Science.gov

Sample records for act regulations safety

  1. Regulations implementing the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as amended. Employment Standards Administration, Labor. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-12-20

    On January 22, 1997, the Department issued a proposed rule to amend the regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act. 62 FR 3338-3435 (Jan. 22, 1997). When the comment period closed on August 21, 1997, the Department had received written submissions from almost 200 interested persons, including coal miners, coal mine operators, insurers, physicians, and attorneys. The Department also held hearings in Charleston, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. at which over 50 people testified. The Department carefully reviewed the testimony and the comments and, on October 8, 1999, issued a second notice of proposed rulemaking. 64 FR 54966-55072 (Oct. 8, 1999). In its second notice, the Department proposed changing several of the most important provisions in its initial proposal. The Department also explained its decision not to alter the original proposal with respect to other key regulations based on the comments received to date. Finally, the Department prepared an initial regulatory flexibility analysis. In order to ensure that small businesses that could be affected by the Department's proposal received appropriate notice of the Department's proposed changes, the Department mailed a copy of the second notice of proposed rulemaking to all coal mine operators contained in the databases maintained by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. The Department initially allowed interested parties until December 7, 1999 to file comments to its second proposal, but extended that period until January 6, 2000. The Department received 37 written submissions before the close of the comment period, from groups representing both coal miners and coal mine operators. The Department also received comments from individual miners, various coal mining and insurance companies, as well as from claims processing organizations, attorneys, and various professional organizations. The Department has carefully reviewed all of the comments, and is issuing its final rule. The rule contains a

  2. Bicycle Safety: A Balancing Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinque, Chris

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to reduce deaths and serious injuries among bicyclists, physicians and bicycling organizations are promoting safety skill classes. Children are at especially high risk of accidents and need proper training and education. Helmets and other protective gear are considered crucial equipment, and common sense and alertness are important.…

  3. FDA Food Safety Modernization Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sutton, Betty [D-OH-13

    2009-06-08

    01/04/2011 Became Public Law No: 111-353. (PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.2751 was introduced and first passed the House as the Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save Act. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. FDA Food Safety Modernization Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sutton, Betty [D-OH-13

    2009-06-08

    01/04/2011 Became Public Law No: 111-353. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.2751 was introduced and first passed the House as the Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save Act. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  6. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  7. 48 CFR 50.205-1 - SAFETY Act Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.205-1 SAFETY Act Considerations. (a) SAFETY Act applicability. Requiring activities should review requirements to identify potential technologies that...

  8. 48 CFR 50.205-1 - SAFETY Act Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.205-1 SAFETY Act Considerations. (a) SAFETY Act applicability. Requiring activities should review requirements to identify potential technologies that...

  9. 48 CFR 50.205-1 - SAFETY Act Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.205-1 SAFETY Act Considerations. (a) SAFETY Act applicability. Requiring activities should review requirements to identify potential technologies that...

  10. 48 CFR 50.205-1 - SAFETY Act Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.205-1 SAFETY Act Considerations. (a) SAFETY Act applicability. Requiring activities should review requirements to identify potential technologies that...

  11. 48 CFR 50.205-1 - SAFETY Act Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.205-1 SAFETY Act Considerations. (a) SAFETY Act applicability. Requiring activities should review requirements to identify potential technologies that...

  12. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  13. 48 CFR 50.205-4 - Authorization of awards made presuming SAFETY Act designation or certification after contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... the class of technology to be acquired under the solicitation....

  14. 48 CFR 50.205-4 - Authorization of awards made presuming SAFETY Act designation or certification after contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... the class of technology to be acquired under the solicitation....

  15. 48 CFR 50.205-4 - Authorization of awards made presuming SAFETY Act designation or certification after contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... the class of technology to be acquired under the solicitation....

  16. 48 CFR 50.205-4 - Authorization of awards made presuming SAFETY Act designation or certification after contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... the class of technology to be acquired under the solicitation....

  17. 48 CFR 50.205-4 - Authorization of awards made presuming SAFETY Act designation or certification after contract award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... the class of technology to be acquired under the solicitation....

  18. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.250-3 SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification. As prescribed in 50.206(b)(1), insert the following provision: Safety Act Block Designation/Certification (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions....

  19. 48 CFR 52.250-4 - SAFETY Act Pre-qualification Designation Notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.250-4 SAFETY Act Pre-qualification Designation Notice. As prescribed in 50.206(c)(1), insert the following provision: Safety Act Pre-Qualification Designation Notice (FEB 2009)...

  20. Occupational Safety and Health Act: A Responsibility for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act for science teachers both as workers and as they encourage, in students, the development of positive safety attitudes for future occupations. (PEB)

  1. Safety and Environmental Regulation in Industrial Mobilization,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    1. OSHA and EPA: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. 9 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration ..............9 The Environmental Protection...quotes underscore the need for a comprehensive review of the impact of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Occupational Safety and Health...and Tomorrow THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION O N DECEMBER 29, 1970, THE CONGRESS ENACTED Public Law91-576, the Occupational Safety and

  2. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  3. Safety and Environmental Regulation in Industrial Mobilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    3 1. OSHA and EPA: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow ... 9 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration...quotes underscore the need for a comprehensive review of the impact of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Occupationai Safety and Health...mobilization. V l 1 OSHA and EPA: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION O N DECEMBER 29, 1970, THE CONGRESS ENACTED

  4. Recent Cases: Administrative Law--Occupational Safety and Health Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Law Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 are described in two cases: Brennan v. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (Underhill Construction Corp.), and Anning-Johnson Co. v. United States Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. (LBH)

  5. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  6. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  7. 75 FR 37287 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... / Tuesday, June 29, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD 4 CFR Part 200 RIN 0430-AA03 Privacy Act Regulations AGENCY: Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board (Board) amends...

  8. 75 FR 82217 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Joint Final Rule The agencies' CRA regulations establish CRA performance standards for small and... between the standards used to evaluate savings associations and the standards used to evaluate banks. 72... Procedure Act (APA), an agency may, for good cause, find (and incorporate the finding and a brief...

  9. 76 FR 79529 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... of the Joint Final Rule The agencies' CRA regulations establish CRA performance standards for small... the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), an agency may, for good cause, find (and incorporate the.... Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3) of the APA, the required publication or service of a substantive rule shall...

  10. 77 FR 75521 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... CFR Part 228 FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 345 RIN 3064-AD90 Community... agencies) are amending their Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) regulations to adjust the asset-size..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: OCC: Margaret Hesse, Special Counsel, Community and Consumer...

  11. 48 CFR 50.205-3 - Authorization of offers contingent upon SAFETY Act designation or certification before contract...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... technologies before release of any solicitation; and (3) Market research shows that there will be...

  12. 48 CFR 50.205-3 - Authorization of offers contingent upon SAFETY Act designation or certification before contract...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... technologies before release of any solicitation; and (3) Market research shows that there will be...

  13. 48 CFR 50.205-3 - Authorization of offers contingent upon SAFETY Act designation or certification before contract...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... technologies before release of any solicitation; and (3) Market research shows that there will be...

  14. 48 CFR 50.205-3 - Authorization of offers contingent upon SAFETY Act designation or certification before contract...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... technologies before release of any solicitation; and (3) Market research shows that there will be...

  15. 48 CFR 50.205-3 - Authorization of offers contingent upon SAFETY Act designation or certification before contract...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002... technologies before release of any solicitation; and (3) Market research shows that there will be...

  16. 77 FR 45636 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). These fees are... Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). Thus, as the...

  17. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of...

  18. The Food Safety Modernization Act: a barrier to trade? Only if the science says so.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The Food Safety Modernization Act improves oversight of America's food safety system. Title III, which regulates imported food, may create extra burdens for importers and therefore act as a barrier to trade. What will be on trial before the World Trade Organization (WTO), however, is not the law's content, but the science supporting it. Under the WTO regime, food safety laws that could restrict the free movement of food commodities must be sufficiently justified by scientific evidence. Member states must engage in risk assessments and regulate food imports in a manner that is "no more restrictive than necessary" to protect against the health risks identified by scientific evidence. This article examines the requirements of the WTO to evaluate the FSMA's legality under WTO rules. It analyzes the case law of the WTO Panel and Appellate Body and compares the FMSA to the EU's General Food Law.

  19. The Kentucky Civil Rights Act: Explanation, the Act, Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The Kentucky Civil Rights Act, introduced on January 4, 1966, enacted January 27, 1966 and effective July 1, 1966 is said to meet the requirements of the Federal Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1968, the Act was amended to prohibit housing discrimination. In 1972, the coverage of the Act was extended to prohibit employment discrimination because of…

  20. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 1213 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act Appendix to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... Part 1213—Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act The Consumer Product Safety Act requires...

  1. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    PubMed

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  2. 76 FR 14590 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations (DFARS... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010. Section 807 requires that facilities, infrastructure, and equipment that.... Facilities, infrastructure, and equipment shall be inspected prior to use to ensure safety and...

  3. 75 FR 66683 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations (DFARS... Authorization Act of 2010. Section 807 requires that facilities, infrastructure, and equipment that are intended... Requirements, to add section 246.270, Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for...

  4. An analysis of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: protection for consumers and boon for business.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Debra M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes components of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which was prompted by incidents of food contamination, exploring the history of its passage and explaining its significance, as well as its limitations. As the first time in 70 years that food law has been changed substantially, this new law represents only an initial but significant step in the direction of improving food safety. With bipartisan support from both Congress and the President, this legislation embodies a mandate that food safety is at this moment becoming a priority. As a result, the time is ripe for a reassessment of other areas of food laws--particularly genetically modified foods and the use of milk and meat from cloned animals and their progeny--which are allowed under current U.S. law with no labeling, preapprovals, or post-market monitoring. These areas warrant special regulation consistent with the new proactive policy towards securing the safety of the food supply.

  5. 76 FR 43585 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services Businesses AGENCY: Treasury... Proposed Rulemaking, Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services Businesses, 74 FR 22129... to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-- Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money...

  6. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192 and 195 RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... titled: ``Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations'' seeking comments on the need for...

  7. 75 FR 61035 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Education loan program; or (2) any private education loan as defined in the Truth in Lending Act, including... expenses,'' each of which is defined in the HEOA in the context of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Section... the Truth in Lending Act, as added by section 1011 of the HEOA. In turn, the HEOA defines a...

  8. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  9. 76 FR 75799 - General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits; and Ineligibility for... remove Subpart C--General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation and Subpart F--Food... quality of the human environment, health, or safety. Therefore, neither an Environmental Assessment nor...

  10. ARIES-ACT1 Safety Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Merrill, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    ARIES-ACT1 (Advanced and Conservative Tokamak) is a 1000-MW(electric) tokamak design featuring advanced plasma physics and divertor and blanket engineering. Some relevant features include an advanced SiC blanket with PbLi as coolant and breeder; a helium-cooled steel structural ring and tungsten divertors; a thin-walled, helium-cooled vacuum vessel; and a room-temperature, water-cooled shield outside the vacuum vessel. We consider here some safety aspects of the ARIES-ACT1 design and model a series of design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents with the MELCOR code modified for fusion. The presence of multiple coolants (PbLi, helium, and water) makes possible a variety of such accidents. We consider here a loss-of-flow accident caused by a long-term station blackout (LTSBO), an ex-vessel helium break into the cryostat, and a beyond-design-basis accident in which a LTSBO is aggravated by a loss-of-coolant accident in ARIES-ACT1's ultimate decay heat removal system, the water-cooled shield. In the design-basis accidents, we find that the secondary confinement boundaries are not challenged, and the structural integrity of in-vessel components is not threatened by high temperatures or pressures; decay heat can be passively removed.

  11. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  12. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  13. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  14. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act... LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Insurance Contracts § 726.203 Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety...

  15. 49 CFR 176.4 - Port security and safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Port security and safety regulations. 176.4 Section 176.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... General § 176.4 Port security and safety regulations. (a) Each carrier, master, agent, and charterer of...

  16. Impact of the Occupational Safety and Health Act on U. S. Naval Construction Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) effective 29 December 1970 (P. L. 91-596) and its impact on the U.S. Naval Construction Force (NCF...is examined. The history of occupational safety legislation in the United States is summarized and discussed. The OSH Act is condensed and interpreted

  17. 75 FR 75692 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Act Reporting Requirements; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Act Reporting Requirements; Notice... Safety Standards Reporting Requirements. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2502-0253. Description of the... Housing, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information collection requirement described...

  18. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., injury or other loss to citizens or institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY... or requests may be mailed to: Directorate of Science and Technology, SAFETY Act/Room 4320,...

  19. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., injury or other loss to citizens or institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY... or requests may be mailed to: Directorate of Science and Technology, SAFETY Act/Room 4320,...

  20. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., injury or other loss to citizens or institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY... or requests may be mailed to: Directorate of Science and Technology, SAFETY Act/Room 4320,...

  1. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., injury or other loss to citizens or institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY... or requests may be mailed to: Directorate of Science and Technology, SAFETY Act/Room 4320,...

  2. 78 FR 79283 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... CRA purposes by the OCC, Board, and FDIC on August 2, 2005, effective September 1, 2005. 70 FR 44256... Act (HMDA). 70 FR 12148 (Mar. 11, 2005). See 12 U.S.C. 2808; 12 CFR 203.2(e)(1). On March 22, 2007... other federal banking agencies in its CRA rule previously set forth at 12 CFR 563e. 72 FR 13429 (Mar....

  3. Why the Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission Policy on Safety Nets and Risk Assessment is Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Current Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) policy says that the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (including safety minima) must be demonstrated through risk assessments to meet the Target Level of Safety (TLS) without needing to take safety nets (such as Short Term Conflict Alert) into account. This policy is wrong. The policy is invalid because it does not build rationally and consistently from ATM's firm foundations of TLS and hazard analysis. The policy is bad because it would tend to retard safety improvements. Safety net policy must rest on a clear and rational treatment of integrated ATM system safety defences. A new safety net policy, appropriate to safe ATM system improvements, is needed, which recognizes that safety nets are an integrated part of ATM system defences. The effects of safety nets in reducing deaths from mid-air collisions should be fully included in hazard analysis and safety audits in the context of the TLS for total system design.

  4. Violations of pesticide use and worker safety regulations in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Buhler, W G; Langley, R L; Luginbuhl, R C; Jones, J P; Burnette, J W

    2007-04-01

    In North Carolina, responsibility for providing training and enforcing various regulations related to pesticide use and agricultural worker safety rests with three state agencies. This article summarizes an 11-year history of enforcement procedures concerning agricultural pesticide use, the Worker Protection Standard, the Hazard Communication Standard, the Migrant Housing Act of North Carolina, and field sanitation standards. The difficulty of linking specific types of violations with worker safety is discussed.

  5. 75 FR 36270 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL 12 CFR Part 1102 Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council...-7577 or alice@asc.gov ; Appraisal Subcommittee; 1401 H Street, NW., Suite 760, Washington, DC...

  6. Identifying gaps in international food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Benn; Ho, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    The rise in food importation in countries such as the United States, coupled with food safety incidents, has led to increased concern with the safety of imported food. This concern has prompted discussion of how international law and governance mechanisms might enhance food safety. This paper identifies the objectives underlying multilateral approaches to food safety such as raising food safety standards abroad, information sharing and ensuring market access. The paper then explores how these objectives are integrated into the international system and identifies how the current state of the law creates imbalances in the pursuit of these objectives.

  7. 78 FR 11092 - Safety and Health Regulations for Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LABOR DEPARTMENT Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Safety and Health Regulations for Construction CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1926, revised as of July 1,...

  8. 77 FR 57043 - Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...The Federal Trade Commission proposes to amend its Regulations under the Fur Products Labeling Act to update its Fur Products Name Guide, provide more labeling flexibility, incorporate recently enacted Truth in Fur Labeling Act provisions, and eliminate unnecessary requirements. The Commission does not propose changing or providing alternatives to the required name on labels for nyctereutes......

  9. 77 FR 74347 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... GENERAL ON INTEGRITY AND EFFICIENCY 5 CFR Chapter XCVIII Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY... implement the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The final rule describes the policies and procedures for... provide the procedures and guidelines under which CIGIE will implement the Freedom of Information...

  10. 77 FR 66539 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... CONCILIATION SERVICE 29 CFR Part 1401 RIN 3076-AA06 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Federal... Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) rules relating to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The final... Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of information. For the reasons stated in the preamble,...

  11. Fusion safety regulations in the United States: Progress and trends

    SciTech Connect

    DeLooper, J.

    1994-07-01

    This paper explores the issue of regulations as they apply to current and future fusion experimental machines. It addresses fusion regulatory issues, current regulations used for fusion, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experience with regulations, and future regulations to achieve fusion`s safety and environmental potential.

  12. 77 FR 75362 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1612 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations CFR Correction 0 In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 900 to 1899, revised as of July 1, 2012, on page 266, in Sec....

  13. 76 FR 31350 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology AGENCY: Coast... technology to meet certain provisions of the Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of...

