rights in the following areas: (1) free appropriate public education; (2) prior notice to parents, including a list of the information required to be in a notice that…

  18. Summary of major provisions of Title 1 of the Energy Security Act (p. l. 96-294)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Provisions of Title I of the Act establishing the Synthetic Fuels Corporation are explained. An outline of the purpose of the Corporation; its powers, goals and strategy; types of financial assistance that can be provided; and its relationship with the Department of the Treasury are included.

  19. 77 FR 46615 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 77 FR 442 (Jan. 5, 2012). The Office received... with the control test discussed in Practice Guide for Proposed Trial Rules, 77 FR 6868, 6870- 71 (Feb... Review of Patent Trial and Appeal Board Decisions, 77 FR 6879, 6883-84 (Feb. 9, 2012) (``Board...

  20. 77 FR 442 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Leahy-Smith America Invents... considered in ex parte reexamination, inter partes review, and post grant review. The Leahy-Smith...

  1. 45 CFR 1050.3 - What conditions apply to the Charitable Choice provisions of the CSBG Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Block Grant, 42 U.S.C. 9901, et seq. Additionally, these provisions apply whenever an intermediate... accepted auditing and accounting principles, for the use of such funds. In addition, religious... all of the commingled funds. (h) If a nongovernmental intermediate organization, acting under a...

  2. 77 FR 70166 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases; Establishment of a Public Docket AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is establishing a...

  3. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Provisions Related to Children with Disabilities Enrolled by Their Parents in Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" ("IDEA") is a federal law that requires each state to ensure that a free appropriate public education (FAPE) is available to all eligible children with disabilities residing in that state. This publication explains the provisions related to, and benefits available to, children with disabilities…

  4. Affordable Care Act Provision Had Similar, Positive Impacts For Young Adults With And Without Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Shirley L; Huang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Beginning in 2010 the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed young adults (ages 19-25) to remain on their parents' private health insurance plans, even if they were not full-time students. This study investigated the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for young adults with disabilities, comparing their experience with that of young adults without disabilities and that of a group of older adults (ages 26-34) with disabilities. We analyzed the periods 2006-09 and 2011-14, which were before and after implementation of the dependent coverage provision in the ACA, respectively. Coverage gains for older adults with disabilities were entirely attributable to changes in public insurance. Gains for young adults overall were driven by changes in private insurance. Both young adults with and without disabilities experienced a 4-percentage-point increase in private health insurance coverage between the two time periods, so the gap in private coverage between the two groups did not change significantly over time. Gains in coverage affected perhaps 2.9 million young adults overall and nearly 300,000 young adults with disabilities. PMID:27140994

  5. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  6. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  7. Affordable Care Act Provision Had Similar, Positive Impacts For Young Adults With And Without Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Shirley L; Huang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Beginning in 2010 the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed young adults (ages 19-25) to remain on their parents' private health insurance plans, even if they were not full-time students. This study investigated the impact of the ACA on health insurance coverage for young adults with disabilities, comparing their experience with that of young adults without disabilities and that of a group of older adults (ages 26-34) with disabilities. We analyzed the periods 2006-09 and 2011-14, which were before and after implementation of the dependent coverage provision in the ACA, respectively. Coverage gains for older adults with disabilities were entirely attributable to changes in public insurance. Gains for young adults overall were driven by changes in private insurance. Both young adults with and without disabilities experienced a 4-percentage-point increase in private health insurance coverage between the two time periods, so the gap in private coverage between the two groups did not change significantly over time. Gains in coverage affected perhaps 2.9 million young adults overall and nearly 300,000 young adults with disabilities.

  8. An Act to extend expiring provisions of the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 and Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 until February 28, 2011.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Dingell, John D. [D-MI-15

    2009-10-29

    02/27/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-141. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Title on passage: To extend expiring provisions of the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 and Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 until February 28, 2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. A Guide to Child-Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act as Amended in 1966. Child Labor Bulletin No. 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This amended guide to the Child-Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act contains general information useful to employers and coordinators of cooperative and work experience programs involving employment of youth under 18 years of age. Included in the document are provisions relating to: (1) age standards, (2) coverage of the Act, (3)…

  10. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. 49.5... additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as... for which it would be inappropriate to treat tribes in general in the same manner as States....

  11. 78 FR 23733 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... responsible management. On May 8, 2008 (73 FR 26082), the Council published a notice of intent (NOI) to... were to be considered in Amendment 5. A supplementary NOI was published on December 28, 2009, (74 FR... system (VMS) power-down provision for limited access herring vessels, consistent with VMS provisions...

  12. Shark Tagging Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  13. Water transfer and major environmental provisions of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act: A preliminary economic evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John B.

    1994-06-01

    Increasing block water pricing, water transfer, and wildlife refuge water supply provisions of the Central Valley Project (CVP) Improvement Act are analyzed in terms of likely farmer response and economic efficiency of these provisions. Based on a simplified partial equilibrium analysis, we estimate small, but significant water conservation savings due to pricing reform, the potential for substantial water transfers to non-CVP customers in severe drought years when the water price exceeds 110 per acre foot (1 acre foot equals 1.234 × 103 m3) and positive net benefits for implementation of the wildlife refuge water supply provisions. The high threshold water price is partly a result of requiring farmers to pay full cost on transferred water plus a surcharge of 25 per acre foot if the water is transferred to a non-CVP user. The act also sets an important precedent for water pricing reform, water transfer provisions, and environmental surcharges on water users that may find their way to other Bureau of Reclamation projects.

  14. 78 FR 19797 - Designation & Determination Pursuant to the Foreign Missions Act; Concerning the Provision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Services for Visas, Passports and Similar Documents by Private Entities to Foreign Missions in the United... United States abroad, I hereby designate the provision of application services with respect to...

  15. The Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act of 1971: Legislative History and Analysis of Major Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Janet

    The Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act of 1971 significantly amends the Health Professions Educational Assistance Programs contained in the Public Health Service Act. Originally authorized by the Health Professions Education Assistance Act of 1963, the programs provide Federal financial assistance to schools of medicine, osteopathy,…

  16. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tribal requests for additional Clean... TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.5 Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act... request that the Administrator specify additional provisions of the Clean Air Act for which it would...

  17. 26 CFR 303.1 - Statutory provisions; section 36, Trading With the Enemy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Alien Property Custodian by specific provision of existing law shall not be affected by this section... Alien Property Custodian of any property or interest (other than any property or interest acquired by... United States Government or of any instrumentality of the United States. (b) The Alien Property...

  18. 76 FR 43376 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ..._Treasury_Order_ICE_Extension_ (12-7-09).pdf. \\14\\ 75 FR 4626, January 28, 2010 Order Granting a Temporary...\\ 74 FR 10647, March 11, 2009 Order Granting Temporary Exemptions from Certain Provisions of the... temporarily exempted from the regulations in 17 CFR parts 402, 403, 404, and 405 with exceptions. \\13\\ 74...

  19. 78 FR 19367 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... should be sent to John K. Bullard, Regional Administrator, National Marine Fisheries Service, 55 Great... 2011, a Court order in Oceana v. Locke required that reactive AMs be developed for all of the stocks... the NE Multispecies ACE provides additional detail on this provision (78 FR 16220, March 14, 2013)....

  20. 75 FR 80720 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... 68015 and 75 FR 18113, respectively). This exemption is approved for seven additional sectors: Northeast... Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Final Rule to... regulations to some or all Northeast (NE) multispecies sector operations plans that were previously...

  1. 26 CFR 3.0 - Statutory provisions; section 607, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.0 Statutory provisions... capital construction fund (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “fund”) with respect to any or... capital loss and without regard to this section) which is attributable to the operation of the...

  2. 75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...: The proposed rule that published on November 3, 2010 (75 FR 67810), establishes the 2011-2012 harvest... National Standard 1 Guidelines (74 FR 3178, January 16, 2009). The proposed rule published in the Federal... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Comment Period...

  3. 76 FR 79612 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Amendment 13 to the Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery Management Plan (FMP) (69 FR 22906; April 27, 2004... approved in Framework Adjustment (FW) 42 (71 FR 62156; October 23, 2006). Amendment 16 (74 FR 18262; April... provisions of the NE Multispecies FMP, and the only entities allocated and authorized to transfer a...

  4. Fiduciary Provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, John J.

    1976-01-01

    The legislative history of the fiduciary provisions are reviewed along with types of plans within the scope of ERISA. Basic fiduciary responsibilities are outlined, as are prohibited transactions, civil and co-fiduciary liability, and delegation of investment responsibility. For journal availability see HE 508 741. (LBH)

  5. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tribal requests for additional Clean... additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. Any tribe may request that the Administrator specify additional provisions of the Clean Air...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec. 141 (42 U.S.C. 2161), Sec...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec. 141 (42 U.S.C. 2161), Sec. 145 (42 U.S.C. 2165), Sec. 161 (42 U.S.C. 2201) A Appendix A to... to Subpart A of Part 710—Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec....

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec. 141 (42 U.S.C. 2161), Sec...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec. 141 (42 U.S.C. 2161), Sec. 145 (42 U.S.C. 2165), Sec. 161 (42 U.S.C. 2201) A Appendix A to... to Subpart A of Part 710—Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec....

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec. 141 (42 U.S.C. 2161), Sec...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec. 141 (42 U.S.C. 2161), Sec. 145 (42 U.S.C. 2165), Sec. 161 (42 U.S.C. 2201) A Appendix A to... to Subpart A of Part 710—Selected Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as Amended, Sec....

  9. Children, Families, and Disparities: Pediatric Provisions in the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Grace, Aimee M; Horn, Ivor; Hall, Robert; Cheng, Tina L

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has caused and continues to cause sweeping changes throughout the health system in the United States. Poorly explained, complex, controversial, confusing, and subject to continuous legal and regulatory definition, the law stands as a hallmark piece of legislation that will change the health sector in America forever. This article summarizes the Affordable Care Act with a focus on children, families, and disparities. Also provided is the context of the current system of health care coverage in the United States.

  10. Children, Families, and Disparities: Pediatric Provisions in the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Grace, Aimee M; Horn, Ivor; Hall, Robert; Cheng, Tina L

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has caused and continues to cause sweeping changes throughout the health system in the United States. Poorly explained, complex, controversial, confusing, and subject to continuous legal and regulatory definition, the law stands as a hallmark piece of legislation that will change the health sector in America forever. This article summarizes the Affordable Care Act with a focus on children, families, and disparities. Also provided is the context of the current system of health care coverage in the United States. PMID:26318953

  11. Workforce Investment Act Youth Provisions and School-to-Work Opportunities: A Context for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, D.

    This document is intended to help existing school-to-work (STW) partnerships and the new local work force investment boards understand the opportunities for achieving common ground to better serve youth during implementation of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and formation of the new youth councils. The following are among the topics discussed:…

  12. 75 FR 34092 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Weakfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Coastal Act). DATES: The deadline for written comments on the May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26703), proposed rule is... Federal Register (75 FR 26703) with a 30-day comment period that ended on June 11, 2010. NMFS received a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-AY41 Atlantic Coastal...

  13. 76 FR 23076 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XY55 Magnuson-Stevens Act...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... February 28, 2011 (76 FR 10852), with public comments accepted through March 15, 2011. After review of...

  14. 78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action... for most species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580..., Indian Fisheries. Dated: May 1, 2013. Kara Meckley, Acting Deputy Director, Office of...

  15. 26 CFR 303.1 - Statutory provisions; section 36, Trading With the Enemy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provided in title II of the Social Security Act with respect to service performed in the employ of the.... Executive Order 9788, approved October 14, 1946 (3 CFR 1943-1948 Comp., p. 575) By virtue of the authority... under his direction and control by such offices and agencies of the Department of Justice as he...

  16. Legal Report: Implementation of the Legalization Provisions under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isgro, Francesco

    1987-01-01

    This article examines the eligibility requirements and outlines the procedures for applying for legalization under the new Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. The law as Congress passed it is a liberal one, but there is still room for flexibility in the interpretation of the regulations. (Author/VM)

  17. 77 FR 69517 - Order Granting Exmeptions From Specified Provisions of the Securities Exchange Act and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... reasons why, in good faith, it could not file such report, schedule or form on a timely basis. II... furnish proxy statements, annual reports and other soliciting materials, as applicable (the ``Soliciting... statements and annual reports, as applicable (the ``Information Materials''), under Exchange Act Rules...

  18. 75 FR 67809 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... consistent with the revised National Standard 1 Guidelines (74 FR 3178, January 16, 2009). DATES: Comments..., NMFS adopted revisions to its guidelines implementing Magnuson-Stevens Act National Standard 1 (74 FR... court order (75 FR 38030). The court further ordered NMFS to publish new specifications within one...

  19. 76 FR 19929 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Amendment 15 (73 FR 11888, March 5, 2008) and prepare an EIS to analyze the impacts of the proposed... AM in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), 5 U.S.C. 553 et seq., after considering... (Joint Framework 16/39) (69 FR 63460, November 2, 2004). With inconsistent areas, the scallop...

  20. 78 FR 54442 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... fields, and enter or attach your comments. Fax: (978) 281-9135, Attn: Comments on Recreational Omnibus... publicly accessible. NMFS will accept anonymous comments (enter ``N/A'' in the required fields if you wish... modifying the annual catch target (ACT) process to more formally consider incorporating uncertainty...

  1. 76 FR 42577 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... (Magnuson-Stevens Act); NMFS is implementing changes made to the dockside monitoring program (DSM), not... the measures adopted by the Council was published in the Federal Register on May 2, 2011 (76 FR 24444... 9, 2010 (75 FR 18262 and 75 FR 18356, respectively), and became effective on May 1, 2010. FW 45...

  2. 59 FR- Food Stamp Program: Certification Provisions of the Mickey Leland Childhood Hunger Relief Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-08-30

    ... Parents Participating in Drug or Alcohol Treatment Programs Under section 3(i) of the Food Stamp Act, food... children living with residents of alcohol or drug treatment centers are not eligible if the center provides... regulation, there have been changes in some drug and alcohol treatment centers' policy regarding addicts...

  3. 75 FR 33570 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fishing Capacity Reduction Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... document is also accessible via the Internet at www.gpoaccess.gov/fr . I. Statutory and Regulatory... programs were published as an interim final rule on May 18, 2000 (65 FR 31430) and codified as subpart L to... Conservation and Management (Magnuson-Stevens) Reauthorization Act of 2007. A reduction program pays...

  4. 76 FR 11857 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... May 1, 2004 (April 27, 2004; 69 FR 22906), which included the establishment of rebuilding programs for..., with the implementation of Amendment 16 (April 9, 2010; 75 FR 18262). Amendment 16 updated status... by the Magnuson-Stevens Act. 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. In another action, FW 44 (April 9, 2010; 75...

  5. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Malcom, Jacob W; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-12-29

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act's prohibitions on "jeopardizing" listed species or "destroying or adversely modifying" these species' critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations.

  6. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act.

    PubMed

    Malcom, Jacob W; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-12-29

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act's prohibitions on "jeopardizing" listed species or "destroying or adversely modifying" these species' critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations. PMID:26668392

  7. Act of 4 July 1989 amending certain provisions relating to the crime of rape.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Belgian Act does the following with respect to the crime of rape: 1) enlarges the definition of rape to include "any kind of act of sexual penetration committed by any means on a person who does not consent"; 2) increases the penalties for crimes involving indecent assault or rape in cases such as those involving the death of the victim, violence, torture, or illegal confinement, or advantage taken with respect to the mental or physical weakness of the victim; 3) creates the crime of publication or dissemination through the media of the identity of the victim without the approval of the victim or the examining magistrate; and 4) allows the victim or one of the parties to request that legal proceedings be held in camera.

  8. 75 FR 4805 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Stats. & Regs. ] 31,260, at P 32 (2007), order on reh'g, Order No. 704-A, 73 FR 55726 (Sept. 26, 2008... Act, Order No. 720, 73 FR 73494 (Dec. 2, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,283, at P 3 (2008), order on.... ] 31,261 (2007), order on reh'g and clarification, Order No. 890-B, 73 FR 39092 (Jul. 8, 2008),...

  9. Impacts of Modeled Provisions of H.R. 6 EH: The Energy Policy Act of 2005

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a May 2, 2005, request by Chairman Pete Domenici and Ranking Member Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for an assessment of the energy supply, consumption, import, price, and macroeconomic impacts of H.R. 6 EH, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, as passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on April 21, 2005.

  10. Data contradict common perceptions about a controversial provision of the US Endangered Species Act

    PubMed Central

    Malcom, Jacob W.; Li, Ya-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Separating myth and reality is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of laws. Section 7 of the US Endangered Species Act (Act) directs federal agencies to help conserve threatened and endangered species, including by consulting with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service on actions the agencies authorize, fund, or carry out. Consultations ensure that actions do not violate the Act’s prohibitions on “jeopardizing” listed species or “destroying or adversely modifying” these species’ critical habitat. Because these prohibitions are broad, many people consider section 7 the primary tool for protecting species under the Act, whereas others believe section 7 severely impedes economic development. This decades-old controversy is driven primarily by the lack of data on implementation: past analyses are either over 25 y old or taxonomically restricted. We analyze data on all 88,290 consultations recorded by FWS from January 2008 through April 2015. In contrast to conventional wisdom about section 7 implementation, no project was stopped or extensively altered as a result of FWS finding jeopardy or adverse modification during this period. We also show that median consultation duration is far lower than the maximum allowed by the Act, and several factors drive variation in consultation duration. The results discredit many of the claims about the onerous nature of section 7 but also raise questions as to how federal agencies could apply this tool more effectively to conserve species. We build on the results to identify ways to improve the effectiveness of consultations for imperiled species conservation and increase the efficiency of consultations. PMID:26668392

  11. Public Support for Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act Point-of-Sale Provisions: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L.; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Methods. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Results. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors’ access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Conclusions. Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment. PMID:26270303

  12. General Labour Code (Act No. 2 of 1986), 5 April 1986. [Selected provisions].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Guinea-Bissau's General Labor Code, Act No. 2 of 1986, requires that employers adopt non-discriminatory procedures in dealing with their employees, disallowing discrimination based on gender, race, national origin, religion, political ideology or inclination, or on whether or not an employee is affiliated to a worker's union. Women are guaranteed equality with men in work opportunity and employment treatment; they are assured access to any type of job, profession, or position which does not pose any potential or actual threat to their genetic functioning. Additional legislation shall establish the conditions and prohibitions for contracting woman for heavy labor, for jobs performed under insalubrious conditions, for underground work, and for other types of jobs which might endanger a woman's genetic functioning. Job offers must not discriminate, unless the restrictions or specifications are essential to the nature of the job, rendering the job qualitatively differentiable when performed by a man or a woman. The employer must ensure that female workers have the same job opportunity and treatment for professional training and career development. Different specific job categories may not be created for men and women if a woman's salary is inferior to that of a man performing equivalent work in a corresponding professional category. Protection during pregnancy and delivery guarantees a woman the right to decline medically inadvisable tasks without loss of wages; to decline overtime work; to be absent from work when necessary for maternal medical care without loss of wages; to interrupt daily work to nurse her children for 1 hour or 2 for half-hour periods for up to 1 year without the loss of wages. Every female employee has the right to 60 days pregnancy and maternity leave, without loss of wages, for whatever clinical type of delivery, including for still births and for births where the infant died shortly thereafter.

  13. Organic Act No. 3/1989 updating the Penal Code, 21 June 1989. [Selected provisions].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Spain's Organic Act No. 3/1989 updating the Penal Code, June 21, 1989, prohibits public officials from soliciting sex from a person who, independently or through her spouse, spouse-like partner, ascendant, descendant, brother, or person related in the same degree, has business involving that official. A prison official who solicits sex from a person in his custody or any relative of that person, shall be punished with minor imprisonment. He who habitually and for any reason perpetrates physical violence against his spouse, child, or persons similarly situated to him, shall be punished with grand imprisonment. Free and express consent given by competent adults exempts parties from penal liability for organ transplants, sterilizations, or transsexual surgery. Sterilization of an incompetent person shall not be punished when the incompetent person suffers from serious mental deficiency and a judge has authorized the sterilization under specified conditions. A person commits the crime of rape, punishable with minor imprisonment, if he had carnal access to another person by vaginal, anal, or oral means using force or intimidation, or when the person lacks full faculties or is in an impaired condition, or when the person is under 12 of age, despite the absence of the above circumstances. Sexual aggression accomplished under the above circumstances shall be punished with minor imprisonment and a fine. If the aggression includes the use of objects or brutal, degrading, or harassing means, methods or instruments, the punishment shall be grand imprisonment. Whoever fails to fulfill support obligations shall be punished with grand imprisonment and a fine when there is malicious abandonment of the marital home or disorderly conduct; the Court may terminate parental authority. Those allowing the use of minors under age 16 in the practice of beggary shall be punished with grand imprisonment. Failure to perform parental duties or comply with court orders shall be punished. PMID

  14. Organic Act No. 3/1989 updating the Penal Code, 21 June 1989. [Selected provisions].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Spain's Organic Act No. 3/1989 updating the Penal Code, June 21, 1989, prohibits public officials from soliciting sex from a person who, independently or through her spouse, spouse-like partner, ascendant, descendant, brother, or person related in the same degree, has business involving that official. A prison official who solicits sex from a person in his custody or any relative of that person, shall be punished with minor imprisonment. He who habitually and for any reason perpetrates physical violence against his spouse, child, or persons similarly situated to him, shall be punished with grand imprisonment. Free and express consent given by competent adults exempts parties from penal liability for organ transplants, sterilizations, or transsexual surgery. Sterilization of an incompetent person shall not be punished when the incompetent person suffers from serious mental deficiency and a judge has authorized the sterilization under specified conditions. A person commits the crime of rape, punishable with minor imprisonment, if he had carnal access to another person by vaginal, anal, or oral means using force or intimidation, or when the person lacks full faculties or is in an impaired condition, or when the person is under 12 of age, despite the absence of the above circumstances. Sexual aggression accomplished under the above circumstances shall be punished with minor imprisonment and a fine. If the aggression includes the use of objects or brutal, degrading, or harassing means, methods or instruments, the punishment shall be grand imprisonment. Whoever fails to fulfill support obligations shall be punished with grand imprisonment and a fine when there is malicious abandonment of the marital home or disorderly conduct; the Court may terminate parental authority. Those allowing the use of minors under age 16 in the practice of beggary shall be punished with grand imprisonment. Failure to perform parental duties or comply with court orders shall be punished.

  15. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 310 - Provisions of the Privacy Act From Which a General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed D Appendix D to Part 310 National Defense Department of.... 310, App. D Appendix D to Part 310—Provisions of the Privacy Act From Which a General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed (See paragraph (d) of § 310.26 ) Exemptions (j)(2) (k) (1-7) Section of the...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 310 - Provisions of the Privacy Act From Which a General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Provisions of the Privacy Act From Which a General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed D Appendix D to Part 310 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 310 - Provisions of the Privacy Act From Which a General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Provisions of the Privacy Act From Which a General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed D Appendix D to Part 310 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 310 - Provisions of the Privacy Act From Which a General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Provisions of the Privacy Act From Which a General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed D Appendix D to Part 310 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9005 - Statutory provisions; section 2 of the Act of September 26, 1961 (Pub. L. 87-321, 75 Stat. 683).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statutory provisions; section 2 of the Act of September 26, 1961 (Pub. L. 87-321, 75 Stat. 683). 1.9005 Section 1.9005 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005...

  20. No Child Left Behind Act: Improvements Needed in Education's Process for Tracking States' Implementation of Key Provisions. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-04-734

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickok, Eugene W.

    2004-01-01

    To provide information about states' efforts to track implementation of key provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA), this study examined: state goals for student proficiency and their implications for whether schools will meet those goals; factors that facilitated or impeded state and school district implementation efforts; and how the…

  1. Accountability for the Results of Educating Students with Disabilities: Assessment Conference Report on the New Assessment Provisions of the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kozleski, Elizabeth; Reschly, Daniel

    Based on the findings of a 1998 conference on the new assessment and accountability requirements in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), this report discusses critical issues that surround the assessment provisions included in the 1997 IDEA amendments and contains recommendations related to state and district-wide assessments…

  2. Federal regulation comes to private health care financing: the group health insurance provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996.

    PubMed

    Rovner, J A

    1998-01-01

    Attorney Rovner presents a very detailed accounting of the impacts of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act as it relates to group health insurance including provisions that concern pre-existing conditions, special enrollment rights, premium discrimination, maternity lengths of stay, parity for mental health benefits and small groups coverage. The article concludes with a discussion of the federalism question as it relates to regulation of private market health financing.

  3. Sojourner, Wedge, & Shark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) image taken near the end of daytime operations on Sol 50 shows the Sojourner rover between the rocks 'Wedge' (foreground) and 'Shark' (behind rover). The rover successfully deployed its Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer on Shark on Sol 52.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  4. Principals' Responses to the Teacher Quality Provision of the No Child Left behind Act of 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Michael Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Since the passage of the No Child Left Behind legislation in 2002, principals have been held accountable for fulfilling a segment of it known as the Teacher Quality provision. This study examines how principals with varying levels of capacity to address the problem were either successful or unsuccessful in meeting the mandate using a wide variety…

  5. Turbulent Flows Over Three-Dimensional Shark Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Wen, Li; Lauder, George; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-11-01

    Shark skin is covered with thousands of small tooth-like structures called denticles. It has long been hypothesized that denticles act as riblets do in a turbulent boundary layer and help reduce friction drag and enhance shark swimming efficiency. We employ the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method (Ge and Sotiropoulos, J. Comp. Physics, 2008) to carry out high-resolution large eddy simulations of turbulent flow past a series of anatomically realistic shark denticles mounted on a flat plate. The denticle shapes used in our simulations were obtained by scanning Mako Short Fin shark skin with micro-CT. The computed results are analyzed to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of the flow past the denticles and identify possible drag reduction mechanics. Drag measurements obtained in a laboratory flume for various denticle spacings and arrangements are also reported and analyzed in tandem with the LES results to explore similarities between shark skin and engineered riblets. Computational Resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  6. 17 CFR 260.4d-7 - Application for exemption from one or more provisions of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for exemption from...) Three copies of every application for an order under section 304(d) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 77ddd(d)) and... a natural person seeking exemption under section 304(d) of the Act. (c) Such applications shall...

  7. 3 CFR - Implementing Provisions of the Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cut Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the Keystone XL Pipeline Permit Presidential Documents Other... Continuation Act of 2011 Relating to the Keystone XL Pipeline Permit Memorandum for the Secretary of State The... whether the Keystone XL pipeline project as set forth in the permit application filed on September...

  8. H.R. 474: A Bill to repeal provisions of the Clean Air Act dealing with acid rain. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The text of this proposed legislation reads as follows: `Section 1. Repeal of Clean Air Act provisions relating to Acid Rain. Title IV of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 and following), relating to acid deposition control, is hereby repealed.`

  9. Recovery Act: Planned Efforts and Challenges in Evaluating Compliance with Maintenance of Effort and Similar Provisions. Report to the Republican Leader, U.S. Senate. GAO-10-247

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodaro, Gene L.

    2009-01-01

    To help prevent the substitution of federal funds for state, local, or private funds, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) contains maintenance of effort and similar provisions requiring that recipients maintain certain levels of spending for selected programs. This report provides information on selected programs in…

  10. Older Americans Act Amendments of 1987: A Summary of Provisions. Public Law 100-175. An Information Paper Prepared for Use by the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, 100th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Carol

    The Older American Act Amendments of 1987 (Public Law 100-175) contain no major overhaul of the Act, but new provisions do significantly expand certain service components of the state and area agency on aging program under title III to address the special needs of certain populations, including the frail elderly living at home, residents of…

  11. 77 FR 24632 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... of the Act requires web browsers included on mobile phones to be accessible to and usable by... FR 82354, December 30, 2011, are effective April 25, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rosaline...'s Report and Order, FCC 11-151, published at 76 FR 82354, December 30, 2011. The OMB Control...

  12. Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we…

  13. 78 FR 17611 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... On July 9, 2012, President Obama signed the Food and Drug Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Pub. L... Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the U.S. Senate and the Committee on Energy and... these new sections. On November 23, 2012 (77 FR 70166), FDA issued a Federal Register...

  14. 26 CFR 302.1 - Statutory provisions and Executive order; section 212 of the International Claims Settlement Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to effectuate this section. Statutes of limitations on assessments, collection, refund, or credit of... assessment; and also any interest, penalty, additional amount, or addition thereto not arising from any act, omission, neglect, failure, or delay on the part of the designee. EXECUTIVE ORDER 10644, APPROVED...

  15. Disciplining Students with Disabilities: A Historical Legal Analysis of the Disciplinary Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Charles Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Disciplining students with disabilities has been a controversial issue among school officials, parents, and other members of school communities for many years. Federal law guiding administrative practice is codified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA), a lengthy, cumbersome, and sometimes difficult to understand…

  16. A Discussion of the Expenditure Cap Provision of the New Jersey Public School Education Act of 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Larry

    The New Jersey legislature passed the Public School Education Act of 1975 in response to a 1973 state supreme court decision that New Jersey's school finance system was unconstitutional. That decision was based on the court's conclusion that the New Jersey Constitution commands the state to provide an equal educational opportunity to all children…

  17. 45 CFR 1050.3 - What conditions apply to the Charitable Choice provisions of the CSBG Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... receives funds under an applicable program, shall not, in providing program services or benefits... HUMAN SERVICES CHARITABLE CHOICE UNDER THE COMMUNITY SERVICES BLOCK GRANT ACT PROGRAMS § 1050.3 What... provide awards, contracts, or other assistance under any program authorized in the Community...