  14. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement. 726.203 Section 726.203 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  15. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement. 726.203 Section 726.203 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  16. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act... OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Insurance Contracts § 726.203 Federal Coal Mine Health...

  17. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act... OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Insurance Contracts § 726.203 Federal Coal Mine Health...

  18. International perspectives on food safety and regulations - a need for harmonized regulations: perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiumei

    2014-08-01

    Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the 'Twelfth Five-year Plan' of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened.

  19. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  20. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... ``public accommodations facility'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. DATES... or spa that is open exclusively to patrons of a hotel or other public accommodations facility.'' Section 1404(c)(2)(B)(iii) of the Act. The Act does not define the term ``public accommodations...

  1. Youth Camp Safety & Health. Suggested State Statute & Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    To assist state regulatory agencies in development of comprehensive youth camp safety programs, this publication contains a brief suggested statute that could be used for initiation or modification of any state's youth camp safety programs and it outlines minimal regulations. Various categories of camps are covered--day, primitive, residential,…

  2. 78 FR 6216 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 2 RIN 1093-AA15 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: This document...

  3. 76 FR 78977 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... December 20, 2011 Part II Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Part 1024 Real Estate Settlement... RIN 3170-AA06 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) rulemaking authority for the Real Estate...

  4. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  5. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  6. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  7. 46 CFR 175.118 - Vessels operating under an exemption afforded in the Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993 (PVSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993 (PVSA). 175.118 Section 175.118 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Vessels operating under an exemption afforded in the Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993 (PVSA). (a) The Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993 (PVSA) contained an allowance for the exemption of certain...

  8. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel report to the NASA acting administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The level of activity of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel was increased smewhat during 1985 in concert with the increased mission rate of the National Space Transportation System, the evolutionary changes in management and operation of that program, and the preparation of the Vandenberg Launch Site; the implementation of the Program Definition Phase of the Space Station Program; and the actual flight testing of the X-29 research aircraft. Impending payload STS missions and NASA's overall aircraft operations are reviewed. The safety aspects of the LEASAT salvage mission were assessed. The findings and recommendation of the committee are summerized.

  9. 77 FR 61513 - Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1101 Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act CFR..., on page 147, in Sec. 1101.25 (a) and (b), the words ``5 working'' are corrected to read...

  10. Juggling Act: Balancing Safety, Security, and Yield in School Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallack, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Although state laws governing school district investing are quite conservative, there have been some notable investment failures leading to the loss of public funds. School districts must beware three kinds of investment risks involving credit, market, and interest rates and consider safety, legality, liquidity, and cash-flow requirements. (MLH)

  11. Comparison of state dental radiography safety regulations.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Thomas F; Parashar, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and provide an overview of state policies on occupational exposure, dosimetry, collimation, patient protection, and the use of portable handheld X-ray machines in dentistry. State government webpages containing radiation protection rules and regulations were scanned. The contents were compared against current federal regulations established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They were further evaluated in light of current recommendations from the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the American Dental Association (ADA). Most states' regulations mirror the exposure limits set forth by the NRC and FDA. Nonregulatory recommendations regarding use of dental radiography are periodically put forth by the NCRP and the ADA. State and federal agencies often follow recommendations from these scientific organizations when creating regulations. Clinicians must be aware of their state's radiation protection rules, as variations among states exist. In addition, recommendations published by organizations such as the NCRP and the ADA, while not legally binding, contribute significantly to the reduction of radiation risks for operators and patients alike.

  12. 76 FR 30374 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Act include: Updated ship design; providing public access to information regarding crime aboard cruise...] [FR Doc No: 2011-12988] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-0357] Cruise... availability of technology to meet certain provisions of the Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of...

  13. Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.

  14. Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    2009-11-15

    The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

  15. Automobile safety regulations and death reductions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1981-08-01

    The effectiveness of federal automobile safety standards was examined using detailed data on 236,000 vehicles in fatal crashes in the United States during 1975-1978. Controlling statistically for type of regulation, types of vehicles, and ages of vehicles, the federal motor vehicle safety standards were associated with substantial reductions in car occupant death per 100 million vehicle miles travelled, and some reductions in fatal collisions of the federally regulated vehicles with pedestrians, motorcyclists, and bicyclists. Some 37,000 fewer deaths occurred in 1975-1978 than would have been expected without the federal standards.

  16. Automobile safety regulations and death reductions in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of federal automobile safety standards was examined using detailed data on 236,000 vehicles in fatal crashes in the United States during 1975-1978. Controlling statistically for type of regulation, types of vehicles, and ages of vehicles, the federal motor vehicle safety standards were associated with substantial reductions in car occupant death per 100 million vehicle miles travelled, and some reductions in fatal collisions of the federally regulated vehicles with pedestrians, motorcyclists, and bicyclists. Some 37,000 fewer deaths occurred in 1975-1978 than would have been expected without the federal standards. PMID:7258443

  17. Safety Eye Protection through Use of Fast Acting Optical Switching.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    4NH M A ninE ISUPPLEMNITARY NOTES VIL KEY woRDS (Cn-.Mm Mwa ie If 06060 imd Rd-"&t h4g.e Min& . Optical Switching Inhomogeneous Media Safety Eye... media in which the inhomegeneity is on the order of the wavelength of visible light. At present there are not obvious ideal solutions based simply upon...transitions due to short range diffusion; and (4) inhomogeneous media in which the Inhomegeneity is on the order of the wavelength of visible light At

  18. [Sanitary epidemiologic safety and technical regulations on railway transport].

    PubMed

    Leksin, A G

    2009-01-01

    The author necessitated that requirements on sanitary and epidemiologic safety of life support systems for engine driver cabin (microclimate maintainance system, protection from vibration and noise, illumination, workplace ergonomics, etc) should be included into technical regulations for railway vehicles, both newly constructed and modernized.

  19. Administrative and private searches for smoking articles conducted pursuant to the federal mine safety and health act: Constitutional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, D.J.; McCambley, M.E.

    1995-11-01

    Searches conducted to detect the presence of smoking articles are required to fulfill the legitimate, administrative objectives that underlie the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Consequently, such searches may be conducted by government mine safety enforcement officials without benefit of either a warrant based upon probable cause or an administrative warrant. The authority to conduct warrantless administrative searches on mine property is limited by FMSHA, however, and MSHA must either comply with the administrative substitutes for a warrant set forth in that Act or obtain an administrative warrant before entering onto a mine-operator`s property for purposes of conducting a search for smoking articles. Once mine safety enforcement officials properly gain entry onto mine property, no further warrants are required to conduct searches of individual miners. Miners who choose to work in underground mines are put on notice, by the FMSHA, MSHA regulations, and the training they receive, that they will be subject to searches for smoking articles. Thus, miners have no reasonable expectation that they will be free from the type of pat-down and personal effects searches used to detect the presence of smoking articles. The Fourth amendment is simply not implicated by such searches. This is true even though the legislative scheme designed to enhance mine safety imposes criminal as well as civil penalties on miners found with smoking articles.

  20. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. ); Mumford, G. )

    1990-03-05

    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  1. JICST Factual DatabaseJICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru

    JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.

  2. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E.; Pastides, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. 76 FR 78483 - S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act (Regulations G & H)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1007 and 1008 RIN 3170-AA06 S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act (Regulations G & H) AGENCY... Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act (S.A.F.E. Act), the Bureau is publishing for public comment an interim final rule establishing a new Regulation G (S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act--Federal Registration...

  4. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  7. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  8. Regulations Under the Americans With Disabilities Act; Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-17

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) is issuing its final rule to amend the regulations and interpretive guidance implementing Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to provide guidance on the extent to which employers may use incentives to encourage employees to participate in wellness programs that ask them to respond to disability-related inquiries and/or undergo medical examinations. This rule applies to all wellness programs that include disability-related inquiries and/or medical examinations whether they are offered only to employees enrolled in an employer-sponsored group health plan, offered to all employees regardless of whether they are enrolled in such a plan, or offered as a benefit of employment by employers that do not sponsor a group health plan or group health insurance. Published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the EEOC also issued a final rule to amend the regulations implementing Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) that addresses the extent to which employers may offer incentives for an employee's spouse to participate in a wellness program.

  9. 75 FR 4305 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning the Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Chapter III Regulatory Guidance Concerning the Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Texting by Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of regulatory...

  10. The European "clinical trial" regulation; relationship with the Jardé Act: a Giens workshop.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, François; Marchenay, Brigitte; Chassany, Olivier; Barthélémy, Philippe; Bouzzagou, Mohamed; Comet, Denis; Delval, Cécile; Dubray, Claude; Fouret, Cécile; Frija-Orvoen, Elisabeth; Gambotti, Laetitia; Lamarque, Véronique; d'Orsay, Geneviève; Plattner, Valérie; Sibenaler, Claire; Roux, Jacques; Thoby, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    In May 2014, the European Union Parliament and Council published a new regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which is designed to replace Directive 2001/20/EC. It will not come into effect until 2016. Nevertheless, it is essential to examine its relationship with national legislation, i.e. the Jardé Act, whose implementation has been delayed pending publication of the European regulation. The Giens workshop identified and examined the various issues that this relationship is bound to raise. In particular, it looked at trial methodology assessment procedures, the working relationship between the French National Agency of Drug Safety and Health Products (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé, ANSM) and ethics committees during the authorization application evaluation phase, review of post-authorization/registration studies on medicinal products and medical devices, and data transparency.

  11. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the...

  12. 78 FR 6762 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 16, 106, 110, 112, 114, 117, 120, 123, 129, 179, and 211 Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human...

  13. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 16, 106, 110, 112, 114, 117, 120, 123, 129, 179, and 211 Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human...

  14. 78 FR 57320 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Act (FSMA) and achieving the same level of food safety as domestic growers and processors. The second... the public about the rulemaking process (including how to submit comments, data, and other information... how to submit comments, data, and other information to the rulemaking docket; to respond to...

  15. 78 FR 49988 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Act (FSMA) and achieving the same level of food safety as domestic growers and processors. The second... public about the rulemaking process (including how to submit comments, data, and other information to the... process, including how to submit comments, data, and other information to the rulemaking docket;...

  16. 78 FR 46966 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer Reinspection Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  17. 76 FR 45820 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer Reinspection User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  18. The Clery Act, Campus Safety, and the Perceptions of Senior Student Affairs Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty-seven senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) responded to a questionnaire about the effectiveness of the Clery Act and their views of campus safety. As a group, SSAO responses were very homogenous, resulting in few significant differences when institutional type (public v. private) and status (2-year v. 4-year) were…

  19. Safety Evaluation of Hemoglobin-Albumin Cluster "HemoAct" as a Red Blood Cell Substitute.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Risa; Kimura, Takuya; Iwasaki, Hitomi; Yamada, Kana; Kamiyama, Ikuo; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Nagao, Saori; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2015-07-29

    A hemoglobin (Hb) wrapped covalently by human serum albumins (HSAs), a core-shell structured hemoglobin-albumin cluster designated as "HemoAct", is an O2-carrier designed for use as a red blood cell (RBC) substitute. This report describes the blood compatibility, hemodynamic response, and pharmacokinetic properties of HemoAct, and then explains its preclinical safety. Viscosity and blood cell counting measurements revealed that HemoAct has good compatibility with whole blood. Intravenous administration of HemoAct into anesthetized rats elicited no unfavorable increase in systemic blood pressure by vasoconstriction. The half-life of (125)I-labeled HemoAct in circulating blood is markedly longer than that of HSA. Serum biochemical tests conducted 7 days after HemoAct infusion yielded equivalent values to those observed in the control group with HSA. Histopathologic inspections of the vital organs revealed no marked abnormality in their tissues. All results indicate that HemoAct has sufficient preclinical safety as an alternative material for RBC transfusion.

  20. Adipose stem cells: biology, safety, regulation, and regenerative potential.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter

    2015-04-01

    This article discusses adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) biology, describes the current knowledge in the literature for the safety and regulation of ASCs, and provides a brief overview of the regenerative potential of ASCs. It is not an exhaustive listing of all available clinical studies or every study applying ASCs in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but is an objective commentary of these topics.

  1. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  2. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales.

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development.

  3. 76 FR 64354 - Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small Business; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small Business; Request for...

  4. 78 FR 17611 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... On July 9, 2012, President Obama signed the Food and Drug Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Pub. L... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part Chapter 1 Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases; Request for Comments Regarding...

  5. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  6. Effect of the Family and Medical Leave Act on the operation of cafeteria plans. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2001-10-17

    This document contains final regulations relating to cafeteria plans that reflect changes made by the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (Act). The final regulations provide the public with guidance needed to comply with the Act and affect employees who participate in cafeteria plans.

  7. 78 FR 72057 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... CFR Part 300 Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act AGENCY: Federal Trade... proposed amendments to the Rules and Regulations under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 (``Wool Rules... Commission issued the Wool Rules to implement the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, 15 U.S.C. 68-68j....

  8. 77 FR 29982 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method), by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  9. 75 FR 24862 - Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Wildlife Conservation Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We... and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980. The Act authorized financial and technical assistance to States... through 86. The regulations at part 83 implement the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980 (16...

  10. 20 CFR 626.4 - Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents for the Job Training..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.4 Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. The table of contents for the regulations...

  11. 29 CFR 2530.200a-2 - Treasury regulations for purposes of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treasury regulations for purposes of the Act. 2530.200a-2... RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200a-2 Treasury regulations for purposes of the...

  12. 29 CFR 1903.2 - Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards. 1903.2 Section 1903.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... § 1903.2 Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards. (a)(1)...

  13. 75 FR 58387 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time Reporting, Compensation Requirements AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration... Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time- Reporting, Compensation...

  14. 75 FR 58389 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting Requirements for Prime Contractors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting Requirements for...

  15. 75 FR 58388 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--Quarterly Reporting for Prime Contractors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA... Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Quarterly Reporting for Prime Contractors. Public comments are...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1319 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Federal Register. (b) Location. The following is a safety zone: All waters of Lake Washington,...

  17. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    .... Regulated Navigation Areas are water areas within a defined boundary for which regulations for vessels.../2011 USCG-2011-0596 Grande Isle, LA Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/2/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/4/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/24/2011...

  18. 78 FR 32390 - Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA): Request for Comments on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA... Information Technology AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office of the National Coordinator for Health...

  19. Organized labor and the origins of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

    PubMed

    Asher, Robert

    2014-11-01

    New Solutions is republishing this 1991 article by Robert Asher, which reviews the history of organized labor's efforts in the United States to secure health and safety protections for workers. The 1877 passage of the Massachusetts factory inspection law and the implementation of primitive industrial safety inspection systems in many states paralleled labor action for improved measures to protect workers' health and safety. In the early 1900s labor was focusing on workers' compensation laws. The New Deal expanded the federal government's role in worker protection, supported at least by the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), but challenged by industry and many members of the U.S. Congress. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the CIO backed opposing legal and inspection strategies in the late 1940s and through the 1950s. Still, by the late 1960s, several unions were able to help craft the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and secure new federal protections for U.S. workers.

  20. 77 FR 19455 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...This document contains proposed regulations implementing amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA amended the BLBA in two ways. First, it revived a rebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis for certain claims. Second, it reinstituted derivative entitlement to benefits for......

  1. 76 FR 24027 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act Certificate AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act certificate. Public...-mail cecelia.davis@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose The Buy American Act requires...

  2. 75 FR 14547 - Tribal Consultation on Draft Buy Indian Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs 48 CFR Chapter 14 RIN 1076-AE95 Tribal Consultation on Draft Buy Indian Act... comments concerning draft regulations to implement the Buy Indian Act. See the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... implementation of the Buy Indian Act, 25 U.S.C. 47, which provides authority to set aside procurement...

  3. 77 FR 13328 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0154, Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual...

  4. 75 FR 3665 - Regulations under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act; Termination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...The Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission'') has terminated its rulemaking concerning a proposed amendment to its regulations (``smokeless tobacco regulations''), , implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (``Smokeless Tobacco Act''). The proposed amendment expressly provided that sponsored racing vehicles and other event-related objects that......

  5. 20 CFR 626.2 - Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.2 Section 626.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the...

  6. 20 CFR 626.2 - Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.2 Section 626.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the...

  7. 76 FR 82117 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...This final rule contains regulations implementing amendments to the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (LHWCA) by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), relating to the exclusion of certain recreational-vessel workers from the LHWCA's definition of ``employee.'' These regulations clarify both the definition of ``recreational vessel'' and those circumstances......

  8. 20 CFR 626.2 - Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.2 Section 626.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the...

  9. 78 FR 41835 - Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... 3150-AJ25 Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended...

  10. 77 FR 234 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 303 Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products... Rules and Regulations under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile Rules'').\\1\\ The... the Textile Rules to implement the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 15 U.S.C. 70-70k....

  11. 20 CFR 626.3 - Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.3 Section 626.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.3 Purpose, scope, and...

  12. 20 CFR 626.3 - Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.3 Section 626.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.3 Purpose, scope, and...

  13. 20 CFR 626.3 - Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.3 Section 626.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.3 Purpose, scope, and...

  14. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  15. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  16. [Safety and health in work from the perspective of the Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hortigüela Amillo, J

    1996-01-01

    The passing of the Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act, (Ley 31/1995), constituted a change in direction in the development of occupational safety and health in Spain. This article describes the most salient points of this new legislation, from the criteria and principles that have to govern preventive activities, to the obligations and rights of both employers and workers, together with the co-operation and co-ordination of the activities of the various Administrations which have jurisdiction and the participation of employers' and workers' organisations, as the backbone of policy in matters concerning the prevention of occupational hazards.

  17. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    PubMed

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  18. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  19. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  20. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  1. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  2. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  3. 16 CFR 1500.88 - Exemptions from lead limits under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... August 14, 2009, products designed or intended primarily for children 12 and younger cannot contain more... 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for certain electronic devices. 1500.88 Section 1500.88 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES...

  4. 76 FR 6765 - Consumer Product Safety Act: Notice of Commission Action on the Stay of Enforcement of Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... (``Bicycles and Related Products'') designed or intended primarily for children 12 years of age or younger. 74... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Consumer Product Safety Act: Notice of Commission Action on the Stay of Enforcement of Testing...

  5. 75 FR 41370 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ..., 121 Stat. 2524. The OPEN Government Act amended various FOIA administrative procedures, such as when... procedural rules, final Commission decisions since 1972, final administrative law judges' decisions since 1993, administrative law judges' decisions pending Commission review, strategic plans,...

  6. 76 FR 78121 - Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (Regulation F)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Financial Protection (Bureau), effective July 21, 2011.\\4\\ See sections 1061 and 1089 of the Dodd-Frank Act... Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010. Public Law 111-203, section 1089(4); 15 U.S.C.1692l(d). II... Law 111-203, section 1089(1); 15 U.S.C. 1692o. B. Authority To Issue an Interim Final Rule...

  7. Accidents and Apathy: The Construction of the ‘Robens Philosophy’ of Occupational Safety and Health Regulation in Britain, 1961–1974

    PubMed Central

    Sirrs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The 1972 Robens Report is widely regarded to have provided the underlying rationale for the ‘modern’ system of occupational health and safety regulation in Britain, embodied in the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act) 1974. The HSW Act advanced a new, more flexible system of regulation, premised on the ideal of self-regulation by industry. This article advances a more nuanced historical understanding of the Report and its ethos—the ‘Robens philosophy’—than hitherto developed, situating its assumptions about accidents, regulation and the role of the state in the social, economic and political context of Britain in the 1960s and early 1970s. Highlighting the interaction between these trends and long-established regulatory practices, the article argues that the turn to ‘self-regulation’ heralded by the Robens Report was highly convincing from a political and regulatory perspective at the time it was promulgated. PMID:26858514

  8. International laser-safety regulations: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Robert M.

    1990-07-01

    There is an increase in international laser safety requirements as part of the emphasis on world-wide standardization of products and regulations. In particular the documents which will evolve from the 1992 consolidation efforts of the European Community (EC) will impact both laser manufacturers and users. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of the various laser radiation standards. NORTH AMERICAN REQUIREMENTS United States Requirements on manufacturers from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been in effect since 1975. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) within that agency ensures that these mandatory requirements [1] are satisfied. The CDRH regulations include the division of products into classes depending on their potential for hazard criteria for power measurement and requirements for product features labels and manuals and records and reports. Manufacturers must test products and certify that they comply with the CDRH requirements. User requirements are found in a standard published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and in requirements from several individual states. Specific ANSI standards have also been published for fiber communications systems [34] and for lasers in medical applications [35]. Please note that the Appendix includes additional information on the standards discussed in this paper including sources for obtaining the documents. Canada In the past Canada has had requirements for two specified product categories (bar code scanners and educational lasers) [26 These will be replaced

  9. Parents' Views on the Jeanne Clery Campus Crime Act and Campus Safety. Educational Policy Institute of Virginia Tech Policy Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    This paper is the third in a series that focuses on the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. It reports on a study of what parents know and think about campus safety issues and the Clery Act. During a college's summer orientation program, parents were selected at random from those who passed the…

  10. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and... Israni by phone at 202-366-4571 or by e-mail at Mike.Israni@dot.gov . For all other information contact... regulate all smaller-diameter (less than 8\\5/8\\-inches diameter) rural low-stress pipelines located in...

  11. 76 FR 25576 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and... . For all other information contact Tewabe Asebe by phone at 202-366-4595 or by e-mail at tewabe.asebe... regulate all remaining rural low-stress pipelines (i.e., smaller-diameter--less than 8 \\5/8\\...

  12. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-06-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam's pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk-benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes.

  13. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  14. Safety of long-acting beta agonists and inhaled corticosteroids in children and adolescents with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ying; Kelton, Christina M. L.; Xue, Liang; Bian, Boyang; Wigle, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) was considered a major advance in bronchodilator therapy for adult, as well as pediatric, patients with asthma. However, the use of LABAs has raised safety concerns, especially the potential for severe asthma exacerbations (SAEs) resulting in hospitalizations or even death. Meanwhile, the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), a cornerstone in the treatment of mild-to-severe persistent asthma, has been associated with growth suppression in children. The purpose of this review was to identify and discuss the major published safety studies surrounding LABA, ICS, and combined LABA/ICS usage in children. By way of a critical search for influential published clinical trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies, six studies relevant to the safety of LABA monotherapy, seven studies relevant to ICS monotherapy, and four studies on the subject of LABA/ICS combination usage were identified and reviewed. Based on the reviewed literature, the controversy surrounding these anti-asthma medications was clearly exposed. On the one hand, there is some evidence that LABA monotherapy may be associated with SAEs and asthma-related death, while ICS monotherapy may be associated with a higher risk of growth suppression. On the other hand, the concurrent use of a LABA with an ICS has been associated with positive outcomes including symptom reduction and reduced rate and severity of exacerbations. Further clinical research is warranted and has been called for by the US Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25114786

  15. 76 FR 34867 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Guard will enforce the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show safety zone on Lake Washington, Seattle, WA... enforcement period, no person or vessel may enter or transit this safety zone unless authorized by the...

  16. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Guard will enforce a safety zone on Lake Washington, WA for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show from... establish a safety zone on the waters of Lake Washington for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air...

  17. 78 FR 32595 - Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... practices with respect to FOIA. Finally, the rule would use current cost figures in calculating and charging... enacted by the OPEN Government Act of 2007, reflect developments in the case law, and include current cost... increased from that provided for under current Sec. 15.110(c). Duplication costs for media copies would...

  18. 75 FR 22320 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... deletion of materials under the FOIA on the responsive record. Second, as a result of the Chief FOIA...) to reflect the more detailed description of those duties set forth under the OPEN Government Act. 5 U... forth in paragraph (g) to include, where technically feasible, marking the exemption under which...

  19. 75 FR 38684 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2010-008, Recovery Act Subcontract Reporting Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... regulations it believes are necessary. OMB has determined that obtaining publicly reported jobs information at... Regulation; FAR Case 2010-008, Recovery Act Subcontract Reporting Procedures AGENCIES: Department of Defense... Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) have agreed on an interim rule amending the...

  20. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  1. 78 FR 8963 - Update of Existing Privacy Act-NASA Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1212 RIN 2700-AD86 Update of Existing Privacy Act--NASA Regulations... document contains corrections to the final regulations (NASA-2012-0005), which were published in the... Jennings, 202-358-0819. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background NASA's final regulations that published...

  2. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section 179.103-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  3. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section 179.103-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  4. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section 179.103-4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  5. 49 CFR 177.804 - Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety... CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY General Information and Regulations § 177.804 Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. Motor carriers and other persons subject to this part must comply with 49...

  6. 75 FR 41788 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AB07 Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Prepaid Access AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement.... Steele, Deputy Director, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. BILLING CODE 4810-02-P...

  7. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  8. 75 FR 63425 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Part 701 RIN 1240-AA02 Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels AGENCY: Office of Workers' Compensation... Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) is republishing the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking entitled...

  9. Glargine and detemir: Safety and efficacy profiles of the long-acting basal insulin analogs

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Kitty; King, Allen B

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing public health concern in the US and worldwide. Insulin therapy is the cornerstone of diabetes therapy, and the use of basal insulins will increase as clinicians strive to help their patients reach glycemic goals. Basal insulins have been continually improved upon over the years, and the long-acting basal insulin analogs, glargine and detemir, have many pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advantages over neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin, namely, less variable absorption profiles, a less pronounced peak in effect, and a longer duration of action. Overall, glargine and detemir do not differ greatly in their safety and efficacy profiles. Major differences between the two include lower within-subject variability, lower risk of hypoglycemia, and a weight-sparing effect with insulin detemir. This review summarizes data from the key pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, as well as clinical and observational studies to elucidate the role of each basal insulin analog in therapy. PMID:21701633

  10. 77 FR 56592 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... language and structure of the FOIA regulations in order to improve the Department's FOIA performance. More... detailed information about Department procedures for making FOIA requests and descriptions of the types of... possible about the specific records or types of records that you are seeking. This will assist the...

  11. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act.

  12. 78 FR 54650 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Regulation; Information Collection American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time... requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting... Requirements-- One Time Reporting for First-tier Subcontractors, by any of the following methods:...

  13. 78 FR 54648 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Reporting Requirements--One-Time... requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Reporting Requirements--One Time-Reporting... Requirements-- One Time-Reporting, Compensation Requirements, by any of the following methods:...

  14. 78 FR 57808 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...Based on comments received in response to its Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, the Federal Trade Commission (the ``Commission'' or ``FTC'') proposes amending its rules and regulations under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 (``Wool Rules'' or ``Rules'') to: conform to the requirements of the Wool Suit Fabric Labeling Fairness and International Standards Conforming Act, which revised......

  15. 75 FR 58390 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time Reporting for First-Tier Subcontractors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration... Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time Reporting for First-Tier Subcontractors. Public comments...

  16. 76 FR 16977 - Regulations To Implement the Equal Employment Provisions of the Americans With Disabilities Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (the Commission or the EEOC) issues its final revised Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations and accompanying interpretive guidance in order to implement the ADA Amendments Act of 2008. The Commission is responsible for enforcement of title I of the ADA, as amended, which prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of disability.......

  17. Adaptive regulation or governmentality: patient safety and the changing regulation of medicine.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores how current 'patient safety' reforms offer to change the regulation of medicine. Drawing on existing literature, it is argued that this policy agenda represents a new frontier in medical/managerial relations, introducing a disciplinary expertise within the health service that provides managers with the knowledge and legitimacy to survey and scrutinise medical performance, made real through procedures for incident reporting and root-cause analysis. The extent of regulatory change is investigated, drawing on an ethnographic case study of one hospital. It is shown that, as with other organisational and managerial reforms, doctors are resisting managerial prerogatives through seeking to subvert and 'capture' components of reform. I describe this as 'adaptive regulation' to account for how doctors seek to maintain their regulatory monopoly and limit managerial encroachment. It is speculated, however, that this process could signal the future 'modernisation' of medical professionalism where emerging managerial discourses, within the wider context of public sector reform, are increasingly internalised with medical practice and culture. This leads to new and rearticulated forms of self-surveillance, self-management or 'governmentality', ultimately negating the need for external groups to explicitly manage or regulate professional practice.

  18. [Aliens Act regulations and consequences of inability to travel].

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, H-M

    2003-12-01

    The question as to whether a foreign national is (un)able to travel or not is often in the foreground of the decision-making process concerning a possible termination of their stay in the Federal Republic of Germany. Authorities responsible for aliens and administrative courts often require accredited medical reports to be able to decide whether inability to travel is actually the case. There are no clear legal criteria with regard to the definition of this term and an explicit provision by law is also missing. In cases where the decision has been made against inability to travel (i.e. a person is said to be able to travel), there may be considerable risks for the person concerned. Where the decision has been made in favour of inability to travel (i.e. the person is said to be unable to travel), a protective system based on the Aliens' Act takes effect. This article gives an overview of the legal consequences arising from a determined inability to travel; the legal difficulties with regard to the definition of this term; and the requirements to be made concerning clarity of a prognosis regarding possible risks. The pertinent legislation as well as opinions expressed in expert literature are presented.

  19. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  20. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  1. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  2. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  3. 77 FR 38717 - Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 531 and 553 Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 899, revised as of July...

  4. 76 FR 9646 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100, 117, 147, and 165 Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation Regulations and Regulated Navigation Areas AGENCY:...

  5. 76 FR 43604 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines, Correction AGENCY... error in the final rule regarding the compliance date for identifying all segments of a Category 3 low....gov . For all other information contact Tewabe Asebe by phone at 202-366-4595 or by e-mail at...

  6. Regulation of Health Policy: Patient Safety and the States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    report on patient safety, the Institute of Medicine recommended a nationwide mandatory reporting system to collect standardized information about...adverse events. Efforts at instituting a national system have stalled, and both State legislatures and private or quasi-regulatory organizations have...boundaries that discourage adverse event reporting, replacing them with a “safety culture.” This research examines the role of State legislatures in

  7. Regulations on Meat Hygiene and Safety in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwinger, Ron H.; Golden, Thomas E.; Hatakka, Maija; Chalus, Thierry

    Meat safety concerns physical, chemical and biological aspects. With regard to these aspects it is important that the slaughterhouse and processing industry implement a HACCP programme. By implementing such a programme all hazards, which could affect human safety, will have to be identified, monitored when considered as critical and eliminated, reduced or prevented. With regard to preventing physical hazards, a metal detector should be a regular piece of equipment in the meat processing industry.

  8. Establishing a list of qualifying pathogens under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is issuing a regulation to establish a list of "qualifying pathogens'' that have the potential to pose a serious threat to public health. This final rule implements a provision of the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) title of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). GAIN is intended to encourage development of new antibacterial and antifungal drugs for the treatment of serious or life-threatening infections, and provides incentives such as eligibility for designation as a fast-track product and an additional 5 years of exclusivity to be added to certain exclusivity periods. Based on analyses conducted both in the proposed rule and in response to comments to the proposed rule, FDA has determined that the following pathogens comprise the list of ``qualifying pathogens:'' Acinetobacter species, Aspergillus species, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Campylobacter species, Candida species, Clostridium difficile, Coccidioides species, Cryptococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae), Enterococcus species, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Non-tuberculous mycobacteria species, Pseudomonas species, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and Vibrio cholerae. The preamble to the proposed rule described the factors the Agency considered and the methodology used to develop the list of qualifying pathogens. As described in the preamble of this final rule, FDA applied those factors and that methodology to additional pathogens suggested via comments on the proposed rule.

  9. United States import safety, environmental health, and food safety regulation in China.

    PubMed

    Nyambok, Edward O; Kastner, Justin J

    2012-01-01

    China boasts a rapidly growing economy and is a leading food exporter. Since China has dominated world export markets in food, electronics, and toys, many safety concerns about Chinese exports have emerged. For example, many countries have had problems with Chinese food products and food-processing ingredients. Factors behind food safety and environmental health problems in China include poor industrial waste management, the use of counterfeit agricultural inputs, inadequate training of farmers on good farm management practices, and weak food safety laws and poor enforcement. In the face of rising import safety problems, the U.S. is now requiring certification of products and foreign importers, pursuing providing incentives to importers who uphold good safety practices, and considering publicizing the names of certified importers.

  10. 76 FR 52138 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... regulation is necessary, to select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential... approving a source for production of a critical safety item. No comments from small entities were...

  11. [On meeting sanitary legal requirements in technical regulation of medical equipment safety].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, O K; Prokopenko, L V

    2007-01-01

    The article covered observance of sanitary legal requirements in special technical regulations "On requirements to medical equipment and medical products safety". The authors discussed problems of applied terminology, classification of medical products, occupational risk, control over observance of safety requirements on all stages of medical products circulation--design, production, usage.

  12. Chapter 2: The Need for Physical Protection, Safety, and Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry; Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the need for physical protection and care of infants and young children and families. One of the most important preventable challenges to children's physical safety and protection is toxic substances in their environment. Many toxic substances that affect the central nervous system are in drinking water, soil, air, and areas…

  13. Laser sources in dentistry and radiation safety regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, D.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays laser sources are largely adopted in dentistry due to their unique properties making them good candidates to substitute traditional scalpel and conventional diamond bur in the surgery of the soft and hard oral tissue, respectively. The large use of laser sources outside the research laboratories without the need of highly specialized personnel can ask for a widespread knowledge of safety issues related to this kind of equipment. The main hazard of accidental exposures regards eyes injury but increasing the power of the laser beam also skin can be involved. Safety legislations in Europe and U.S.A. take into account non ionizing radiations and laser radiation for the hazards for the health deriving from physical agents. Laser safety standards introduce 3 useful parameters for hazard characterization: "Accessible Emission Limit" (AEL), "Maximum Permissible Exposure" (MPE) and "Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance" (NOHD). We measured the MPE and NOHD for Er:YAG and other laser sources currently adopted in dentistry and we compared our results with data elaborated from standards in order to single out safe and comfortable working conditions. In fact an experimental assessment of the hazard parameters and the comparison with those of reference from safety standards turns out to be useful in order to estimate the residual hazard that can be still present after applying all the engineering protection and administrative rules.