  18. 76 FR 13495 - Extending Provisions of the International Organizations Immunities Act to the Office of the High...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 8, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-5903 Filed 3-10-11; 11:15 am] Billing code... Organizations Immunities Act to the Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the... Bosnia and Herzegovina and the International Civilian Office in Kosovo By the authority vested in me...

  19. 45 CFR 1050.3 - What conditions apply to the Charitable Choice provisions of the CSBG Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES CHARITABLE CHOICE UNDER THE COMMUNITY SERVICES BLOCK GRANT ACT PROGRAMS § 1050.3 What... provide awards, contracts, or other assistance under any program authorized in the Community Services... entity selects nongovernmental organizations to provide assistance under any of the programs...

  20. Laminar separation control effects of shortfin mako shark skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Michael Thomas

    Shark skin is investigated as a means of laminar flow separation control due to its preferential flow direction as well as the potential for scales to erect and obstruct low-momentum backflow resulting from an adverse pressure gradient acting on the boundary layer. In this study, the effect of the scales on flow reversal is observed in laminar flow conditions. This is achieved by comparing the flow over a pectoral fin from a shortfin mako shark to that over the same fin that is painted to neutralize the effect of the scales on the flow. The effect of the scales on flow reversal is also observed by comparing the flow over a smooth PVC cylinder to that over the same cylinder with samples of mako shark skin affixed to the entire circumference of the cylinder. These samples were taken from the flank region of the shark because the scales at this location have been shown to have the greatest angle of erection compared to the scales on the rest of the shark's body. Scales at this location have an average crown length of 220 microm with a maximum bristling angle of proximately 50 degrees. Because these scales have the highest bristling angle, they have the best potential for separation control. All data was taken using time-resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. The flow over the pectoral fin was analyzed at multiple angles of attack. It was found that the shark skin had the effect of decreasing the size of the separated region over both the pectoral fin and the cylinder as well as decreasing the magnitudes of the reversing flow found in these regions. For all Reynolds numbers tested, drag reduction over 28% was found when applying the sharkskin to the cylinder.

  1. Expanded niche for white sharks.

    PubMed

    Boustany, Andre M; Davis, Scott F; Pyle, Peter; Anderson, Scot D; Le Boeuf, Burney J; Block, Barbara A

    2002-01-01

    Until the advent of electronic tagging technology, the inherent difficulty of studying swift and powerful marine animals made ecological information about sharks of the family Lamnidae difficult to obtain. Here we report the tracking of movements of white sharks by using pop-up satellite archival tags, which reveal that their migratory movements, depth and ambient thermal ranges are wider than was previously thought. PMID:11780105

  2. Trends in visibility, PM{sub 2.5}, and deposition expected from the Acid Rain Provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, J.D.; Hanson, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) are designed to reduce the deposition of SO{sub 2} and sulfate and, to a lesser extent, the deposition of NO{sub x} and nitrate through reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. However, other important benefits are anticipated from the emission control strategies, including improvement of regional visibility and reductions in concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5). In this study, the authors coupled utility emissions forecasts with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model and the Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) to calculate and compare the relative improvements by 2010 in visual impairment, PM2.5 concentrations, and sulfate wet deposition at selected sites in the eastern United States.

  3. Understanding and informing policy implementation: a case study of the domestic violence provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P

    2006-06-01

    The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we designed a case study and collected data from in-depth, key informant interviews, court observations, and relevant documents. We present findings from this study and recommend how to increase the likelihood that policies designed to separate batterers and guns are implemented in a way that will result in greater protections for victims of domestic violence. PMID:16679500

  4. Alcohol fuels tax incentives. A summary: alcohol fuels provisions of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This document presents tax incentive information pertaining to alcohol fuels production as provided by the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act of 1980. Significant tax incentives for producers, blenders, marketers, and users of alcohol fuels are included. Discussed are: the 4% excise taxes exemption; income tax credits; energy investment tax credit for biomass; alcohol fuel plant operating permits; tax exempt bonds for alcohol fuel from solid wastes; state financing of renewable energy property; the study of imported alcohol; and annual reports on alcohol fuels.

  5. Sojourner's APXS at Shark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Sojourner rover is seen next to the rock 'Shark', in this image taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) near the end of daytime operations on Sol 52. The rover's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer is deployed against the rock. The rock 'Wedge' is in the foreground.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  6. Shark Conservation: An Educational Approach Based on Children’s Knowledge and Perceptions toward Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sau Ying; Lee, Yeung Chung; Ip, Brian Ho Yeung; Cheang, Chi Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Shark conservation has become a focus of current international conservation efforts. However, the misunderstanding of sharks and their negative public portrayal may hinder their conservation. More importantly, the consumption of shark fin, which is very common in Chinese cultures, poses a significant threat to sharks. Hong Kong has long been the world’s largest shark fin trading center. Shark conservation would become more sustainable if public understanding of this predatory fish and an appreciation of its ecological significance could be promoted. It is possible that the demand for fins could be effectively managed through long-term educational efforts targeted at younger generations. To provide essential baseline data for planning of these educational efforts, this project investigated the perceptions of 11 to 12 year-old primary school students in Hong Kong about sharks, and their understanding of ecological concepts and shark-related knowledge. The findings indicate that these students lack sufficient knowledge and possess misconceptions about sharks and their ecological significance in the marine ecosystem. The students’ conceptual understanding level is strongly correlated with their perceptions. Correlational analyses further demonstrated a positive association between formal education and perceptions toward shark conservation. The students who favoured shark fin consumption did so because of its tastiness, whereas concerns about shark population decline and the cruelty of shark hunting were the main reasons for not favoring shark fin consumption. This pilot study provides preliminary but important insights into primary school education regarding the conservation of sharks. PMID:27684706

  7. Characteristics of the shark fisheries of Fiji.

    PubMed

    Glaus, Kerstin B J; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; White, William T; Brunnschweiler, Juerg M

    2015-12-02

    Limited information is available on artisanal and subsistence shark fisheries across the Pacific. The aim of this study was to investigate Fiji's inshore fisheries which catch sharks. In January and February 2013, 253 semi-directive interviews were conducted in 117 villages and at local harbours on Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Ovalau and a number of islands of the Mamanuca and Yasawa archipelagos. Of the 253 interviewees, 81.4% reported to presently catch sharks, and 17.4% declared that they did not presently catch any sharks. Of the 206 fishers that reported to catch sharks, 18.4% targeted sharks and 81.6% caught sharks as bycatch. When targeted, primary use of sharks was for consumption or for sale. Sharks caught as bycatch were frequently released (69.6%), consumed (64.9%) or shared amongst the community (26.8%). Fishers' identification based on an identification poster and DNA barcoding revealed that at least 12 species of elasmobranchs, 11 shark and one ray species (Rhynchobatus australiae) were caught. This study, which is the first focused exploration of the shark catch in Fiji's inshore fisheries, suggests that the country's artisanal shark fisheries are small but have the potential to develop into larger and possibly more targeted fisheries.

  8. Characteristics of the shark fisheries of Fiji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaus, Kerstin B. J.; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; White, William T.; Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.

    2015-12-01

    Limited information is available on artisanal and subsistence shark fisheries across the Pacific. The aim of this study was to investigate Fiji’s inshore fisheries which catch sharks. In January and February 2013, 253 semi-directive interviews were conducted in 117 villages and at local harbours on Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Ovalau and a number of islands of the Mamanuca and Yasawa archipelagos. Of the 253 interviewees, 81.4% reported to presently catch sharks, and 17.4% declared that they did not presently catch any sharks. Of the 206 fishers that reported to catch sharks, 18.4% targeted sharks and 81.6% caught sharks as bycatch. When targeted, primary use of sharks was for consumption or for sale. Sharks caught as bycatch were frequently released (69.6%), consumed (64.9%) or shared amongst the community (26.8%). Fishers’ identification based on an identification poster and DNA barcoding revealed that at least 12 species of elasmobranchs, 11 shark and one ray species (Rhynchobatus australiae) were caught. This study, which is the first focused exploration of the shark catch in Fiji’s inshore fisheries, suggests that the country’s artisanal shark fisheries are small but have the potential to develop into larger and possibly more targeted fisheries.

  9. Characteristics of the shark fisheries of Fiji.

    PubMed

    Glaus, Kerstin B J; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; White, William T; Brunnschweiler, Juerg M

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available on artisanal and subsistence shark fisheries across the Pacific. The aim of this study was to investigate Fiji's inshore fisheries which catch sharks. In January and February 2013, 253 semi-directive interviews were conducted in 117 villages and at local harbours on Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Ovalau and a number of islands of the Mamanuca and Yasawa archipelagos. Of the 253 interviewees, 81.4% reported to presently catch sharks, and 17.4% declared that they did not presently catch any sharks. Of the 206 fishers that reported to catch sharks, 18.4% targeted sharks and 81.6% caught sharks as bycatch. When targeted, primary use of sharks was for consumption or for sale. Sharks caught as bycatch were frequently released (69.6%), consumed (64.9%) or shared amongst the community (26.8%). Fishers' identification based on an identification poster and DNA barcoding revealed that at least 12 species of elasmobranchs, 11 shark and one ray species (Rhynchobatus australiae) were caught. This study, which is the first focused exploration of the shark catch in Fiji's inshore fisheries, suggests that the country's artisanal shark fisheries are small but have the potential to develop into larger and possibly more targeted fisheries. PMID:26626561

  10. Characteristics of the shark fisheries of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Glaus, Kerstin B. J.; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; White, William T.; Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available on artisanal and subsistence shark fisheries across the Pacific. The aim of this study was to investigate Fiji’s inshore fisheries which catch sharks. In January and February 2013, 253 semi-directive interviews were conducted in 117 villages and at local harbours on Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Ovalau and a number of islands of the Mamanuca and Yasawa archipelagos. Of the 253 interviewees, 81.4% reported to presently catch sharks, and 17.4% declared that they did not presently catch any sharks. Of the 206 fishers that reported to catch sharks, 18.4% targeted sharks and 81.6% caught sharks as bycatch. When targeted, primary use of sharks was for consumption or for sale. Sharks caught as bycatch were frequently released (69.6%), consumed (64.9%) or shared amongst the community (26.8%). Fishers’ identification based on an identification poster and DNA barcoding revealed that at least 12 species of elasmobranchs, 11 shark and one ray species (Rhynchobatus australiae) were caught. This study, which is the first focused exploration of the shark catch in Fiji’s inshore fisheries, suggests that the country’s artisanal shark fisheries are small but have the potential to develop into larger and possibly more targeted fisheries. PMID:26626561

  11. The lantern shark's light switch: turning shallow water crypsis into midwater camouflage.

    PubMed

    Claes, Julien M; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2010-10-23

    Bioluminescence is a common feature in the permanent darkness of the deep-sea. In fishes, light is emitted by organs containing either photogenic cells (intrinsic photophores), which are under direct nervous control, or symbiotic luminous bacteria (symbiotic photophores), whose light is controlled by secondary means such as mechanical occlusion or physiological suppression. The intrinsic photophores of the lantern shark Etmopterus spinax were recently shown as an exception to this rule since they appear to be under hormonal control. Here, we show that hormones operate what amounts to a unique light switch, by acting on a chromatophore iris, which regulates light emission by pigment translocation. This result strongly suggests that this shark's luminescence control originates from the mechanism for physiological colour change found in shallow water sharks that also involves hormonally controlled chromatophores: the lantern shark would have turned the initial shallow water crypsis mechanism into a midwater luminous camouflage, more efficient in the deep-sea environment.

  12. Flow Measurements over Embedded Cavities Modeling the Microgeometry of Bristled Shark Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Amy; Hidalgo, Pablo

    2008-11-01

    Certain species of sharks (e.g. shortfin mako) have a skin structure that results in a bristling of their denticles (scales) during increased swimming speeds. This unique surface geometry results in the formation of a 3D array of cavities (d-type roughness geometry) within the shark skin, thus causing it to potentially act as a means of boundary layer control. In order to further understand the effectiveness of this complex geometry, ProE was used to replicate the bristled shark skin of the shortfin mako using a rapid prototyping machine. Two simplified geometries of the shark skin, including 2D transverse cavities and a 3D array of staggered cavities, were also studied. Boundary layer measurements using DPIV were obtained and compared for all three geometries. Of particular interest is the role that the riblets, on the face of the denticles, appear to play in forming an organized array of embedded vortices within the surface. Patent pending.

  13. The sexual history provisions in the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999--a violation of the right to a fair trial?

    PubMed

    Young, G

    2001-07-01

    In response to the Home Office recommendations contained in Speaking Up for Justice (1998) the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA) 1999 introduced a new regime for the conduct of sexual offence trials. Section 41 of the Act, which came into force on 4 December 2000, brings about dramatic changes to the rules on the admissibility of evidence of complainants' sexual behaviour, severely restricting the discretion of trial judges to introduce such evidence or to allow questioning concerning it. This represents a radical new departure that will fundamentally affect an accused's position at trial. Responses to section 41 have predictably been divided given the extremely sensitive nature of this area of the law of evidence and the complex set of social and political issues which are at stake. Many have greeted it as a long overdue reform of a system premised upon outmoded and sexist beliefs concerning women's sexual behaviour which has routinely functioned to admit prejudicial and irrelevant evidence. Others, predominantly within the legal profession, have expressed serious concerns over whether the new law is workable and the extent to which, by potentially excluding critically relevant evidence, it may infringe upon a defendant's right to a fair trial. The quality of the legislation is soon to be tested. On 26 and 27 March 2001 the House of Lords heard an interlocutory appeal in the case of R v. A and were asked to decide if the new provisions, by excluding previous sexual history evidence between the complainant and the defendant, contravened Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Their Lordships are, at the time of writing, yet to give judgment and the fate of the defendant in question, and several others whose trials have been postponed pending their decision, hangs in the balance. This article seeks to show that the new Act, despite being well-intentioned, does not adopt a coherent or sustainable approach to the relevance of previous

  14. [Dangerous sharks in tropical seas].

    PubMed

    Maslin, J; Menard, G; Drouin, C; Pollet, L

    2000-01-01

    Sightseeing travel in tropical zones is a growing industry. The risks incurred by travelers depend on the destination, duration of stay, individual behavior, and type of leisure activity. Water sports expose visitors to encounters with dangerous marine animals. Shark attacks are rare but always serious occurrences. Divers should handle any shark, regardless of size, with due precaution. Prevention of shark attack depends on avoiding encounters by not attracting the attention of the shark and knowing the proper attitude to adopt in case an encounter should occur. Active and passive protection can be used, but each method has advantages and disadvantages depending on the situation. Rescue operations are difficult due to the gravity of injuries and their occurrence in a marine environment. This along with the nature of the aggressor explain that many attacks are immediately fatal. Wounds are often deep with involvement of bone, blood vessels, and nerves. A possible source of complication in survivors is infection, which can involve uncommon microorganisms associated with bacteria in sharks mouth or marine environment.

  15. Hydrodynamic aspects of shark scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschi, W. G.; Musick, J. A.

    1986-03-01

    Ridge morphometrices on placoid scales from 12 galeoid shark species were examined in order to evaluate their potential value for frictional drag reduction. The geometry of the shark scales is similar to longitudinal grooved surfaces (riblets) that have been previously shown to give 8 percent skin-friction reduction for turbulent boundary layers. The present study of the shark scales was undertaken to determine if the physical dimensions of the ridges on the shark scales are of the right magnitude to be used by the sharks for drag reduction based on previous riblet work. The results indicate that the ridge heights and spacings are normally maintained between the predicted optimal values proposed for voluntary and burst swimming speeds throughout the individual's ontogeny. Moreover, the species which might be considered to be the faster posses smaller and more closely spaced ridges that based on the riblet work would suggest a greater frictional drag reduction value at the high swimming speeds, as compared to their more sluggish counterparts.

  16. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M.; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Williamson, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  17. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Williamson, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  18. Hydrodynamic aspects of shark scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschi, W. G.; Musick, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Ridge morphometrices on placoid scales from 12 galeoid shark species were examined in order to evaluate their potential value for frictional drag reduction. The geometry of the shark scales is similar to longitudinal grooved surfaces (riblets) that have been previously shown to give 8 percent skin-friction reduction for turbulent boundary layers. The present study of the shark scales was undertaken to determine if the physical dimensions of the ridges on the shark scales are of the right magnitude to be used by the sharks for drag reduction based on previous riblet work. The results indicate that the ridge heights and spacings are normally maintained between the predicted optimal values proposed for voluntary and burst swimming speeds throughout the individual's ontogeny. Moreover, the species which might be considered to be the faster posses smaller and more closely spaced ridges that based on the riblet work would suggest a greater frictional drag reduction value at the high swimming speeds, as compared to their more sluggish counterparts.

  19. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  20. Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs on Oversight Hearing on the Title and Provisions in the Draft Reauthorization for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony on proposed amendments to the Indian provisions of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The proposals include amendments to the ESEA amendments of 1978 related to Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools and amendments to the Tribally Controlled Schools Act of 1988. Both sets of proposals…

  1. Enhanced visual fields in hammerhead sharks.

    PubMed

    McComb, D M; Tricas, T C; Kajiura, S M

    2009-12-01

    Several factors that influence the evolution of the unusual head morphology of hammerhead sharks (family Sphyrnidae) are proposed but few are empirically tested. In this study we tested the 'enhanced binocular field' hypothesis (that proposes enhanced frontal binocularity) by comparison of the visual fields of three hammerhead species: the bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo, the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, and the winghead shark, Eusphyra blochii, with that of two carcharhinid species: the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris, and the blacknose shark, Carcharhinus acronotus. Additionally, eye rotation and head yaw were quantified to determine if species compensate for large blind areas anterior to the head. The winghead shark possessed the largest anterior binocular overlap (48 deg.) and was nearly four times larger than that of the lemon (10 deg.) and blacknose (11 deg.) sharks. The binocular overlap in the scalloped hammerhead sharks (34 deg.) was greater than the bonnethead sharks (13 deg.) and carcharhinid species; however, the bonnethead shark did not differ from the carcharhinids. These results indicate that binocular overlap has increased with lateral head expansion in hammerhead sharks. The hammerhead species did not demonstrate greater eye rotation in the anterior or posterior direction. However, both the scalloped hammerhead and bonnethead sharks exhibited greater head yaw during swimming (16.9 deg. and 15.6 deg., respectively) than the lemon (15.1 deg.) and blacknose (15.0 deg.) sharks, indicating a behavioral compensation for the anterior blind area. This study illustrates the larger binocular overlap in hammerhead species relative to their carcharhinid sister taxa and is consistent with the 'enhanced binocular field' hypothesis.

  2. No Child Left Behind Act: Education Needs to Provide Additional Technical Assistance and Conduct Implementation Studies for School Choice Provision. Report to the Secretary of Education. GAO-05-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickok, Eugene W.

    2004-01-01

    The school choice provision of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) of 2001 applies to schools that receive Title I funds and that have not met state performance goals for 2 consecutive years, including goals set before the enactment of NCLBA. Students in such schools must be offered the choice to transfer to another school in the district. The…

  3. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended. PMID:20872140

  4. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  5. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  6. Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks.

    PubMed

    Hammerschlag, Neil; Davis, David A; Mondo, Kiyo; Seely, Matthew S; Murch, Susan J; Glover, William Broc; Divoll, Timothy; Evers, David C; Mash, Deborah C

    2016-01-01

    Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products. Recent studies suggest that the consumption of shark parts may be a route to human exposure of marine toxins. Here, we investigated BMAA and Hg concentrations in fins and muscles sampled in ten species of sharks from the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. BMAA was detected in all shark species with only seven of the 55 samples analyzed testing below the limit of detection of the assay. Hg concentrations measured in fins and muscle samples from the 10 species ranged from 0.05 to 13.23 ng/mg. These analytical test results suggest restricting human consumption of shark meat and fins due to the high frequency and co-occurrence of two synergistic environmental neurotoxic compounds. PMID:27537913

  7. Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Neil; Davis, David A.; Mondo, Kiyo; Seely, Matthew S.; Murch, Susan J.; Glover, William Broc; Divoll, Timothy; Evers, David C.; Mash, Deborah C.

    2016-01-01

    Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products. Recent studies suggest that the consumption of shark parts may be a route to human exposure of marine toxins. Here, we investigated BMAA and Hg concentrations in fins and muscles sampled in ten species of sharks from the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. BMAA was detected in all shark species with only seven of the 55 samples analyzed testing below the limit of detection of the assay. Hg concentrations measured in fins and muscle samples from the 10 species ranged from 0.05 to 13.23 ng/mg. These analytical test results suggest restricting human consumption of shark meat and fins due to the high frequency and co-occurrence of two synergistic environmental neurotoxic compounds. PMID:27537913

  8. Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks.

    PubMed

    Hammerschlag, Neil; Davis, David A; Mondo, Kiyo; Seely, Matthew S; Murch, Susan J; Glover, William Broc; Divoll, Timothy; Evers, David C; Mash, Deborah C

    2016-08-16

    Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products. Recent studies suggest that the consumption of shark parts may be a route to human exposure of marine toxins. Here, we investigated BMAA and Hg concentrations in fins and muscles sampled in ten species of sharks from the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. BMAA was detected in all shark species with only seven of the 55 samples analyzed testing below the limit of detection of the assay. Hg concentrations measured in fins and muscle samples from the 10 species ranged from 0.05 to 13.23 ng/mg. These analytical test results suggest restricting human consumption of shark meat and fins due to the high frequency and co-occurrence of two synergistic environmental neurotoxic compounds.

  9. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and use of cartilage as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer? Cartilage from cows (bovine cartilage) and sharks has ... of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that ...

  10. Act No. 7.841 of 17 October 1989 repealing Article 358 of Act No. 3.071 (the Civil Code) of 1 January 1916 and amending provisions of Act No. 6.515 of 26 December 1977.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Act repeals Article 358 of the Brazilian Civil Code, which provides that the children of incestuous or adulterous relationships cannot be legally acknowledged. The Act also shortens from 5 to 2 years the time that must pass before a spouse can bring suit to have a de facto separation converted into a divorce and provides that one of the grounds upon which one spouse can contest the request of the other spouse to have a legal separation converted into a divorce is the fact that the legal separation has lasted less than 1 year. Previously, the time period was 3 years.

  11. Microspectrophotometric evidence for cone monochromacy in sharks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan Scott; Theiss, Susan Michelle; Harahush, Blake Kristin; Collin, Shaun Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Sharks are apex predators, and their evolutionary success is in part due to an impressive array of sensory systems, including vision. The eyes of sharks are well developed and function over a wide range of light levels. However, whilst close relatives of the sharks-the rays and chimaeras-are known to have the potential for colour vision, an evolutionary trait thought to provide distinct survival advantages, evidence for colour vision in sharks remains equivocal. Using single-receptor microspectrophotometry, we measured the absorbance spectra of visual pigments located in the retinal photoreceptors of 17 species of shark. We show that, while the spectral tuning of the rod (wavelength of maximum absorbance, λ(max) 484-518 nm) and cone (λ(max) 532-561 nm) visual pigments varies between species, each shark has only a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type. This suggests that sharks may be cone monochromats and, therefore, potentially colour blind. Whilst cone monochromacy on land is rare, it may be a common strategy in the marine environment: many aquatic mammals (whales, dolphins and seals) also possess only a single, green-sensitive cone type. It appears that both sharks and marine mammals may have arrived at the same visual design by convergent evolution. The spectral tuning of the rod and cone pigments of sharks is also discussed in relation to their visual ecology. PMID:21212930

  12. Microspectrophotometric evidence for cone monochromacy in sharks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan Scott; Theiss, Susan Michelle; Harahush, Blake Kristin; Collin, Shaun Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Sharks are apex predators, and their evolutionary success is in part due to an impressive array of sensory systems, including vision. The eyes of sharks are well developed and function over a wide range of light levels. However, whilst close relatives of the sharks-the rays and chimaeras-are known to have the potential for colour vision, an evolutionary trait thought to provide distinct survival advantages, evidence for colour vision in sharks remains equivocal. Using single-receptor microspectrophotometry, we measured the absorbance spectra of visual pigments located in the retinal photoreceptors of 17 species of shark. We show that, while the spectral tuning of the rod (wavelength of maximum absorbance, λ(max) 484-518 nm) and cone (λ(max) 532-561 nm) visual pigments varies between species, each shark has only a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type. This suggests that sharks may be cone monochromats and, therefore, potentially colour blind. Whilst cone monochromacy on land is rare, it may be a common strategy in the marine environment: many aquatic mammals (whales, dolphins and seals) also possess only a single, green-sensitive cone type. It appears that both sharks and marine mammals may have arrived at the same visual design by convergent evolution. The spectral tuning of the rod and cone pigments of sharks is also discussed in relation to their visual ecology.

  13. Cooperation in USDA studies and evaluations, and full use of federal funds in nutrition assistance programs nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, Public Law 111-296. Final Rule.

    PubMed

    2011-06-29

    This final rule incorporates into the regulations governing the Programs authorized under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA) and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) two nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK Act). The HHFK Act requires State and local cooperation in Department of Agriculture studies and evaluations related to Programs authorized under the NSLA and the CNA. The HHFK Act also amends the NSLA to stipulate that Federal funds must not be subject to State budget restrictions or limitations, including hiring freezes, work furloughs, and travel restrictions. This final rule amends regulations for the National School Lunch Program; the Special Milk Program for Children; the School Breakfast Program; the Summer Food Service Program; the Child and Adult Care Food Program; State Administrative Expense Funds ; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; and the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. These provisions will strengthen program integrity by ensuring that sufficient data is made available for studies and evaluations. Additionally, exempting Federal funds from State budgetary restrictions or limitations is intended to increase the ability of State agencies to administer USDA's nutrition assistance programs effectively.

  14. Cooperation in USDA studies and evaluations, and full use of federal funds in nutrition assistance programs nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, Public Law 111-296. Final Rule.

    PubMed

    2011-06-29

    This final rule incorporates into the regulations governing the Programs authorized under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA) and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) two nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK Act). The HHFK Act requires State and local cooperation in Department of Agriculture studies and evaluations related to Programs authorized under the NSLA and the CNA. The HHFK Act also amends the NSLA to stipulate that Federal funds must not be subject to State budget restrictions or limitations, including hiring freezes, work furloughs, and travel restrictions. This final rule amends regulations for the National School Lunch Program; the Special Milk Program for Children; the School Breakfast Program; the Summer Food Service Program; the Child and Adult Care Food Program; State Administrative Expense Funds ; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; and the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. These provisions will strengthen program integrity by ensuring that sufficient data is made available for studies and evaluations. Additionally, exempting Federal funds from State budgetary restrictions or limitations is intended to increase the ability of State agencies to administer USDA's nutrition assistance programs effectively. PMID:21721318

  15. 78 FR 24148 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 62331), we published an NOI that announced the stock status determinations for various... Magnuson-Stevens Act. On November 26, 2012, we published a proposed rule (77 FR 70552) for draft Amendment... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  16. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9003 - Statutory provisions; section 4 of the Act of September 14, 1960 (Pub. L. 86-781, 74 Stat. 1017).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cement, if an election is made by the taxpayer under subparagraph (C): (i) The amendments made by...) Provisions having the same effect as the amendments made by subsection (b) shall be deemed to be included...

  18. Microspectrophotometric evidence for cone monochromacy in sharks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Nathan Scott; Theiss, Susan Michelle; Harahush, Blake Kristin; Collin, Shaun Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Sharks are apex predators, and their evolutionary success is in part due to an impressive array of sensory systems, including vision. The eyes of sharks are well developed and function over a wide range of light levels. However, whilst close relatives of the sharks—the rays and chimaeras—are known to have the potential for colour vision, an evolutionary trait thought to provide distinct survival advantages, evidence for colour vision in sharks remains equivocal. Using single-receptor microspectrophotometry, we measured the absorbance spectra of visual pigments located in the retinal photoreceptors of 17 species of shark. We show that, while the spectral tuning of the rod (wavelength of maximum absorbance, λmax 484-518 nm) and cone (λmax 532-561 nm) visual pigments varies between species, each shark has only a single long-wavelength-sensitive cone type. This suggests that sharks may be cone monochromats and, therefore, potentially colour blind. Whilst cone monochromacy on land is rare, it may be a common strategy in the marine environment: many aquatic mammals (whales, dolphins and seals) also possess only a single, green-sensitive cone type. It appears that both sharks and marine mammals may have arrived at the same visual design by convergent evolution. The spectral tuning of the rod and cone pigments of sharks is also discussed in relation to their visual ecology.

  19. How to swim with sharks: a primer.

    PubMed

    Cousteau, Voltaire

    2011-08-01

    Swimming with the sharks is neither enjoyable nor exhilarating, and it is not an acknowledged sport. Some individuals, however, must swim by virtue of their occupation. If such an individual finds himself or herself in shark-infested waters, this article provides useful guidelines for survival.

  20. Shark Teeth Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  1. 1 CFR 304.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General provisions. 304.1 Section 304.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.1 General provisions. (a) This...

  2. 1 CFR 304.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true General provisions. 304.1 Section 304.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.1 General provisions. (a) This...

  3. 1 CFR 304.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true General provisions. 304.1 Section 304.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.1 General provisions. (a) This...