  14. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and... the bridge-to-bridge frequency and a VTS frequency. (c) Each vessel of the United States...

  15. Complying with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations: a guide for compounding pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Mixon, Bill; Nain, John

    2013-01-01

    In the compounding pharmacy, compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations is essential to protect employees and customers from exposure to hazardous substances and a dangerous environment, to avert heavy fines and penalties levied for noncompliance, and to fulfill the moral obligation of pharmacists to do no harm. Without adequate vigilance, compounders are vulnerable to lapses in adherence to Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements, the results of which can be dire in a climate of increased scrutiny about the safety and integrity of pharmaceutical compounding. Proactively addressing necessary compliance with essential safety regulations can only benefit compounders and their staff and clients, and guidance from an expert in Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements can be a key factor in accomplishing that goal.

  16. 78 FR 18344 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0130, Buy American Act--Free Trade...

  17. Long-acting beta-agonists: a review of formoterol safety data from asthma clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sears, M R; Ottosson, A; Radner, F; Suissa, S

    2009-01-01

    The safety of long-acting beta(2)-agonist (LABA) treatment in asthma has been questioned following reported increased respiratory deaths when salmeterol was added to usual pharmacotherapy. The aim of this study was to examine whether asthma, cardiac or all-cause mortality and morbidity were increased with formoterol use. The analysis included all AstraZeneca randomised controlled parallel-group asthma trials of 3-12-months duration involving formoterol. Risks associated with formoterol use compared with non-LABA treatment, overall and in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), were assessed using an intention-to-treat analysis of the rates and rate ratios of deaths and serious adverse events (SAEs). The main objective of this study was to compare asthma-related mortality in patients using formoterol and those not using formoterol. There were eight asthma-related deaths (0.34 per 1,000 person-yrs) among 49,906 formoterol-randomised patients (92% using ICS), and two (0.22 per 1,000 person-yrs) among 18,098 patients (83% using ICS) not randomised to formoterol, which was nonsignificant. Asthma-related SAEs (>90% of which were hospitalisations) were significantly fewer among formoterol-randomised patients (0.75 versus 1.10%). There was no increase in asthma-related SAEs with increased daily doses of formoterol (9, 18 or 36 microg). There was no significant difference in cardiac mortality or noncardiac nonasthma-related mortality in formoterol-randomised compared to non-LABA-treated patients. All-cause mortality was similar. In the data set in which all subjects were prescribed ICS at baseline, there were seven asthma-related deaths (0.32 per 1,000 person-yrs) among 46,003 formoterol-randomised patients and one (0.14 per 1,000 person-yrs) among 13,905 patients not randomised to formoterol, which was also nonsignificant. There were few asthma-related or cardiac-related deaths among patients randomised to formoterol, and all differences were nonsignificant

  18. 75 FR 75145 - Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL; Safety Zone, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11, 1625-AA00 Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL; Safety Zone, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... zone and a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC)...

  19. 78 FR 32990 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... the on-water activities associated with the ``Louis Vuitton Cup, Red Bull Youth America's Cup and the... Alcatraz Island. (77 FR 41902) The special local regulation and safety zone regulate the on-water activities associated with the ``Louis Vuitton Cup, Red Bull Youth America's Cup and the 34th America's...

  20. 78 FR 70515 - Petition To Promulgate Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Promulgate Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... transportation of all species of bears held in captivity except polar bears, for which there are already... pigs and hamsters, rabbits, nonhuman primates, and marine mammals (including polar bears), and...

  1. 77 FR 60620 - Update of Existing Privacy Act-NASA Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1212 RIN 2700-AD86 Update of Existing Privacy Act--NASA Regulations AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  2. 76 FR 10234 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ...FinCEN is issuing this final rule to amend the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) regulations regarding reports of foreign financial accounts. The rule addresses the scope of the persons that are required to file reports of foreign financial accounts. The rule further specifies the types of accounts that are reportable, and provides filing relief in the form of exemptions for certain persons with......

  3. 20 CFR 626.4 - Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....601Applied VST budgeting. Subpart G—Experimental, Research, and Demonstration Projects 638.710Experimental, research, and demonstration projects. Subpart H—Administrative Provisions 638.800Program management. 638..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.4 Table...

  4. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  5. The National Labor Relations Act and the Regulation of Public Employee Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Walter; Smiley, Stafford

    1976-01-01

    The arguments for and against federal assumption of the responsibility for regulating the relationship between public employers and public employees are analyzed. It is suggested that the National Labor Relations Act should be extended to include them, thereby imposing upon them a duty to bargain collectively. Available from: the Harvard…

  6. 76 FR 35963 - Disclosure of Information; Privacy Act Regulations; Notice and Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...) Disclosure to federal financial institutions supervisory agencies and certain other agencies. The Director of... CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 309 and 310 RIN 3064-AD83 Disclosure of Information; Privacy Act Regulations; Notice... disclosure of information and the PA, as amended. In taking this action the FDIC's goal is to avoid...

  7. 78 FR 32547 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA37 Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth in... Compensation Requirements under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) Final Rule, issued on January 20, 2013...\\ One of these final rules was the Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth in...

  8. 76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Society of the United States, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the American... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We...

  9. 77 FR 4498 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... meaning set forth in Sec. 303.12 of the Textile Rules. 16 CFR 300.1(k). \\6\\ Federal Trade Commission... ``trimmings'' in Sec. 300.1(k), which incorporates by reference Section 303.12 of the Textile Rules? If so....12 of the Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile...

  10. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final...

  11. Predictors of Payer Mix and Financial Performance Among Safety Net Hospitals Prior to the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Stone, Juliana; Kane, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use audited hospital financial statements to identify predictors of payer mix and financial performance in safety net hospitals prior to the Affordable Care Act. We analyzed the 2010 financial statements of 98 large, urban safety net hospital systems in 34 states, supplemented with data on population demographics, hospital features, and state policies. We used multivariate regression to identify independent predictors of three outcomes: 1) Medicaid-reliant payer mix (hospitals for which at least 25% of hospital days are paid for by Medicaid); 2) safety net revenue-to-cost ratio (Medicaid and Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital payments and local government transfers, divided by charity care costs and Medicaid payment shortfall); and 3) operating margin. Medicaid-reliant payer mix was positively associated with more inclusive state Medicaid eligibility criteria and more minority patients. More inclusive Medicaid eligibility and higher Medicaid reimbursement rates positively predicted safety net revenue-to-cost ratio. University governance was the strongest positive predictor of operating margin. Safety net hospital financial performance varied considerably. Academic hospitals had higher operating margins, while more generous Medicaid eligibility and reimbursement policies improved hospitals' ability to recoup costs. Institutional and state policies may outweigh patient demographics in the financial health of safety net hospitals.

  12. 48 CFR 52.250-4 - SAFETY Act Pre-qualification Designation Notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Act designation for a particular Technology as a QATT is not a determination that the Technology meets... Act certification of a technology class that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has determined... Act designation of a technology class that the DHS has determined to be a Qualified...

  13. Rationing health protection: a proposal to exempt nuisance dust from US Clean Air Act regulations.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Colson, Gregory

    2013-03-15

    The US House of Representative has passed a bill called the "Farm Dust Regulation Prevention Act" (Dust Act) that would exempt most types of particulate matter (PM) in rural areas from the air quality controls of the US Clean Air Act. The Dust Act would markedly change the country's air quality standards. An examination of the proposed provisions shows that they would exempt non-combustion PM pollutants from mining, smelting, petroleum production, and power generation from existing air quality standards. Persons downwind from pollutants generated in rural areas could be exposed to concentrations of carcinogenic heavy metals, asbestos, and benzene known to adversely affect their health and ecological resources. Existing federal air quality standards based on science would be replaced by a flexible standard that rations health protection.

  14. 75 FR 74050 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... include: Cybersecurity best practices, ISP network protection practices, transition to NG9-1-1, technical..., Associate Chief for Cybersecurity and Communications Reliability Public Safety and Homeland Security...

  15. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    .... Tenenbaum, Commissioners Robert Adler and Thomas Moore voted to publish the revocation. Commissioners Nancy.... Todd A. Stevenson, Secretary, Consumer Product Safety Commission. BILLING CODE 6355-01-P...

  16. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety and Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-27

    Regulation Summary Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a hazardous fuel frequently shipped in large tankers to U.S. ports from overseas. While LNG has... gas (LNG) has long played a role in U.S. energy markets, but concerns about rising natural gas prices, current price volatility, and the possibility of...changes in U.S. energy policy legislation to reduce the nation’s demand for natural gas . Scope and Limitations This report focuses on industry and

  17. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and... Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) system as required or recommended by the U.S. Coast Guard, when an... having a loudspeaker and a radiotelephone auto alarm must be used to keep the continuous watch on 2182...

  18. Industry invites regulation: the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, I D

    1985-01-01

    Ending its 27-year stranglehold on proposals for federal pure food and drug legislation, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and its companion bill, the Meat Inspection Act, on June 30, 1906. An unprecedented convergence of consumer, scientific, and industrial support in 1906 prompted such action; most industries even planned for it, hoping regulation would restore the competitiveness of their products on weak foreign and domestic markets. The ways in which these interests converged, and the reasons therefore, suggest a change in their relationships to each other and with the federal government as America headed into the twentieth century. Images p21-a p21-b PMID:3881052

  19. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS General Provisions § 1271.10 Are my HCT/P's regulated solely.../P is regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part if it...

  20. [Topical issues of biological safety under current conditions. Part 3. Scientific provision for the national regulation of the biological safety framework in its broad interpretation].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolensky, V Yu; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Yu V; Toporkov, V P; Toporkov, A V; Lyapin, M N; Kutyrev, V V

    2014-01-01

    Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population".

  1. 76 FR 14275 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 35 Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum... requirements under the Export Grape and Plum Act. This rule changes the minimum bunch weight requirement for... under authority of the Export Grape and Plum Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 591-599), hereinafter referred...

  2. 77 FR 33635 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 31 CFR Part 1010 RIN 1506-AB17 Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain Currency Transactions AGENCY: Financial Crimes... Financial Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and...

  3. 17 CFR 270.14a-1 - Use of notification pursuant to regulation E under the Securities Act of 1933.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of 1933 by a small business investment company operating under the Small Business Investment Act of... to regulation E under the Securities Act of 1933. 270.14a-1 Section 270.14a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT...

  4. 78 FR 45842 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Parts 1024 and 1026 RIN 3170-AA37 Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation X) and the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) Correction...

  5. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1:...

  6. 75 FR 12167 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... is ``open exclusively to patrons of a hotel or other public accommodations facility.'' Section 1404(c)(2)(B)(iii) of the Act. The term ``public accommodations facility'' is not defined in the Act. The Commission has received numerous inquiries regarding what constitutes a public accommodations facility...

  7. Allosteric ACTion: the varied ACT domains regulating enzymes of amino-acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lang, Eric J M; Cross, Penelope J; Mittelstädt, Gerd; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Parker, Emily J

    2014-12-01

    Allosteric regulation of enzyme activity plays important metabolic roles. Here we review the allostery of enzymes of amino-acid metabolism conferred by a discrete domain known as the ACT domain. This domain of 60-70 residues has a βαββαβ topology leading to a four-stranded β4β1β3β2 antiparallel sheet with two antiparallel helices on one face. Extensive sequence variation requires a combined sequence/structure/function analysis for identification of the ACT domain. Common features include highly varied modes of self-association of ACT domains, ligand binding at domain interfaces, and transmittal of allosteric signals through conformational changes and/or the manipulation of quaternary equilibria. A recent example illustrates the relatively facile adoption of this versatile module of allostery by gene fusion.

  8. The ethics of postmarketing observational studies of drug safety under section 505(o)(3) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    PubMed

    Evans, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Congress granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) new powers to order pharmaceutical companies to conduct drug safety studies and clinical trials in the postmarketing period after drugs are approved The methodologies include observational studies that examine patients' insurance claims data and clinical records to infer whether drugs are safe in actual clinical practice. Such studies offer a valuable tool for improving drug safety, but they raise ethical and privacy concerns because they would entail widespread use of patients' health information in commercial research by drug manufacturers. This is the first article to explore the ethics of these section 505(0)(3) observational studies, so named after the section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that authorizes them. Data access problems threaten to make the FDA's section 505(0)(3) study requirements unenforceable. Under existing federal privacy regulations, it appears highly unlikely that pharmaceutical companies will have reliable access to crucial data resources, such as insurance claims data and healthcare records, to use in these studies. State privacy laws present another potential barrier to data access. If pharmaceutical companies do manage to gain access to the needed data, this will raise serious privacy concerns because section 505(0)(3) observational studies do not appear to be covered by any of the major federal regulations that afford ethical and privacy protections to persons whose data are used in research. If the FDA's program of section 505(o)(3) observational studies fails because of the above problems, this failure will have a number of bad consequences: the public will be exposed to avoidable drug safety risks; taxpayers may be forced to bear the costs of having the FDA conduct drug safety investigations that would have been funded by drug manufacturers if data had been available; and, perhaps most troubling, the FDA may be forced to order postmarketing clinical trials to

  9. Cross-border reproductive care: quality and safety challenges for the regulator.

    PubMed

    Davies, Trish

    2010-06-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is increasing and poses legal, ethical, and moral challenges, not least for the organizations that regulate IVF. Fertility treatment in the U.K. is regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which has focused on providing comprehensive information for people seeking CBRC, the standards of quality and safety they should expect, and issues of donor anonymity, surrogacy, multiple births, and PGD.

  10. Safety regulation for the design approval of special form radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woon-Kap

    2009-01-01

    Several kinds of special form radioactive sources for industrial, medical applications are being produced in Korea. Special form radioactive sources should meet strict safety requirements specified in the domestic safety regulations and the design of the sources should be certified by the regulatory authority, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). Several safety tests such as impact, percussion, heating, and leak tests are performed on the sources according to the domestic regulations and the international safety standards such as ANSI N542-1977 and ISO 2919-1999(E). As a regulatory expert body, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) assesses various types of application documents, such as safety analysis report, quality assurance program, and other documents evidencing fulfillment of requirements for design approval of the special form radioactive sources, submitted by a legal person who intends to produce special form radioactive sources and then reports the assessment result to MEST. A design approval certificate is issued to the applicant by MEST on the basis of a technical evaluation report presented by KINS.

  11. New paradigms for conserved, multifactorial, cis-acting regulation of meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Wahls, Wayne P.; Davidson, Mari K.

    2012-01-01

    How do cells position the Spo11 (Rec12)-dependent initiation of meiotic recombination at hotspots? The mechanisms are poorly understood and a prevailing view is that they differ substantially between phylogenetic groups. However, recent work discovered that individual species have multiple different DNA sequence-specific, protein–DNA complexes that regulate (and are essential for the activation of) recombination hotspots. The cis-acting elements function combinatorially with documented examples of synergism, antagonism and redundancy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that all currently well-defined modules of this multifactorial, cis-acting regulation are conserved functionally between taxa whose latest common ancestor occurred more than 1 billion years ago. Functionally conserved components include the ATF/CREB-family heterodimer Atf1-Pcr1 and its CRE-like DNA site M26, the CCAAT-box-binding complex Php2-Php3-Php5 and the CCAAT-box, and the zinc-finger protein Rst2 and its Oligo-C motif. The newfound multiplicity, functional redundancy and conservation of cis-acting controls constitute a paradigm shift with broad implications. They provide compelling evidence that most meiotic recombination is, like transcription, regulated by sequence-specific protein–DNA complexes. And the new findings provide important mechanistic insight, such as a solution to the conundrum that Prdm9 is a ‘master regulator’ of—yet is dispensable for—hotspot activity in mammals. PMID:22904082

  12. 78 FR 42012 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area; Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...; Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Interim rule with... the regulatory text of the Safety zone and Regulated Navigation Area in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms ACOE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CSSC Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal CFR...

  13. 77 FR 27621 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast... local regulations and a safety zone in the Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, Maryland for War of... life on navigable waters before, during, and after War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations events...

  14. 77 FR 15323 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard... special local regulations and safety zone in the Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, Maryland for War of... on navigable waters before, during, and after War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations events...

  15. 78 FR 77385 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... marine events. When enforced, these proposed special local regulations and safety zones would restrict vessels from portions of water areas during certain annually recurring events. The proposed special...

  16. Coast Guard Regulations Applied to Offshore Drilling. Module SH-45. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on Coast Guard regulations applied to offshore drilling is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents requirements that apply to the design, construction, equipment, inspection, and operation of offshore drilling units. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  17. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... regulated navigation areas (RNAs) and safety and security zones for deepwater liquefied natural gas (LNG... deepwater port operations, and protect liquefied natural gas carriers (LNGCs) and deepwater port... natural gas carriers at one time. Neptune's operator plans to offload LNGCs by regasifying the...