  4. Pass the salt: physiological consequences of ecologically relevant hyposmotic exposure in juvenile gummy sharks (Mustelus antarcticus) and school sharks (Galeorhinus galeus)

    PubMed Central

    Morash, Andrea J.; Mackellar, Sara R. C.; Tunnah, Louise; Barnett, David A.; Stehfest, Kilian M.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Currie, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Estuarine habitats are frequently used as nurseries by elasmobranch species for their protection and abundant resources; however, global climate change is increasing the frequency and severity of environmental challenges in these estuaries that may negatively affect elasmobranch physiology. Hyposmotic events are particularly challenging for marine sharks that osmoconform, and species-specific tolerances are not well known. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of an acute (48 h) ecologically relevant hyposmotic event (25.8 ppt) on the physiology of two juvenile shark species, namely the school shark (Galeorhinus galeus), listed by the Australian Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act as ‘conservation dependent’, and the gummy shark (Mustelus antarcticus), from the Pittwater Estuary (Australia). In both species, we observed a decrease in plasma osmolality brought about by selective losses of NaCl, urea and trimethylamine N-oxide, as well as decreases in haemoglobin, haematocrit and routine oxygen consumption. Heat-shock protein levels varied between species during the exposure, but we found no evidence of protein damage in any of the tissues tested. Although both species seemed to be able to cope with this level of osmotic challenge, overall the school sharks exhibited higher gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity and ubiquitin concentrations in routine and experimental conditions, a larger heat-shock protein response and a smaller decrease in routine oxygen consumption during the hyposmotic exposure, suggesting that there are species-specific responses that could potentially affect their ability to withstand longer or more severe changes in salinity. Emerging evidence from acoustic monitoring of sharks has indicated variability in the species found in the Pittwater Estuary during hyposmotic events, and together, our data may help to predict species abundance and distribution in the face of future global climate change. PMID:27757235

  5. 32 CFR 718.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 718.1 Section 718.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MISSING PERSONS ACT § 718.1 General provisions. (a) Under the provisions of the Missing Persons Act, as amended, a finding of presumptive death is made by the Secretary...

  6. 20 CFR 652.8 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FUNCTIONING OF STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Employment Service Operations § 652.8 Administrative provisions. (a... consistent with the provisions of the Act, describing services offered by employment security agencies, job... government lawfully charged with administration of unemployment compensation laws, employment...

  7. Shark tales: a molecular species-level phylogeny of sharks (Selachimorpha, Chondrichthyes).

    PubMed

    Vélez-Zuazo, Ximena; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2011-02-01

    Sharks are a diverse and ecologically important group, including some of the ocean's largest predatory animals. Sharks are also commercially important, with many species suffering overexploitation and facing extinction. However, despite a long evolutionary history, commercial, and conservation importance, phylogenetic relationships within the sharks are poorly understood. To date, most studies have either focused on smaller clades within sharks, or sampled taxa sparsely across the group. A more detailed species-level phylogeny will offer further insights into shark taxonomy, provide a tool for comparative analyses, as well as facilitating phylogenetic estimates of conservation priorities. We used four mitochondrial and one nuclear gene to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of 229 species (all eight Orders and 31 families) of sharks, more than quadrupling the number of taxon sampled in any prior study. The resulting Bayesian phylogenetic hypothesis agrees with prior studies on the major relationships of the sharks phylogeny; however, on those relationships that have proven more controversial, it differs in several aspects from the most recent molecular studies. The phylogeny supports the division of sharks into two major groups, the Galeomorphii and Squalimorphii, rejecting the hypnosqualean hypothesis that places batoids within sharks. Within the squalimorphs the orders Hexanchiformes, Squatiniformes, Squaliformes, and Pristiophoriformes are broadly monophyletic, with minor exceptions apparently due to missing data. Similarly, within Galeomorphs, the orders Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, and Orectolobiformes are broadly monophyletic, with a couple of species 'misplaced'. In contrast, many of the currently recognized shark families are not monophyletic according to our results. Our phylogeny offers some of the first clarification of the relationships among families of the order Squaliformes, a group that has thus far received relatively

  8. Shark tales: a molecular species-level phylogeny of sharks (Selachimorpha, Chondrichthyes).

    PubMed

    Vélez-Zuazo, Ximena; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2011-02-01

    Sharks are a diverse and ecologically important group, including some of the ocean's largest predatory animals. Sharks are also commercially important, with many species suffering overexploitation and facing extinction. However, despite a long evolutionary history, commercial, and conservation importance, phylogenetic relationships within the sharks are poorly understood. To date, most studies have either focused on smaller clades within sharks, or sampled taxa sparsely across the group. A more detailed species-level phylogeny will offer further insights into shark taxonomy, provide a tool for comparative analyses, as well as facilitating phylogenetic estimates of conservation priorities. We used four mitochondrial and one nuclear gene to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of 229 species (all eight Orders and 31 families) of sharks, more than quadrupling the number of taxon sampled in any prior study. The resulting Bayesian phylogenetic hypothesis agrees with prior studies on the major relationships of the sharks phylogeny; however, on those relationships that have proven more controversial, it differs in several aspects from the most recent molecular studies. The phylogeny supports the division of sharks into two major groups, the Galeomorphii and Squalimorphii, rejecting the hypnosqualean hypothesis that places batoids within sharks. Within the squalimorphs the orders Hexanchiformes, Squatiniformes, Squaliformes, and Pristiophoriformes are broadly monophyletic, with minor exceptions apparently due to missing data. Similarly, within Galeomorphs, the orders Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, and Orectolobiformes are broadly monophyletic, with a couple of species 'misplaced'. In contrast, many of the currently recognized shark families are not monophyletic according to our results. Our phylogeny offers some of the first clarification of the relationships among families of the order Squaliformes, a group that has thus far received relatively

  9. The Effect of Background Music in Shark Documentaries on Viewers' Perceptions of Sharks.

    PubMed

    Nosal, Andrew P; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Philip A; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark 'attacks' and by highlighting shark-on-human violence in popular movies and documentaries. In this study, we investigate another subtler, yet powerful factor that contributes to this fear: the ominous background music that often accompanies shark footage in documentaries. Using three experiments, we show that participants rated sharks more negatively and less positively after viewing a 60-second video clip of swimming sharks set to ominous background music, compared to participants who watched the same video clip set to uplifting background music, or silence. This finding was not an artifact of soundtrack alone because attitudes toward sharks did not differ among participants assigned to audio-only control treatments. This is the first study to demonstrate empirically that the connotative attributes of background music accompanying shark footage affect viewers' attitudes toward sharks. Given that nature documentaries are often regarded as objective and authoritative sources of information, it is critical that documentary filmmakers and viewers are aware of how the soundtrack can affect the interpretation of the educational content. PMID:27487003

  10. The Effect of Background Music in Shark Documentaries on Viewers' Perceptions of Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Philip A.; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark ‘attacks’ and by highlighting shark-on-human violence in popular movies and documentaries. In this study, we investigate another subtler, yet powerful factor that contributes to this fear: the ominous background music that often accompanies shark footage in documentaries. Using three experiments, we show that participants rated sharks more negatively and less positively after viewing a 60-second video clip of swimming sharks set to ominous background music, compared to participants who watched the same video clip set to uplifting background music, or silence. This finding was not an artifact of soundtrack alone because attitudes toward sharks did not differ among participants assigned to audio-only control treatments. This is the first study to demonstrate empirically that the connotative attributes of background music accompanying shark footage affect viewers’ attitudes toward sharks. Given that nature documentaries are often regarded as objective and authoritative sources of information, it is critical that documentary filmmakers and viewers are aware of how the soundtrack can affect the interpretation of the educational content. PMID:27487003

  11. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off Northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard.

    PubMed

    Hazin, Fábio H V; Afonso, André S; De Castilho, Pedro C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Rocha, Bruno C L M

    2013-09-01

    An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h-1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (< 50 m) vertical distribution for most of the monitoring period. While presenting the first data on tiger shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  12. Relative abundance and size of coastal sharks derived from commercial shark longline catch and effort data.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J K; Hale, L F; Morgan, A; Burgess, G

    2012-04-01

    In the north-west Atlantic Ocean, stock assessments conducted for some commercially harvested coastal sharks indicate declines from 64 to 80% with respect to virgin population levels. While the status of commercially important species is available, abundance trend information for other coastal shark species in the north-west Atlantic Ocean are unavailable. Using a generalized linear modelling (GLM) approach, a relative abundance index was derived from 1994 to 2009 using observer data collected in a commercial bottom longline fishery. Trends in abundance and average size were estimated for bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna, tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier and lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris. Increases in relative abundance for all shark species ranged from 14% for C. brevipinna, 12% for C. leucas, 6% for N. brevirostris and 3% for G. cuvier. There was no significant change in the size at capture over the time period considered for all species. While the status of shark populations should not be based exclusively on abundance trend information, but ultimately on stock assessment models, results from this study provide some cause for optimism on the status of these coastal shark species.

  13. The Effect of Background Music in Shark Documentaries on Viewers' Perceptions of Sharks.

    PubMed

    Nosal, Andrew P; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Philip A; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark 'attacks' and by highlighting shark-on-human violence in popular movies and documentaries. In this study, we investigate another subtler, yet powerful factor that contributes to this fear: the ominous background music that often accompanies shark footage in documentaries. Using three experiments, we show that participants rated sharks more negatively and less positively after viewing a 60-second video clip of swimming sharks set to ominous background music, compared to participants who watched the same video clip set to uplifting background music, or silence. This finding was not an artifact of soundtrack alone because attitudes toward sharks did not differ among participants assigned to audio-only control treatments. This is the first study to demonstrate empirically that the connotative attributes of background music accompanying shark footage affect viewers' attitudes toward sharks. Given that nature documentaries are often regarded as objective and authoritative sources of information, it is critical that documentary filmmakers and viewers are aware of how the soundtrack can affect the interpretation of the educational content.

  14. Population trends in Pacific Oceanic sharks and the utility of regulations on shark finning.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Shelley C; Harley, Shelton J; Hoyle, Simon D; Rice, Joel S

    2013-02-01

    Accurate assessment of shark population status is essential for conservation but is often constrained by limited and unreliable data. To provide a basis for improved management of shark resources, we analyzed a long-term record of species-specific catches, sizes, and sexes of sharks collected by onboard observers in the western and central Pacific Ocean from 1995 to 2010. Using generalized linear models, we estimated population-status indicators on the basis of catch rate and biological indicators of fishing pressure on the basis of median size to identify trends for blue (Prionace glauca), mako (Isurus spp.), oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus), and silky (Carcharhinus falciformis) sharks. Standardized catch rates of longline fleets declined significantly for blue sharks in the North Pacific (by 5% per year [CI 2% to 8%]), for mako sharks in the North Pacific (by 7% per year [CI 3% to 11%]), and for oceanic whitetip sharks in tropical waters (by 17% per year [CI 14% to 20%]). Median lengths of silky and oceanic whitetip sharks decreased significantly in their core habitat, and almost all sampled silky sharks were immature. Our results are consistent with results of analyses of similar data sets. Combined, these results and evidence of targeted fishing for sharks in some regional fisheries heighten concerns for sustainable utilization, particularly for oceanic whitetip and North Pacific blue sharks. Regional regulations that prohibit shark finning (removal of fins and discarding of the carcass) were enacted in 2007 and are in many cases the only form of control on shark catches. However, there is little evidence of a reduction of finning in longline fisheries. In addition, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks are more frequently retained than finned, which suggests that even full implementation of and adherence to a finning prohibition may not substantially reduce mortality rates for these species. We argue that finning prohibitions divert attention from

  15. Population trends in Pacific Oceanic sharks and the utility of regulations on shark finning.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Shelley C; Harley, Shelton J; Hoyle, Simon D; Rice, Joel S

    2013-02-01

    Accurate assessment of shark population status is essential for conservation but is often constrained by limited and unreliable data. To provide a basis for improved management of shark resources, we analyzed a long-term record of species-specific catches, sizes, and sexes of sharks collected by onboard observers in the western and central Pacific Ocean from 1995 to 2010. Using generalized linear models, we estimated population-status indicators on the basis of catch rate and biological indicators of fishing pressure on the basis of median size to identify trends for blue (Prionace glauca), mako (Isurus spp.), oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus), and silky (Carcharhinus falciformis) sharks. Standardized catch rates of longline fleets declined significantly for blue sharks in the North Pacific (by 5% per year [CI 2% to 8%]), for mako sharks in the North Pacific (by 7% per year [CI 3% to 11%]), and for oceanic whitetip sharks in tropical waters (by 17% per year [CI 14% to 20%]). Median lengths of silky and oceanic whitetip sharks decreased significantly in their core habitat, and almost all sampled silky sharks were immature. Our results are consistent with results of analyses of similar data sets. Combined, these results and evidence of targeted fishing for sharks in some regional fisheries heighten concerns for sustainable utilization, particularly for oceanic whitetip and North Pacific blue sharks. Regional regulations that prohibit shark finning (removal of fins and discarding of the carcass) were enacted in 2007 and are in many cases the only form of control on shark catches. However, there is little evidence of a reduction of finning in longline fisheries. In addition, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks are more frequently retained than finned, which suggests that even full implementation of and adherence to a finning prohibition may not substantially reduce mortality rates for these species. We argue that finning prohibitions divert attention from

  16. Methylmercury in dried shark fins and shark fin soup from American restaurants.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Deepthi; Baumann, Zofia; Abercrombie, Debra L; Chapman, Demian D; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-10-15

    Consumption of meat from large predatory sharks exposes human consumers to high levels of toxic monomethylmercury (MMHg). There also have been claims that shark fins, and hence the Asian delicacy shark fin soup, contain harmful levels of neurotoxic chemicals in combination with MMHg, although concentrations of MMHg in shark fins are unknown. We measured MMHg in dried, unprocessed fins (n=50) of 13 shark species that occur in the international trade of dried shark fins as well as 50 samples of shark fin soup prepared by restaurants from around the United States. Concentrations of MMHg in fins ranged from 9 to 1720 ng/g dry wt. MMHg in shark fin soup ranged from <0.01 to 34 ng/mL, with MMHg averaging 62 ± 7% of total Hg. The highest concentrations of MMHg and total Hg were observed in both fins and soup from large, high trophic level sharks such as hammerheads (Sphyrna spp.). Consumption of a 240 mL bowl of shark fin soup containing the average concentration of MMHg (4.6 ng/mL) would result in a dose of 1.1 μg MMHg, which is 16% of the U.S. EPA's reference dose (0.1 μg MMHg per 1 kg per day in adults) of 7.4 μg per day for a 74 kg person. If consumed, the soup containing the highest measured MMHg concentration would exceed the reference dose by 17%. While shark fin soup represents a potentially important source of MMHg to human consumers, other seafood products, particularly the flesh of apex marine predators, contain much higher MMHg concentrations and can result in substantially greater exposures of this contaminant for people. PMID:24835340

  17. Methylmercury in dried shark fins and shark fin soup from American restaurants.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Deepthi; Baumann, Zofia; Abercrombie, Debra L; Chapman, Demian D; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-10-15

    Consumption of meat from large predatory sharks exposes human consumers to high levels of toxic monomethylmercury (MMHg). There also have been claims that shark fins, and hence the Asian delicacy shark fin soup, contain harmful levels of neurotoxic chemicals in combination with MMHg, although concentrations of MMHg in shark fins are unknown. We measured MMHg in dried, unprocessed fins (n=50) of 13 shark species that occur in the international trade of dried shark fins as well as 50 samples of shark fin soup prepared by restaurants from around the United States. Concentrations of MMHg in fins ranged from 9 to 1720 ng/g dry wt. MMHg in shark fin soup ranged from <0.01 to 34 ng/mL, with MMHg averaging 62 ± 7% of total Hg. The highest concentrations of MMHg and total Hg were observed in both fins and soup from large, high trophic level sharks such as hammerheads (Sphyrna spp.). Consumption of a 240 mL bowl of shark fin soup containing the average concentration of MMHg (4.6 ng/mL) would result in a dose of 1.1 μg MMHg, which is 16% of the U.S. EPA's reference dose (0.1 μg MMHg per 1 kg per day in adults) of 7.4 μg per day for a 74 kg person. If consumed, the soup containing the highest measured MMHg concentration would exceed the reference dose by 17%. While shark fin soup represents a potentially important source of MMHg to human consumers, other seafood products, particularly the flesh of apex marine predators, contain much higher MMHg concentrations and can result in substantially greater exposures of this contaminant for people.

  18. Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, David S; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing concern about the conservation status of sharks. However, the presence of numerous different (and potentially mutually exclusive) policies complicates management implementation and public understanding of the process. We distributed an online survey to members of the largest professional shark and ray research societies to assess member knowledge of and attitudes toward different conservation policies. Questions covered society member opinions on conservation and management policies, personal histories of involvement in advocacy and management, and perceptions of the approach of conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to shark conservation. One hundred and two surveys were completed (overall response rate 21%). Respondents considered themselves knowledgeable about and actively involved in conservation and management policy; a majority believed scientists have a responsibility to advocate for conservation (75%), and majorities have sent formal public comments to policymakers (54%) and included policy suggestions in their papers (53%). They believe sustainable shark fisheries are possible, are currently happening today (in a few places), and should be the goal instead of banning fisheries. Respondents were generally less supportive of newer limit-based (i.e., policies that ban exploitation entirely without a species-specific focus) conservation policy tools, such as shark sanctuaries and bans on the sale of shark fins, than of target-based fisheries management tools (i.e., policies that allow for sustainable harvest of species whose populations can withstand it), such as fishing quotas. Respondents were generally supportive of environmental NGO efforts to conserve sharks but raised concerns about some NGOs that they perceived as using incorrect information and focusing on the wrong problems. Our results show there is an ongoing debate in shark conservation and management circles relative to environmental policy on target-based natural

  19. Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, David S; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing concern about the conservation status of sharks. However, the presence of numerous different (and potentially mutually exclusive) policies complicates management implementation and public understanding of the process. We distributed an online survey to members of the largest professional shark and ray research societies to assess member knowledge of and attitudes toward different conservation policies. Questions covered society member opinions on conservation and management policies, personal histories of involvement in advocacy and management, and perceptions of the approach of conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to shark conservation. One hundred and two surveys were completed (overall response rate 21%). Respondents considered themselves knowledgeable about and actively involved in conservation and management policy; a majority believed scientists have a responsibility to advocate for conservation (75%), and majorities have sent formal public comments to policymakers (54%) and included policy suggestions in their papers (53%). They believe sustainable shark fisheries are possible, are currently happening today (in a few places), and should be the goal instead of banning fisheries. Respondents were generally less supportive of newer limit-based (i.e., policies that ban exploitation entirely without a species-specific focus) conservation policy tools, such as shark sanctuaries and bans on the sale of shark fins, than of target-based fisheries management tools (i.e., policies that allow for sustainable harvest of species whose populations can withstand it), such as fishing quotas. Respondents were generally supportive of environmental NGO efforts to conserve sharks but raised concerns about some NGOs that they perceived as using incorrect information and focusing on the wrong problems. Our results show there is an ongoing debate in shark conservation and management circles relative to environmental policy on target-based natural

  20. Mortality and management of 96 shark attacks and development of a shark bite severity scoring system.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Ashley K; Burgess, George H; Perrin, Karen; Brown, Jennifer A; Mozingo, David W; Lottenberg, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Humans share a fascination and fear of sharks. We predict that most shark attacks are nonfatal but require skilled, timely medical intervention. The development of a shark bite severity scoring scale will assist communication and understanding of such an injury. We retrospectively reviewed records of the prospectively maintained International Shark Attack File (ISAF) at the University of Florida. The ISAF contains 4409 investigations, including 2979 documented attacks, 96 of which have complete medical records. We developed a Shark-Induced Trauma (SIT) Scale and calculated the level of injury for each attack. Medical records were reviewed for the 96 documented shark attack victims since 1921. Calculated levels of injury in the SIT Scale reveal 40 Level 1 injuries (41.7%), 16 Level 2 injuries (16.7%), 18 Level 3 injuries (18.8%), 14 Level 4 injuries (14.6%), and eight Level 5 injuries (8.3%). The overall mortality of shark attacks was 8.3 per cent. However, SIT Scale Level 1 injuries comprised the greatest percentage of cases at 41.7 per cent. Injury to major vascular structures increases mortality and necessitates immediate medical attention and definitive care by a surgeon. Shark bites deserve recognition with prompt resuscitation, washout, débridement, and follow up for prevention of infection and closure of more complex wounds.

  1. An Administrative Meter Maid: Using Inter Partes Review and Post-Grant Review to Curb Exclusivity Parking via the "Failure to Market" Provision of the Hatch-Waxman Act.

    PubMed

    Apel, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Congress created the unique Hatch-Waxman framework in 1984 to increase the availability of low-cost generic drugs while preserving patent incentives for new drug development. The Hatch-Waxman Act rewards generic drug companies that successfully challenge a pharmaceutical patent: 180 days of market exclusivity before any other generic firm can enter the market. When a generic firm obtains this reward, sometimes drug developers agree to pay generic firms to delay entering the market. These pay-for-delay agreements give rise to exclusivity parking and run counter to congressional intent by delaying full generic drug competition. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act created several statutory forfeiture provisions that proved only marginally effective at curbing the practice of exclusivity parking. More recently, Congress created new quasi-judicial administrative proceedings that effectively replace certain kinds of district court patent litigation. This Note describes the complex statutory scheme that gave rise to exclusivity parking, explains why previous and current attempts to curtail exclusivity parking were and remain ineffective, and suggests amending the "failure to market" provision to include these new administrative proceedings as a way to help curb exclusivity parking.

  2. 77 FR 57022 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ AGENCY: Coast..., and the S35 bridge, mile 0.9, all of which are across the Shark River (South Channel), at Avon Township, NJ. This deviation is necessary to facilitate stringer replacement on the Shark River...

  3. 78 FR 3836 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ AGENCY: Coast... which are across the Shark River (South Channel), at Avon Township, NJ. This deviation is necessary to facilitate machinery replacement on the Shark River railroad bridge. This temporary deviation will allow...

  4. Recovery of human remains after shark attack.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim.

  5. Pathologic features of fatal shark attacks.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Gilbert, J D; Brown, K

    2000-09-01

    To examine the pattern of injuries in cases of fatal shark attack in South Australian waters, the authors examined the files of their institution for all cases of shark attack in which full autopsies had been performed over the past 25 years, from 1974 to 1998. Of the seven deaths attributed to shark attack during this period, full autopsies were performed in only two cases. In the remaining five cases, bodies either had not been found or were incomplete. Case 1 was a 27-year-old male surfer who had been attacked by a shark. At autopsy, the main areas of injury involved the right thigh, which displayed characteristic teeth marks, extensive soft tissue damage, and incision of the femoral artery. There were also incised wounds of the right wrist. Bony injury was minimal, and no shark teeth were recovered. Case 2 was a 26-year-old male diver who had been attacked by a shark. At autopsy, the main areas of injury involved the left thigh and lower leg, which displayed characteristic teeth marks, extensive soft tissue damage, and incised wounds of the femoral artery and vein. There was also soft tissue trauma to the left wrist, with transection of the radial artery and vein. Bony injury was minimal, and no shark teeth were recovered. In both cases, death resulted from exsanguination following a similar pattern of soft tissue and vascular damage to a leg and arm. This type of injury is in keeping with predator attack from underneath or behind, with the most severe injuries involving one leg. Less severe injuries to the arms may have occurred during the ensuing struggle. Reconstruction of the damaged limb in case 2 by sewing together skin, soft tissue, and muscle bundles not only revealed that no soft tissue was missing but also gave a clearer picture of the pattern of teeth marks, direction of the attack, and species of predator.

  6. Child Nutrition Act of 1966, as Amended (Asterisks Indicate Deletion of Provisions No Longer Effective as of 10/7/75).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The Declaration of Purpose of this Act states that in recognition of the demonstrated relationship between food and good nutrition and the capacity of children to develop and learn, based on the years of cumulative successful experience under the national school lunch program with its significant contributions in the field of applied nutrition…

  7. School-to-Work Opportunities and the Fair Labor Standards Act. A Guide to Work-Based Learning, Federal Child Labor Laws, and Minimum Wage Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School-to-Work Opportunities Office, Washington, DC.

    This guide to work-based learning and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) is designed to serve employers, educators, agency placement staff, labor organizations, and persons involved in school-to-work initiatives by helping them to understand a variety of issues related to students in the workplace. The first part of the three-part guide covers…

  8. Are Churches above the Law? The Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act and the Equal Pay Provisions of Title VII to Religious Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Alberta

    1979-01-01

    Shows that application of the Fair Labor Standards Act and Title VII to religious organizations and lay employees does not violate the free exercise clause, whereas a blanket exemption might run afoul of the establishment clause. Available from University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 3900 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260; single copies $2.50.…

  9. Assembly and Expression of Shark Ig Genes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    Sharks are modern descendants of the earliest vertebrates possessing Ig superfamily receptor-based adaptive immunity. They respond to immunogen with Abs that, upon boosting, appear more rapidly and show affinity maturation. Specific Abs and immunological memory imply that Ab diversification and clonal selection exist in cartilaginous fish. Shark Ag receptors are generated through V(D)J recombination, and because it is a mechanism known to generate autoreactive receptors, this implies that shark lymphocytes undergo selection. In the mouse, the ∼2.8-Mb IgH and IgL loci require long-range, differential activation of component parts for V(D)J recombination, allelic exclusion, and receptor editing. These processes, including class switching, evolved with and appear inseparable from the complex locus organization. In contrast, shark Igs are encoded by 100-200 autonomously rearranging miniloci. This review describes how the shark primary Ab repertoire is generated in the absence of structural features considered essential in mammalian Ig gene assembly and expression. PMID:27183649

  10. Opportunity Studies Bait in Shark's Cage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In its 49th sol on Mars, NASA's Opportunity had nearly concluded its scientific examination of the extreme southwestern end of the outcrop in Meridiani Planum. In the 'Shark's Cage' area of the neighborhood called 'Shoemaker's Patio,' featured in this image from the front hazard avoidance camera, Opportunity deployed its arm to study the features called 'Shark's Tooth,' 'Shark Pellets,' and 'Lamination.' 'Shark's Tooth' is a piece of the unusual red rind that appears to fill cracks in the outcrop. This rind may be some kind of chemical alteration of the rocks. 'Shark Pellets' is an area of soil that was under investigation as part of the crater soil survey. 'Lamination' is a target with very thin layers that resemble uniform pages in a book, an indication of how the sediments were deposited. A final experiment in this area will be attempted on sol 51. Opportunity's front left wheel will 'scuff' the rock called 'Carousel.' 'Scuffing' involves scraping the rock with one wheel while holding all the others still. This experiment essentially turns the rover wheels into tools, to try and determine the hardness of the target rock.

  11. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  12. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  13. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  14. 43 CFR 2741.9 - Patent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent provisions. 2741.9 Section 2741.9... Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.9 Patent provisions. (a) All patents under the act shall provide... management plan. (b) Patents shall also provide that the Secretary of the Interior may take action to...

  15. 32 CFR 718.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MISSING PERSONS ACT § 718.1 General provisions. (a) Under the provisions of the Missing Persons Act, as amended, a finding of... that a “missing” person is no longer alive, a prompt finding of presumptive death will be made....

  16. 32 CFR 718.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MISSING PERSONS ACT § 718.1 General provisions. (a) Under the provisions of the Missing Persons Act, as amended, a finding of... that a “missing” person is no longer alive, a prompt finding of presumptive death will be made....

  17. 32 CFR 718.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MISSING PERSONS ACT § 718.1 General provisions. (a) Under the provisions of the Missing Persons Act, as amended, a finding of... that a “missing” person is no longer alive, a prompt finding of presumptive death will be made....

  18. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-01-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are shown for representatives of Vibrio isolates and indicate that a variety of new agents may be appropriate chemotherapy for shark bite victims. PMID:6511869

  19. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    PubMed

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-11-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are shown for representatives of Vibrio isolates and indicate that a variety of new agents may be appropriate chemotherapy for shark bite victims.

  20. Cross matching of blood in carcharhiniform, lamniform, and orectolobiform sharks.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Haines, Ashley N; Clayton, Leigh A; Whitaker, Brent R

    2010-09-01

    The transfusion of whole blood in elasmobranchs could provide cardiovascular support following hemorrhage. Since donor and recipient compatibility is not known, a technique was established to allow cross matching of red blood cells and serum in sharks. Cross matching was carried out among 19 individuals from seven species: the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), sandtiger shark (Carcharias taurus), white-spotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), brown-banded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum), zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum), and spotted wobbegong (Orectolobus maculatus). Negative cross-matches showed no agglutination or hemolysis, suggesting that donor and recipient would be compatible. Cross-matches between conspecifics were all negative (sandbar, sandtiger, nurse, and white-spotted bamboo sharks). All cross-matches between sandbar and sandtiger sharks were also negative. Positive crossmatches consisted of agglutination or hemolysis of red blood cells, suggesting that the donor and recipient would be incompatible. Strong positive reactions occurred, for example, with red blood cells from sandtiger and sandbar sharks and serum from nurse sharks. Cross matching should be carried out in elasmobranchs prior to any blood transfusion.

  1. Cross matching of blood in carcharhiniform, lamniform, and orectolobiform sharks.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Haines, Ashley N; Clayton, Leigh A; Whitaker, Brent R

    2010-09-01

    The transfusion of whole blood in elasmobranchs could provide cardiovascular support following hemorrhage. Since donor and recipient compatibility is not known, a technique was established to allow cross matching of red blood cells and serum in sharks. Cross matching was carried out among 19 individuals from seven species: the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), sandtiger shark (Carcharias taurus), white-spotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), brown-banded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum), zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum), and spotted wobbegong (Orectolobus maculatus). Negative cross-matches showed no agglutination or hemolysis, suggesting that donor and recipient would be compatible. Cross-matches between conspecifics were all negative (sandbar, sandtiger, nurse, and white-spotted bamboo sharks). All cross-matches between sandbar and sandtiger sharks were also negative. Positive crossmatches consisted of agglutination or hemolysis of red blood cells, suggesting that the donor and recipient would be incompatible. Strong positive reactions occurred, for example, with red blood cells from sandtiger and sandbar sharks and serum from nurse sharks. Cross matching should be carried out in elasmobranchs prior to any blood transfusion. PMID:20945647

  2. 50 CFR 600.1200 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1200 Purpose and scope. The regulations in this subpart govern “shark finning” (the removal of shark fins and discarding of the carcass), the possession of shark fins, and the landing into U.S. ports of shark fins...