  18. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade.

  19. 77 FR 22706 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... the ``America's Cup World Series,'' the ``Louis Vuitton Cup'' challenger selection series, and the ``America's Cup Finals Match'' sailing regattas that may be conducted in the waters of San Francisco Bay... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's...

  20. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section 971.804... to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at... resources, protection of the environment, or the safety of life and property at sea. The amended...

  1. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section 971.804... to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at... resources, protection of the environment, or the safety of life and property at sea. The amended...

  2. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section 971.804... to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at... resources, protection of the environment, or the safety of life and property at sea. The amended...

  3. Clean Air Act Settlement Reduces Air Emissions and Improves Chemical Safety at Rhode Island Biodiesel Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA & U.S. Department of Justice have settled an environmental enforcement case with Newport Biodiesel, Inc., resulting in reduced air emissions and improved safety controls at the company’s biodiesel manufacturing plant in Newport, Rhode Island.

  4. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 1213 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... structure is large enough so a child can slip his or her body through it, it must be large enough that the... entities will always present a compliance problem, because new manufacturers can enter the marketplace... at the point of purchase and make their purchase decisions with this safety information in mind....

  5. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 1213 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... structure is large enough so a child can slip his or her body through it, it must be large enough that the... entities will always present a compliance problem, because new manufacturers can enter the marketplace... at the point of purchase and make their purchase decisions with this safety information in mind....

  6. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 1213 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... structure is large enough so a child can slip his or her body through it, it must be large enough that the... entities will always present a compliance problem, because new manufacturers can enter the marketplace... at the point of purchase and make their purchase decisions with this safety information in mind....

  7. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 1213 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... structure is large enough so a child can slip his or her body through it, it must be large enough that the... entities will always present a compliance problem, because new manufacturers can enter the marketplace... at the point of purchase and make their purchase decisions with this safety information in mind....

  8. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reflect the information that was available to the Consumer Product Safety Commission (“CPSC” or..., and the probable effect of the rule on the utility, cost, or availability of such products to meet.... Manufacturers would have to devote some resources to the development or modification of technology to...

  9. 77 FR 12054 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... p.m. in the Commission Meeting Room of the Federal Communications Commission, Room TW-C305, 445 12th..., Room TW-C305 (Commission Meeting Room), 445 12th Street SW., Washington, DC 20554. FOR FURTHER... Safety and Homeland Security Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, 445 12th Street SW., Room 7-...

  10. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for igniting cigarettes, cigars, and pipes, whether or not such devices are subject to the requirements of the Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters (16 CFR part 1210); devices that contain more than... substitute products, such as matches. However, as with child-resistant cigarette lighters, the...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for igniting cigarettes, cigars, and pipes, whether or not such devices are subject to the requirements of the Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters (16 CFR part 1210); devices that contain more than... substitute products, such as matches. However, as with child-resistant cigarette lighters, the...

  12. 76 FR 23810 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... advises interested persons that the FCC Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety Advisory....fullano@fcc.gov (e-mail); or Brian Hurley, Deputy Designated Federal Official for PSAC at (202) 418-2220 (voice) or brian.hurley@fcc.gov (e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The PSAC is a Federal...

  13. 76 FR 42683 - Establishment of a Team Under the National Construction Safety Team Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... tornado that touched down in Joplin, MO, on May 22, 2011. DATES: The National Construction Safety Team was... data related to the tornado that touched down in Joplin, MO, on May 22, 2011. Based on the... Department of Commerce, established a Team to study the effects of the tornado that touched down in...

  14. Long-acting injectable risperidone: safety and efficacy in stable patients switched from conventional depot antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin; Eerdekens, Els; Jacko, Mary; Eerdekens, Mariëlle

    2004-07-01

    Long-acting injectable risperidone was assessed in schizophrenia patients who were symptomatically stable on conventional depot antipsychotics and who were then switched to long-acting risperidone. Participants in this open-label, multicentre, 12-week trial had received flupenthixol decanoate, fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, or zuclopenthixol decanoate for 4 months or longer. Each was considered symptomatically stable by investigators. After receiving two cycles of their conventional depot antipsychotic during the run-in period, patients were switched to receive long-acting risperidone every 2 weeks for 12 weeks at an initial dose of 25 mg. This dose could be increased in 12.5-mg increments at 4-week intervals. Ninety-two percent of the patients received all six injections; 62% received the 25-mg dose throughout the treatment period. Adverse events related to movement disorders were reported in 3%. Severity of movement disorders decreased during long-acting risperidone treatment. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and factor scores and scores on the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale were significantly reduced during treatment; 48% of these stable patients showed further symptom improvement (> or =20% decrease in PANSS score at endpoint). The results indicate that patients with schizophrenia who are symptomatically stable during treatment with a conventional depot antipsychotic can be safely and effectively switched to long-acting injectable risperidone without a prior transition to oral risperidone.

  15. Tough but True: School Board Neglect of Bus Safety Led to Government's Overblown, Under-Researched Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The apparent lack of concern school boards evidenced in the past over school bus safety has precipitated the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration regulations that have angered board members and bus manufacturers alike. It is argued that the new regulations are not based on research. (Author/IRT)

  16. Assessing coal-mine safety regulation: A pooled time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Youngpyoung.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the independent, relative, and conjoint effects of four types of variables on coal-mine safety: administrative (mine inspections, mine investigations, and mine safety grants); political (state party competition, gubernatorial party affiliation, and deregulation); economic (state per-capita income and unemployment rates); task-related (mine size, technology, and type of mining), and state dummy variables. Trend, Pearson correlation, and pooled time-series analyses are performed on fatal and nonfatal injury rates reported in 25 coal-producing states during the 1975-1985 time period. These are then interpreted in light of three competing theories of regulation: capture, nonmarket failure, and threshold. Analysis reveals: (1) distinctions in the total explanatory power of the model across different types of injuries, as well as across presidential administrations; (2) a consistently more powerful impact on safety of informational implementation tools (safety education grants) over command-and-control approaches (inspections and investigations) or political variables; and (3) limited, albeit conjectural, support for a threshold theory of regulation in the coal mine safety arena.

  17. 78 FR 13298 - Notice of Retrospective Review of the Americans With Disabilities Act Regulations for Over-the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Act Regulations for Over-the-Road Bus Operators; Request for Comments AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...) implementing regulations for over-the-road bus (OTRB) operators. The DOT will review regulations specified in... Stat. 327, 42 U.S.C. 225 and 611), which required the accessibility of new over-the-road buses...

  18. 78 FR 44685 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Final Rule), 78 FR 6407 (Jan. 30, 2013). \\2\\ Mortgage Servicing Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement... Final Rules), 78 FR 10695 (Feb. 14, 2013) (Regulation X), 78 FR 10901 (Feb. 14, 2013) (Regulation Z). \\3\\ Amendments to the 2013 Escrows Final Rule under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z), 78 FR 30739 (May...

  19. 75 FR 81236 - Consumer Product Safety Act: Notice of Commission Action Lifting Stay of Enforcement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...-children's products subject to CPSC regulations pertaining to vinyl plastic film, carpets and rugs, and... expires for non-children's products subject to CPSC regulations pertaining to vinyl plastic film, carpets... 28, 2009 notice included: Carpets and rugs (16 CFR parts 1630 and 1631); Vinyl plastic film (16...

  20. Alcohol-related road traffic accidents before and after the passing of the Road Traffic Safety Act in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Missoni, Eduard; Bozić, Boris; Missoni, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gather enough data in order to formulate theory- and research-based recommendations to policy makers with the intention of decreasing the number of alcohol-related accidents and victims on Croatian roads. The data on the injured traffic participants and the share of participants under the influence of alcohol were collected from the police reports of the Traffic Police Department, Ministry of the Interior, written at the scene of the respective accidents. This documentation was then processed by descriptive epidemiology and analysed through a four-year period, before and after the passing of the New Road Traffic Safety Act in the Republic of Croatia, on 20 August 2004. In the first six months of 2005, after the passing of the Act, there were 3,275 accidents caused by the motorists under the influence of alcohol (12.5% of all the accidents), with 64 persons killed. Only 5 fatalities (8%) were caused by the drivers with measured blood alcohol concentration of up to 0.5 per thousand. As much as 27 fatalities (42%) were caused by the drivers with measured more than 1.5 per thousand, while half of the fatalities, 32 (50%), were caused by drivers with 0.5-1.5 per thousand. In this period, more than 451,000 violations were recorded, whereas in the same period of the previous year, the number of violations was about 519,000. A reduction of the total number of accidents is the result of the new regulation provision, according to which the incidents without human victims do not have to be reported to the police. The number of traffic accidents caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol had increased by some dozen per cents, namely: 2005 - 6,219 persons, 2006- 6,590 persons, noting that in 2006 one less person was killed (123) compared to 2005. In 2005, drivers with alcohol concentration of 0-0.5 per thousand caused 1,096 accidents, with 14 fatalities, whereas in 2006 there were 1,164 accidents with 9 fatalities. A total of 2,314 accidents

  1. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contracts and in excess of $2500 for other contracts that involve the employment of mechanics or laborers... Section 102 of the Act, each contractor shall be required to compute the wages of every mechanic and... to construction work and provides that no laborer or mechanic shall be required to work...

  2. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contracts and in excess of $2500 for other contracts that involve the employment of mechanics or laborers... Section 102 of the Act, each contractor shall be required to compute the wages of every mechanic and... to construction work and provides that no laborer or mechanic shall be required to work...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contracts and in excess of $2500 for other contracts that involve the employment of mechanics or laborers... Section 102 of the Act, each contractor shall be required to compute the wages of every mechanic and... to construction work and provides that no laborer or mechanic shall be required to work...

  4. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts and in excess of $2500 for other contracts that involve the employment of mechanics or laborers... Section 102 of the Act, each contractor shall be required to compute the wages of every mechanic and... to construction work and provides that no laborer or mechanic shall be required to work...

  5. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contracts and in excess of $2500 for other contracts that involve the employment of mechanics or laborers... Section 102 of the Act, each contractor shall be required to compute the wages of every mechanic and... to construction work and provides that no laborer or mechanic shall be required to work...

  6. Transportin acts to regulate mitotic assembly events by target binding rather than Ran sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Bernis, Cyril; Swift-Taylor, Beth; Nord, Matthew; Carmona, Sarah; Chook, Yuh Min; Forbes, Douglass J.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear import receptors importin β and transportin play a different role in mitosis: both act phenotypically as spatial regulators to ensure that mitotic spindle, nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore assembly occur exclusively around chromatin. Importin β is known to act by repressing assembly factors in regions distant from chromatin, whereas RanGTP produced on chromatin frees factors from importin β for localized assembly. The mechanism of transportin regulation was unknown. Diametrically opposed models for transportin action are as follows: 1) indirect action by RanGTP sequestration, thus down-regulating release of assembly factors from importin β, and 2) direct action by transportin binding and inhibiting assembly factors. Experiments in Xenopus assembly extracts with M9M, a superaffinity nuclear localization sequence that displaces cargoes bound by transportin, or TLB, a mutant transportin that can bind cargo and RanGTP simultaneously, support direct inhibition. Consistently, simple addition of M9M to mitotic cytosol induces microtubule aster assembly. ELYS and the nucleoporin 107–160 complex, components of mitotic kinetochores and nuclear pores, are blocked from binding to kinetochores in vitro by transportin, a block reversible by M9M. In vivo, 30% of M9M-transfected cells have spindle/cytokinesis defects. We conclude that the cell contains importin β and transportin “global positioning system”or “GPS” pathways that are mechanistically parallel. PMID:24478460

  7. Transportin acts to regulate mitotic assembly events by target binding rather than Ran sequestration.

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cyril; Swift-Taylor, Beth; Nord, Matthew; Carmona, Sarah; Chook, Yuh Min; Forbes, Douglass J

    2014-04-01

    The nuclear import receptors importin β and transportin play a different role in mitosis: both act phenotypically as spatial regulators to ensure that mitotic spindle, nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore assembly occur exclusively around chromatin. Importin β is known to act by repressing assembly factors in regions distant from chromatin, whereas RanGTP produced on chromatin frees factors from importin β for localized assembly. The mechanism of transportin regulation was unknown. Diametrically opposed models for transportin action are as follows: 1) indirect action by RanGTP sequestration, thus down-regulating release of assembly factors from importin β, and 2) direct action by transportin binding and inhibiting assembly factors. Experiments in Xenopus assembly extracts with M9M, a superaffinity nuclear localization sequence that displaces cargoes bound by transportin, or TLB, a mutant transportin that can bind cargo and RanGTP simultaneously, support direct inhibition. Consistently, simple addition of M9M to mitotic cytosol induces microtubule aster assembly. ELYS and the nucleoporin 107-160 complex, components of mitotic kinetochores and nuclear pores, are blocked from binding to kinetochores in vitro by transportin, a block reversible by M9M. In vivo, 30% of M9M-transfected cells have spindle/cytokinesis defects. We conclude that the cell contains importin β and transportin "global positioning system"or "GPS" pathways that are mechanistically parallel.

  8. ATH1 and KNAT2 proteins act together in regulation of plant inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Pi, Limin; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

    2012-02-01

    The inflorescence of flowering plants is a highly organized structure, not only contributing to plant reproductive processes, but also constituting an important part of the entire plant morphology. Previous studies have revealed that the class-I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP or KNAT1), KNAT2, and KNAT6 play essential roles in inflorescence architecture. Pedicel morphology is known to contribute greatly to inflorescence architecture, and BP negatively regulates KNAT2 and KNAT6 to ensure that pedicels have a normal upward-pointing orientation. These findings indicate that a genetic network exists in controlling pedicel orientation, but how this network functions in the developmental process remains elusive. Here it is reported that the ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1) gene, which belongs to the BELL1-like homeodomain gene family, is a new member participating in regulating pedicel orientation in the class-I KNOX network. In a genetic screening for suppressors of isoginchaku-2D, a gain-of-function ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 mutant that displays downward-pointing pedicels, a suppressor mutant was obtained. Characterization of this mutant revealed that the mutation corresponds to ATH1. Genetic analysis indicated that ATH1 acts mainly in the KNAT2 pathway. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that ATH1 physically interacts with KNAT2. The data indicate that the ATH1-KNAT2 complex acts redundantly with KNAT6, both of which are negatively regulated by BP during pedicel development.

  9. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Supratim; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  10. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of long-acting non-ergot dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Min; Peng, Guo-Guang

    2014-07-01

    A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-acting non-ergot dopamine agonists (NEDA) versus placebo in Parkinson's disease (PD). A comprehensive literature search up to February 2013 was performed, and the weighted mean differences (WMD) and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Nine RCT (n=2857) which assessed the rotigotine transdermal patch, extended-release pramipexole, and ropinirole prolonged-release, were included. Compared with placebo, long-acting NEDA achieved greater improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale activities of daily living (ADL) score (WMD -1.77, 95% CI -2.13 to -1.41), motor score (WMD -4.18, 95% CI -4.94 to -3.43) and the ADL and motor subtotal score (WMD -5.12, 95% CI -6.16 to -4.07), as well as a reduction in "off" time (WMD -1.29, 95% CI -1.64 to -0.93) and an increase in "on" time without troublesome dyskinesia (WMD 1.55, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.04). Compared with placebo, long-acting NEDA were associated with a higher risk of nausea, but no difference was found in headache incidence. Higher risks of dizziness, somnolence, constipation, vomiting, and insomnia were only found in early PD while higher risks of dyskinesia and hallucination were only found in advanced PD. The results of our meta-analysis showed that the use of long-acting NEDA can reduce the symptoms of PD patients. However, long-acting NEDA were also associated with a higher incidence of adverse events, especially in early PD patients, compared with placebo.

  11. A Comprehensive Review of Spirit Drink Safety Standards and Regulations from an International Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiao-Na; Li, Zhao-Jie; Chen, Jing-Yu; Gao, Li-Juan; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Standards and regulations related to spirit drinks have been established by different countries and international organizations to ensure the safety and quality of spirits. Here, we introduce the principles of food safety and quality standards for alcoholic beverages and then compare the key indicators used in the distinct standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the United States, Canada, and Australia. We also discuss in detail the "maximum level" of the following main contaminants of spirit drinks: methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl carbamate, hydrocyanic acid, heavy metals, mycotoxins, phthalates, and aldehydes. Furthermore, the control measures used for potential hazards are introduced. Harmonization of the current requirements based on comprehensive scope analysis and the risk assessment approach will enhance both the trade and quality of distilled spirits. This review article provides valuable information that will enable producers, traders, governments, and researchers to increase their knowledge of spirit drink safety requirements, control measures, and research trends.