  3. 50 CFR 600.1200 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1200 Purpose and scope. The regulations in this subpart govern “shark finning” (the removal of shark fins and discarding of the carcass), the possession of shark fins, and the landing into U.S. ports of shark fins...

  4. 50 CFR 600.1200 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1200 Purpose and scope. The regulations in this subpart govern “shark finning” (the removal of shark fins and discarding of the carcass), the possession of shark fins, and the landing into U.S. ports of shark fins...

  5. 50 CFR 600.1200 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1200 Purpose and scope. The regulations in this subpart govern “shark finning” (the removal of shark fins and discarding of the carcass), the possession of shark fins, and the landing into U.S. ports of shark fins...

  6. 50 CFR 600.1200 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1200 Purpose and scope. The regulations in this subpart govern “shark finning” (the removal of shark fins and discarding of the carcass), the possession of shark fins, and the landing into U.S. ports of shark fins...

  7. Shark skin: a function in feeding.

    PubMed

    Southall, E J; Sims, D W

    2003-08-01

    Dermal denticles are unique tooth-like structures embedded in the skin of sharks and rays that protect them from predators and ectoparasites, reduce mechanical abrasion and possibly minimize swimming-induced drag. Here, we show that juvenile lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) also use this body armour to anchor food items near their tail so that bite-sized pieces can be torn away by rapid jaw and head movements. This scale-rasp behaviour is novel among fishes and suggests a new role for skin in the feeding ecology of sharks. Scale rasping may be important ecologically because it could function to increase the dietary breadth and growth potential of juveniles.

  8. Fatal tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier attack in New Caledonia erroneously ascribed to great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    PubMed

    Tirard, Philippe; Maillaud, Claude; Borsa, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    To understand the causes and patterns of shark attacks on humans, accurate identification of the shark species involved is necessary. Often, the only reliable evidence for this comes from the characteristics of the wounds exhibited by the victim. The present case report is intended as a reappraisal of the Luengoni, 2007 case (International Shark Attack File no. 4299) where a single shark bite provoked the death of a swimmer by haemorrhagic shock. Our examination of the wounds on the body of the victim, here documented by so-far unpublished photographic evidence, determined that the shark possessed large and homodontous jaws. This demonstrates that the attacker was a tiger shark, not a great white shark as previously published. PMID:26048500

  9. Fatal tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier attack in New Caledonia erroneously ascribed to great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    PubMed

    Tirard, Philippe; Maillaud, Claude; Borsa, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    To understand the causes and patterns of shark attacks on humans, accurate identification of the shark species involved is necessary. Often, the only reliable evidence for this comes from the characteristics of the wounds exhibited by the victim. The present case report is intended as a reappraisal of the Luengoni, 2007 case (International Shark Attack File no. 4299) where a single shark bite provoked the death of a swimmer by haemorrhagic shock. Our examination of the wounds on the body of the victim, here documented by so-far unpublished photographic evidence, determined that the shark possessed large and homodontous jaws. This demonstrates that the attacker was a tiger shark, not a great white shark as previously published.

  10. Allometric relationships of the dentition of the great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias, in forensic investigations of shark attacks.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A

    1991-06-01

    As a result of a systematic morphometric study of shark dentitions, a system of notation for describing the location of shark teeth has been developed and is proposed as a standard to be adopted for use in similar studies in the future. The macroscopic morphology of White Shark teeth has been characterised in order to gain quantitative data which might assist in identification of these sharks from bite marks on victims or objects or from shark carcasses. Using these data, a nomogram has been developed which can be used to estimate the body length of a White Shark from measurements of tooth or bite mark morphology. An example of the forensic application of such allometric data is provided as it applied to a recent fatal attack on a diver by a White Shark.

  11. Overview and discussion of the key regulatory issues in implementing the electric utility provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Title 4 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created a new regulatory instrument that electric power producers (utilities and others) will be required to possess and expand in order to emit sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere. The emission allowance system created by the CAAA will be grafted onto an already complex system of state and federal electric utility regulation. How public utility commissions (PUCs) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulate these allowances will greatly affect the decisions that electric utilities under their jurisdiction make to comply with the CAAA and, therefore, the cost of compliance to ratepayers. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Act No. 89-488 of 10 July 1989 containing provisions concerning agreements relating to insurance allowances for workers deprived of employment, the professional equality of women and men, labour and manpower examiners, foreign workers, and illicit work.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this French Act provides the following with respect to equality of opportunity in employment: 1) businesses with fewer than 300 workers may enter into agreements with the state permitting them to receive financial aid to carry out a study of their situation with respect to professional equality of women and men and measures that can be taken to restore equality of opportunity between women and men, such as temporary remedial plans that benefit only women; and 2) employers and workers' organizations are given 2 years to enter into collective bargaining to amend their contracts to remove all provisions that give special benefits to women, other than provisions establishing temporary remedial plans. The Act also strengthens the prohibitions on employing foreigners illegally in the following ways: 1) it provides that no person may directly or through another employ a foreigner without a work permit; 2) it makes it a crime, punishable by imprisonment for 2 months' to 2 years' and/or a fine of 2,000-200,000 francs for anyone other than an artist's agent to receive money, value, or personal property for bringing a foreign worker into France or arranging his or her hiring; 3) it raises the maximum penalty for using fraud or a false statement to obtain a work permit for a foreigner from 1 to 2 years' imprisonment for first offenders and from 3 to 4 years' imprisonment for repeat offenders; and 4) it raises penalties for lodging a foreigner illegally and for seeking from a foreign worker reimbursement for costs associated with bringing the worker to France and hiring him or her, or exacting from the worker a fee upon hiring.

  13. Act No. 89-488 of 10 July 1989 containing provisions concerning agreements relating to insurance allowances for workers deprived of employment, the professional equality of women and men, labour and manpower examiners, foreign workers, and illicit work.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this French Act provides the following with respect to equality of opportunity in employment: 1) businesses with fewer than 300 workers may enter into agreements with the state permitting them to receive financial aid to carry out a study of their situation with respect to professional equality of women and men and measures that can be taken to restore equality of opportunity between women and men, such as temporary remedial plans that benefit only women; and 2) employers and workers' organizations are given 2 years to enter into collective bargaining to amend their contracts to remove all provisions that give special benefits to women, other than provisions establishing temporary remedial plans. The Act also strengthens the prohibitions on employing foreigners illegally in the following ways: 1) it provides that no person may directly or through another employ a foreigner without a work permit; 2) it makes it a crime, punishable by imprisonment for 2 months' to 2 years' and/or a fine of 2,000-200,000 francs for anyone other than an artist's agent to receive money, value, or personal property for bringing a foreign worker into France or arranging his or her hiring; 3) it raises the maximum penalty for using fraud or a false statement to obtain a work permit for a foreigner from 1 to 2 years' imprisonment for first offenders and from 3 to 4 years' imprisonment for repeat offenders; and 4) it raises penalties for lodging a foreigner illegally and for seeking from a foreign worker reimbursement for costs associated with bringing the worker to France and hiring him or her, or exacting from the worker a fee upon hiring. PMID:12344130

  14. From Jaws to Laws--Now the Big, Bad Shark Needs Protection from Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conniff, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the National Marine Fisheries Service plan to protect sharks from the recent expansion in the shark fishing industry. Contains information about different shark species and their behavior. (MDH)

  15. Monogenoid infection of neonatal and older juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae), in a shark nursery.

    PubMed

    Young, Joy M; Frasca, Salvatore; Gruber, Samuel H; Benz, George W

    2013-12-01

    Fifty lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris , were captured in a shallow, mangrove-fringed shark nursery at Bimini, Bahamas and examined for the presence of skin-dwelling ectoparasitic monogenoids (Monogenoidea). Sixteen sharks were infected by Dermophthirius nigrellii (Microbothriidae); the youngest host was estimated to be 3- to 4-wk-old. Infection prevalence, mean intensity, and median intensity (0.32, 2.63, and 2.0, respectively, for all sharks) were not significantly different between neonates (estimated ages 3- to 10-wk-old) and non-neonatal juveniles (estimated ages 1- to 4-yr-old), suggesting that soon after parturition lemon sharks acquire infection levels of D. nigrellii matching those of juvenile conspecifics. Monogenoids were only found on the trailing portion of the first and second dorsal fins and upper lobe of the caudal fin. The prevalence of D. nigrellii was highest on the first dorsal fin; however, the mean and median intensities of D. nigrellii were similar between fins in all but 1 case. These results raise important husbandry implications regarding the practice of preferentially seeking neonatal and other small lemon sharks for captivity.

  16. Criminal provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and their interface with the United States sentencing guidelines. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, W.P.

    1991-09-30

    The growing severity of our societal response to environmental misconduct is reflected, in part, by the criminalization of environmental wrongs by both state and Federal governments. Indeed, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 continue this trend, giving the Environmental Protection Agency, via the Department of Justice, significant new criminal enforcement tools. The importance attached to law enforcement of environmental laws is a relatively recent phenomenon and took a significant upswing in 1982 when the department of Justice created what is today the Environmental Crimes Section in what is now the Environment and Natural Resources Division, which section has grown steadily and now has over 25 attorneys who prosecute or assist in the prosecution of environmental crimes in the U.S.

  17. Reef sharks: recent advances in ecological understanding to inform conservation.

    PubMed

    Osgood, G J; Baum, J K

    2015-12-01

    Sharks are increasingly being recognized as important members of coral-reef communities, but their overall conservation status remains uncertain. Nine of the 29 reef-shark species are designated as data deficient in the IUCN Red List, and three-fourths of reef sharks had unknown population trends at the time of their assessment. Fortunately, reef-shark research is on the rise. This new body of research demonstrates reef sharks' high site restriction, fidelity and residency on coral reefs, their broad trophic roles connecting reef communities and their high population genetic structure, all information that should be useful for their management and conservation. Importantly, recent studies on the abundance and population trends of the three classic carcharhinid reef sharks (grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus and whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus) may contribute to reassessments identifying them as more vulnerable than currently realized. Because over half of the research effort has focused on only these three reef sharks and the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum in only a few locales, there remain large taxonomic and geographic gaps in reef-shark knowledge. As such, a large portion of reef-shark biodiversity remains uncharacterized despite needs for targeted research identified in their red list assessments. A research agenda for the future should integrate abundance, life history, trophic ecology, genetics, habitat use and movement studies, and expand the breadth of such research to understudied species and localities, in order to better understand the conservation requirements of these species and to motivate effective conservation solutions.

  18. Reef sharks: recent advances in ecological understanding to inform conservation.

    PubMed

    Osgood, G J; Baum, J K

    2015-12-01

    Sharks are increasingly being recognized as important members of coral-reef communities, but their overall conservation status remains uncertain. Nine of the 29 reef-shark species are designated as data deficient in the IUCN Red List, and three-fourths of reef sharks had unknown population trends at the time of their assessment. Fortunately, reef-shark research is on the rise. This new body of research demonstrates reef sharks' high site restriction, fidelity and residency on coral reefs, their broad trophic roles connecting reef communities and their high population genetic structure, all information that should be useful for their management and conservation. Importantly, recent studies on the abundance and population trends of the three classic carcharhinid reef sharks (grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus and whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus) may contribute to reassessments identifying them as more vulnerable than currently realized. Because over half of the research effort has focused on only these three reef sharks and the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum in only a few locales, there remain large taxonomic and geographic gaps in reef-shark knowledge. As such, a large portion of reef-shark biodiversity remains uncharacterized despite needs for targeted research identified in their red list assessments. A research agenda for the future should integrate abundance, life history, trophic ecology, genetics, habitat use and movement studies, and expand the breadth of such research to understudied species and localities, in order to better understand the conservation requirements of these species and to motivate effective conservation solutions. PMID:26709218

  19. School-to-Work Opportunities. Fair Labor Standards Act and the North Carolina Wage and Hour Act. A Guide to Work-Based Learning, Federal and State Child Labor Laws, Minimum Wage Provisions, and the Provisions of Comparable North Carolina Laws. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Labor, Raleigh.

    This guide for work-based learning, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), and the North Carolina Wage and Hours Act is designed to serve employers, educators, agency placement staff, labor organizations, and all those involved in school-to-work initiatives by helping them to understand a variety of issues related to students in the workplace. Based…

  20. Antibodies of sharks: revolution and evolution.

    PubMed

    Marchalonis, J J; Schluter, S F; Bernstein, R M; Hohman, V S

    1998-12-01

    The combinatorial immune response is restricted to jawed vertebrates with cartilaginous fishes being the lowest extant species to have the mechanism for diversification and an extensive panoply of immunoglobulins, T-cell receptors and MHC products. Here, we review the molecular events of the "big bang" or rapid evolutionary appearance of the functionally complete combinatorial immune system coincident with the appearance of ancestral jawed vertebrates, suggesting that this event was catalyzed by horizontal transfer of DNA processing systems. We analyze the nature and extent of variable and constant domain diversity among the distinct immunoglobulin sets of carcharhine sharks focusing upon the lambda-like light chains and the mu and omega heavy chains. The detection and isolation of natural antibodies from the blood of unimmunized sharks illustrates a surprising range of recognition specificities and the existence of polyspecificity suggests that the antibody-forming system of sharks offers unique opportunities for studies of immunological regulation. Although the homologies between shark and mammalian immunoglobulins are unequivocal, major differences in segmental gene organization present challenges to our understanding of basic immunological phenomena such as clonal restriction.

  1. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  2. 29 CFR 452.8 - Trusteeship provisions, title III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trusteeship provisions, title III. 452.8 Section 452.8... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Other Provisions of the Act Affecting Title IV § 452.8 Trusteeship provisions, title III. Placing a labor organization under trusteeship consistent with title III, may have...

  3. White Shark Offshore Habitat: A Behavioral and Environmental Characterization of the Eastern Pacific Shared Offshore Foraging Area

    PubMed Central

    Nasby-Lucas, Nicole; Dewar, Heidi; Lam, Chi H.; Goldman, Kenneth J.; Domeier, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although much is known about the behavior of white sharks in coastal regions, very little is known about their vertical movements offshore in the eastern Pacific where they spend up to five months. We provide the first detailed description of the offshore habitat use of white sharks in the eastern North Pacific. Methodology/Principal Findings This study uses 2-min data from four recovered pop-up satellite archival tags deployed at Guadalupe Island (2002 and 2005). Deployments ranged from 5.4 to 8.2 months. Two predominant vertical patterns were described. The first was a bimodal vertical pattern with time spent at the surface and at depth, which was observed while traveling. The second was a repetitive oscillatory diving mode displayed by sharks in the Shared Offshore Foraging Area (SOFA). For all four datasets the average maximum daily dive depths ranged from 442.5 to 492.8 m and were typically associated with dissolved oxygen concentrations of above 1.7 ml L−1. Although infrequent, occasional dives to near 1000 m with a minimum temperature of 3.9°C and a minimum O2 level of 0.3 ml L−1 were observed. Conclusions/Significance Recovered pop-up satellite tags from Guadalupe Island white sharks advance our understanding of the vertical habitat use of white sharks while offshore. The bimodal vertical pattern during traveling is most likely related to geolocation. The oscillatory dive pattern is likely associated with foraging. While feeding is not documented, foraging is likely occurring in association with the deep scattering layer. Diving depths were not limited by temperature but were constrained by O2 levels below approximately 1.5 ml L−1. While oxygen may limit the extent of sharks' vertical movements, it will also impact prey distribution. Consequently, the shallow oxygen minimum zone in the SOFA may act to concentrate prey, thus enhancing foraging opportunities in these oligotrophic waters. PMID:20011032

  4. Act No. 9 of 11 January 1989 establishing rules on municipal development plans and purchase, sale, and expropriation of property and setting forth other provisions.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Colombian Act establishes general rules on the legalization of titles for social interest housing. Social interest housing is defined as housing with a value equal to or less than 100 times the minimum monthly salary for cities with a population less than 100,000, equal to or less than 120 times the minimum monthly salary for cities with a population between 100,000 and 500,000, and equal to or less than 135 times the minimum monthly salary for cities with a population of over 500,000. All municipalities are required to take into consideration this kind of housing in their development plans. The government is to promote social interest housing by doing the following: 1) registering titles and mortgages without the fulfillment of certain requirements relating to taxes, permits, and licenses; 2) prohibiting the refusal of loans because of a lack of licenses or a title; 3) guaranteeing that all persons have the right to public utilities such as water, gas, electricity, and trash removal for their homes, so long as they pay for such services, and that payments are to be based on the income of the person making payments; 4) reducing the time required to establish a claim of adverse possession and simplifying legal procedures and providing legal aid in such claims; 5) prohibiting attachment of social interest housing by any person or body other than the body financing the housing; 6) facilitating the expropriation without payment of buildings whose owners do not comply with certain urban management requirements; 7) protecting the consumer rights of prospective purchasers of social interest housing; and 8) requiring national public entities to donate property illegally occupied as social interest housing before July 28, 1988. Decree No. 839 of 25 April 1989 (Diario Oficial, 25 April 1989) sets forth the terms of longterm loans for the acquisition of social interest housing.

  5. Use of forensic analysis to better understand shark attack behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ritter, E; Levine, M

    2004-12-01

    Shark attacks have primarily been analyzed from wound patterns, with little knowledge of a shark's approach, behaviour and intention leading to such wounds. For the first time, during a shark-human interaction project in South Africa, a white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, was filmed biting a vertically positioned person at the water surface, and exhibiting distinct approach patterns leading to the bite. This bite was compared to ten white shark attacks that occurred (i) in the same geographical area of South Africa, and (ii) where the same body parts were bitten. Close similarity of some of these wound patterns to the bite imprint of the videotaped case indicate that the observed behaviour of the white shark may represent a common pattern of approaching and biting humans. PMID:16223019

  6. Use of forensic analysis to better understand shark attack behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ritter, E; Levine, M

    2004-12-01

    Shark attacks have primarily been analyzed from wound patterns, with little knowledge of a shark's approach, behaviour and intention leading to such wounds. For the first time, during a shark-human interaction project in South Africa, a white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, was filmed biting a vertically positioned person at the water surface, and exhibiting distinct approach patterns leading to the bite. This bite was compared to ten white shark attacks that occurred (i) in the same geographical area of South Africa, and (ii) where the same body parts were bitten. Close similarity of some of these wound patterns to the bite imprint of the videotaped case indicate that the observed behaviour of the white shark may represent a common pattern of approaching and biting humans.

  7. The hydrodynamic function of shark skin and two biomimetic applications.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, Johannes; Lauder, George V

    2012-03-01

    It has long been suspected that the denticles on shark skin reduce hydrodynamic drag during locomotion, and a number of man-made materials have been produced that purport to use shark-skin-like surface roughness to reduce drag during swimming. But no studies to date have tested these claims of drag reduction under dynamic and controlled conditions in which the swimming speed and hydrodynamics of shark skin and skin-like materials can be quantitatively compared with those of controls lacking surface ornamentation or with surfaces in different orientations. We use a flapping foil robotic device that allows accurate determination of the self-propelled swimming (SPS) speed of both rigid and flexible membrane-like foils made of shark skin and two biomimetic models of shark skin to measure locomotor performance. We studied the SPS speed of real shark skin, a silicone riblet material with evenly spaced ridges and a Speedo® 'shark skin-like' swimsuit fabric attached to rigid flat-plate foils and when made into flexible membrane-like foils. We found no consistent increase in swimming speed with Speedo® fabric, a 7.2% increase with riblet material, whereas shark skin membranes (but not rigid shark skin plates) showed a mean 12.3% increase in swimming speed compared with the same skin foils after removing the denticles. Deformation of the shark skin membrane is thus crucial to the drag-reducing effect of surface denticles. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) of the flow field surrounding moving shark skin foils shows that skin denticles promote enhanced leading-edge suction, which might have contributed to the observed increase in swimming speed. Shark skin denticles might thus enhance thrust, as well as reduce drag. PMID:22323201

  8. The hydrodynamic function of shark skin and two biomimetic applications.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, Johannes; Lauder, George V

    2012-03-01

    It has long been suspected that the denticles on shark skin reduce hydrodynamic drag during locomotion, and a number of man-made materials have been produced that purport to use shark-skin-like surface roughness to reduce drag during swimming. But no studies to date have tested these claims of drag reduction under dynamic and controlled conditions in which the swimming speed and hydrodynamics of shark skin and skin-like materials can be quantitatively compared with those of controls lacking surface ornamentation or with surfaces in different orientations. We use a flapping foil robotic device that allows accurate determination of the self-propelled swimming (SPS) speed of both rigid and flexible membrane-like foils made of shark skin and two biomimetic models of shark skin to measure locomotor performance. We studied the SPS speed of real shark skin, a silicone riblet material with evenly spaced ridges and a Speedo® 'shark skin-like' swimsuit fabric attached to rigid flat-plate foils and when made into flexible membrane-like foils. We found no consistent increase in swimming speed with Speedo® fabric, a 7.2% increase with riblet material, whereas shark skin membranes (but not rigid shark skin plates) showed a mean 12.3% increase in swimming speed compared with the same skin foils after removing the denticles. Deformation of the shark skin membrane is thus crucial to the drag-reducing effect of surface denticles. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) of the flow field surrounding moving shark skin foils shows that skin denticles promote enhanced leading-edge suction, which might have contributed to the observed increase in swimming speed. Shark skin denticles might thus enhance thrust, as well as reduce drag.

  9. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity. PMID:21346792

  10. Seasonal and Long-Term Changes in Relative Abundance of Bull Sharks from a Tourist Shark Feeding Site in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity. PMID:21346792

  11. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-27

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity.

  12. Survival of the Stillest: Predator Avoidance in Shark Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kempster, Ryan M.; Hart, Nathan S.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2013-01-01

    Sharks use highly sensitive electroreceptors to detect the electric fields emitted by potential prey. However, it is not known whether prey animals are able to modulate their own bioelectrical signals to reduce predation risk. Here, we show that some shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum) embryos can detect predator-mimicking electric fields and respond by ceasing their respiratory gill movements. Despite being confined to the small space within the egg case, where they are vulnerable to predators, embryonic sharks are able to recognise dangerous stimuli and react with an innate avoidance response. Knowledge of such behaviours, may inform the development of effective shark repellents. PMID:23326342

  13. Control of luminescence from lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) photophores.

    PubMed

    Claes, Julien M; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2011-05-01

    The velvet belly lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) is a common deep-sea shark that has been used, in the recent years, as a model for experimental studies on physiological control of shark luminescence. These studies demonstrated that, unlike any other luminous organism, the luminescence of this shark was under a dual control of hormones and neurotransmitters (or neuromodulators). This paper, by making a short review of histological and pharmacological results from these studies, aims to propose a first model of luminescence control in E. spinax.

  14. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.

  15. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  16. Social learning in juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris.

    PubMed

    Guttridge, Tristan L; van Dijk, Sander; Stamhuis, Eize J; Krause, Jens; Gruber, Samuel H; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Social learning is taxonomically widespread and can provide distinct behavioural advantages, such as in finding food or avoiding predators more efficiently. Although extensively studied in bony fishes, no such empirical evidence exists for cartilaginous fishes. Our aim in this study was to experimentally investigate the social learning capabilities of juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris. We designed a novel food task, where sharks were required to enter a start zone and subsequently make physical contact with a target in order to receive a food reward. Naive sharks were then able to interact with and observe (a) pre-trained sharks, that is, 'demonstrators', or (b) sharks with no previous experience, that is, 'sham demonstrators'. On completion, observer sharks were then isolated and tested individually in a similar task. During the exposure phase observers paired with 'demonstrator' sharks performed a greater number of task-related behaviours and made significantly more transitions from the start zone to the target, than observers paired with 'sham demonstrators'. When tested in isolation, observers previously paired with 'demonstrator' sharks completed a greater number of trials and made contact with the target significantly more often than observers previously paired with 'sham demonstrators'. Such experience also tended to result in faster overall task performance. These results indicate that juvenile lemon sharks, like numerous other animals, are capable of using socially derived information to learn about novel features in their environment. The results likely have important implications for behavioural processes, ecotourism and fisheries. PMID:22933179

  17. Social learning in juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris.

    PubMed

    Guttridge, Tristan L; van Dijk, Sander; Stamhuis, Eize J; Krause, Jens; Gruber, Samuel H; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Social learning is taxonomically widespread and can provide distinct behavioural advantages, such as in finding food or avoiding predators more efficiently. Although extensively studied in bony fishes, no such empirical evidence exists for cartilaginous fishes. Our aim in this study was to experimentally investigate the social learning capabilities of juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris. We designed a novel food task, where sharks were required to enter a start zone and subsequently make physical contact with a target in order to receive a food reward. Naive sharks were then able to interact with and observe (a) pre-trained sharks, that is, 'demonstrators', or (b) sharks with no previous experience, that is, 'sham demonstrators'. On completion, observer sharks were then isolated and tested individually in a similar task. During the exposure phase observers paired with 'demonstrator' sharks performed a greater number of task-related behaviours and made significantly more transitions from the start zone to the target, than observers paired with 'sham demonstrators'. When tested in isolation, observers previously paired with 'demonstrator' sharks completed a greater number of trials and made contact with the target significantly more often than observers previously paired with 'sham demonstrators'. Such experience also tended to result in faster overall task performance. These results indicate that juvenile lemon sharks, like numerous other animals, are capable of using socially derived information to learn about novel features in their environment. The results likely have important implications for behavioural processes, ecotourism and fisheries.

  18. 44 CFR 332.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS VOLUNTARY AGREEMENTS UNDER SECTION 708 OF THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT OF 1950, AS AMENDED § 332.1 General provisions. (a) Pursuant to section 708 of the Defense Production Act of... Defense Production Act (DPA) of 1950, as amended, proposes or otherwise provides for the development...

  19. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    PubMed

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. PMID:20606572

  20. To Authorize a Limited Waiver of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 with Respect to Certain Agricultural Hand Harvest Laborers. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 94th Congress, 1st Session on H.R.632 (Washington, D.C., April 18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    On April 18, 1975, the House Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor heard testimony regarding H.R. 632 which would establish procedures for the Secretary of Labor to waive the child labor provisions of the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act for employment in agriculture of children under 12 years of age. Several conditions would have to be met before the…

  1. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; McPherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-06-01

    Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (<10%) than published estimates from surveys along small transects (<0.02 ha), which is not consistent with inverted biomass pyramids (predator biomass greater than prey biomass) reported by other researchers for pristine reefs. We examined the relation between the density of reef sharks observed in towed-diver surveys and human population in models that accounted for the influence of oceanic primary productivity, sea surface temperature, reef area, and reef physical complexity. We used these models to estimate the density of sharks in the absence of humans. Densities of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), whitetip reef sharks (Triaenodon obesus), and the group "all reef sharks" increased substantially as human population decreased and as primary productivity and minimum sea surface temperature (or reef area, which was highly correlated with temperature) increased. Simulated baseline densities of reef sharks under the absence of humans were 1.1-2.4/ha for the main Hawaiian Islands, 1.2-2.4/ha for inhabited islands of American Samoa, and 0.9-2.1/ha for inhabited islands in the Mariana Archipelago, which suggests that density of reef sharks

  2. Shark skin: a function in feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Southall, E J; Sims, D W

    2003-01-01

    Dermal denticles are unique tooth-like structures embedded in the skin of sharks and rays that protect them from predators and ectoparasites, reduce mechanical abrasion and possibly minimize swimming-induced drag. Here, we show that juvenile lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) also use this body armour to anchor food items near their tail so that bite-sized pieces can be torn away by rapid jaw and head movements. This scale-rasp behaviour is novel among fishes and suggests a new role for skin in the feeding ecology of sharks. Scale rasping may be important ecologically because it could function to increase the dietary breadth and growth potential of juveniles. PMID:12952633

  3. 29 CFR 790.3 - Provisions of the statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions Relating to Certain... subject to any liability or punishment under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, * * * on... the minimum wage and overtime compensation provisions of the Fair......

  4. 29 CFR 790.3 - Provisions of the statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions Relating to Certain... subject to any liability or punishment under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, * * * on... the minimum wage and overtime compensation provisions of the Fair......

  5. 29 CFR 790.3 - Provisions of the statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions Relating to Certain... subject to any liability or punishment under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, * * * on... the minimum wage and overtime compensation provisions of the Fair......

  6. 29 CFR 790.3 - Provisions of the statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions Relating to Certain... subject to any liability or punishment under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, * * * on... the minimum wage and overtime compensation provisions of the Fair......

  7. 29 CFR 790.3 - Provisions of the statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT OF 1947 ON THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Provisions Relating to Certain... subject to any liability or punishment under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, * * * on... the minimum wage and overtime compensation provisions of the Fair......