  12. Xeloda in Adjuvant Colon Cancer Therapy (X-ACT) trial: overview of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Twelves, Chris J

    2006-11-01

    The X-ACT (Xeloda in Adjuvant Colon Cancer Therapy) trial compared the efficacy and safety of the oral fluoropyrimidine capecitabine with bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin (LV; Mayo Clinic regimen) as adjuvant therapy for stage III colon cancer. A total of 1987 patients were enrolled at 164 centers worldwide. Disease-free survival (primary study endpoint) in the capecitabine arm was at least equivalent to that in the 5-FU/LV arm; the upper limit of the hazard ratio was significantly (P < 0.001) below the predefined margins for noninferiority. Capecitabine was also associated with significantly fewer fluoropyrimidine-related grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs; P < 0.001) and fewer AE-related hospital admissions/days than 5-FU/LV. Pharmacoeconomic analyses performed in several countries show that the savings in direct costs (drug administration and AE-related costs) associated with capecitabine versus 5-FU/LV offset the acquisition costs of the drug. Furthermore, capecitabine reduces patient travel time and costs, making it a "dominant" strategy (ie, less costly and more effective) in the adjuvant setting. In conclusion, efficacy, safety, convenience, and cost findings from the X-ACT trial show that capecitabine offers at least equivalent clinical benefit compared with bolus 5-FU/LV and can replace intravenous 5-FU/LV in the adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer. The X-ACT trial has not only helped to better define the role of capecitabine but has also broadened the options available to patients with early-stage disease to include a uniquely effective oral outpatient treatment.

  13. Disruption of a long-range cis-acting regulator for Shh causes preaxial polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Lettice, Laura A; Horikoshi, Taizo; Heaney, Simon J H; van Baren, Marijke J; van der Linde, Herma C; Breedveld, Guido J; Joosse, Marijke; Akarsu, Nurten; Oostra, Ben A; Endo, Naoto; Shibata, Minoru; Suzuki, Mikio; Takahashi, Eiichi; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nakahori, Yutaka; Ayusawa, Dai; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Stephen W; Heutink, Peter; Hill, Robert E; Noji, Sumihare

    2002-05-28

    Preaxial polydactyly (PPD) is a common limb malformation in human. A number of polydactylous mouse mutants indicate that misexpression of Shh is a common requirement for generating extra digits. Here we identify a translocation breakpoint in a PPD patient and a transgenic insertion site in the polydactylous mouse mutant sasquatch (Ssq). The genetic lesions in both lie within the same respective intron of the LMBR1/Lmbr1 gene, which resides approximately 1 Mb away from Shh. Genetic analysis of Ssq reveals that the Lmbr1 gene is incidental to the phenotype and that the mutation directly interrupts a cis-acting regulator of Shh. This regulator is most likely the target for generating PPD mutations in human.

  14. Disruption of a long-range cis-acting regulator for Shh causes preaxial polydactyly

    PubMed Central

    Lettice, Laura A.; Horikoshi, Taizo; Heaney, Simon J. H.; van Baren, Marijke J.; van der Linde, Herma C.; Breedveld, Guido J.; Joosse, Marijke; Akarsu, Nurten; Oostra, Ben A.; Endo, Naoto; Shibata, Minoru; Suzuki, Mikio; Takahashi, Eiichi; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nakahori, Yutaka; Ayusawa, Dai; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Stephen W.; Heutink, Peter; Hill, Robert E.; Noji, Sumihare

    2002-01-01

    Preaxial polydactyly (PPD) is a common limb malformation in human. A number of polydactylous mouse mutants indicate that misexpression of Shh is a common requirement for generating extra digits. Here we identify a translocation breakpoint in a PPD patient and a transgenic insertion site in the polydactylous mouse mutant sasquatch (Ssq). The genetic lesions in both lie within the same respective intron of the LMBR1/Lmbr1 gene, which resides ≈1 Mb away from Shh. Genetic analysis of Ssq reveals that the Lmbr1 gene is incidental to the phenotype and that the mutation directly interrupts a cis-acting regulator of Shh. This regulator is most likely the target for generating PPD mutations in human. PMID:12032320

  15. PDCD10/CCM3 acts downstream of {gamma}-protocadherins to regulate neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chengyi; Meng, Shuxia; Zhu, Tina; Wang, Xiaozhong

    2010-12-31

    γ-Protocadherins (PCDH-γ) regulate neuronal survival in the vertebrate central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms of how PCDH-γ mediates this function are still not understood. In this study, we show that through their common cytoplasmic domain, different PCDH-γ isoforms interact with an intracellular adaptor protein named PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10). PDCD10 is also known as CCM3, a causative genetic defect for cerebral cavernous malformations in humans. Using RNAi-mediated knockdown, we demonstrate that PDCD10 is required for the occurrence of apoptosis upon PCDH-γ depletion in developing chicken spinal neurons. Moreover, overexpression of PDCD10 is sufficient to induce neuronal apoptosis. Taken together, our data reveal a novel function for PDCD10/CCM3, acting as a critical regulator of neuronal survival during development.

  16. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.706-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question...

  17. Report: EPA Relying on Existing Clean Air Act Regulations to Reduce Atmospheric Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay and its Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00009, February 28, 2007. EPA’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office is relying on anticipated nitrogen deposition reductions from Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations already issued by EPA, combined with other non-air sources' anticipated reductions.

  18. Regulating dangerous futures: the German Embryo Protection Act of 1990--legislation in risk society.

    PubMed

    Augst, C

    2000-06-01

    This article summarises the outcome of a research project which analyses the legislative debate about the German Embryonenschutzgesetz (Embryo Protection Act) in 1990. From 1988 to 1990 the German Parliament discussed legislation for the practice of assisted contraception and embryo research. The term 'risk' is central to the discourse. For Ulrich Beck (1986) this emphasis on risk is a sign of the reflexivity which contemporary western societies have reached. This article reads back into the risk discourse the values hidden in risk terminology: they are identified as fears about modernisation processes. The focus on risk in this article allows observation of late modernity's unease about its own potential and a growing ambiguity about modern ideas of progress and control (Bauman, 1991). This ambiguity also becomes apparent in the strategies of policing which the German legislature offers as solutions to the perceived risks: different legislative strategies are developed to tackle the contradictory risk scenarios. These different strategies of policing are understood as the construction of 'places of safety' in the face of identified dangers: the 'traditional family', the 'good doctor', 'professional' judgement. Defining those boundaries allows the German legislature to juggle contradictory agendas. This explains the inconsistent and fragmented nature of the Embryo Protection Act 1990.

  19. 75 FR 44163 - Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...-AB07 Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of... clarify conditions for industry compliance with the P&S Act and provide for a fairer market place. DATES... fairer market place. We have received comments asking for an extension of the comment period, and...

  20. Upholding science in health, safety and environmental risk assessments and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Michael; Autrup, Herman N; Berry, Sir Colin L; Boobis, Alan R; Cohen, Samuel M; Creppy, Edmond E; Dekant, Wolfgang; Doull, John; Galli, Corrado L; Goodman, Jay I; Gori, Gio B; Greim, Helmut A; Joudrier, Philippe; Kaminski, Norbert E; Klaassen, Curtis D; Klaunig, James E; Lotti, Marcello; Marquardt, Hans W J; Pelkonen, Olavi; Sipes, I Glenn; Wallace, Kendall B; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-14

    A public appeal has been advanced by a large group of scientists, concerned that science has been misused in attempting to quantify and regulate unmeasurable hazards and risks.(1) The appeal recalls that science is unable to evaluate hazards that cannot be measured, and that science in such cases should not be invoked to justify risk assessments in health, safety and environmental regulations. The appeal also notes that most national and international statutes delineating the discretion of regulators are ambiguous about what rules of evidence ought to apply. Those statutes should be revised to ensure that the evidence for regulatory action is grounded on the standards of the scientific method, whenever feasible. When independent scientific evidence is not possible, policies and regulations should be informed by publicly debated trade-offs between socially desirable uses and social perceptions of affordable precaution. This article explores the premises, implications and actions supporting the appeal and its objectives.

  1. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  2. FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in hormonal regulation of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jonathan C.; Fong, Ka-Wing; Jin, Hong-Jian; Yang, Yeqing A; Kim, Jung; Yu, Jindan

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal regulation of gene expression by androgen receptor (AR) is tightly controlled by many transcriptional cofactors, including pioneer factors FOXA1 and GATA2, which, however, exhibit distinct expression patterns and functional roles in prostate cancer. Here, we examined how FOXA1, GATA2, and AR crosstalk and regulate hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer cells. ChIP-seq analysis revealed that FOXA1 reprograms both AR and GATA2 cistrome by preferably recruiting them to FKHD-containing genomic sites. By contrast, GATA2 is unable to shift AR or FOXA1 to GATA motifs. Rather, GATA2 co-occupancy enhances AR and FOXA1 binding to nearby ARE and FKHD sites, respectively. Similarly, AR increases, but not re-programs, GATA2 and FOXA1 cistromes. Concordantly, GATA2 and AR strongly enhance the transcriptional program of each other, whereas FOXA1 regulates GATA2- and AR-mediated gene expression in a context-dependent manner due to its reprogramming effects. Taken together, our data delineated for the first time the distinct mechanisms by which GATA2 and FOXA1 regulate AR cistrome and suggest that FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in determining hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer. PMID:26751772

  3. FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in hormonal regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J C; Fong, K-W; Jin, H-J; Yang, Y A; Kim, J; Yu, J

    2016-08-18

    Hormonal regulation of gene expression by androgen receptor (AR) is tightly controlled by many transcriptional cofactors, including pioneer factors FOXA1 and GATA2, which, however, exhibit distinct expression patterns and functional roles in prostate cancer. Here, we examined how FOXA1, GATA2 and AR crosstalk and regulate hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis revealed that FOXA1 reprograms both AR and GATA2 cistrome by preferably recruiting them to FKHD-containing genomic sites. By contrast, GATA2 is unable to shift AR or FOXA1 to GATA motifs. Rather, GATA2 co-occupancy enhances AR and FOXA1 binding to nearby ARE and FKHD sites, respectively. Similarly, AR increases, but not reprograms, GATA2 and FOXA1 cistromes. Concordantly, GATA2 and AR strongly enhance the transcriptional program of each other, whereas FOXA1 regulates GATA2- and AR-mediated gene expression in a context-dependent manner due to its reprogramming effects. Taken together, our data delineated for the first time the distinct mechanisms by which GATA2 and FOXA1 regulate AR cistrome and suggest that FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in determining hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer.

  4. Global regulation of alternative splicing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR).

    PubMed

    Solomon, Oz; Oren, Shirley; Safran, Michal; Deshet-Unger, Naamit; Akiva, Pinchas; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Cesarkas, Karen; Kabesa, Reut; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gideon; Eyal, Eran

    2013-05-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is a major mechanism for gene regulation and transcriptome diversity. Despite the extent of the phenomenon, the regulation and specificity of the splicing machinery are only partially understood. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of pre-mRNA by ADAR enzymes has been linked to splicing regulation in several cases. Here we used bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray of ADAR knockdown cells to globally examine how ADAR and its A-to-I RNA editing activity influence alternative mRNA splicing. Although A-to-I RNA editing only rarely targets canonical splicing acceptor, donor, and branch sites, it was found to affect splicing regulatory elements (SREs) within exons. Cassette exons were found to be significantly enriched with A-to-I RNA editing sites compared with constitutive exons. RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray revealed that ADAR knockdown in hepatocarcinoma and myelogenous leukemia cell lines leads to global changes in gene expression, with hundreds of genes changing their splicing patterns in both cell lines. This global change in splicing pattern cannot be explained by putative editing sites alone. Genes showing significant changes in their splicing pattern are frequently involved in RNA processing and splicing activity. Analysis of recently published RNA-seq data from glioblastoma cell lines showed similar results. Our global analysis reveals that ADAR plays a major role in splicing regulation. Although direct editing of the splicing motifs does occur, we suggest it is not likely to be the primary mechanism for ADAR-mediated regulation of alternative splicing. Rather, this regulation is achieved by modulating trans-acting factors involved in the splicing machinery.

  5. The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment

    PubMed Central

    Shurtleff, Amy C.; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S.; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  6. ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing.

    PubMed

    Royo, Hélène; Prosser, Haydn; Ruzankina, Yaroslava; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Baumann, Marek; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Höög, Christer; Tóth, Attila; de Rooij, Dirk G; Bradley, Allan; Brown, Eric J; Turner, James M A

    2013-07-01

    In mammals, homologs that fail to synapse during meiosis are transcriptionally inactivated. This process, meiotic silencing, drives inactivation of the heterologous XY bivalent in male germ cells (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]) and is thought to act as a meiotic surveillance mechanism. The checkpoint protein ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) localizes to unsynapsed chromosomes, but its role in the initiation and maintenance of meiotic silencing is unknown. Here we show that ATR has multiple roles in silencing. ATR first regulates HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) domain protein HORMAD1/2 phosphorylation and localization of breast cancer I (BRCA1) and ATR cofactors ATR-interacting peptide (ATRIP)/topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) at unsynapsed axes. Later, it acts as an adaptor, transducing signaling at unsynapsed axes into surrounding chromatin in a manner that requires interdependence with mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and H2AFX. Finally, ATR catalyzes histone H2AFX phosphorylation, the epigenetic event leading to gene inactivation. Using a novel genetic strategy in which MSCI is used to silence a chosen gene in pachytene, we show that ATR depletion does not disrupt the maintenance of silencing and that silencing comprises two phases: The first is dynamic and reversible, and the second is stable and irreversible. Our work identifies a role for ATR in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and presents a new technique for ablating gene function in the germline.

  7. Confinement regulates complex biochemical networks: initiation of blood clotting by "diffusion acting".

    PubMed

    Shen, Feng; Pompano, Rebecca R; Kastrup, Christian J; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2009-10-21

    This study shows that environmental confinement strongly affects the activation of nonlinear reaction networks, such as blood coagulation (clotting), by small quantities of activators. Blood coagulation is sensitive to the local concentration of soluble activators, initiating only when the activators surpass a threshold concentration, and therefore is regulated by mass transport phenomena such as flow and diffusion. Here, diffusion was limited by decreasing the size of microfluidic chambers, and it was found that microparticles carrying either the classical stimulus, tissue factor, or a bacterial stimulus, Bacillus cereus, initiated coagulation of human platelet-poor plasma only when confined. A simple analytical argument and numerical model were used to describe the mechanism for this phenomenon: confinement causes diffusible activators to accumulate locally and surpass the threshold concentration. To interpret the results, a dimensionless confinement number, Cn, was used to describe whether a stimulus was confined, and a Damköhler number, Da(2), was used to describe whether a subthreshold stimulus could initiate coagulation. In the context of initiation of coagulation by bacteria, this mechanism can be thought of as "diffusion acting", which is distinct from "diffusion sensing". The ability of confinement and diffusion acting to change the outcome of coagulation suggests that confinement should also regulate other biological "on" and "off" processes that are controlled by thresholds.

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... employing laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to... all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract and shall make them available... mechanics and require subcontractors to include these provisions in any such lower tier subcontracts....

  9. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... employing laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to... all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract and shall make them available... mechanics and require subcontractors to include these provisions in any such lower tier subcontracts....

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... employing laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to... all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract and shall make them available... mechanics and require subcontractors to include these provisions in any such lower tier subcontracts....

  11. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems for long-acting contraception: current perspectives, safety, and patient counseling

    PubMed Central

    Costescu, Dustin J

    2016-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a significant global problem. In 2008, there were over 100 million unplanned pregnancies worldwide, representing approximately 41% of global conceptions. Family planning strategies in many countries are shifting from increasing the uptake of contraception among nonusers to increasing the uptake of the most effective methods among users of less effective methods. One of the most effective and acceptable methods of contraception is the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS); however, its uptake varies widely by country. This article reviews the currently available LNG IUSs, the rationale for increasing uptake of these methods, and evidence regarding safety, and discusses counseling strategies to best inform women about this option for contraception. PMID:27785107

  12. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  13. 16 CFR 1203.53 - Interim safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim safety standards. 1203.53 Section 1203.53 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS..., Through March 10, 1999 § 1203.53 Interim safety standards. (a) Bicycle helmets must comply with one...