  8. An investigation into ciguatoxin bioaccumulation in sharks.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Lauren; Capper, Angela; Carter, Steve; Simpfendorfer, Colin

    2016-09-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by benthic Gambierdiscus dinoflagellates, readily biotransform and bioaccumulate in food chains ultimately bioconcentrating in high-order, carnivorous marine species. Certain shark species, often feeding at, or near the top of the food-chain have the ability to bioaccumulate a suite of toxins, from both anthropogenic and algal sources. As such, these apex predators are likely sinks for CTXs. This assumption, in conjunction with anecdotal knowledge of poisoning incidents, several non-specific feeding trials whereby various terrestrial animals were fed suspect fish flesh, and a single incident in Madagascar in 1994, have resulted in the widespread acceptance that sharks may accumulate CTXs. This prompted a study to investigate original claims within the literature, as well as investigate CTX bioaccumulation in the muscle and liver of 22 individual sharks from nine species, across four locations along the east coast of Australia. Utilizing an updated ciguatoxin extraction method with HPLC-MS/MS, we were unable to detect P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2 or P-CTX-3, the three primary CTX congeners, in muscle or liver samples. We propose four theories to address this finding: (1) to date, methods have been optimized for teleost species and may not be appropriate for elasmobranchs, or the CTXs may be below the limit of detection; (2) CTX may be biotransformed into elasmobranch-specific congeners as a result of unique metabolic properties; (3) 22 individuals may be an inadequate sample size given the rare occurrence of high-order ciguatoxic organisms and potential for CTX depuration; and (4) the ephemeral nature and inconsistent toxin profiles of Gambierdiscus blooms may have undermined our classifications of certain areas as CTX hotspots. These results, in combination with the lack of clarity within the literature, suggest that ciguatoxin bioaccumulation in sharks remains elusive, and warrants further investigation to determine the dynamics of toxin production

  9. 40 CFR 94.1107 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... were in general use with engines prior to 1999. For diesel engines, this would generally include...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 94.1107 Warranty provisions. (a) The manufacturer of each engine must warrant to...

  10. 40 CFR 94.1107 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... were in general use with engines prior to 1999. For diesel engines, this would generally include...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 94.1107 Warranty provisions. (a) The manufacturer of each engine must warrant to...

  11. 40 CFR 94.1107 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... were in general use with engines prior to 1999. For diesel engines, this would generally include...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 94.1107 Warranty provisions. (a) The manufacturer of each engine must warrant to...

  12. 40 CFR 94.1107 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... were in general use with engines prior to 1999. For diesel engines, this would generally include...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 94.1107 Warranty provisions. (a) The manufacturer of each engine must warrant to...

  13. 40 CFR 94.1107 - Warranty provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... were in general use with engines prior to 1999. For diesel engines, this would generally include...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General Enforcement Provisions and Prohibited Acts § 94.1107 Warranty provisions. (a) The manufacturer of each engine must warrant to...

  14. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  15. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  16. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  17. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  18. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  19. 6 CFR 5.20 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 5.20 Section 5.20 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.20 General provisions. (a) Purpose and scope. (1) This subpart contains the rules that...

  20. 6 CFR 5.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 5.1 Section 5.1 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 5.1 General provisions. (a)(1) This subpart A contains the rules that...

  1. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... management groups is closed, even across fishing years. On July 3, 2013 (78 FR 40318), NMFS announced the... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY:...

  2. 75 FR 67251 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Blacknose Shark and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... June 1, 2010 (75 FR 30484), NMFS announced the final rule for Amendment 3 to the Consolidated Atlantic... Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Blacknose Shark and Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark... blacknose shark and non- blacknose small coastal shark (SCS) fisheries. This action is necessary...

  3. 76 FR 64074 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA670 Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification... Shark Identification workshop scheduled for November 17, 2011, in Charleston, SC, has been changed. This.... Atlantic Shark Identification workshops are mandatory for Atlantic Shark Dealer permit holders or...

  4. 50 CFR 635.24 - Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial retention limits for sharks... Management Measures § 635.24 Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish. Link to an amendment.... (a) Sharks. (1) A person who owns or operates a vessel that has been issued a valid shark...

  5. Swimming fundamentals: turning performance of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) is predicted by body shape and postural reconfiguration.

    PubMed

    Porter, Marianne E; Roque, Cassandra M; Long, John H

    2011-12-01

    Turns are essential maneuvers that sharks employ when foraging, feeding, and migrating. How well any individual performs in turning is determined, in part, by the static form and postural reconfiguration of its body. Since the importance of postural reconfiguration in determining turning performance is not well understood, our goal was to examine how body form and posture correlate with turning performance in juvenile leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata. From videos of sharks turning laterally in yaw, performance was measured as turning radius, turning angle, angular speed of the head, and translational speed of the body along its path. Body form variables included the body's length, mass, width, second moment of area, and mass moment of inertia. Postural variables included body-bending coefficient, body flexion at different longitudinal positions, and lag time between body flexion and turning of the center of rotation. Using step-wise linear regression followed by multiple regression, each performance variable was regressed onto three pools of independent variables: (i) all form variables alone, (ii) all postural variables alone, and (iii) a combination of all form and postural variables. From these correlations, it appears that turning performance may be controlled primarily by the magnitude and timing of the flexion of the body. In other words, sharks alter how they turn by changing the pattern in which they bend their bodies; the body acts as a dynamically reconfiguring rudder.

  6. Skeletogenesis in the swell shark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum.

    PubMed

    Eames, B Frank; Allen, Nancy; Young, Jonathan; Kaplan, Angelo; Helms, Jill A; Schneider, Richard A

    2007-05-01

    Extant chondrichthyans possess a predominantly cartilaginous skeleton, even though primitive chondrichthyans produced bone. To gain insights into this peculiar skeletal evolution, and in particular to evaluate the extent to which chondrichthyan skeletogenesis retains features of an osteogenic programme, we performed a histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the entire embryonic skeleton during development of the swell shark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum. Specifically, we compared staining properties among various mineralizing tissues, including neural arches of the vertebrae, dermal tissues supporting oral denticles and Meckel's cartilage of the lower jaw. Patterns of mineralization were predicted by spatially restricted alkaline phosphatase activity earlier in development. Regarding evidence for an osteogenic programme in extant sharks, a mineralized tissue in the perichondrium of C. ventriosum neural arches, and to a lesser extent a tissue supporting the oral denticle, displayed numerous properties of bone. Although we uncovered many differences between tissues in Meckel's cartilage and neural arches of C. ventriosum, both elements impart distinct tissue characteristics to the perichondral region. Considering the evolution of osteogenic processes, shark skeletogenesis may illuminate the transition from perichondrium to periosteum, which is a major bone-forming tissue during the process of endochondral ossification. PMID:17451531

  7. Characterization of the shark myelin Po protein.

    PubMed

    Rotenstein, L; Herath, K; Gould, R M; de Bellard, M E

    2008-01-01

    Myelin, the insulating sheath made by extensive plasma membrane wrapping, is dependent on the presence of highly adhesive molecules that keep the two sides of the membrane in tight contact. The Po glycoprotein (Po) is the major component of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin of mammals. The exact role that Po protein has played in the evolution of myelin is still unclear, but several phylogenetic observations suggest that it is a crucial component in the development of myelin as a multi-lamellar membrane structure. Sharks, which appeared in the fossil record about 400 million years ago, are the first fully myelinated organisms. In this study we investigated the expression pattern of shark myelin Po to suggest a way it might have played a role in the evolution of myelin in the central nervous system. We found that sharks have more than two isoforms (32, 28 and 25 kD), and that some of these might not be fully functional because they lack the domains known for Po homophilic adhesion.

  8. Skeletogenesis in the swell shark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum

    PubMed Central

    Eames, B Frank; Allen, Nancy; Young, Jonathan; Kaplan, Angelo; Helms, Jill A; Schneider, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Extant chondrichthyans possess a predominantly cartilaginous skeleton, even though primitive chondrichthyans produced bone. To gain insights into this peculiar skeletal evolution, and in particular to evaluate the extent to which chondrichthyan skeletogenesis retains features of an osteogenic programme, we performed a histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the entire embryonic skeleton during development of the swell shark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum. Specifically, we compared staining properties among various mineralizing tissues, including neural arches of the vertebrae, dermal tissues supporting oral denticles and Meckel's cartilage of the lower jaw. Patterns of mineralization were predicted by spatially restricted alkaline phosphatase activity earlier in development. Regarding evidence for an osteogenic programme in extant sharks, a mineralized tissue in the perichondrium of C. ventriosum neural arches, and to a lesser extent a tissue supporting the oral denticle, displayed numerous properties of bone. Although we uncovered many differences between tissues in Meckel's cartilage and neural arches of C. ventriosum, both elements impart distinct tissue characteristics to the perichondral region. Considering the evolution of osteogenic processes, shark skeletogenesis may illuminate the transition from perichondrium to periosteum, which is a major bone-forming tissue during the process of endochondral ossification. PMID:17451531

  9. Skeletogenesis in the swell shark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum.

    PubMed

    Eames, B Frank; Allen, Nancy; Young, Jonathan; Kaplan, Angelo; Helms, Jill A; Schneider, Richard A

    2007-05-01

    Extant chondrichthyans possess a predominantly cartilaginous skeleton, even though primitive chondrichthyans produced bone. To gain insights into this peculiar skeletal evolution, and in particular to evaluate the extent to which chondrichthyan skeletogenesis retains features of an osteogenic programme, we performed a histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the entire embryonic skeleton during development of the swell shark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum. Specifically, we compared staining properties among various mineralizing tissues, including neural arches of the vertebrae, dermal tissues supporting oral denticles and Meckel's cartilage of the lower jaw. Patterns of mineralization were predicted by spatially restricted alkaline phosphatase activity earlier in development. Regarding evidence for an osteogenic programme in extant sharks, a mineralized tissue in the perichondrium of C. ventriosum neural arches, and to a lesser extent a tissue supporting the oral denticle, displayed numerous properties of bone. Although we uncovered many differences between tissues in Meckel's cartilage and neural arches of C. ventriosum, both elements impart distinct tissue characteristics to the perichondral region. Considering the evolution of osteogenic processes, shark skeletogenesis may illuminate the transition from perichondrium to periosteum, which is a major bone-forming tissue during the process of endochondral ossification.

  10. 20 CFR 718.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 718.1 Statutory provisions. Section 402(f) of the Act authorizes the Secretary of Labor to establish criteria for determining total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis...

  11. The structural analysis of shark IgNAR antibodies reveals evolutionary principles of immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Feige, Matthias J; Gräwert, Melissa A; Marcinowski, Moritz; Hennig, Janosch; Behnke, Julia; Ausländer, David; Herold, Eva M; Peschek, Jirka; Castro, Caitlin D; Flajnik, Martin; Hendershot, Linda M; Sattler, Michael; Groll, Michael; Buchner, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Sharks and other cartilaginous fish are the phylogenetically oldest living organisms that rely on antibodies as part of their adaptive immune system. They produce the immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR), a homodimeric heavy chain-only antibody, as a major part of their humoral adaptive immune response. Here, we report the atomic resolution structure of the IgNAR constant domains and a structural model of this heavy chain-only antibody. We find that despite low sequence conservation, the basic Ig fold of modern antibodies is already present in the evolutionary ancient shark IgNAR domains, highlighting key structural determinants of the ubiquitous Ig fold. In contrast, structural differences between human and shark antibody domains explain the high stability of several IgNAR domains and allowed us to engineer human antibodies for increased stability and secretion efficiency. We identified two constant domains, C1 and C3, that act as dimerization modules within IgNAR. Together with the individual domain structures and small-angle X-ray scattering, this allowed us to develop a structural model of the complete IgNAR molecule. Its constant region exhibits an elongated shape with flexibility and a characteristic kink in the middle. Despite the lack of a canonical hinge region, the variable domains are spaced appropriately wide for binding to multiple antigens. Thus, the shark IgNAR domains already display the well-known Ig fold, but apart from that, this heavy chain-only antibody employs unique ways for dimerization and positioning of functional modules.

  12. Photon Hunting in the Twilight Zone: Visual Features of Mesopelagic Bioluminescent Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Julien M.; Partridge, Julian C.; Hart, Nathan S.; Garza-Gisholt, Eduardo; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Mallefet, Jérôme; Collin, Shaun P.

    2014-01-01

    The mesopelagic zone is a visual scene continuum in which organisms have developed various strategies to optimize photon capture. Here, we used light microscopy, stereology-assisted retinal topographic mapping, spectrophotometry and microspectrophotometry to investigate the visual ecology of deep-sea bioluminescent sharks [four etmopterid species (Etmopterus lucifer, E. splendidus, E. spinax and Trigonognathus kabeyai) and one dalatiid species (Squaliolus aliae)]. We highlighted a novel structure, a translucent area present in the upper eye orbit of Etmopteridae, which might be part of a reference system for counterillumination adjustment or acts as a spectral filter for camouflage breaking, as well as several ocular specialisations such as aphakic gaps and semicircular tapeta previously unknown in elasmobranchs. All species showed pure rod hexagonal mosaics with a high topographic diversity. Retinal specialisations, formed by shallow cell density gradients, may aid in prey detection and reflect lifestyle differences; pelagic species display areae centrales while benthopelagic and benthic species display wide and narrow horizontal streaks, respectively. One species (E. lucifer) displays two areae within its horizontal streak that likely allows detection of conspecifics' elongated bioluminescent flank markings. Ganglion cell topography reveals less variation with all species showing a temporal area for acute frontal binocular vision. This area is dorsally extended in T. kabeyai, allowing this species to adjust the strike of its peculiar jaws in the ventro-frontal visual field. Etmopterus lucifer showed an additional nasal area matching a high rod density area. Peak spectral sensitivities of the rod visual pigments (λmax) fall within the range 484–491 nm, allowing these sharks to detect a high proportion of photons present in their habitat. Comparisons with previously published data reveal ocular differences between bioluminescent and non-bioluminescent deep

  13. 33 CFR 117.751 - Shark River (South Channel).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shark River (South Channel). 117.751 Section 117.751 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.751 Shark River...

  14. 33 CFR 117.751 - Shark River (South Channel).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shark River (South Channel). 117.751 Section 117.751 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.751 Shark River...

  15. 33 CFR 117.751 - Shark River (South Channel).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shark River (South Channel). 117.751 Section 117.751 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.751 Shark River...

  16. 33 CFR 117.751 - Shark River (South Channel).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shark River (South Channel). 117.751 Section 117.751 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.751 Shark River...

  17. 33 CFR 117.751 - Shark River (South Channel).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shark River (South Channel). 117.751 Section 117.751 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.751 Shark River...

  18. 77 FR 70551 - Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... affect U.S. commercial or recreational fishermen who harvest sharks within the Atlantic Ocean, including... for the Gulf of Mexico blacknose shark stock is unknown (76 FR 62331; October 7, 2011). As such, we... nature of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (75 FR 27217). Thus, a large...

  19. Aspects of maturation and reproduction in hexanchiform and squaliform sharks.

    PubMed

    White, W T; Dharmadi

    2010-04-01

    Three species of hexanchiform sharks belonging to two families and 12 species of squaliform sharks belonging to three families were recorded in fish landing site surveys in eastern Indonesia. Of these, the Squalidae were the most abundant species landed, with Squalus hemipinnis, Squalus edmundsi and Squalus montalbani contributing 0.4, 0.4 and 0.5% to the total number of sharks recorded in a 5 year survey of Indonesian fish landing sites. In comparison, the hexanchid Hexanchus griseus contributed the largest percentage to the total shark biomass. For many species, the majority of the catch consisted of immature fishes, which had not yet been able to reproduce. The data presented in this article are the first biological data reported on most of these shark species and are thus vital for fisheries managers and conservation assessors. PMID:20537019

  20. "Sharks in Your Hands"--A Case Study on Effects of Teaching Strategies to Change Knowledge and Attitudes towards Sharks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hung-Shan; Liu, Shiang-Yao; Yeh, Ting-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to exemplify how hands-on based teaching strategies enhanced students' knowledge and positive attitudes towards sharks. Hands-on activities for sharks' biological and morphological features were carried out. Eleven elementary school students from a remote area in Taiwan were recruited and assigned to the hands-on condition.…

  1. Biomimetic shark skin: design, fabrication and hydrodynamic function.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Lauder, George V

    2014-05-15

    Although the functional properties of shark skin have been of considerable interest to both biologists and engineers because of the complex hydrodynamic effects of surface roughness, no study to date has successfully fabricated a flexible biomimetic shark skin that allows detailed study of hydrodynamic function. We present the first study of the design, fabrication and hydrodynamic testing of a synthetic, flexible, shark skin membrane. A three-dimensional (3D) model of shark skin denticles was constructed using micro-CT imaging of the skin of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Using 3D printing, thousands of rigid synthetic shark denticles were placed on flexible membranes in a controlled, linear-arrayed pattern. This flexible 3D printed shark skin model was then tested in water using a robotic flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically at their self-propelled swimming speed. Compared with a smooth control model without denticles, the 3D printed shark skin showed increased swimming speed with reduced energy consumption under certain motion programs. For example, at a heave frequency of 1.5 Hz and an amplitude of ± 1 cm, swimming speed increased by 6.6% and the energy cost-of-transport was reduced by 5.9%. In addition, a leading-edge vortex with greater vorticity than the smooth control was generated by the 3D printed shark skin, which may explain the increased swimming speeds. The ability to fabricate synthetic biomimetic shark skin opens up a wide array of possible manipulations of surface roughness parameters, and the ability to examine the hydrodynamic consequences of diverse skin denticle shapes present in different shark species.

  2. How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kempster, Ryan M; Egeberg, Channing A; Hart, Nathan S; Ryan, Laura; Chapuis, Lucille; Kerr, Caroline C; Schmidt, Carl; Huveneers, Charlie; Gennari, Enrico; Yopak, Kara E; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Collin, Shaun P

    2016-01-01

    Sharks play a vital role in the health of marine ecosystems, but the potential threat that sharks pose to humans is a reminder of our vulnerability when entering the ocean. Personal shark deterrents are being marketed as the solution to mitigate the threat that sharks pose. However, the effectiveness claims of many personal deterrents are based on our knowledge of shark sensory biology rather than robust testing of the devices themselves, as most have not been subjected to independent scientific studies. Therefore, there is a clear need for thorough testing of commercially available shark deterrents to provide the public with recommendations of their effectiveness. Using a modified stereo-camera system, we quantified behavioural interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and a baited target in the presence of a commercially available, personal electric shark deterrent (Shark Shield Freedom7™). The stereo-camera system enabled an accurate assessment of the behavioural responses of C. carcharias when encountering a non-lethal electric field many times stronger than what they would naturally experience. Upon their first observed encounter, all C. carcharias were repelled at a mean (± std. error) proximity of 131 (± 10.3) cm, which corresponded to a mean voltage gradient of 9.7 (± 0.9) V/m. With each subsequent encounter, their proximity decreased by an average of 11.6 cm, which corresponded to an increase in tolerance to the electric field by an average of 2.6 (± 0.5) V/m per encounter. Despite the increase in tolerance, sharks continued to be deterred from interacting for the duration of each trial when in the presence of an active Shark Shield™. Furthermore, the findings provide no support to the theory that electric deterrents attract sharks. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of a non-lethal electric shark deterrent, its influence on the behaviour of C. carcharias, and an accurate method for testing

  3. How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kempster, Ryan M; Egeberg, Channing A; Hart, Nathan S; Ryan, Laura; Chapuis, Lucille; Kerr, Caroline C; Schmidt, Carl; Huveneers, Charlie; Gennari, Enrico; Yopak, Kara E; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Collin, Shaun P

    2016-01-01

    Sharks play a vital role in the health of marine ecosystems, but the potential threat that sharks pose to humans is a reminder of our vulnerability when entering the ocean. Personal shark deterrents are being marketed as the solution to mitigate the threat that sharks pose. However, the effectiveness claims of many personal deterrents are based on our knowledge of shark sensory biology rather than robust testing of the devices themselves, as most have not been subjected to independent scientific studies. Therefore, there is a clear need for thorough testing of commercially available shark deterrents to provide the public with recommendations of their effectiveness. Using a modified stereo-camera system, we quantified behavioural interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and a baited target in the presence of a commercially available, personal electric shark deterrent (Shark Shield Freedom7™). The stereo-camera system enabled an accurate assessment of the behavioural responses of C. carcharias when encountering a non-lethal electric field many times stronger than what they would naturally experience. Upon their first observed encounter, all C. carcharias were repelled at a mean (± std. error) proximity of 131 (± 10.3) cm, which corresponded to a mean voltage gradient of 9.7 (± 0.9) V/m. With each subsequent encounter, their proximity decreased by an average of 11.6 cm, which corresponded to an increase in tolerance to the electric field by an average of 2.6 (± 0.5) V/m per encounter. Despite the increase in tolerance, sharks continued to be deterred from interacting for the duration of each trial when in the presence of an active Shark Shield™. Furthermore, the findings provide no support to the theory that electric deterrents attract sharks. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of a non-lethal electric shark deterrent, its influence on the behaviour of C. carcharias, and an accurate method for testing

  4. How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nathan S.; Ryan, Laura; Chapuis, Lucille; Kerr, Caroline C.; Schmidt, Carl; Huveneers, Charlie; Gennari, Enrico; Yopak, Kara E.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Sharks play a vital role in the health of marine ecosystems, but the potential threat that sharks pose to humans is a reminder of our vulnerability when entering the ocean. Personal shark deterrents are being marketed as the solution to mitigate the threat that sharks pose. However, the effectiveness claims of many personal deterrents are based on our knowledge of shark sensory biology rather than robust testing of the devices themselves, as most have not been subjected to independent scientific studies. Therefore, there is a clear need for thorough testing of commercially available shark deterrents to provide the public with recommendations of their effectiveness. Using a modified stereo-camera system, we quantified behavioural interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and a baited target in the presence of a commercially available, personal electric shark deterrent (Shark Shield Freedom7™). The stereo-camera system enabled an accurate assessment of the behavioural responses of C. carcharias when encountering a non-lethal electric field many times stronger than what they would naturally experience. Upon their first observed encounter, all C. carcharias were repelled at a mean (± std. error) proximity of 131 (± 10.3) cm, which corresponded to a mean voltage gradient of 9.7 (± 0.9) V/m. With each subsequent encounter, their proximity decreased by an average of 11.6 cm, which corresponded to an increase in tolerance to the electric field by an average of 2.6 (± 0.5) V/m per encounter. Despite the increase in tolerance, sharks continued to be deterred from interacting for the duration of each trial when in the presence of an active Shark Shield™. Furthermore, the findings provide no support to the theory that electric deterrents attract sharks. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of a non-lethal electric shark deterrent, its influence on the behaviour of C. carcharias, and an accurate method for testing

  5. Trophic ecology of sharks in the mid-east pacific ocean inferred from stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunkai; Gong, Yi; Chen, Xinjun; Dai, Xiaojie; Zhu, Jiangfeng

    2013-11-01

    As apex predators, sharks are of ecological and conservation importance in marine ecosystems. In this study, trophic positions of sharks were estimated using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen for five representative species caught by the Chinese longline fleet in the mid-east Pacific, i.e., the blue shark (Prionace glauca), the bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus), the silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis), the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), and the oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus). Of these species, oceanic whitetip shark has the lowest trophic level and mean δ15N value (3.9 and 14.93‰ ± 0.84‰), whereas bigeye thresher shark has the highest level/values (4.5 and 17.02‰ ± 1.21‰, respectively). The bigeye thresher shark has significantly higher δ15N value than other shark species, indicating its higher trophic position. The blue shark and oceanic whitetip shark has significantly higher δ13C values than bigeye thresher shark, silky shark and scalloped hammerhead, possibly due to different diets and/or living habitats. The stable isotope data and stomach content data are highly consistent, suggesting that stable isotope analysis supplements traditional feeding ecology study of sharks, and thus contributes to understanding their trophic linkage.

  6. A recent shark radiation: molecular phylogeny, biogeography and speciation of wobbegong sharks (family: Orectolobidae).

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Shannon; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2009-07-01

    The elasmobranch fish are an ancient, evolutionarily successful, but under-researched vertebrate group, particularly in regard to their recent evolutionary history. Their lineage has survived four mass extinction events and most present day taxa are thought to be derived from Mesozoic forms. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Orectolobidae that provides evidence for recent events of diversification in this shark group. Species interrelationships in Orectolobidae were reconstructed based on four mitochondrial and nuclear genes. In line with previous morphological work, our results do not support current taxonomic arrangements in Orectolobidae and indicate that a taxonomic revision of the family is warranted. We propose that the onset of diversification of orectolobid sharks is of Miocene age and occurred within the Indo-Australian region. Surprisingly, we also find evidence for a recent ( approximately last 2 million years) and rapid radiation of wobbegong sharks. Allopatric speciation followed by range expansion seems like the general most likely explanation to account for wobbegong relationships and distributions. We suggest that the evolution of this shark group was mostly influenced by two temporal scenarios of diversification. The oldest relates to major geological changes in the Indo-West Pacific associated with the Miocene collision of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates. The most recent scenario was influenced by changes in oceanography and the emergence of biogeographic barriers related to Pleistocene glacial cycles in Australian waters.

  7. No rainbow for grey bamboo sharks: evidence for the absence of colour vision in sharks from behavioural discrimination experiments.

    PubMed

    Schluessel, V; Rick, I P; Plischke, K

    2014-11-01

    Despite convincing data collected by microspectrophotometry and molecular biology, rendering sharks colourblind cone monochromats, the question of whether sharks can perceive colour had not been finally resolved in the absence of any behavioural experiments compensating for the confounding factor of brightness. The present study tested the ability of juvenile grey bamboo sharks to perceive colour in an experimental design based on a paradigm established by Karl von Frisch using colours in combination with grey distractor stimuli of equal brightness. Results showed that contrasts but no colours could be discriminated. Blue and yellow stimuli were not distinguished from a grey distractor stimulus of equal brightness but could be distinguished from distractor stimuli of varying brightness. In addition, different grey stimuli were distinguished significantly above chance level from one another. In conclusion, the behavioural results support the previously collected physiological data on bamboo sharks, which mutually show that the grey bamboo shark, like several marine mammals, is a cone monochromate and colourblind.

  8. 40 CFR 1033.601 - General compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Special Compliance Provisions § 1033.601 General... this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. The provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 apply for locomotives as specified in that part, except...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.601 - What compliance provisions apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other persons, must observe the provisions of this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. (b) Note that the provisions of 40 CFR 1068.103(f... model years in which emission standards change. Include in your request information showing that this...

  10. 36 CFR 905.737-101 - Applicable provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Applicable provisions of law. Former employees of the Corporation must abide by the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 207 and 5 CFR 737.1 through 737.25, which bar certain acts by former Government employees that may... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicable provisions of...

  11. 36 CFR 905.737-101 - Applicable provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicable provisions of law. Former employees of the Corporation must abide by the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 207 and 5 CFR 737.1 through 737.25, which bar certain acts by former Government employees that may... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable provisions of...

  12. 36 CFR 905.737-101 - Applicable provisions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicable provisions of law. Former employees of the Corporation must abide by the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 207 and 5 CFR 737.1 through 737.25, which bar certain acts by former Government employees that may... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable provisions of...

  13. 29 CFR 789.1 - Statutory provisions and legislative history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Statutory provisions and legislative history. 789.1 Section... ASSURANCES § 789.1 Statutory provisions and legislative history. Section 12(a) of the Act provides, in part... important portion of the legislative history of those provisions in sections 12(a) and 15(a)(1) which...

  14. 29 CFR 789.1 - Statutory provisions and legislative history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory provisions and legislative history. 789.1 Section... ASSURANCES § 789.1 Statutory provisions and legislative history. Section 12(a) of the Act provides, in part... important portion of the legislative history of those provisions in sections 12(a) and 15(a)(1) which...

  15. Shark as viewed by Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This close-up image of Shark, in the Bookshelf at the back of the Rock Garden, was taken by Sojourner Rover on Sol 75. Also in the image are Half Dome (right) and Desert Princess (lower right). At the bottom left, a thin 'crusty' soil layer has been disturbed by the rover wheels.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Movement patterns of silvertip sharks ( Carcharhinus albimarginatus) on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, Mario; Heupel, Michelle. R.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how sharks use coral reefs is essential for assessing risk of exposure to fisheries, habitat loss, and climate change. Despite a wide Indo-Pacific distribution, little is known about the spatial ecology of silvertip sharks ( Carcharhinus albimarginatus), compromising the ability to effectively manage their populations. We examined the residency and movements of silvertip sharks in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). An array of 56 VR2W acoustic receivers was used to monitor shark movements on 17 semi-isolated reefs. Twenty-seven individuals tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored from 70 to 731 d. Residency index to the study site ranged from 0.05 to 0.97, with a mean residency (±SD) of 0.57 ± 0.26, but most individuals were detected at or near their tagging reef. Clear seasonal patterns were apparent, with fewer individuals detected between September and February. A large proportion of the tagged population (>71 %) moved regularly between reefs. Silvertip sharks were detected less during daytime and exhibited a strong diel pattern in depth use, which may be a strategy for optimizing energetic budgets and foraging opportunities. This study provides the first detailed examination of the spatial ecology and behavior of silvertip sharks on coral reefs. Silvertip sharks remained resident at coral reef habitats over long periods, but our results also suggest this species may have more complex movement patterns and use larger areas of the GBR than common reef shark species. Our findings highlight the need to further understand the movement ecology of silvertip sharks at different spatial and temporal scales, which is critical for developing effective management approaches.

  17. Global Diversity Hotspots and Conservation Priorities for Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Lucifora, Luis O.; García, Verónica B.; Worm, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Sharks are one of the most threatened groups of marine animals, as high exploitation rates coupled with low resilience to fishing pressure have resulted in population declines worldwide. Designing conservation strategies for this group depends on basic knowledge of the geographic distribution and diversity of known species. So far, this information has been fragmented and incomplete. Here, we have synthesized the first global shark diversity pattern from a new database of published sources, including all 507 species described at present, and have identified hotspots of shark species richness, functional diversity and endemicity from these data. We have evaluated the congruence of these diversity measures and demonstrate their potential use in setting priority areas for shark conservation. Our results show that shark diversity across all species peaks on the continental shelves and at mid-latitudes (30–40 degrees N and S). Global hotspots of species richness, functional diversity and endemicity were found off Japan, Taiwan, the East and West coasts of Australia, Southeast Africa, Southeast Brazil and Southeast USA. Moreover, some areas with low to moderate species richness such as Southern Australia, Angola, North Chile and Western Continental Europe stood out as places of high functional diversity. Finally, species affected by shark finning showed different patterns of diversity, with peaks closer to the Equator and a more oceanic distribution overall. Our results show that the global pattern of shark diversity is uniquely different from land, and other well-studied marine taxa, and may provide guidance for spatial approaches to shark conservation. However, similar to terrestrial ecosystems, protected areas based on hotspots of diversity and endemism alone would provide insufficient means for safeguarding the diverse functional roles that sharks play in marine ecosystems. PMID:21573162

  18. Global diversity hotspots and conservation priorities for sharks.

    PubMed

    Lucifora, Luis O; García, Verónica B; Worm, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Sharks are one of the most threatened groups of marine animals, as high exploitation rates coupled with low resilience to fishing pressure have resulted in population declines worldwide. Designing conservation strategies for this group depends on basic knowledge of the geographic distribution and diversity of known species. So far, this information has been fragmented and incomplete. Here, we have synthesized the first global shark diversity pattern from a new database of published sources, including all 507 species described at present, and have identified hotspots of shark species richness, functional diversity and endemicity from these data. We have evaluated the congruence of these diversity measures and demonstrate their potential use in setting priority areas for shark conservation. Our results show that shark diversity across all species peaks on the continental shelves and at mid-latitudes (30-40 degrees N and S). Global hotspots of species richness, functional diversity and endemicity were found off Japan, Taiwan, the East and West coasts of Australia, Southeast Africa, Southeast Brazil and Southeast USA. Moreover, some areas with low to moderate species richness such as Southern Australia, Angola, North Chile and Western Continental Europe stood out as places of high functional diversity. Finally, species affected by shark finning showed different patterns of diversity, with peaks closer to the Equator and a more oceanic distribution overall. Our results show that the global pattern of shark diversity is uniquely different from land, and other well-studied marine taxa, and may provide guidance for spatial approaches to shark conservation. However, similar to terrestrial ecosystems, protected areas based on hotspots of diversity and endemism alone would provide insufficient means for safeguarding the diverse functional roles that sharks play in marine ecosystems.

  19. Shark predation on cephalopods in the Mexican and Ecuadorian Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Polo-Silva, Carlos; Berenice Hernández-Aguilar, Sandra; Sandoval-Londoño, Alejandro; Ruth Ochoa-Díaz, Maria; Aguilar-Castro, Nallely; Castañeda-Suárez, David; Cabrera Chavez-Costa, Alejandra; Baigorrí-Santacruz, Álvaro; Eden Torres-Rojas, Yassir; Andrés Abitia-Cárdenas, Leonardo

    2013-10-01

    Pelagic predators such as sharks have been shown to be effective cephalopod samplers, because they have high consumption rates and swimming speeds. The stomach contents of these predators allow us to determine the distribution and abundance of cephalopods, considering the scarcity of biological information and the difficulty of catching squids and octopi using traditional methods. The silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis), blue shark (Prionace glauca), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), smooth hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena), pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus), and bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus) were caught off both coasts of Baja California Sur, Mexico, and in the Ecuadorian Pacific Ocean. Cephalopod sizes (mantle lengths, ML) were calculated based on the beak measurements to determine the size of cephalopods consumed by the sharks. We identified 21 cephalopod species based on beak items found in the shark stomachs. The most abundant cephalopods consumed by sharks in both areas were Dosidicus gigas, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii, Onychoteuthis banksii, Sthenoteuthis ovalaniensis, Argonauta spp., Abraliopsis affinis, and Mastigoteuthis dentata. The cephalopod's habitat provides information about the depth at which these sharks capture their prey. The blue shark feeds on cephalopods in epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic waters; the silky shark feeds on cephalopods in epipelagic waters; and the scalloped hammerhead shark preys on cephalopods in neritic (bottom) and oceanic waters (epipelagic and mesopelagic). The pelagic thresher shark consumed epipelagic and neritic species; whereas the bigeye thresher shark feeds mainly on epipelagic and mesopelagic squids in Ecuadorian waters. The smooth hammerhead preys on epipelagic and mesopelagic squids off Mexico and Ecuador.

  20. Dramatic increase in sea otter mortality from white sharks in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Although southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) are not considered prey for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias), sharks do nonetheless bite sea otters. We analyzed spatial and temporal trends in shark bites on sea otters in California, assessing the frequency of shark bite wounds in 1,870 carcasses collected since 1985. The proportion of stranded sea otters having shark bites has increased sharply since 2003, and white shark bites now account for >50% of recovered carcasses. The trend was most pronounced in the southern part of the range, from Estero Bay to Point Conception, where shark bite frequency has increased eightfold. Seasonal trends were also evident: most shark-bitten carcasses are recovered in late summer and fall; however, the period of elevated shark bite frequency has lengthened. The causes of these trends are unclear, but possible contributing factors include increased white shark abundance and/or changes in white shark behavior and distribution. In particular, the spatiotemporal patterns of shark-bitten sea otters match increases in pinniped populations, and the increased availability of marine mammal prey for white sharks may have led to more sharks spending more time in nearshore waters utilized by both sea otters and pinnipeds.

  1. 32 CFR 286.11 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General provisions. 286.11 Section 286.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DOD FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Exemptions §...

  2. 32 CFR 286.11 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 286.11 Section 286.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DOD FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Exemptions §...

  3. 20 CFR 340.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.1 Statutory provisions. (a) Section 2(d) of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... 1937, or insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act, or unemployment, maternity,...

  4. 32 CFR 723.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RECORDS § 723.1 General provisions. This part sets up procedures for correction of naval and marine... records and how the BCNR considers applications. It defines the Board's authority to act on applications. It directs collecting and maintaining information subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 authorized by...

  5. 29 CFR 15.20 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claims Act of 1964 § 15.20 General provisions. (a) Scope and purpose. This subpart applies to all claims filed by or on behalf of employees of...

  6. 29 CFR 15.20 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES (Eff. until 7-12-12) Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claims Act of 1964 § 15.20 General provisions. (a) Scope and purpose. This subpart applies to all claims filed by or on behalf...

  7. Squalamine: an aminosterol antibiotic from the shark.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, K S; Wehrli, S; Roder, H; Rogers, M; Forrest, J N; McCrimmon, D; Zasloff, M

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, a variety of low molecular weight antibiotics have been isolated from diverse animal species. These agents, which include peptides, lipids, and alkaloids, exhibit antibiotic activity against environmental microbes and are thought to play a role in innate immunity. We report here the discovery of a broad-spectrum steroidal antibiotic isolated from tissues of the dogfish shark Squalus acanthias. This water-soluble antibiotic, which we have named squalamine, exhibits potent bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, squalamine is fungicidal and induces osmotic lysis of protozoa. The chemical structure of the antibiotic 3 beta-N-1-(N-[3-(4-aminobutyl)]- 1,3-diaminopropane)-7 alpha,24 zeta-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholestane 24-sulfate has been determined by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy and NMR. Squalamine is a cationic steroid characterized by a condensation of an anionic bile salt intermediate with spermidine. The discovery of squalamine in the shark implicates a steroid as a potential host-defense agent in vertebrates and provides insights into the chemical design of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Images PMID:8433993

  8. Philopatry and migration of Pacific white sharks

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Salvador J.; Reeb, Carol A.; Chapple, Taylor K.; Anderson, Scot; Perle, Christopher; Van Sommeran, Sean R.; Fritz-Cope, Callaghan; Brown, Adam C.; Klimley, A. Peter; Block, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in electronic tagging and genetic research are making it possible to discern population structure for pelagic marine predators once thought to be panmictic. However, reconciling migration patterns and gene flow to define the resolution of discrete population management units remains a major challenge, and a vital conservation priority for threatened species such as oceanic sharks. Many such species have been flagged for international protection, yet effective population assessments and management actions are hindered by lack of knowledge about the geographical extent and size of distinct populations. Combining satellite tagging, passive acoustic monitoring and genetics, we reveal how eastern Pacific white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) adhere to a highly predictable migratory cycle. Individuals persistently return to the same network of coastal hotspots following distant oceanic migrations and comprise a population genetically distinct from previously identified phylogenetic clades. We hypothesize that this strong homing behaviour has maintained the separation of a northeastern Pacific population following a historical introduction from Australia/New Zealand migrants during the Late Pleistocene. Concordance between contemporary movement and genetic divergence based on mitochondrial DNA demonstrates a demographically independent management unit not previously recognized. This population's fidelity to discrete and predictable locations offers clear population assessment, monitoring and management options. PMID:19889703

  9. Squalamine: an aminosterol antibiotic from the shark.

    PubMed

    Moore, K S; Wehrli, S; Roder, H; Rogers, M; Forrest, J N; McCrimmon, D; Zasloff, M

    1993-02-15

    In recent years, a variety of low molecular weight antibiotics have been isolated from diverse animal species. These agents, which include peptides, lipids, and alkaloids, exhibit antibiotic activity against environmental microbes and are thought to play a role in innate immunity. We report here the discovery of a broad-spectrum steroidal antibiotic isolated from tissues of the dogfish shark Squalus acanthias. This water-soluble antibiotic, which we have named squalamine, exhibits potent bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, squalamine is fungicidal and induces osmotic lysis of protozoa. The chemical structure of the antibiotic 3 beta-N-1-(N-[3-(4-aminobutyl)]- 1,3-diaminopropane)-7 alpha,24 zeta-dihydroxy-5 alpha-cholestane 24-sulfate has been determined by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy and NMR. Squalamine is a cationic steroid characterized by a condensation of an anionic bile salt intermediate with spermidine. The discovery of squalamine in the shark implicates a steroid as a potential host-defense agent in vertebrates and provides insights into the chemical design of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:8433993

  10. The anatomy of a shark attack: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Caldicott, D G; Mahajani, R; Kuhn, M

    2001-07-01

    Shark attacks are rare but are associated with a high morbidity and significant mortality. We report the case of a patient's survival from a shark attack and their subsequent emergency medical and surgical management. Using data from the International Shark Attack File, we review the worldwide distribution and incidence of shark attack. A review of the world literature examines the features which make shark attacks unique pathological processes. We offer suggestions for strategies of management of shark attack, and techniques for avoiding adverse outcomes in human encounters with these endangered creatures.

  11. Characteristic features of injuries due to shark attacks: a review of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Ihama, Yoko; Ninomiya, Kenji; Noguchi, Masamichi; Fuke, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Tetsuji

    2009-09-01

    Shark attacks on humans might not occur as often as is believed and the characteristic features of shark injuries on corpses have not been extensively reviewed. We describe the characteristic features of shark injuries on 12 corpses. The analysis of these injuries might reveal the motivation behind the attacks and/or the shark species involved in the attack. Gouge marks on the bones are evidence of a shark attack, even if the corpse is decomposed. Severance of the body part at the joints without a fracture was found to be a characteristic feature of shark injuries.

  12. 29 CFR 570.102 - General scope of statutory provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended General § 570... §§ 570.112 and 570.113. Section 3(l) of the Act, which defines the term “oppressive child labor,” is set... of the child labor provisions are contained in sections 12(a), 12(c), and......

  13. 43 CFR 3813.3 - Provisions of the mineral patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Provisions of the mineral patent. 3813.3... Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.3 Provisions of the mineral patent. (a) Each patent issued under the Act of July 20, 1956, shall specifically name the discovered...

  14. 43 CFR 3813.3 - Provisions of the mineral patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Provisions of the mineral patent. 3813.3... Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.3 Provisions of the mineral patent. (a) Each patent issued under the Act of July 20, 1956, shall specifically name the discovered...

  15. 43 CFR 3813.3 - Provisions of the mineral patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Provisions of the mineral patent. 3813.3... Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.3 Provisions of the mineral patent. (a) Each patent issued under the Act of July 20, 1956, shall specifically name the discovered...

  16. 43 CFR 3813.3 - Provisions of the mineral patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Provisions of the mineral patent. 3813.3... Disposal of Reserved Minerals Under the Act of July 17, 1914 § 3813.3 Provisions of the mineral patent. (a) Each patent issued under the Act of July 20, 1956, shall specifically name the discovered...

  17. Summary of Head Start Provisions on Homelessness and Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Wednesday, December 12, President Bush signed the "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007" into law. The legislation reauthorizes the Head Start Act and contains numerous provisions on homelessness and foster care. A summary of those provisions is provided in this paper.

  18. The Pillars of Hercules as a bathymetric barrier to gene flow promoting isolation in a global deep-sea shark (Centroscymnus coelolepis).

    PubMed

    Catarino, Diana; Knutsen, Halvor; Veríssimo, Ana; Olsen, Esben Moland; Jorde, Per Erik; Menezes, Gui; Sannæs, Hanne; Stanković, David; Company, Joan Baptista; Neat, Francis; Danovaro, Roberto; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Rochowski, Bastien; Stefanni, Sergio

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms limiting connectivity and gene flow in deep-sea ecosystems is scarce, especially for deep-sea sharks. The Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis) is a globally distributed and near threatened deep-sea shark. C. coelolepis population structure was studied using 11 nuclear microsatellite markers and a 497-bp fragment from the mtDNA control region. High levels of genetic homogeneity across the Atlantic (Φ(ST) = -0.0091, F(ST) = 0.0024, P > 0.05) were found suggesting one large population unit at this basin. The low levels of genetic divergence between Atlantic and Australia (Φ(ST) = 0.0744, P < 0.01; F(ST) = 0.0015, P > 0.05) further suggested that this species may be able to maintain some degree of genetic connectivity even across ocean basins. In contrast, sharks from the Mediterranean Sea exhibited marked genetic differentiation from all other localities studied (Φ(ST) = 0.3808, F(ST) = 0.1149, P < 0.001). This finding suggests that the shallow depth of the Strait of Gibraltar acts as a barrier to dispersal and that isolation and genetic drift may have had an important role shaping the Mediterranean shark population over time. Analyses of life history traits allowed the direct comparison among regions providing a complete characterization of this shark's populations. Sharks from the Mediterranean had markedly smaller adult body size and size at maturity compared to Atlantic and Pacific individuals. Together, these results suggest the existence of an isolated and unique population of C. coelolepis inhabiting the Mediterranean that most likely became separated from the Atlantic in the late Pleistocene.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus.

    PubMed

    Blower, Dean C; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, a major representative species in shark fisheries worldwide is now considered vulnerable to overfishing. A pool of 774,234 Roche 454 shotgun sequences from one individual were assembled into a 16,706 bp mitogenome with 33× average coverage depth. It comprised 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA's, 2 ribosomal genes and 2 non-coding regions, typical of a vertebrate mitogenome. As expected for sharks, an A-T nucleotide bias was evident. This adds to rapidly growing number of mitogenome assemblies for the economically important Carcharhinidae family. The C. plumbeus mitogenome will assist researchers, fisheries and conservation managers interested in shark molecular systematics, phylogeography, conservation genetics, population and stock structure. PMID:24938089

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus.

    PubMed

    Blower, Dean C; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, a major representative species in shark fisheries worldwide is now considered vulnerable to overfishing. A pool of 774,234 Roche 454 shotgun sequences from one individual were assembled into a 16,706 bp mitogenome with 33× average coverage depth. It comprised 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA's, 2 ribosomal genes and 2 non-coding regions, typical of a vertebrate mitogenome. As expected for sharks, an A-T nucleotide bias was evident. This adds to rapidly growing number of mitogenome assemblies for the economically important Carcharhinidae family. The C. plumbeus mitogenome will assist researchers, fisheries and conservation managers interested in shark molecular systematics, phylogeography, conservation genetics, population and stock structure.

  1. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  2. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  3. Assessment of hydro/oleophobicity for shark skin replica with riblets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wan

    2014-10-01

    The shark skin has a unique skin structure which enables the shark to swim faster and more efficiently due to an intriguing three-dimensional rib pattern. Shark skin has also known as having functional performances such as self cleaning and anti-fouling as well as excellent drag reduction due to a hierarchical structure built up by micro grooves and nano-long chain mucus drag reduction interface around the shark body. In this study, the wetting properties for the biomimetic surfaces that replicate shark skin are assessed. First of all, the shark skin replicas are obtained using the micro molding technique directly from a shark skin template. The quantitative replication precision of the shark skin replicas is evaluated comparing with the geometry of shark skin template using 3D and 2D surface profiles are measured. Then contact angles in the conditions of solid-air-water, solid-air-oil and solid-water-oil interfaces are evaluated for shark skin replicas. The effect of Teflon coating on the wetting properties of shark skin replicas is also observed. The results show the shark skin replica by the micro molding technique gives better effect on the wetting performance, and the micro riblets on shark skin improve the wettability feature.

  4. Movements of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) across their life history.

    PubMed

    Vandeperre, Frederic; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre; Fontes, Jorge; Santos, Marco; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Afonso, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Spatial structuring and segregation by sex and size is considered to be an intrinsic attribute of shark populations. These spatial patterns remain poorly understood, particularly for oceanic species such as blue shark (Prionace glauca), despite its importance for the management and conservation of this highly migratory species. This study presents the results of a long-term electronic tagging experiment to investigate the migratory patterns of blue shark, to elucidate how these patterns change across its life history and to assess the existence of a nursery area in the central North Atlantic. Blue sharks belonging to different life stages (n = 34) were tracked for periods up to 952 days during which they moved extensively (up to an estimated 28.139 km), occupying large parts of the oceanic basin. Notwithstanding a large individual variability, there were pronounced differences in movements and space use across the species' life history. The study provides strong evidence for the existence of a discrete central North Atlantic nursery, where juveniles can reside for up to at least 2 years. In contrast with previously described nurseries of coastal and semi-pelagic sharks, this oceanic nursery is comparatively vast and open suggesting that shelter from predators is not its main function. Subsequently, male and female blue sharks spatially segregate. Females engage in seasonal latitudinal migrations until approaching maturity, when they undergo an ontogenic habitat shift towards tropical latitudes. In contrast, juvenile males generally expanded their range southward and apparently displayed a higher degree of behavioural polymorphism. These results provide important insights into the spatial ecology of pelagic sharks, with implications for the sustainable management of this heavily exploited shark, especially in the central North Atlantic where the presence of a nursery and the seasonal overlap and alternation of different life stages coincides with a high fishing

  5. Trends in the exploitation of South Atlantic shark populations.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo; Ferretti, Francesco; Flemming, Joanna M; Amorim, Alberto; Andrade, Humber; Worm, Boris; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 25% of globally reported shark catches occur in Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries. Strong declines in shark populations have been detected in the North Atlantic, whereas in the South Atlantic the situation is less clear, although fishing effort has been increasing in this region since the late 1970s. We synthesized information on shark catch rates (based on 871,177 sharks caught on 86,492 longline sets) for the major species caught by multiple fleets in the South Atlantic between 1979 and 2011. We complied records from fishing logbooks of fishing companies, fishers, and onboard observers that were supplied to Brazilian institutions. By using exploratory data analysis and literature sources, we identified 3 phases of exploitation in these data (Supporting Information). From 1979 to 1997 (phase A), 5 fleets (40 vessels) fished mainly for tunas. From 1998 to 2008 (phase B), 20 fleets (100 vessels) fished for tunas, swordfishes, and sharks. From 2008 to 2011 (phase C), 3 fleets (30 vessels) fished for multiple species, but restrictive measures were implemented. We used generalized linear models to standardize catch rates and identify trends in each of these phases. Shark catch rates increased from 1979 to 1997, when fishing effort was low, decreased from 1998 to 2008, when fishing effort increased substantially, and remained stable or increased from 2008 to 2011, when fishing effort was again low. Our results indicate that most shark populations affected by longlines in the South Atlantic are currently depleted, but these populations may recover if fishing effort is reduced accordingly. In this context, it is problematic that comprehensive data collection, monitoring, and management of these fisheries ceased after 2012. Concurrently with the fact that Brazil is newly identified by FAO among the largest (and in fastest expansion) shark sub-products consumer market worldwide.

  6. Movements of Blue Sharks (Prionace glauca) across Their Life History

    PubMed Central

    Vandeperre, Frederic; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre; Fontes, Jorge; Santos, Marco; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Afonso, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Spatial structuring and segregation by sex and size is considered to be an intrinsic attribute of shark populations. These spatial patterns remain poorly understood, particularly for oceanic species such as blue shark (Prionace glauca), despite its importance for the management and conservation of this highly migratory species. This study presents the results of a long-term electronic tagging experiment to investigate the migratory patterns of blue shark, to elucidate how these patterns change across its life history and to assess the existence of a nursery area in the central North Atlantic. Blue sharks belonging to different life stages (n = 34) were tracked for periods up to 952 days during which they moved extensively (up to an estimated 28.139 km), occupying large parts of the oceanic basin. Notwithstanding a large individual variability, there were pronounced differences in movements and space use across the species' life history. The study provides strong evidence for the existence of a discrete central North Atlantic nursery, where juveniles can reside for up to at least 2 years. In contrast with previously described nurseries of coastal and semi-pelagic sharks, this oceanic nursery is comparatively vast and open suggesting that shelter from predators is not its main function. Subsequently, male and female blue sharks spatially segregate. Females engage in seasonal latitudinal migrations until approaching maturity, when they undergo an ontogenic habitat shift towards tropical latitudes. In contrast, juvenile males generally expanded their range southward and apparently displayed a higher degree of behavioural polymorphism. These results provide important insights into the spatial ecology of pelagic sharks, with implications for the sustainable management of this heavily exploited shark, especially in the central North Atlantic where the presence of a nursery and the seasonal overlap and alternation of different life stages coincides with a high fishing

  7. Trends in the exploitation of South Atlantic shark populations.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo; Ferretti, Francesco; Flemming, Joanna M; Amorim, Alberto; Andrade, Humber; Worm, Boris; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 25% of globally reported shark catches occur in Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries. Strong declines in shark populations have been detected in the North Atlantic, whereas in the South Atlantic the situation is less clear, although fishing effort has been increasing in this region since the late 1970s. We synthesized information on shark catch rates (based on 871,177 sharks caught on 86,492 longline sets) for the major species caught by multiple fleets in the South Atlantic between 1979 and 2011. We complied records from fishing logbooks of fishing companies, fishers, and onboard observers that were supplied to Brazilian institutions. By using exploratory data analysis and literature sources, we identified 3 phases of exploitation in these data (Supporting Information). From 1979 to 1997 (phase A), 5 fleets (40 vessels) fished mainly for tunas. From 1998 to 2008 (phase B), 20 fleets (100 vessels) fished for tunas, swordfishes, and sharks. From 2008 to 2011 (phase C), 3 fleets (30 vessels) fished for multiple species, but restrictive measures were implemented. We used generalized linear models to standardize catch rates and identify trends in each of these phases. Shark catch rates increased from 1979 to 1997, when fishing effort was low, decreased from 1998 to 2008, when fishing effort increased substantially, and remained stable or increased from 2008 to 2011, when fishing effort was again low. Our results indicate that most shark populations affected by longlines in the South Atlantic are currently depleted, but these populations may recover if fishing effort is reduced accordingly. In this context, it is problematic that comprehensive data collection, monitoring, and management of these fisheries ceased after 2012. Concurrently with the fact that Brazil is newly identified by FAO among the largest (and in fastest expansion) shark sub-products consumer market worldwide. PMID:26634410

  8. Acoustic telemetry reveals cryptic residency of whale sharks.

    PubMed

    Cagua, E Fernando; Cochran, Jesse E M; Rohner, Christoph A; Prebble, Clare E M; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H; Pierce, Simon J; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Although whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have been documented to move thousands of kilometres, they are most frequently observed at a few predictable seasonal aggregation sites. The absence of sharks at the surface during visual surveys has led to the assumption that sharks disperse to places unknown during the long 'off-seasons' at most of these locations. Here we compare 2 years of R. typus visual sighting records from Mafia Island in Tanzania to concurrent acoustic telemetry of tagged individuals. Sightings revealed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak between October and February and no sharks observed at other times. By contrast, acoustic telemetry demonstrated year-round residency of R. typus. The sharks use a different habitat in the off-season, swimming deeper and further away from shore, presumably in response to prey distributions. This behavioural change reduces the sharks' visibility, giving the false impression that they have left the area. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, year-round residency of unprovisioned, individual R. typus at an aggregation site, and highlight the importance of using multiple techniques to study the movement ecology of marine megafauna.

  9. Olfaction Contributes to Pelagic Navigation in a Coastal Shark.

    PubMed

    Nosal, Andrew P; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D; Chai, Fei; Hastings, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    How animals navigate the constantly moving and visually uniform pelagic realm, often along straight paths between distant sites, is an enduring mystery. The mechanisms enabling pelagic navigation in cartilaginous fishes are particularly understudied. We used shoreward navigation by leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) as a model system to test whether olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation. Leopard sharks were captured alongshore, transported 9 km offshore, released, and acoustically tracked for approximately 4 h each until the transmitter released. Eleven sharks were rendered anosmic (nares occluded with cotton wool soaked in petroleum jelly); fifteen were sham controls. Mean swimming depth was 28.7 m. On average, tracks of control sharks ended 62.6% closer to shore, following relatively straight paths that were significantly directed over spatial scales exceeding 1600 m. In contrast, tracks of anosmic sharks ended 37.2% closer to shore, following significantly more tortuous paths that approximated correlated random walks. These results held after swimming paths were adjusted for current drift. This is the first study to demonstrate experimentally that olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation in sharks, likely mediated by chemical gradients as has been hypothesized for birds. Given the similarities between the fluid three-dimensional chemical atmosphere and ocean, further research comparing swimming and flying animals may lead to a unifying paradigm explaining their extraordinary navigational abilities. PMID:26735492

  10. Olfaction Contributes to Pelagic Navigation in a Coastal Shark.

    PubMed

    Nosal, Andrew P; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D; Chai, Fei; Hastings, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    How animals navigate the constantly moving and visually uniform pelagic realm, often along straight paths between distant sites, is an enduring mystery. The mechanisms enabling pelagic navigation in cartilaginous fishes are particularly understudied. We used shoreward navigation by leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) as a model system to test whether olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation. Leopard sharks were captured alongshore, transported 9 km offshore, released, and acoustically tracked for approximately 4 h each until the transmitter released. Eleven sharks were rendered anosmic (nares occluded with cotton wool soaked in petroleum jelly); fifteen were sham controls. Mean swimming depth was 28.7 m. On average, tracks of control sharks ended 62.6% closer to shore, following relatively straight paths that were significantly directed over spatial scales exceeding 1600 m. In contrast, tracks of anosmic sharks ended 37.2% closer to shore, following significantly more tortuous paths that approximated correlated random walks. These results held after swimming paths were adjusted for current drift. This is the first study to demonstrate experimentally that olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation in sharks, likely mediated by chemical gradients as has been hypothesized for birds. Given the similarities between the fluid three-dimensional chemical atmosphere and ocean, further research comparing swimming and flying animals may lead to a unifying paradigm explaining their extraordinary navigational abilities.

  11. Olfaction Contributes to Pelagic Navigation in a Coastal Shark

    PubMed Central

    Nosal, Andrew P.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Chai, Fei; Hastings, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    How animals navigate the constantly moving and visually uniform pelagic realm, often along straight paths between distant sites, is an enduring mystery. The mechanisms enabling pelagic navigation in cartilaginous fishes are particularly understudied. We used shoreward navigation by leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) as a model system to test whether olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation. Leopard sharks were captured alongshore, transported 9 km offshore, released, and acoustically tracked for approximately 4 h each until the transmitter released. Eleven sharks were rendered anosmic (nares occluded with cotton wool soaked in petroleum jelly); fifteen were sham controls. Mean swimming depth was 28.7 m. On average, tracks of control sharks ended 62.6% closer to shore, following relatively straight paths that were significantly directed over spatial scales exceeding 1600 m. In contrast, tracks of anosmic sharks ended 37.2% closer to shore, following significantly more tortuous paths that approximated correlated random walks. These results held after swimming paths were adjusted for current drift. This is the first study to demonstrate experimentally that olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation in sharks, likely mediated by chemical gradients as has been hypothesized for birds. Given the similarities between the fluid three-dimensional chemical atmosphere and ocean, further research comparing swimming and flying animals may lead to a unifying paradigm explaining their extraordinary navigational abilities. PMID:26735492

  12. Structure, composition, and mechanical properties of shark teeth.

    PubMed

    Enax, Joachim; Prymak, Oleg; Raabe, Dierk; Epple, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    The teeth of two different shark species (Isurus oxyrinchus and Galeocerdo cuvier) and a geological fluoroapatite single crystal were structurally and chemically characterized. In contrast to dentin, enameloid showed sharp diffraction peaks which indicated a high crystallinity of the enameloid. The lattice parameters of enameloid were close to those of the geological fluoroapatite single crystal. The inorganic part of shark teeth consisted of fluoroapatite with a fluoride content in the enameloid of 3.1 wt.%, i.e., close to the fluoride content of the geological fluoroapatite single crystal (3.64 wt.%). Scanning electron micrographs showed that the crystals in enameloid were highly ordered with a special topological orientation (perpendicular towards the outside surface and parallel towards the center). By thermogravimetry, water, organic matrix, and biomineral in dentin and enameloid of both shark species were determined. Dentin had a higher content of water, organic matrix, and carbonate than enameloid but contained less fluoride. Nanoindentation and Vicker's microhardness tests showed that the enameloid of the shark teeth was approximately six times harder than the dentin. The hardness of shark teeth and human teeth was comparable, both for dentin and enamel/enameloid. In contrast, the geological fluoroapatite single crystal was much harder than both kinds of teeth due to the absence of an organic matrix. In summary, the different biological functions of the shark teeth ("tearing" for Isurus and "cutting" for Galeocerdo) are controlled by the different geometry and not by the chemical or crystallographic composition.