  14. MecA Protein Acts as a Negative Regulator of Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Gaofeng; Liu, Tianlei; Gomez, Zubelda A.; Wahl, Astrid; Hols, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans develops competence for genetic transformation through a complex network that receives inputs from at least two signaling peptides, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) and sigX-inducing peptide (XIP). The key step of competence induction is the transcriptional activation of comX, which encodes an alternative sigma factor, SigX (σX), controlling the expression of late competence genes essential for DNA uptake and recombination. In this study, we provide evidence that MecA acts as a negative regulator in the posttranslational regulation of SigX in S. mutans. Using luxAB transcriptional reporter strains, we demonstrate that MecA represses the expression of late competence genes in S. mutans grown in a complex medium that is subpermissive for competence induction by CSP. The negative regulation of competence by MecA requires the presence of a functional SigX. Accordingly, inactivation of MecA results in a prolonged competence state of S. mutans under this condition. We have also found that the AAA+ protease ClpC displays a similar repressing effect on late competence genes, suggesting that both MecA and ClpC function coordinately to regulate competence in the same regulatory circuit in S. mutans. This suggestion is strongly supported by the results of bacterial two-hybrid assays, which demonstrate that MecA interacts with both SigX and ClpC, forming a ternary SigX-MecA-ClpC complex. Western blot analysis also confirms that inactivation of MecA or ClpC results in the intracellular accumulation of the SigX in S. mutans. Together, our data support the notion that MecA mediates the formation of a ternary SigX-MecA-ClpC complex that sequesters SigX and thereby negatively regulates genetic competence in S. mutans. PMID:24039267

  15. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations.

  16. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  17. 46 CFR 391.1 - Scope of section 607 of the Act and the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of section 607 of the Act and the regulations in this part. 391.1 Section 391.1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.1...

  18. Epithelial IL-1R2 acts as a homeostatic regulator during remission of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Buch, R; Dotti, I; Planell, N; Calderón-Gómez, E; Jung, P; Masamunt, M C; Llach, J; Ricart, E; Batlle, E; Panés, J; Salas, A

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease that may undergo periods of activity followed by remission. We aimed to identify the endogenous regulatory mechanisms that may promote disease remission. Transcriptional and protein analysis of the intestinal mucosa revealed that the IL-1 decoy receptor, interleukin-1 receptor type 2 (IL1R2), was upregulated in remission compared with active UC and controls. We identified epithelial cells as being responsible for increased IL-1R2 production during remission. Expression of IL1R2 was negatively regulated by Wnt/beta-catenin signals in colonic crypts or epithelial stem cell cultures; accordingly, epithelial stem cells upregulated IL-1R2 upon differentiation. Blocking IL-1R2 in isolated colonic crypt cultures of UC patients in remission and T-cell cultures stimulated with biopsy supernatant from UC patients in remission boosted IL-1β-dependent production of inflammation-related cytokines. Finally, IL1R2 transcription was significantly lower in patients that relapsed during a 1-year follow-up period compared with those in endoscopic remission. Collectively, our results reveal that the IL-1/IL-1R2 axis is differentially regulated in the remitting intestinal mucosa of UC patients. We hypothesize that IL-1R2 in the presence of low concentrations of IL-1β may act locally as a regulator of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:26530134

  19. Abelson kinase acts as a robust, multifunctional scaffold in regulating embryonic morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Edward M.; Spracklen, Andrew J.; Bilancia, Colleen G.; Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Allred, S. Colby; Nowotarski, Stephanie H.; Schaefer, Kristina N.; Ritchie, Benjamin J.; Peifer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abelson family kinases (Abls) are key regulators of cell behavior and the cytoskeleton during development and in leukemia. Abl’s SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase domains are joined via a linker to an F-actin–binding domain (FABD). Research on Abl’s roles in cell culture led to several hypotheses for its mechanism of action: 1) Abl phosphorylates other proteins, modulating their activity, 2) Abl directly regulates the cytoskeleton via its cytoskeletal interaction domains, and/or 3) Abl is a scaffold for a signaling complex. The importance of these roles during normal development remains untested. We tested these mechanistic hypotheses during Drosophila morphogenesis using a series of mutants to examine Abl’s many cell biological roles. Strikingly, Abl lacking the FABD fully rescued morphogenesis, cell shape change, actin regulation, and viability, whereas kinase-dead Abl, although reduced in function, retained substantial rescuing ability in some but not all Abl functions. We also tested the function of four conserved motifs in the linker region, revealing a key role for a conserved PXXP motif known to bind Crk and Abi. We propose that Abl acts as a robust multidomain scaffold with different protein motifs and activities contributing differentially to diverse cellular behaviors. PMID:27385341

  20. Tanker navigation safety standards: Tanker navigation safety research baseline: A study required by section 4111(b)(9) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 directed the Secretary of Transportation to review and incorporate the results of past studies, including studies by the Coast Guard and Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). This literature search and review focuses on materials pertinent to determining or evaluating current and/or `best` practices, and not on the adequacy of current statutes or regulations. In addition, it is not the intention of the report to assess best practices (e.g., suggest the appropriate crew sizes or what navigation equipment should be required on tankers), but to establish the baseline for future study of best practices. The report does not provide answers to new analytical quations, but presents the status of research so that questions addressed previoulsy will not be duplicated by future studies.

  1. 75 FR 51420 - Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Wildlife Conservation Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the... Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980. The Act authorized financial and technical assistance to States to... Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980 (16 U.S.C. 2901-2911). This act authorized the Service to give...

  2. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security...-0589, 75 FR 51377, Aug. 20, 2010, § 165.117 was amended by revising paragraph (a)(3); however,...

  3. 77 FR 39398 - Safety Zone and Special Local Regulation; 2012 Macy's 4th of July Fireworks and Spectator Viewing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... immediately after the fireworks event. This regulation is necessary to provide for the safety of life on the... the event and immediate action is necessary to prevent possible loss of life or property. Also, a... significant effect on the human environment. This rule involves establishment of a temporary safety zone and...

  4. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  5. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  6. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  7. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  8. The French Space Operation Act: Scope and Main Features. Introduction to the Technical Regulation Considerations about the Implementation in the Launcher Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, Francois

    2010-09-01

    This publication provides a presentation of the new French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA). The main objectives of FSOA are to institute a clarified legal regime for launch operations. The technical regulation associated to the act is set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. First, we give an overview of the institutional and legal framework implemented in accordance with the act. The general purpose of this French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA) is to set up a coherent national regime of authorization and control of Space operations under the French jurisdiction or for which the French Government bears international liability either under UN Treaties principles(namely the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, the 1972 Liability Convention and the 1976 Registration Convention) or in accordance with its European commitments with the ESA organization and its Members States. For a given space operation, the operator must show that systems and procedures that he intends to implement are compliant with the technical regulation. The regime of authorization leads to a request of authorization for each launch operation. Thus, licences concerning operator management organization or a given space system can be obtained. These licences help to simplify the authorization file required for a given space operation. The technical regulation is presented in another article, and will be issued in 2010 by the French Minister in charge of space activities. A brief description of the organization associated to the implementation of the authorization regime in the launcher field is presented.

  9. atonal regulates neurite arborization but does not act as a proneural gene in the Drosophila brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; He, Y.; Sun, Y.; Jan, Y. N.; Zoghbi, H. Y.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila atonal (ato) is the proneural gene of the chordotonal organs (CHOs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the larval and adult photoreceptor organs. Here, we show that ato is expressed at multiple stages during the development of a lineage of central brain neurons that innervate the optic lobes and are required for eclosion. A novel fate mapping approach shows that ato is expressed in the embryonic precursors of these neurons and that its expression is reactivated in third instar larvae (L3). In contrast to its function in the PNS, ato does not act as a proneural gene in the embryonic brain. Instead, ato performs a novel function, regulating arborization during larval and pupal development by interacting with Notch.

  10. Enhancer of zeste acts as a major developmental regulator of Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Emilie; Martinand-Mari, Camille; Martin, Marianne; Feuillard, Jérôme; Boublik, Yvan; Godefroy, Nelly; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-08-14

    The paradigm of developmental regulation by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins posits that they maintain silencing outside the spatial expression domains of their target genes, particularly of Hox genes, starting from mid embryogenesis. The Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] PcG protein is the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, which silences its targets via deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. Here, we studied the ascidian Ciona intestinalis counterpart of E(z). Ci-E(z) is detected by immunohistochemistry as soon as the 2- and 4-cell stages as a cytoplasmic form and becomes exclusively nuclear thereafter, whereas the H3K27me3 mark is detected starting from the gastrula stage and later. Morpholino invalidation of Ci-E(z) leads to the total disappearance of both Ci-E(z) protein and its H3K27me3 mark. Ci-E(z) morphants display a severe phenotype. Strikingly, the earliest defects occur at the 4-cell stage with the dysregulation of cell positioning and mitotic impairment. At later stages, Ci-E(z)-deficient embryos are affected by terminal differentiation defects of neural, epidermal and muscle tissues, by the failure to form a notochord and by the absence of caudal nerve. These major phenotypic defects are specifically rescued by injection of a morpholino-resistant Ci-E(z) mRNA, which restores expression of Ci-E(z) protein and re-deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. As observed by qPCR analyses, Ci-E(z) invalidation leads to the early derepression of tissue-specific developmental genes, whereas late-acting developmental genes are generally down-regulated. Altogether, our results suggest that Ci-E(z) plays a major role during embryonic development in Ciona intestinalis by silencing early-acting developmental genes in a Hox-independent manner.

  11. Extracellular calcium acts as a “third messenger” to regulate enzyme and alkaline secretion

    PubMed Central

    Caroppo, Rosa; Gerbino, Andrea; Fistetto, Gregorio; Colella, Matilde; Debellis, Lucantonio; Hofer, Aldebaran M.; Curci, Silvana

    2004-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the functional consequences of stimulation with Ca2+-mobilizing agonists are derived exclusively from the second messenger action of intracellular Ca2+, acting on targets inside the cells. However, during Ca2+ signaling events, Ca2+ moves in and out of the cell, causing changes not only in intracellular Ca2+, but also in local extracellular Ca2+. The fact that numerous cell types possess an extracellular Ca2+ “sensor” raises the question of whether these dynamic changes in external [Ca2+] may serve some sort of messenger function. We found that in intact gastric mucosa, the changes in extracellular [Ca2+] secondary to carbachol-induced increases in intracellular [Ca2+] were sufficient and necessary to elicit alkaline secretion and pepsinogen secretion, independent of intracellular [Ca2+] changes. These findings suggest that extracellular Ca2+ can act as a “third messenger” via Ca2+ sensor(s) to regulate specific subsets of tissue function previously assumed to be under the direct control of intracellular Ca2+. PMID:15240573

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Women With Cardiovascular Conditions.

    PubMed

    Vu, Quyen; Micks, Elizabeth; McCoy, Erin; Prager, Sarah

    2016-01-15

    The physiological changes that occur during pregnancy can be deleterious to women with a cardiovascular condition. Evidence-based contraceptive counseling and provision is essential in this patient population. Although long-acting reversible contraception (LARCs), which include the intrauterine device (IUD) and the etonogestrel contraceptive implant, have been found to be safe and effective in healthy women, there are inadequate data regarding LARC use in patients with cardiovascular conditions. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women diagnosed with cardiovascular disease who had a copper IUD, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or contraceptive implant placed at the University of Washington Medical Center from 2007 to 2012. We abstracted and analyzed patient demographic characteristics, medical conditions, indications for LARC placement, and complications. The sample included 470 women with cardiovascular conditions. The mean age was 34.6 years. One hundred twenty-four patients (26.11%) were nulligravid and 169 patients (35.58%) were nulliparous. Four hundred ten chose the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (87.23%), 33 patients (7.02%) opted for the copper IUD, and 23 patients (4.89%) chose the etonogestrel implant. Eighteen patients (3.83%) had a confirmed IUD expulsion, 2 patients (0.43%) became pregnant, and there were 4 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease (0.85%). There were no cases of perforation. There were no confirmed cases of infective endocarditis associated with LARC insertion. In conclusion, LARC devices appear safe with few complications for women with cardiovascular conditions. Clinicians can be reassured that LARC may be offered as an appropriate option when counseling women with cardiovascular disease on safe contraceptive methods.

  13. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-03

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  14. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  15. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  16. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  17. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  18. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  19. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  20. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  1. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods. PMID:23781843

  2. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  3. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic α emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012. PMID:22843368

  4. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  5. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  6. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  7. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    PubMed

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  8. 76 FR 33307 - Strengthen and Promote the Role of Local Health Departments in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... and help FDA/CFSAN ] promote effective city and county regulatory programs responsible for retail food... establishments, or supermarkets, grocery stores, and other food outlets regulated by almost 3,000 States,...

  9. A double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with improved safety for adenocarcinoma therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Na; Fan, Jun Kai; Gu, Jin Fa; He, Ling Feng; Tang, Wen Hao; Cao, Xin; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-10-16

    Safety and efficiency are equally important to be considered in developing oncolytic adenovirus. Previously, we have reported that ZD55, an oncolytic adenovirus with the deletion of E1B-55K gene, exhibited potent antitumor activity. In this study, to improve the safety of ZD55, we utilized MUC1 promoter to replace the native promoter of E1A on the basis of ZD55, and generated a double-regulated adenovirus, named MUD55. Our data demonstrated that the expression of early and late genes of MUD55 was both reduced in MUC1-negative cells, resulting in its stricter glandular-tumor selective progeny production. The cytopathic effect of MUD55 was about 10-fold lower than mono-regulated adenovirus ZD55 or Ad.MUC1 in normal cells and not obviously attenuated in glandular tumor cells. Moreover, MUD55 showed the least liver toxicity when administrated by intravenous injection in nude mice. These results indicate that MUD55 could be a promising candidate for the treatment of adenocarcinoma.

  10. Revocation of General Safety Test Regulations That Are Duplicative of Requirements in Biologics License Applications. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-07-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the biologics regulations by removing the general safety test (GST) requirements for biological products. FDA is finalizing this action because the existing codified GST regulations are duplicative of requirements that are also specified in biologics license applications (BLAs), or are no longer necessary or appropriate to help ensure the safety, purity, and potency of licensed biological products. FDA is taking this action as part of its retrospective review of its regulations to promote improvement and innovation, in response to the Executive order.

  11. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    PubMed

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  12. Retargeting a Dual-Acting sRNA for Multiple mRNA Transcript Regulation.

    PubMed

    Lahiry, Ashwin; Stimple, Samuel D; Wood, David W; Lease, Richard A

    2017-01-24

    Multitargeting small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) represent a potentially useful tool for metabolic engineering applications. Natural multitargeting sRNAs govern bacterial gene expression by binding to the translation initiation regions of protein-coding mRNAs through base pairing. We designed an Escherichia coli based genetic system to create and assay dual-acting retargeted-sRNA variants. The variants can be assayed for coordinate translational regulation of two alternate mRNA leaders fused to independent reporter genes. Accordingly, we began with the well-characterized E. coli native DsrA sRNA. The merits of using DsrA include its well-characterized separation of function into two independently folded stem-loop domains, wherein alterations at one stem do not necessarily abolish activity at the other stem. Expression of the sRNA and each reporter mRNA was independently controlled by small inducer molecules, allowing precise quantification of the regulatory effects of each sRNA:mRNA interaction in vivo with a microtiter plate assay. Using this system, we semirationally designed DsrA variants screened in E. coli for their ability to regulate key mRNA leader sequences from the Clostridium acetobutylicum n-butanol synthesis pathway. To coordinate intervention at two points in a metabolic pathway, we created bifunctional sRNA prototypes by combining sequences from two singly retargeted DsrA variants. This approach constitutes a platform for designing sRNAs to specifically target arbitrary mRNA transcript sequences, and thus provides a generalizable tool for retargeting and characterizing multitarget sRNAs for metabolic engineering.

  13. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  14. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  15. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  16. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  17. Pyrethroid mode(s) of action in the context of Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) regulation.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Derek W; Leggett, Michael F; Clark, John M

    2011-04-13

    A Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) in June 2009 concluded that a common mode of action existed for pyrethroids, with two subgroups. The purpose of this SAP was to advise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on the validity of regulation of pyrethroids as a single class under the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Two types of pyrethroid action were first described for clinical signs in the rat and clinical signs/nerve effects in the cockroach. In insects, Type I clinical signs correlate with repetitive firing in nerve axons, especially fine sensory axons. The Na(+) inward current is via a TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). Type II (α-CN) effects on VGSCs do not include repetitive firing following stimulation in these axons. Instead, Type II effects on VGSCs include prolonged Na(+) tail currents along with depolarization of nerve membrane. Other Type II effects have been measured on VG Ca(2+) and K(+) channels and VG and GABA-activated Cl(-) channels. In conclusion, in vivo pyrethroid effects in mammals should be linked with specific channel effects, allowing the use of specific clinical signs or ion channel effects for pyrethroid risk assessment.

  18. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  19. Egr2 induced during DC development acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of DC immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Miah, Mohammad Alam; Byeon, Se Eun; Ahmed, Md Selim; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Ha, Sang-Jun; Bae, Yong-Soo

    2013-09-01

    Early growth response gene 2 (Egr2), which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, is rapidly and transiently induced in various cell types independently of de novo protein synthesis. Although a role for Egr2 is well established in T-cell development, Egr2 expression and its biological function in dendritic cells (DCs) have not yet been described. Here, we demonstrate Egr2 expression during DC development, and its role in DC-mediated immune responses. Egr2 is expressed in the later stage of DC development from BM precursor cells. Even at steady state, Egr2 is highly expressed in mouse splenic DCs. Egr2-knockdown (Egr2-KD) DCs showed increased levels of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I and II and co-stimulatory molecules, and enhanced antigen uptake and migratory capacities. Furthermore, Egr2-KD abolished SOCS1 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation during DC development, probably resulting in the enhancement of IL-12 expression and Th1 immunogenicity of a DC vaccine. DC-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation and antitumor immunity were significantly enhanced by Egr2-KD, and impaired by Egr2 overexpression in antigen-pulsed DC vaccines. These data suggest that Egr2 acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of DC immunogenicity and can be an attractive molecular target for DC vaccine development.