  13. Vertebral Bomb Radiocarbon Suggests Extreme Longevity in White Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Hamady, Li Ling; Natanson, Lisa J.; Skomal, Gregory B.; Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and management efforts for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) remain hampered by a lack of basic demographic information including age and growth rates. Sharks are typically aged by counting growth bands sequentially deposited in their vertebrae, but the assumption of annual deposition of these band pairs requires testing. We compared radiocarbon (Δ14C) values in vertebrae from four female and four male white sharks from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean (NWA) with reference chronologies documenting the marine uptake of 14C produced by atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices to generate the first radiocarbon age estimates for adult white sharks. Age estimates were up to 40 years old for the largest female (fork length [FL]: 526 cm) and 73 years old for the largest male (FL: 493 cm). Our results dramatically extend the maximum age and longevity of white sharks compared to earlier studies, hint at possible sexual dimorphism in growth rates, and raise concerns that white shark populations are considerably more sensitive to human-induced mortality than previously thought. PMID:24416189

  14. Acoustic telemetry reveals cryptic residency of whale sharks

    PubMed Central

    Cagua, E. Fernando; Cochran, Jesse E. M.; Rohner, Christoph A.; Prebble, Clare E. M.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H.; Pierce, Simon J.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Although whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have been documented to move thousands of kilometres, they are most frequently observed at a few predictable seasonal aggregation sites. The absence of sharks at the surface during visual surveys has led to the assumption that sharks disperse to places unknown during the long ‘off-seasons’ at most of these locations. Here we compare 2 years of R. typus visual sighting records from Mafia Island in Tanzania to concurrent acoustic telemetry of tagged individuals. Sightings revealed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak between October and February and no sharks observed at other times. By contrast, acoustic telemetry demonstrated year-round residency of R. typus. The sharks use a different habitat in the off-season, swimming deeper and further away from shore, presumably in response to prey distributions. This behavioural change reduces the sharks' visibility, giving the false impression that they have left the area. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, year-round residency of unprovisioned, individual R. typus at an aggregation site, and highlight the importance of using multiple techniques to study the movement ecology of marine megafauna. PMID:25832816

  15. Fisheries ecology: hunger for shark fin soup drives clam chowder off the menu.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Andrew S

    2007-07-17

    Removal by fishing of large sharks has reduced predation-pressure on shark prey and, via a trophic cascade, caused clam populations to crash. This indirect response illustrates why fisheries should be managed in a whole-ecosystem context.

  16. Aminosterols from the dogfish shark Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Rao, M N; Shinnar, A E; Noecker, L A; Chao, T L; Feibush, B; Snyder, B; Sharkansky, I; Sarkahian, A; Zhang, X; Jones, S R; Kinney, W A; Zasloff, M

    2000-05-01

    Seven new aminosterols related to squalamine (8) were isolated from the liver of the dogfish shark Squalus acanthias. Their structures (1-7) were determined using spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR and HRFABMS. These aminosterols possess a relatively invariant cholestane skeleton with a trans AB ring junction, a spermidine or spermine attached equatorially at C3, and a steroidal side-chain that may be sulfated. The structure of the lone spermine conjugate, 7 (MSI-1436), was confirmed by its synthesis from (5alpha,7alpha, 24R)-7-hydroxy-3-ketocholestan-24-yl sulfate. Some members of this family of aminosterols exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity comparable to squalamine. PMID:10843574

  17. Learning and memory in the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni.

    PubMed

    Guttridge, Tristan L; Brown, Culum

    2014-03-01

    Basic understanding of the fundamental principles and mechanisms involved in learning is lacking for elasmobranch fishes. Our aim in this study was to experimentally investigate the learning and memory capacity of juvenile Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. Sharks (N = 30) were conditioned over a 19-day period to associate an underwater LED light or stream of air-bubbles [conditioned stimulus (CS)] with a food reward [unconditioned stimulus (US)], using three procedures (delay, trace and control). During experiments, the CS signalled at a random time between 180 and 300 s for 30 s (six times per day). For the delay the US overlapped in time with the CS, for the trace the US delivered 10 s after the CS and for our control the US was delivered at random time between 180 and 300 s after the CS. H. portusjacksoni sharks trained in all procedures improved consistently in their time to obtain food, indicative of Pavlovian learning. Importantly, the number of sharks in the feeding area 5 s prior to CS onset did not change over time for any procedures. However, significantly more sharks were present 5 s after CS onset for delay for both air-bubble and light CS. Sharks trained in the delay and trace procedures using air-bubbles as the CS also displayed significantly more anticipatory behaviours, such as turning towards the CS and biting. Sharks trained with the light CS did not exhibit such behaviours; however, trace procedural sharks did show a significant improvement in moving towards the CS at its onset. At 20 and 40 days after the end of the conditioning experiments, some sharks were presented the CS without reward. Two sharks trained in the delay procedure using air-bubbles as the CS exhibited biting behaviours: one at 20 and the other at 40 days. This study demonstrates that H. portusjacksoni have the capacity to learn a classical conditioning procedure relatively quickly (30 trials during 5 days) and associate two time-separated events and

  18. FCC and the Sunshine Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Kenneth

    The Sunshine Act, designed to encourage open meetings to increase public understanding of the governmental decision-making process, went into effect in March 1977. A total of 50 agencies, including the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), are subject to the provisions of the Sunshine Act. The act lists 10 exemptions, any of which can result in…

  19. Child Labor Act of 1990. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor and Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session on S. 2548 To Amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 To Increase Penalities for Employers Who Violate the Child Labor Provisions of Such Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    On May 8, 1990, testimony concerning the Child Labor Act of 1990 was heard at a joint hearing of two U.S. Senate subcommittees. Opening statements by Senators Metzenbaum and Jeffords concerned: (1) the increase in child labor law violations since 1983; (2) the lack of increase in penalty fines since that time; (3) child death and injury during…

  20. Ocean-wide tracking of pelagic sharks reveals extent of overlap with longline fishing hotspots.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Nuno; Humphries, Nicolas E; Mucientes, Gonzalo; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lima, Fernando P; Scales, Kylie L; Miller, Peter I; Sousa, Lara L; Seabra, Rui; Sims, David W

    2016-02-01

    Overfishing is arguably the greatest ecological threat facing the oceans, yet catches of many highly migratory fishes including oceanic sharks remain largely unregulated with poor monitoring and data reporting. Oceanic shark conservation is hampered by basic knowledge gaps about where sharks aggregate across population ranges and precisely where they overlap with fishers. Using satellite tracking data from six shark species across the North Atlantic, we show that pelagic sharks occupy predictable habitat hotspots of high space use. Movement modeling showed sharks preferred habitats characterized by strong sea surface-temperature gradients (fronts) over other available habitats. However, simultaneous Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking of the entire Spanish and Portuguese longline-vessel fishing fleets show an 80% overlap of fished areas with hotspots, potentially increasing shark susceptibility to fishing exploitation. Regions of high overlap between oceanic tagged sharks and longliners included the North Atlantic Current/Labrador Current convergence zone and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge southwest of the Azores. In these main regions, and subareas within them, shark/vessel co-occurrence was spatially and temporally persistent between years, highlighting how broadly the fishing exploitation efficiently "tracks" oceanic sharks within their space-use hotspots year-round. Given this intense focus of longliners on shark hotspots, our study argues the need for international catch limits for pelagic sharks and identifies a future role of combining fine-scale fish and vessel telemetry to inform the ocean-scale management of fisheries. PMID:26811467

  1. 76 FR 11679 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Belmar, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Belmar... operation of the S71 Bridge across Shark River (South Channel), mile 0.8, at Belmar, NJ. The deviation is... INFORMATION: The S71 Bridge, a bascule lift drawbridge, across Shark River (South Channel), at mile 0.8,...

  2. 50 CFR 635.24 - Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial retention limits for sharks... Management Measures § 635.24 Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish. The retention limits in... operation and deployment restrictions in § 635.21. (a) Sharks. (1) A person who owns or operates a...

  3. 75 FR 53871 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Porbeagle Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... January 5, 2010 (75 FR 250), NMFS announced that the porbeagle shark fishery for the 2010 fishing year was... Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Porbeagle Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is closing the commercial fishery for porbeagle sharks. This action is...

  4. 76 FR 77214 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... business listed under the shark dealer permit which first receives Atlantic sharks (71 FR 58057; October 2... certificate in order to renew either permit (71 FR 58057; October 2, 2006). These certificate(s) are valid for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA843 Schedules for Atlantic Shark...

  5. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... accompanied the 2011 shark quota specifications rule (75 FR 76302; December 8, 2010). Thus, NMFS proposes to... Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted as allowable based on...

  6. 77 FR 12574 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... business listed under the shark dealer permit which first receives Atlantic sharks (71 FR 58057; October 2... permit (71 FR 58057; October 2, 2006). These certificate(s) are valid for three years. As such, vessel... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB037 Schedules for Atlantic Shark...

  7. Ocean-wide tracking of pelagic sharks reveals extent of overlap with longline fishing hotspots.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Nuno; Humphries, Nicolas E; Mucientes, Gonzalo; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lima, Fernando P; Scales, Kylie L; Miller, Peter I; Sousa, Lara L; Seabra, Rui; Sims, David W

    2016-02-01

    Overfishing is arguably the greatest ecological threat facing the oceans, yet catches of many highly migratory fishes including oceanic sharks remain largely unregulated with poor monitoring and data reporting. Oceanic shark conservation is hampered by basic knowledge gaps about where sharks aggregate across population ranges and precisely where they overlap with fishers. Using satellite tracking data from six shark species across the North Atlantic, we show that pelagic sharks occupy predictable habitat hotspots of high space use. Movement modeling showed sharks preferred habitats characterized by strong sea surface-temperature gradients (fronts) over other available habitats. However, simultaneous Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking of the entire Spanish and Portuguese longline-vessel fishing fleets show an 80% overlap of fished areas with hotspots, potentially increasing shark susceptibility to fishing exploitation. Regions of high overlap between oceanic tagged sharks and longliners included the North Atlantic Current/Labrador Current convergence zone and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge southwest of the Azores. In these main regions, and subareas within them, shark/vessel co-occurrence was spatially and temporally persistent between years, highlighting how broadly the fishing exploitation efficiently "tracks" oceanic sharks within their space-use hotspots year-round. Given this intense focus of longliners on shark hotspots, our study argues the need for international catch limits for pelagic sharks and identifies a future role of combining fine-scale fish and vessel telemetry to inform the ocean-scale management of fisheries.

  8. 76 FR 23794 - Stock Status Determination for Atlantic Highly Migratory Scalloped Hammerhead Shark

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Scalloped Hammerhead Shark AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... an Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) scalloped hammerhead shark, and the stock is overfished... sharks in U.S. waters. Based on this paper, in 2005, the population was estimated to be at 45 percent...

  9. 76 FR 59661 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... each business listed under the shark dealer permit which first receives Atlantic sharks (71 FR 58057... permit (71 FR 58057; October 2, 2006). These certificate(s) are valid for 3 years. As such, vessel owners... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA670 Schedules for Atlantic Shark...

  10. Mercury accumulation in sharks from the coastal waters of southwest Florida.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Darren; Wasno, Robert; Hammerschlag, Neil; Volety, Aswani

    2014-10-01

    As large long-lived predators, sharks are particularly vulnerable to exposure to methylmercury biomagnified through the marine food web. Accordingly, nonlethal means were used to collect tissues for determining mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from a total of 69 sharks, comprising 7 species, caught off Southwest Florida from May 2010 through June 2013. Species included blacknose (Carcharhinus acronotus), blacktip (C. limbatus), bull (C. leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). The sharks contained Hg concentrations in their muscle tissues ranging from 0.19 mg/kg (wet-weight basis) in a tiger shark to 4.52 mg/kg in a blacktip shark. Individual differences in total length and δ(13)C explained much of the intraspecific variation in Hg concentrations in blacknose, blacktip, and sharpnose sharks, but similar patterns were not evident for Hg and δ(15)N. Interspecific differences in Hg concentration were evident with greater concentrations in slower-growing, mature blacktip sharks and lower concentrations in faster-growing, young tiger sharks than other species. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting age-dependent growth rate can be an important determinant of intraspecific and interspecific patterns in Hg accumulation. The Hg concentrations observed in these sharks, in particular the blacktip shark, also suggested that Hg may pose a threat to shark health and fitness.

  11. 75 FR 29991 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... listed under the shark dealer permit which first receives Atlantic sharks (71 FR 58057; October 2, 2006... permit (71 FR 58057; October 2, 2006). These certificate(s) are valid for 3 years. As such, vessel owners... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW44 Schedules for Atlantic Shark...

  12. 75 FR 10217 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... business listed under the shark dealer permit which first receives Atlantic sharks (71 FR 58057; October 2... certificate in order to renew either permit (71 FR 58057; October 2, 2006). These certificate(s) are valid for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU40 Schedules for Atlantic Shark...

  13. 76 FR 57709 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    .... As outlined in the September 20, 2010, ANPR (75 FR 57235), sharks have been federally managed since... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Atlantic shark landings; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the National Marine...

  14. 78 FR 15709 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... each business listed under the shark dealer permit which first receives Atlantic sharks (71 FR 58057... certificate in order to renew either permit (71 FR 58057; October 2, 2006). These certificate(s) are valid for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC512 Schedules for Atlantic Shark...

  15. Mercury accumulation in sharks from the coastal waters of southwest Florida.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Darren; Wasno, Robert; Hammerschlag, Neil; Volety, Aswani

    2014-10-01

    As large long-lived predators, sharks are particularly vulnerable to exposure to methylmercury biomagnified through the marine food web. Accordingly, nonlethal means were used to collect tissues for determining mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from a total of 69 sharks, comprising 7 species, caught off Southwest Florida from May 2010 through June 2013. Species included blacknose (Carcharhinus acronotus), blacktip (C. limbatus), bull (C. leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). The sharks contained Hg concentrations in their muscle tissues ranging from 0.19 mg/kg (wet-weight basis) in a tiger shark to 4.52 mg/kg in a blacktip shark. Individual differences in total length and δ(13)C explained much of the intraspecific variation in Hg concentrations in blacknose, blacktip, and sharpnose sharks, but similar patterns were not evident for Hg and δ(15)N. Interspecific differences in Hg concentration were evident with greater concentrations in slower-growing, mature blacktip sharks and lower concentrations in faster-growing, young tiger sharks than other species. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting age-dependent growth rate can be an important determinant of intraspecific and interspecific patterns in Hg accumulation. The Hg concentrations observed in these sharks, in particular the blacktip shark, also suggested that Hg may pose a threat to shark health and fitness. PMID:24942905

  16. Ocean-wide tracking of pelagic sharks reveals extent of overlap with longline fishing hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Nuno; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Hammerschlag, Neil; Miller, Peter I.; Sousa, Lara L.; Seabra, Rui; Sims, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Overfishing is arguably the greatest ecological threat facing the oceans, yet catches of many highly migratory fishes including oceanic sharks remain largely unregulated with poor monitoring and data reporting. Oceanic shark conservation is hampered by basic knowledge gaps about where sharks aggregate across population ranges and precisely where they overlap with fishers. Using satellite tracking data from six shark species across the North Atlantic, we show that pelagic sharks occupy predictable habitat hotspots of high space use. Movement modeling showed sharks preferred habitats characterized by strong sea surface-temperature gradients (fronts) over other available habitats. However, simultaneous Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking of the entire Spanish and Portuguese longline-vessel fishing fleets show an 80% overlap of fished areas with hotspots, potentially increasing shark susceptibility to fishing exploitation. Regions of high overlap between oceanic tagged sharks and longliners included the North Atlantic Current/Labrador Current convergence zone and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge southwest of the Azores. In these main regions, and subareas within them, shark/vessel co-occurrence was spatially and temporally persistent between years, highlighting how broadly the fishing exploitation efficiently “tracks” oceanic sharks within their space-use hotspots year-round. Given this intense focus of longliners on shark hotspots, our study argues the need for international catch limits for pelagic sharks and identifies a future role of combining fine-scale fish and vessel telemetry to inform the ocean-scale management of fisheries. PMID:26811467

  17. Caught in the middle: combined impacts of shark removal and coral loss on the fish communities of coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Travers, Michael J; Smith, Luke L; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Meekan, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Due to human activities, marine and terrestrial ecosystems face a future where disturbances are predicted to occur at a frequency and severity unprecedented in the recent past. Of particular concern is the ability of systems to recover where multiple stressors act simultaneously. We examine this issue in the context of a coral reef ecosystem where increases in stressors, such as fisheries, benthic degradation, cyclones and coral bleaching, are occurring at global scales. By utilizing long-term (decadal) monitoring programs, we examined the combined effects of chronic (removal of sharks) and pulse (cyclones, bleaching) disturbances on the trophic structure of coral reef fishes at two isolated atoll systems off the coast of northwest Australia. We provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that the loss of sharks can have an impact that propagates down the food chain, potentially contributing to mesopredator release and altering the numbers of primary consumers. Simultaneously, we show how the effects of bottom-up processes of bleaching and cyclones appear to propagate up the food chain through herbivores, planktivores and corallivores, but do not affect carnivores. Because their presence may promote the abundance of herbivores, the removal of sharks by fishing has implications for both natural and anthropogenic disturbances involving the loss of corals, as herbivores are critical to the progress and outcome of coral recovery.

  18. Caught in the Middle: Combined Impacts of Shark Removal and Coral Loss on the Fish Communities of Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Ruppert, Jonathan L. W.; Travers, Michael J.; Smith, Luke L.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Meekan, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Due to human activities, marine and terrestrial ecosystems face a future where disturbances are predicted to occur at a frequency and severity unprecedented in the recent past. Of particular concern is the ability of systems to recover where multiple stressors act simultaneously. We examine this issue in the context of a coral reef ecosystem where increases in stressors, such as fisheries, benthic degradation, cyclones and coral bleaching, are occurring at global scales. By utilizing long-term (decadal) monitoring programs, we examined the combined effects of chronic (removal of sharks) and pulse (cyclones, bleaching) disturbances on the trophic structure of coral reef fishes at two isolated atoll systems off the coast of northwest Australia. We provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that the loss of sharks can have an impact that propagates down the food chain, potentially contributing to mesopredator release and altering the numbers of primary consumers. Simultaneously, we show how the effects of bottom-up processes of bleaching and cyclones appear to propagate up the food chain through herbivores, planktivores and corallivores, but do not affect carnivores. Because their presence may promote the abundance of herbivores, the removal of sharks by fishing has implications for both natural and anthropogenic disturbances involving the loss of corals, as herbivores are critical to the progress and outcome of coral recovery. PMID:24058618

  19. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Prebble, Clare E.M.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P.; Pierce, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm) whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species. PMID:25870776

  20. Is Centrophorus squamosus a highly migratory deep-water shark?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cabello, Cristina; Sánchez, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Deep-water sharks are considered highly vulnerable species due to their life characteristics and very low recovery capacity against overfishing. However, there is still limited information on the ecology or population connectivity of these species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the species Centrophorus squamosus could make long displacements and thus confirm the existence of connectivity between different deep-water areas. In addition, the study was the first attempt to use tagging techniques on deep-water sharks, since it has never been undertaken before. Five C. squamosus were tagged with satellite tags (PAT) in the El Cachucho Marine Protected Area (Le Danois Bank) located in waters of the North of Spain, Cantabrian Sea (NE Atlantic). Data from four of these tags were recovered. One of the sharks travelled approximately 287 nm toward the north east (French continental shelf) hypothetically following the continental slope at a mean depth of 901±109 m for 45 days. Two other sharks spent almost 4 months traveling, in which time they moved 143 and 168 nm, respectively, to the west (Galician coast). Finally, another leafscale gulper shark travelled to the NW (Porcupine Bank) during a period of 3 months at a mean depth of 940±132 m. Depth and temperature preferences for all the sharks are discussed. Minimum and maximum depths recorded were 496 and 1848 m, respectively. The temperature range was between 6.2 and 11.4 °C, but the mean temperature was approximately 9.9±0.7 °C. The sharks made large vertical displacements throughout the water column with a mean daily depth range of 345±27 m. These preliminary results support the suggestion of a whole population in the NE Atlantic and confirm the capacity of this species to travel long distances.

  1. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Christoph A; Richardson, Anthony J; Prebble, Clare E M; Marshall, Andrea D; Bennett, Michael B; Weeks, Scarla J; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Pierce, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432-917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420-990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347-1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm) whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  2. Indicators of fishing mortality on reef-shark populations in the world's first shark sanctuary: the need for surveillance and enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianna, Gabriel M. S.; Meekan, Mark G.; Ruppert, Jonathan L. W.; Bornovski, Tova H.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.

    2016-09-01

    Shark sanctuaries are promoted as a management tool to achieve conservation goals following global declines of shark populations. We assessed the status of reef-shark populations and indicators of fishing pressure across the world's first shark sanctuary in Palau. Using underwater surveys and stereophotogrammetry, we documented large differences in abundance and size structure of shark populations across the sanctuary, with a strong negative relationship between shark densities and derelict fishing gear on reefs. Densities of 10.9 ± 4.7 (mean ± SE) sharks ha-1 occurred on reefs adjacent to the most populated islands of Palau, contrasting with lower densities of 1.6 ± 0.8 sharks ha-1 on remote uninhabited reefs, where surveillance and enforcement was limited. Our observations suggest that fishing still remains a major factor structuring shark populations in Palau, demonstrating that there is an urgent need for better enforcement and surveillance that targets both illegal and licensed commercial fisheries to provide effective protection for sharks within the sanctuary.

  3. Residency and spatial use by reef sharks of an isolated seamount and its implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adam; Abrantes, Kátya G; Seymour, Jamie; Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Although marine protected areas (MPAs) are a common conservation strategy, these areas are often designed with little prior knowledge of the spatial behaviour of the species they are designed to protect. Currently, the Coral Sea area and its seamounts (north-east Australia) are under review to determine if MPAs are warranted. The protection of sharks at these seamounts should be an integral component of conservation plans. Therefore, knowledge on the spatial ecology of sharks at the Coral Sea seamounts is essential for the appropriate implementation of management and conservation plans. Acoustic telemetry was used to determine residency, site fidelity and spatial use of three shark species at Osprey Reef: whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus, grey reef sharks Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and silvertip sharks Carcharhinus albimarginatus. Most individuals showed year round residency at Osprey Reef, although five of the 49 individuals tagged moved to the neighbouring Shark Reef (~14 km away) and one grey reef shark completed a round trip of ~250 km to the Great Barrier Reef. Additionally, individuals of white tip and grey reef sharks showed strong site fidelity to the areas they were tagged, and there was low spatial overlap between groups of sharks tagged at different locations. Spatial use at Osprey Reef by adult sharks is generally restricted to the north-west corner. The high residency and limited spatial use of Osprey Reef suggests that reef sharks would be highly vulnerable to targeted fishing pressure and that MPAs incorporating no-take of sharks would be effective in protecting reef shark populations at Osprey and Shark Reef. PMID:22615782

  4. Residency and spatial use by reef sharks of an isolated seamount and its implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adam; Abrantes, Kátya G; Seymour, Jamie; Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Although marine protected areas (MPAs) are a common conservation strategy, these areas are often designed with little prior knowledge of the spatial behaviour of the species they are designed to protect. Currently, the Coral Sea area and its seamounts (north-east Australia) are under review to determine if MPAs are warranted. The protection of sharks at these seamounts should be an integral component of conservation plans. Therefore, knowledge on the spatial ecology of sharks at the Coral Sea seamounts is essential for the appropriate implementation of management and conservation plans. Acoustic telemetry was used to determine residency, site fidelity and spatial use of three shark species at Osprey Reef: whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus, grey reef sharks Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and silvertip sharks Carcharhinus albimarginatus. Most individuals showed year round residency at Osprey Reef, although five of the 49 individuals tagged moved to the neighbouring Shark Reef (~14 km away) and one grey reef shark completed a round trip of ~250 km to the Great Barrier Reef. Additionally, individuals of white tip and grey reef sharks showed strong site fidelity to the areas they were tagged, and there was low spatial overlap between groups of sharks tagged at different locations. Spatial use at Osprey Reef by adult sharks is generally restricted to the north-west corner. The high residency and limited spatial use of Osprey Reef suggests that reef sharks would be highly vulnerable to targeted fishing pressure and that MPAs incorporating no-take of sharks would be effective in protecting reef shark populations at Osprey and Shark Reef.

  5. Residency and Spatial Use by Reef Sharks of an Isolated Seamount and Its Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adam; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Seymour, Jamie; Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Although marine protected areas (MPAs) are a common conservation strategy, these areas are often designed with little prior knowledge of the spatial behaviour of the species they are designed to protect. Currently, the Coral Sea area and its seamounts (north-east Australia) are under review to determine if MPAs are warranted. The protection of sharks at these seamounts should be an integral component of conservation plans. Therefore, knowledge on the spatial ecology of sharks at the Coral Sea seamounts is essential for the appropriate implementation of management and conservation plans. Acoustic telemetry was used to determine residency, site fidelity and spatial use of three shark species at Osprey Reef: whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus, grey reef sharks Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and silvertip sharks Carcharhinus albimarginatus. Most individuals showed year round residency at Osprey Reef, although five of the 49 individuals tagged moved to the neighbouring Shark Reef (∼14 km away) and one grey reef shark completed a round trip of ∼250 km to the Great Barrier Reef. Additionally, individuals of white tip and grey reef sharks showed strong site fidelity to the areas they were tagged, and there was low spatial overlap between groups of sharks tagged at different locations. Spatial use at Osprey Reef by adult sharks is generally restricted to the north-west corner. The high residency and limited spatial use of Osprey Reef suggests that reef sharks would be highly vulnerable to targeted fishing pressure and that MPAs incorporating no-take of sharks would be effective in protecting reef shark populations at Osprey and Shark Reef. PMID:22615782

  6. The Equality Act 2010 and mental health.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Graeme; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-03-01

    One aim of the Equality Act 2010 is to protect people with disabilities and prevent disability discrimination. We review the key provisions of the Act relevant to disability discrimination with respect to mental illness.

  7. Biased Immunoglobulin Light Chain Gene Usage in the Shark.

    PubMed

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Lui, Anita; Naik, Ushma; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin; Hsu, Ellen

    2015-10-15

    This study of a large family of κ L chain clusters in nurse shark completes the characterization of its classical Ig gene content (two H chain isotypes, μ and ω, and four L chain isotypes, κ, λ, σ, and σ-2). The shark κ clusters are minigenes consisting of a simple VL-JL-CL array, where V to J recombination occurs over an ~500-bp interval, and functional clusters are widely separated by at least 100 kb. Six out of ~39 κ clusters are prerearranged in the germline (germline joined). Unlike the complex gene organization and multistep assembly process of Ig in mammals, each shark Ig rearrangement, somatic or in the germline, appears to be an independent event localized to the minigene. This study examined the expression of functional, nonproductive, and sterile transcripts of the κ clusters compared with the other three L chain isotypes. κ cluster usage was investigated in young sharks, and a skewed pattern of split gene expression was observed, one similar in functional and nonproductive rearrangements. These results show that the individual activation of the spatially distant κ clusters is nonrandom. Although both split and germline-joined κ genes are expressed, the latter are prominent in young animals and wane with age. We speculate that, in the shark, the differential activation of the multiple isotypes can be advantageously used in receptor editing.

  8. Body condition predicts energy stores in apex predatory sharks

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Austin J.; Wagner, Dominique N.; Irschick, Duncan J.; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Animal condition typically reflects the accumulation of energy stores (e.g. fatty acids), which can influence an individual's decision to undertake challenging life-history events, such as migration and reproduction. Accordingly, researchers often use measures of animal body size and/or weight as an index of condition. However, values of condition, such as fatty acid levels, may not always reflect the physiological state of animals accurately. While the relationships between condition indices and energy stores have been explored in some species (e.g. birds), they have yet to be examined in top predatory fishes, which often undertake extensive and energetically expensive migrations. We used an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier, the tiger shark) as a model species to evaluate the relationship between triglycerides (energy metabolite) and a metric of overall body condition. We captured, blood sampled, measured and released 28 sharks (size range 125–303 cm pre-caudal length). In the laboratory, we assayed each plasma sample for triglyceride values. We detected a positive and significant relationship between condition and triglyceride values (P < 0.02). This result may have conservation implications if the largest and highest-condition sharks are exploited in fisheries, because these individuals are likely to have the highest potential for successful reproduction. Our results suggest that researchers may use either plasma triglyceride values or an appropriate measure of body condition for assessing health in large sharks. PMID:27293643

  9. Vulnerability of the Oceanic Whitetip Shark to Pelagic Longline Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Tolotti, Mariana Travassos; Bach, Pascal; Hazin, Fábio; Travassos, Paulo; Dagorn, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    A combination of fisheries dependent and independent data was used to assess the vulnerability of the oceanic whitetip shark to pelagic longline fisheries. The Brazilian tuna longline fleet, operating in the equatorial and southwestern Atlantic, is used as a case study. Fisheries dependent data include information from logbooks (from 1999 to 2011) and on-board observers (2004 to 2010), totaling 65,277 pelagic longline sets. Fisheries independent data were obtained from 8 oceanic whitetip sharks tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags in the area where longline fleet operated. Deployment periods varied from 60 to 178 days between 2010 and 2012. Tagging and pop-up sites were relatively close to each other, although individuals tended to travel long distances before returning to the tagging area. Some degree of site fidelity was observed. High utilization hotspots of tagged sharks fell inside the area under strongest fishing pressure. Despite the small sample size, a positive correlation between tag recorded information and catch data was detected. All sharks exhibited a strong preference for the warm and shallow waters of the mixed layer, spending on average more than 70% of the time above the thermocline and 95% above 120 m. Results indicate that the removal of shallow hooks on longline gear might be an efficient mitigation measure to reduce the bycatch of this pelagic shark species. The work also highlights the potential of tagging experiments to provide essential information for the development of spatio-temporal management measures. PMID:26492091

  10. The effect of habitat on modern shark diversification.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, L; Santini, F; Alfaro, M E

    2014-08-01

    Sharks occupy marine habitats ranging from shallow, inshore environments to pelagic, and deepwaters, and thus provide a model system for testing how gross habitat differences have shaped vertebrate macroevolution. Palaeontological studies have shown that onshore lineages diversify more quickly than offshore taxa. Among onshore habitats, coral reef-association has been shown to increase speciation rates in several groups of fishes and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether speciation rates are habitat dependent by generating the first comprehensive molecular timescale for shark divergence. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we rejected the hypothesis that shelf (i.e. onshore) lineages have higher speciation rates compared to those occupying deepwater and oceanic (i.e. offshore) habitats. Our results, however, support the hypothesis of increased speciation rates in coral reef-associated lineages within the Carcharhinidae. Our new timetree suggests that the two major shark lineages leading to the extant shark diversity began diversifying mostly after the end-Permian mass extinction: the squalimorphs into deepwater and the galeomorphs into shelf habitats. We suggest that the breakdown of the onshore-offshore speciation rate pattern in sharks is mediated by success in deepwater environments through ecological partitioning, and in some cases, the evolution of morphological novelty. PMID:24890604

  11. Vulnerability of the Oceanic Whitetip Shark to Pelagic Longline Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Tolotti, Mariana Travassos; Bach, Pascal; Hazin, Fábio; Travassos, Paulo; Dagorn, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    A combination of fisheries dependent and independent data was used to assess the vulnerability of the oceanic whitetip shark to pelagic longline fisheries. The Brazilian tuna longline fleet, operating in the equatorial and southwestern Atlantic, is used as a case study. Fisheries dependent data include information from logbooks (from 1999 to 2011) and on-board observers (2004 to 2010), totaling 65,277 pelagic longline sets. Fisheries independent data were obtained from 8 oceanic whitetip sharks tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags in the area where longline fleet operated. Deployment periods varied from 60 to 178 days between 2010 and 2012. Tagging and pop-up sites were relatively close to each other, although individuals tended to travel long distances before returning to the tagging area. Some degree of site fidelity was observed. High utilization hotspots of tagged sharks fell inside the area under strongest fishing pressure. Despite the small sample size, a positive correlation between tag recorded information and catch data was detected. All sharks exhibited a strong preference for the warm and shallow waters of the mixed layer, spending on average more than 70% of the time above the thermocline and 95% above 120 m. Results indicate that the removal of shallow hooks on longline gear might be an efficient mitigation measure to reduce the bycatch of this pelagic shark species. The work also highlights the potential of tagging experiments to provide essential information for the development of spatio-temporal management measures.

  12. Sharks: a potential source of antiangiogenic factors and tumor treatments.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung; Kim, Young

    2002-12-01

    Since angiogenesis is a key feature of tumor growth, inhibiting this process is one way to treat cancer. Cartilage is a natural source of material with strong antiangiogenic activity. This report reviews knowledge of the anticancer properties of shark cartilage and clinical information on drugs such as neovastat and squalamine. Because their entire endoskeleton is composed of cartilage, sharks are thought to be an ideal source of angiogenic and tumor growth inhibitors. Shark cartilage extract has shown antiangiogenic and antitumor activities in animals and humans. The oral administration of cartilage extract was efficacious in reducing angiogenesis. Purified antiangiogenic factors from shark cartilage, such as U-995 and neovastat (AE-941), also showed antiangiogenic and antitumor activity. AE-941 is under phase III clinical investigation. Squalamine, a low molecular weight aminosterol, showed strong antitumor activity when combined with chemotherapeutic materials. The angiogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 3 (TIMP-3) and tumor suppressor protein (snm23) genes from shark cartilage were cloned and characterized. PMID:14961226

  13. Are Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, able to perceive human body orientation?

    PubMed

    Ritter, Erich K; Amin, Raid

    2014-05-01

    The present study examines the potential capability of Caribbean reef sharks to perceive human body orientation, as well as discussing the sharks' swimming patterns in a person's vicinity. A standardized video method was used to record the scenario of single SCUBA divers kneeling in the sand and the approach patterns of sharks, combined with a control group of two divers kneeling back-to-back. When approaching a single test-subject, significantly more sharks preferred to swim outside the person's field of vision. The results suggest that these sharks are able to identify human body orientation, but the mechanisms used and factors affecting nearest distance of approach remain unclear.

  14. A Gigantic Shark from the Lower Cretaceous Duck Creek Formation of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Frederickson, Joseph A.; Schaefer, Scott N.; Doucette-Frederickson, Janessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Three large lamniform shark vertebrae are described from the Lower Cretaceous of Texas. We interpret these fossils as belonging to a single individual with a calculated total body length of 6.3 m. This large individual compares favorably to another shark specimen from the roughly contemporaneous Kiowa Shale of Kansas. Neither specimen was recovered with associated teeth, making confident identification of the species impossible. However, both formations share a similar shark fauna, with Leptostyrax macrorhiza being the largest of the common lamniform sharks. Regardless of its actual identification, this new specimen provides further evidence that large-bodied lamniform sharks had evolved prior to the Late Cretaceous. PMID:26039066

  15. Are Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, able to perceive human body orientation?

    PubMed

    Ritter, Erich K; Amin, Raid

    2014-05-01

    The present study examines the potential capability of Caribbean reef sharks to perceive human body orientation, as well as discussing the sharks' swimming patterns in a person's vicinity. A standardized video method was used to record the scenario of single SCUBA divers kneeling in the sand and the approach patterns of sharks, combined with a control group of two divers kneeling back-to-back. When approaching a single test-subject, significantly more sharks preferred to swim outside the person's field of vision. The results suggest that these sharks are able to identify human body orientation, but the mechanisms used and factors affecting nearest distance of approach remain unclear. PMID:24305995

  16. A gigantic shark from the lower cretaceous duck creek formation of Texas.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Joseph A; Schaefer, Scott N; Doucette-Frederickson, Janessa A

    2015-01-01

    Three large lamniform shark vertebrae are described from the Lower Cretaceous of Texas. We interpret these fossils as belonging to a single individual with a calculated total body length of 6.3 m. This large individual compares favorably to another shark specimen from the roughly contemporaneous Kiowa Shale of Kansas. Neither specimen was recovered with associated teeth, making confident identification of the species impossible. However, both formations share a similar shark fauna, with Leptostyrax macrorhiza being the largest of the common lamniform sharks. Regardless of its actual identification, this new specimen provides further evidence that large-bodied lamniform sharks had evolved prior to the Late Cretaceous.

  17. 78 FR 78515 - Removal of JADE Act Tags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Removal of JADE Act Tags ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Treasury... provisions of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese JADE (Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act of 2008 (``JADE Act''). DATES: As of August 7, 2013, the financial and blocking provisions of Section 5(b) of the JADE Act...

  18. 21 CFR 1230.2 - Scope of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of the act. 1230.2 Section 1230.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... CAUSTIC POISON ACT General Provisions § 1230.2 Scope of the act. The provisions of the act apply to...

  19. 21 CFR 1210.2 - Scope of act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of act. 1210.2 Section 1210.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER... MILK ACT General Provisions § 1210.2 Scope of act. The provisions of the act apply to all milk...

  20. Shark is the man!”: ethnoknowledge of Brazil’s South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fishermen’s knowledge is a source of indispensable information in decision-making processes related to efforts to stimulate the management and conservation of fishing resources, especially in developing countries. This study analyzed the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Methods Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The interviews addressed the fishermen’s profile, fishing techniques and knowledge about sharks, focusing on the behaviours exhibited by sharks. The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques. Results Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. They descend from the rafting subculture of Brazil’s northeast, which has historically been disregarded by public policies addressing the management and conservation of fishing resources. The fishing fleet involved in shark fishing includes rafts, fishing boats and lobster boats equipped with fishing lines, gillnets, longlines and “esperas”. The informers classified sharks’ behaviour repertoire into 19 ethological categories, related especially to feeding, reproduction, and social and migratory behaviours. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing. A feeling of respect for sharks predominates, since informers recognize the ecological role of these animals in marine ecosystems, attributing them the status of leader (or “the man”) in the sea. Conclusions This

  1. The race against the "septic shark"

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Great white sharks are responsible for about 10 cases of death annually worldwide, as compared with millions of deaths caused by sepsis. However, the basic principles of avoiding shark attacks and fighting sepsis seem to be similar: avoidance, attention, and speed, if necessary. The present review discusses the current status of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, which are actually content for discussion because of their low specificity. Current data suggest that one in eight patients with severe sepsis does not fulfill the SIRS criteria and is consequently missed, and therefore the calls for new definitions of sepsis are getting louder. Furthermore, the need for early treatment of sepsis and fast admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) with experienced stuff is reviewed as well as the early and appropriate initiation of therapy, namely antibiotic and volume therapy. A key feature is the analysis of the studies from the so-called "Sepsis Trilogy" (ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMiSe studies), with a focus on the status of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). The authors of the "Sepsis Trilogy" concluded that there is no benefit regarding survival in septic patients by using EGDT as compared with standard therapy. However, the low mortality of the control groups within the "Sepsis Trilogy" studies as compared with the Rivers et al. study from 2001 leads to the conclusion that there has been an improvement in the therapy of septic patients, most probably due to the early initiation of therapy as a kind of "standard" in sepsis therapy. Finally, the phenomenon of a "large trial disease" is discussed, exemplary in a trial which investigated the maintenance of the "right" mean arterial pressure in sepsis patients. Even if the result of a large randomized trial might be that there is no difference between two study groups, the real exercise is to identify the patient collectives who might benefit or experience harm due to an intervention. In summary, as

  2. The race against the "septic shark".

    PubMed

    Westphal, Martin; Kampmeier, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Great white sharks are responsible for about 10 cases of death annually worldwide, as compared with millions of deaths caused by sepsis. However, the basic principles of avoiding shark attacks and fighting sepsis seem to be similar: avoidance, attention, and speed, if necessary. The present review discusses the current status of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, which are actually content for discussion because of their low specificity. Current data suggest that one in eight patients with severe sepsis does not fulfill the SIRS criteria and is consequently missed, and therefore the calls for new definitions of sepsis are getting louder. Furthermore, the need for early treatment of sepsis and fast admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) with experienced stuff is reviewed as well as the early and appropriate initiation of therapy, namely antibiotic and volume therapy. A key feature is the analysis of the studies from the so-called "Sepsis Trilogy" (ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMiSe studies), with a focus on the status of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). The authors of the "Sepsis Trilogy" concluded that there is no benefit regarding survival in septic patients by using EGDT as compared with standard therapy. However, the low mortality of the control groups within the "Sepsis Trilogy" studies as compared with the Rivers et al. study from 2001 leads to the conclusion that there has been an improvement in the therapy of septic patients, most probably due to the early initiation of therapy as a kind of "standard" in sepsis therapy. Finally, the phenomenon of a "large trial disease" is discussed, exemplary in a trial which investigated the maintenance of the "right" mean arterial pressure in sepsis patients. Even if the result of a large randomized trial might be that there is no difference between two study groups, the real exercise is to identify the patient collectives who might benefit or experience harm due to an intervention. In summary, as

  3. The race against the "septic shark".

    PubMed

    Westphal, Martin; Kampmeier, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Great white sharks are responsible for about 10 cases of death annually worldwide, as compared with millions of deaths caused by sepsis. However, the basic principles of avoiding shark attacks and fighting sepsis seem to be similar: avoidance, attention, and speed, if necessary. The present review discusses the current status of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, which are actually content for discussion because of their low specificity. Current data suggest that one in eight patients with severe sepsis does not fulfill the SIRS criteria and is consequently missed, and therefore the calls for new definitions of sepsis are getting louder. Furthermore, the need for early treatment of sepsis and fast admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) with experienced stuff is reviewed as well as the early and appropriate initiation of therapy, namely antibiotic and volume therapy. A key feature is the analysis of the studies from the so-called "Sepsis Trilogy" (ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMiSe studies), with a focus on the status of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). The authors of the "Sepsis Trilogy" concluded that there is no benefit regarding survival in septic patients by using EGDT as compared with standard therapy. However, the low mortality of the control groups within the "Sepsis Trilogy" studies as compared with the Rivers et al. study from 2001 leads to the conclusion that there has been an improvement in the therapy of septic patients, most probably due to the early initiation of therapy as a kind of "standard" in sepsis therapy. Finally, the phenomenon of a "large trial disease" is discussed, exemplary in a trial which investigated the maintenance of the "right" mean arterial pressure in sepsis patients. Even if the result of a large randomized trial might be that there is no difference between two study groups, the real exercise is to identify the patient collectives who might benefit or experience harm due to an intervention. In summary, as

  4. Identification and evaluation of shark bycatch in Georgia's commercial shrimp trawl fishery with implications for management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, C.N.; Jennings, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Many US states have recreational and commercial fisheries that occur in nursery areas occupied by subadult sharks and can potentially affect their survival. Georgia is one of few US states without a directed commercial shark fishery, but the state has a large, nearshore penaeid shrimp trawl fishery in which small sharks occur as bycatch. During our 1995–1998 investigation of bycatch in fishery-dependent sampling events, 34% of 127 trawls contained sharks. This bycatch totalled 217 individuals from six species, with Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson), the most common and finetooth shark, Carcharhinus isodon (Müller & Henle) and spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle), the least common. The highest catch rates for sharks occurred during June and July and coincided with the peak months of the pupping season for many species. Trawl tow speed and tow time did not significantly influence catch rates for shark species. Gear configurations [net type, turtle excluder device (TED), bycatch reduction device] affected catch rates for shark species. Results of this study indicate gear restrictions, a delayed season opening, or reduced bar spacing on TEDs may reduce shark bycatch in this fishery.

  5. High Post-Capture Survival for Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras Discarded in the Main Shark Fishery of Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Braccini, Matias; Van Rijn, Jay; Frick, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    Most sharks, rays and chimaeras (chondrichthyans) taken in commercial fisheries are discarded (i.e. returned to the ocean either dead or alive). Quantifying the post-capture survival (PCS) of discarded species is therefore essential for the improved management and conservation of this group. For all chondrichthyans taken in the main shark fishery of Australia, we quantified the immediate PCS of individuals reaching the deck of commercial shark gillnet fishing vessels and applied a risk-based method to semi-quantitatively determine delayed and total PCS. Estimates of immediate, delayed and total PCS were consistent, being very high for the most commonly discarded species (Port Jackson shark, Australian swellshark, and spikey dogfish) and low for the most important commercial species (gummy and school sharks). Increasing gillnet soak time or water temperature significantly decreased PCS. Chondrichthyans with bottom-dwelling habits had the highest PCS whereas those with pelagic habits had the lowest PCS. The risk-based approach can be easily implemented as a standard practice of on-board observing programs, providing a convenient first-step assessment of the PCS of all species taken in commercial fisheries. PMID:22384270

  6. High post-capture survival for sharks, rays and chimaeras discarded in the main shark fishery of Australia?

    PubMed

    Braccini, Matias; Van Rijn, Jay; Frick, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    Most sharks, rays and chimaeras (chondrichthyans) taken in commercial fisheries are discarded (i.e. returned to the ocean either dead or alive). Quantifying the post-capture survival (PCS) of discarded species is therefore essential for the improved management and conservation of this group. For all chondrichthyans taken in the main shark fishery of Australia, we quantified the immediate PCS of individuals reaching the deck of commercial shark gillnet fishing vessels and applied a risk-based method to semi-quantitatively determine delayed and total PCS. Estimates of immediate, delayed and total PCS were consistent, being very high for the most commonly discarded species (Port Jackson shark, Australian swellshark, and spikey dogfish) and low for the most important commercial species (gummy and school sharks). Increasing gillnet soak time or water temperature significantly decreased PCS. Chondrichthyans with bottom-dwelling habits had the highest PCS whereas those with pelagic habits had the lowest PCS. The risk-based approach can be easily implemented as a standard practice of on-board observing programs, providing a convenient first-step assessment of the PCS of all species taken in commercial fisheries.

  7. Diving behaviour of whale sharks in relation to a predictable food pulse.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rachel T; Roberts, Callum M; Smart, James C R

    2006-02-22

    We present diving data for four whale sharks in relation to a predictable food pulse (reef fish spawn) and an analysis of the longest continuous fine-resolution diving record for a planktivorous shark. Fine-resolution pressure data from a recovered pop-up archival satellite tag deployed for 206 days on a whale shark were analysed using the fast Fourier Transform method for frequency domain analysis of time-series. The results demonstrated that a free-ranging whale shark displays ultradian, diel and circa-lunar rhythmicity of diving behaviour. Whale sharks dive to over 979.5 m and can tolerate a temperature range of 26.4 degrees C. The whale sharks made primarily diurnal deep dives and remained in relatively shallow waters at night. Whale shark diving patterns are influenced by a seasonally predictable food source, with shallower dives made during fish spawning periods.

  8. Diving behaviour of whale sharks in relation to a predictable food pulse

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rachel T; Roberts, Callum M; Smart, James C.R

    2005-01-01

    We present diving data for four whale sharks in relation to a predictable food pulse (reef fish spawn) and an analysis of the longest continuous fine-resolution diving record for a planktivorous shark. Fine-resolution pressure data from a recovered pop-up archival satellite tag deployed for 206 days on a whale shark were analysed using the fast Fourier Transform method for frequency domain analysis of time-series. The results demonstrated that a free-ranging whale shark displays ultradian, diel and circa-lunar rhythmicity of diving behaviour. Whale sharks dive to over 979.5 m and can tolerate a temperature range of 26.4 °C. The whale sharks made primarily diurnal deep dives and remained in relatively shallow waters at night. Whale shark diving patterns are influenced by a seasonally predictable food source, with shallower dives made during fish spawning periods. PMID:16849222

  9. The use of positive reinforcement in training zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum).

    PubMed

    Marranzino, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) was used on 4 adult zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, housed at the Downtown Aquarium, Denver, to determine the ability of zebra sharks to become desensitized to various stimuli associated with veterinary procedures. One male and 3 female sharks were trained for 12 weeks. As a result of PRT, all 4 zebra sharks were desensitized to staying within a closed holding tank off of the main exhibit, the presence of multiple trainers in the closed holding tank, and tactile stimulation. One of the 4 zebra sharks was also successfully desensitized to the presence of a stretcher being brought into the holding tank. All of these procedures are common in veterinary examinations, and it is hoped that desensitization to these stimuli will reduce the stress associated with examinations. The training accomplished has allowed for easier maintenance of the zebra sharks by the aquarium staff and an improvement in the care of the sharks.

  10. Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Shelley C; McAllister, Murdoch K; Milner-Gulland, E J; Kirkwood, G P; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Agnew, David J; Pikitch, Ellen K; Nakano, Hideki; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2006-10-01

    Despite growing concerns about overexploitation of sharks, lack of accurate, species-specific harvest data often hampers quantitative stock assessment. In such cases, trade studies can provide insights into exploitation unavailable from traditional monitoring. We applied Bayesian statistical methods to trade data in combination with genetic identification to estimate by species, the annual number of globally traded shark fins, the most commercially valuable product from a group of species often unrecorded in harvest statistics. Our results provide the first fishery-independent estimate of the scale of shark catches worldwide and indicate that shark biomass in the fin trade is three to four times higher than shark catch figures reported in the only global data base. Comparison of our estimates to approximated stock assessment reference points for one of the most commonly traded species, blue shark, suggests that current trade volumes in numbers of sharks are close to or possibly exceeding the maximum sustainable yield levels.

  11. The influence of culture on the international management of shark finning.

    PubMed

    Dell'Apa, Andrea; Smith, M Chad; Kaneshiro-Pineiro, Mahealani Y

    2014-08-01

    Shark finning is prohibited in many countries, but high prices for fins from the Asian market help maintain the international black-market and poaching. Traditional shark fin bans fail to recognize that the main driver of fin exploitation is linked to cultural beliefs about sharks in traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, shark finning should be addressed considering the social science approach as part of the fishery management scheme. This paper investigates the cultural significance of sharks in traditional Chinese and Hawaiian cultures, as valuable examples of how specific differences in cultural beliefs can drive individuals' attitudes toward the property of shark finning. We suggest the use of a social science approach that can be useful in the design of successful education campaigns to help change individuals' attitudes toward shark fin consumption. Finally, alternative management strategies for commercial fishers are provided to maintain self-sustainability of local coastal communities. PMID:24828065

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in thirteen shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Sang-Jo; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Lee, Won-Chan; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-06-15

    Limited reports are available on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sharks. In this study, PBDEs were measured in dorsal muscles (n=105) from 13 shark species collected from offshore and coastal waters of Korea. The PBDE concentrations varied greatly not only among species but also within species of sharks. The major PBDE congeners detected in our samples were BDEs 47, 28, 99, 153, 100, and 154. Concentrations of PBDEs in sharks in this study were lower than those reported for previous studies. The high PBDE concentrations were found for aggressive shark species. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of PBDEs are explained by differences in feeding habits and sampling locations. Several contributing factors such as growth velocity, trophic level, and local contamination may affect the bioaccumulation of PBDEs in sharks. The present study provides baselines for the occurrence and accumulation status of PBDEs in various shark species.

  13. The Influence of Culture on the International Management of Shark Finning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Apa, Andrea; Chad Smith, M.; Kaneshiro-Pineiro, Mahealani Y.

    2014-08-01

    Shark finning is prohibited in many countries, but high prices for fins from the Asian market help maintain the international black-market and poaching. Traditional shark fin bans fail to recognize that the main driver of fin exploitation is linked to cultural beliefs about sharks in traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, shark finning should be addressed considering the social science approach as part of the fishery management scheme. This paper investigates the cultural significance of sharks in traditional Chinese and Hawaiian cultures, as valuable examples of how specific differences in cultural beliefs can drive individuals' attitudes toward the property of shark finning. We suggest the use of a social science approach that can be useful in the design of successful education campaigns to help change individuals' attitudes toward shark fin consumption. Finally, alternative management strategies for commercial fishers are provided to maintain self-sustainability of local coastal communities.

  14. The influence of culture on the international management of shark finning.

    PubMed

    Dell'Apa, Andrea; Smith, M Chad; Kaneshiro-Pineiro, Mahealani Y

    2014-08-01

    Shark finning is prohibited in many countries, but high prices for fins from the Asian market help maintain the international black-market and poaching. Traditional shark fin bans fail to recognize that the main driver of fin exploitation is linked to cultural beliefs about sharks in traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, shark finning should be addressed considering the social science approach as part of the fishery management scheme. This paper investigates the cultural significance of sharks in traditional Chinese and Hawaiian cultures, as valuable examples of how specific differences in cultural beliefs can drive individuals' attitudes toward the property of shark finning. We suggest the use of a social science approach that can be useful in the design of successful education campaigns to help change individuals' attitudes toward shark fin consumption. Finally, alternative management strategies for commercial fishers are provided to maintain self-sustainability of local coastal communities.

  15. Digestive enzyme activities are higher in the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, than in ectothermic sharks as a result of visceral endothermy.

    PubMed

    Newton, Kyle C; Wraith, James; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2015-08-01

    Lamnid sharks are regionally endothermic fishes that maintain visceral temperatures elevated above the ambient water temperature. Visceral endothermy is thought to increase rates of digestion and food processing and allow thermal niche expansion. We tested the hypothesis that, at in vivo temperatures, the endothermic shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, has higher specific activities of three digestive enzymes-gastric pepsin and pancreatic trypsin and lipase-than the thresher shark, Alopias vulpinus, and the blue shark, Prionace glauca, neither of which can maintain elevated visceral temperatures. Homogenized stomach or pancreas tissue obtained from sharks collected by pelagic longline was incubated at both 15 and 25 °C, at saturating substrate concentrations, to quantify tissue enzymatic activity. The mako had significantly higher enzyme activities at 25 °C than did the thresher and blue sharks at 15 °C. This difference was not a simple temperature effect, because at 25 °C the mako had higher trypsin activity than the blue shark and higher activities for all enzymes than the thresher shark. We also hypothesized that the thermal coefficient, or Q 10 value, would be higher for the mako shark than for the thresher and blue sharks because of its more stable visceral temperature. However, the mako and thresher sharks had similar Q 10 values for all enzymes, perhaps because of their closer phylogenetic relationship. The higher in vivo digestive enzyme activities in the mako shark should result in higher rates of food processing and may represent a selective advantage of regional visceral endothermy.

  16. Digestive enzyme activities are higher in the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, than in ectothermic sharks as a result of visceral endothermy.

    PubMed

    Newton, Kyle C; Wraith, James; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2015-08-01

    Lamnid sharks are regionally endothermic fishes that maintain visceral temperatures elevated above the ambient water temperature. Visceral endothermy is thought to increase rates of digestion and food processing and allow thermal niche expansion. We tested the hypothesis that, at in vivo temperatures, the endothermic shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, has higher specific activities of three digestive enzymes-gastric pepsin and pancreatic trypsin and lipase-than the thresher shark, Alopias vulpinus, and the blue shark, Prionace glauca, neither of which can maintain elevated visceral temperatures. Homogenized stomach or pancreas tissue obtained from sharks collected by pelagic longline was incubated at both 15 and 25 °C, at saturating substrate concentrations, to quantify tissue enzymatic activity. The mako had significantly higher enzyme activities at 25 °C than did the thresher and blue sharks at 15 °C. This difference was not a simple temperature effect, because at 25 °C the mako had higher trypsin activity than the blue shark and higher activities for all enzymes than the thresher shark. We also hypothesized that the thermal coefficient, or Q 10 value, would be higher for the mako shark than for the thresher and blue sharks because of its more stable visceral temperature. However, the mako and thresher sharks had similar Q 10 values for all enzymes, perhaps because of their closer phylogenetic relationship. The higher in vivo digestive enzyme activities in the mako shark should result in higher rates of food processing and may represent a selective advantage of regional visceral endothermy. PMID:25893905

  17. White Sharks Exploit the Sun during Predatory Approaches.

    PubMed

    Huveneers, Charlie; Holman, Dirk; Robbins, Rachel; Fox, Andrew; Endler, John A; Taylor, Alex H

    2015-04-01

    There is no conclusive evidence of any nonhuman animal using the sun as part of its predation strategy. Here, we show that the world's largest predatory fish-the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias)-exploits the sun when approaching baits by positioning the sun directly behind them. On sunny days, sharks reversed their direction of approach along an east-west axis from morning to afternoon but had uniformly distributed approach directions during overcast conditions. These results show that white sharks have sufficient behavioral flexibility to exploit fluctuating environmental features when predating. This sun-tracking predation strategy has a number of potential functional roles, including improvement of prey detection, avoidance of retinal overstimulation, and predator concealment.

  18. Direct evidence of hybodont shark predation on Late Jurassic ammonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vullo, Romain

    2011-06-01

    Sharks are known to have been ammonoid predators, as indicated by analysis of bite marks or coprolite contents. However, body fossil associations attesting to this predator-prey relationship have never been described so far. Here, I report a unique finding from the Late Jurassic of western France: a complete specimen of the Kimmeridgian ammonite Orthaspidoceras bearing one tooth of the hybodont shark Planohybodus. Some possible tooth puncture marks are also observed. This is the first direct evidence of such a trophic link between these two major Mesozoic groups, allowing an accurate identification of both organisms. Although Planohybodus displays a tearing-type dentition generally assumed to have been especially adapted for large unshelled prey, our discovery clearly shows that this shark was also able to attack robust ammonites such as aspidoceratids. The direct evidence presented here provides new insights into the Mesozoic marine ecosystem food webs.

  19. Iso-luminance counterillumination drove bioluminescent shark radiation

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Julien M.; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Straube, Nicolas; Collin, Shaun P.; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Counterilluminating animals use ventral photogenic organs (photophores) to mimic the residual downwelling light and cloak their silhouette from upward-looking predators. To cope with variable conditions of pelagic light environments they typically adjust their luminescence intensity. Here, we found evidence that bioluminescent sharks instead emit a constant light output and move up and down in the water column to remain cryptic at iso-luminance depth. We observed, across 21 globally distributed shark species, a correlation between capture depth and the proportion of a ventral area occupied by photophores. This information further allowed us, using visual modelling, to provide an adaptive explanation for shark photophore pattern diversity: in species facing moderate predation risk from below, counterilluminating photophores were partially co-opted for bioluminescent signalling, leading to complex patterns. In addition to increase our understanding of pelagic ecosystems our study emphasizes the importance of bioluminescence as a speciation driver. PMID:24608897

  20. Maternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds in sharks and stingrays.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Briels, Nathalie; Adams, Douglas H; Lepoint, Gilles; Das, Krishna; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-03-15

    Elasmobranchs can bioaccumulate considerable amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and utilize several reproductive strategies thereby influencing maternal transfer of contaminants. This study provides preliminary data on the POP transfer from pregnant females to offspring of three species (Atlantic stingrays, bonnethead, blacktip sharks) with different reproduction modes (aplacental, placental viviparity). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels were generally higher than any other POPs. Stingrays and blacktip shark embryos contained the lowest POP concentrations while bonnetheads and the blacktip adult female had the highest concentrations. Results suggest that POPs are more readily transferred from the mother to the embryo compared to what is transferred to ova in stingrays. Statistically significant differences in levels of selected POPs were found between embryos from the left and right uterus within the same litter as well as between female and male embryos within the same litter for bonnetheads, but not for the blacktip sharks. PMID:25595490