  20. 78 FR 79729 - Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...Sections 1098 and 1100A of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) direct the Bureau to publish rules and forms that combine certain disclosures that consumers receive in connection with applying for and closing on a mortgage loan under the Truth in Lending Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act. Consistent with this requirement, the Bureau is......

  1. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES... objective intent; (3) The manufacture of the HCT/P does not involve the combination of the cells or tissues... not have a systemic effect and is not dependent upon the metabolic activity of living cells for...

  2. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES... objective intent; (3) The manufacture of the HCT/P does not involve the combination of the cells or tissues... not have a systemic effect and is not dependent upon the metabolic activity of living cells for...

  3. 48 CFR 53.301-1093 - Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act... Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. EC01MY91.076...

  4. 48 CFR 53.301-1093 - Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act... Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. EC01MY91.076...

  5. 48 CFR 53.301-1093 - Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act... Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. EC01MY91.076...

  6. 48 CFR 53.301-1093 - Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act... Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. EC01MY91.076...

  7. Buyback Our Safety Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Deutch, Theodore E. [D-FL-21

    2013-01-14

    01/25/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. School Bus Safety Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Braley, Bruce L. [D-IA-1

    2014-05-07

    06/13/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Personalized Handgun Safety Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Tierney, John F. [D-MA-6

    2013-05-15

    06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Chemical Safety Improvement Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Lautenberg, Frank R. [D-NJ

    2013-05-22

    02/04/2014 Committee on Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Water and Wildlife. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Genetically Engineered Safety Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Kucinich, Dennis J. [D-OH-10

    2011-12-02

    12/19/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Online Pharmacy Safety Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2011-12-15

    12/15/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S8685-8687) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Child Handgun Safety Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Speier, Jackie [D-CA-14

    2013-06-27

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Genetically Engineered Safety Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Kucinich, Dennis J. [D-OH-10

    2010-06-23

    11/16/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Biotechnology, Specialty Crops, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. 76 FR 72878 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Imposition of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Act Regulations--Imposition of Special Measure Against the Islamic Republic of Iran as a Jurisdiction... of FinCEN, found that reasonable grounds exist for concluding that the Islamic Republic of Iran...CEN has determined that reasonable grounds exist for concluding that the Islamic Republic of Iran is...

  16. 78 FR 63408 - Petition To Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears, and Nonhuman Primates... exceptions, from coming into direct or physical contact with big cats, bears, or nonhuman primates of any age... big cats, bears, and nonhuman primates and the separation of such animals from their dams before...

  17. 76 FR 39007 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations- Definition of “Indian Tribe”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... and Repatriation Act Regulations-- Definition of ``Indian Tribe'' AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... definition of ``Indian tribe,'' because it is inconsistent with the statutory definition of that term. DATES... definition of ``Indian tribe'' into NAGPRA verbatim from the Indian Self Determination and...

  18. 75 FR 29526 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... No: 2010-12622] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [131 FERC ] 61,161; Docket No. RM93-11-000] Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods May 19, 2010. The...

  19. 76 FR 28966 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The...

  20. 77 FR 29997 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The...

  1. 78 FR 30296 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The...

  2. 78 FR 30739 - Amendments to the 2013 Escrows Final Rule under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...) and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X... Appraisals Final Rule), 78 FR 7215 (Jan. 31, 2013); Mortgage Servicing Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement...). \\13\\ 73 FR 44522 (July 30, 2008). IV. Section-by-Section Analysis Section 1026.35 Requirements...

  3. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  4. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 381.222 Section 381.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Designating Establishments With Operations Which Would Clearly Endanger the Public Health; Disposition...

  5. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  6. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  7. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 381.222 Section 381.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Designating Establishments With Operations Which Would Clearly Endanger the Public Health; Disposition...

  8. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  9. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 381.222 Section 381.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Designating Establishments With Operations Which Would Clearly Endanger the Public Health; Disposition...

  10. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  11. 76 FR 13643 - FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: Title III-A New Paradigm for Importers; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... discuss FDA's use of international comparability assessments as a mechanism to enhance the safety of... countries regarding the regulatory policies, practices, and programs they currently use to ensure the safety... discuss FDA's use of international comparability assessments as a mechanism to enhance the safety...

  12. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974: rules and regulations for administration and enforcement; claims procedure. Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, Labor. Final regulation.

    PubMed

    2000-11-21

    This document contains a final regulation revising the minimum requirements for benefit claims procedures of employee benefit plans covered by Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act). The regulation establishes new standards for the processing of claims under group health plans and plans providing disability benefits and further clarifies existing standards for all other employee benefit plans. The new standards are intended to ensure more timely benefit determinations, to improve access to information on which a benefit determination is made, and to assure that participants and beneficiaries will be afforded a full and fair review of denied claims. When effective, the regulation will affect participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans, employers who sponsor employee benefit plans, plan fiduciaries, and others who assist in the provision of plan benefits, such as third-party benefits administrators and health service providers or health maintenance organizations that provide benefits to participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans.

  13. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  14. Economic and safety analysis of unconventional peak regulation on power unit of peak shifting start-stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Zhao, J. F.; Duan, X. Q.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tthe capacity difference of peak regulation between the power gird and the actual demand has become a serious problem considering the growth in the difference between electricity supply and demand. Therefore, peak regulation of power grid needs to be deeply studied. Unconventional peak regulation on unit of peak shifting start-stop is a way that can broaden the range of power regulation, as well as benefit safe operation of the power grid. However, it requires frequent and fast unit start-stop, complex operation, and more staff labor. By carrying out unconventional thermal power unit load test, the start-stop mode of peak auxiliary equipment is studied in this paper, indicating that it has a positive effect on safety and economic of load-peaking operation. The best working conditions of the peak units is found by analysing consumption cost, safety specifications, and life lost of the start-stop peak regulation mode.

  15. Self-Regulative Nanogelator Solid Electrolyte: A New Option to Improve the Safety of Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Nan; Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Qizhen; Tan, Guoqiang; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable nonflammable electrolytes has delayed battery application in electric vehicles. A new approach to improve the safety performance for lithium battery is proposed here. This technology is based on a nanogelator-based solid electrolyte made of porous oxides and an ionic liquid. The electrolyte is fabricated using an in situ method and the porous oxides serve as a nonflammable "nanogelator" that spontaneously immobilizes the ionic liquid. The electrolyte exhibits a high liquid-like apparent ionic conductivity of 2.93 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The results show that the nanogelator, which possess self-regulating ability, is able to immobilize imidazolium-, pyrrolidinium-, or piperidinium-based ionic liquids, simply by adjusting the ion transport channels. Our prototype batteries made of Ti-nanogeltor solid electrolyte outperform conventional lithium batteries made using ionic liquid and commercial organic liquid electrolytes.

  16. Changes in technical regulations and drivers' safety in top‐class motor sports

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, G; Salvagno, G L; Franchini, M; Guidi, G C

    2007-01-01

    Motor racing is a dangerous sport and an inherently risky activity. The organisers of top‐class motor sports championships, Formula One and MotoGP, have agreed on a set of regulations to reduce speed and improve safety over the last 10 years. These changes include limitations in weight, fuel and engine capacity. Nevertheless, there is evidence that most of the restrictions that have been introduced over the past 10 years have failed slow down vehicles, since the lap times have decreased almost linearly from 1995 to 2006 and drivers continue to die or to sustain serious injuries that keep them away from competition. Therefore, new and efficient measures should be adopted, such as lowering the cornering speed, having heavier and safer vehicles, having barriers surrounding the track to protect both spectators and competitors better, and having innovative clothing and protective devices to defend key anatomical structures while minimising the hindrance to the rider. PMID:17925386

  17. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination.

  18. Self‐Regulative Nanogelator Solid Electrolyte: A New Option to Improve the Safety of Lithium Battery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Qizhen; Tan, Guoqiang; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable nonflammable electrolytes has delayed battery application in electric vehicles. A new approach to improve the safety performance for lithium battery is proposed here. This technology is based on a nanogelator‐based solid electrolyte made of porous oxides and an ionic liquid. The electrolyte is fabricated using an in situ method and the porous oxides serve as a nonflammable “nanogelator” that spontaneously immobilizes the ionic liquid. The electrolyte exhibits a high liquid‐like apparent ionic conductivity of 2.93 × 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature. The results show that the nanogelator, which possess self‐regulating ability, is able to immobilize imidazolium‐, pyrrolidinium‐, or piperidinium‐based ionic liquids, simply by adjusting the ion transport channels. Our prototype batteries made of Ti‐nanogeltor solid electrolyte outperform conventional lithium batteries made using ionic liquid and commercial organic liquid electrolytes. PMID:27774385

  19. Obtaining compliance with occupational health and safety regulations: a multilevel study using self-determination theory.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, Igor; Jonasi, Lorraine; Wild, T Cameron

    2010-08-01

    It was hypothesized that occupational health and safety (OHS) inspectors who prefer to use autonomy supportive tactics to resolve workplace conflicts (e.g. providing rationale, choices) would be more effective in resolving industry non-compliance with OHS regulations, compared to inspectors who prefer to use coercive tactics (e.g. deadlines, pressure). Preferences for resolving work conflicts were collected from 39 Canadian OHS inspectors and were linked to administrative records documenting 17,960 industry inspection episodes and 29,451 compliance orders issued by those inspectors from 2003-2006. Multilevel Poisson and negative binomial regression models examined associations between inspector autonomy-supportiveness and compliance outcomes, adjusting for covariates at the inspector level (e.g. job experience, number of inspection episodes) and at the worksite level (e.g. workplace safety record). Relative to coercive inspectors, autonomy-supportive inspectors issued fewer severe compliance orders and achieved compliance after fewer worksite visits. Use of autonomy-supportive approaches may reduce exposure to preventable injuries at non-compliant worksites.

  20. Active and Passive Fatigue in Simulated Driving: Discriminating Styles of Workload Regulation and Their Safety Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Saxby, Dyani J.; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S.; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Neubauer, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. PMID:24041288

  1. Auxin Acts through MONOPTEROS to Regulate Plant Cell Polarity and Pattern Phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Neha; Bozorg, Behruz; Larsson, André; Ohno, Carolyn; Jönsson, Henrik; Heisler, Marcus G

    2016-12-05

    The periodic formation of plant organs such as leaves and flowers gives rise to intricate patterns that have fascinated biologists and mathematicians alike for hundreds of years [1]. The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in establishing these patterns by promoting organ formation at sites where it accumulates due to its polar, cell-to-cell transport [2-6]. Although experimental evidence as well as modeling suggest that feedback from auxin to its transport direction may help specify phyllotactic patterns [7-12], the nature of this feedback remains unclear [13]. Here we reveal that polarization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is regulated by the auxin response transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) [14]. We find that in the shoot, cell polarity patterns follow MP expression, which in turn follows auxin distribution patterns. By perturbing MP activity both globally and locally, we show that localized MP activity is necessary for the generation of polarity convergence patterns and that localized MP expression is sufficient to instruct PIN1 polarity directions non-cell autonomously, toward MP-expressing cells. By expressing MP in the epidermis of mp mutants, we further show that although MP activity in a single-cell layer is sufficient to promote polarity convergence patterns, MP in sub-epidermal tissues helps anchor these polarity patterns to the underlying cells. Overall, our findings reveal a patterning module in plants that determines organ position by orienting transport of the hormone auxin toward cells with high levels of MP-mediated auxin signaling. We propose that this feedback process acts broadly to generate periodic plant architectures.

  2. Dicer-1-dependent Dacapo suppression acts downstream of Insulin receptor in regulating cell division of Drosophila germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jenn-Yah; Reynolds, Steven H.; Hatfield, Steve D.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.; Fischer, Karin A.; Ward, Ellen J.; Long, Dang; Ding, Ye; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2009-01-01

    Summary It is important to understand the regulation of stem cell division because defects in this process can cause altered tissue homeostasis or cancer. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo (Dap), a p21/p27 homolog, acts downstream of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway to regulate the cell cycle in Drosophila melanogaster germline stem cells (GSCs). Tissue-extrinsic signals, including insulin, also regulate cell division of GSCs. We report that intrinsic and extrinsic regulators intersect in GSC division control; the Insulin receptor (InR) pathway regulates Dap levels through miRNAs, thereby controlling GSC division. Using GFP-dap 3′UTR sensors in vivo, we show that in GSCs the dap 3′UTR is responsive to Dicer-1, an RNA endonuclease III required for miRNA processing. Furthermore, the dap 3′UTR can be directly targeted by miR-7, miR-278 and miR-309 in luciferase assays. Consistent with this, miR-278 and miR-7 mutant GSCs are partially defective in GSC division and show abnormal cell cycle marker expression, respectively. These data suggest that the GSC cell cycle is regulated via the dap 3′UTR by multiple miRNAs. Furthermore, the GFP-dap 3′UTR sensors respond to InR but not to TGF-β signaling, suggesting that InR signaling utilizes Dap for GSC cell cycle regulation. We further demonstrate that the miRNA-based Dap regulation may act downstream of InR signaling; Dcr-1 and Dap are required for nutrition-dependent cell cycle regulation in GSCs and reduction of dap partially rescues the cell cycle defect of InR-deficient GSCs. These data suggest that miRNA- and Dap-based cell cycle regulation in GSCs can be controlled by InR signaling. PMID:19336466

  3. Dicer-1-dependent Dacapo suppression acts downstream of Insulin receptor in regulating cell division of Drosophila germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jenn-Yah; Reynolds, Steven H; Hatfield, Steve D; Shcherbata, Halyna R; Fischer, Karin A; Ward, Ellen J; Long, Dang; Ding, Ye; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2009-05-01

    It is important to understand the regulation of stem cell division because defects in this process can cause altered tissue homeostasis or cancer. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo (Dap), a p21/p27 homolog, acts downstream of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway to regulate the cell cycle in Drosophila melanogaster germline stem cells (GSCs). Tissue-extrinsic signals, including insulin, also regulate cell division of GSCs. We report that intrinsic and extrinsic regulators intersect in GSC division control; the Insulin receptor (InR) pathway regulates Dap levels through miRNAs, thereby controlling GSC division. Using GFP-dap 3'UTR sensors in vivo, we show that in GSCs the dap 3'UTR is responsive to Dicer-1, an RNA endonuclease III required for miRNA processing. Furthermore, the dap 3'UTR can be directly targeted by miR-7, miR-278 and miR-309 in luciferase assays. Consistent with this, miR-278 and miR-7 mutant GSCs are partially defective in GSC division and show abnormal cell cycle marker expression, respectively. These data suggest that the GSC cell cycle is regulated via the dap 3'UTR by multiple miRNAs. Furthermore, the GFP-dap 3'UTR sensors respond to InR but not to TGF-beta signaling, suggesting that InR signaling utilizes Dap for GSC cell cycle regulation. We further demonstrate that the miRNA-based Dap regulation may act downstream of InR signaling; Dcr-1 and Dap are required for nutrition-dependent cell cycle regulation in GSCs and reduction of dap partially rescues the cell cycle defect of InR-deficient GSCs. These data suggest that miRNA- and Dap-based cell cycle regulation in GSCs can be controlled by InR signaling.

  4. Encouraging Maternal Sacrifice: How Regulations Governing the Consumption of Pharmaceuticals During Pregnancy Prioritize Fetal Safety over Maternal Health and Autonomy.

    PubMed

    Donley, Greer

    Pregnant women are routinely faced with the stressful decision of whether to consume needed medications during their pregnancies. Because the risks associated with pharmaceutical drug consumption during pregnancy are largely unknown, pregnant women both inadvertently consume dangerous medications and avoid needed drugs. Both outcomes are harmful to pregnant women and their fetuses. This unparalleled lack of drug safety information is a result of ill-conceived, paternalistic regulations in two areas of the law: regulations governing ethical research in human subjects and regulations that dictate the required labels on drugs. The former categorizes pregnant women as "vulnerable" and thus precludes them from most medical research. The result is that ninety-one percent of drugs lack any reliable safety information for pregnant consumers. The latter currently requires all drug labels to encourage drug avoidance during pregnancy, despite ample evidence that avoiding needed medications can harm pregnant women. On June 30, 2015, new pregnancy labeling regulations took effect. Though these regulations make important improvements, they continue to treat pregnant women unlike any population, including other unique subpopulations, such as children. As a result, the new regulations do not fix the problem of over-warning pregnant women about the risks of drug consumption. This article questions the legitimacy of both regulations and suggests three reforms for how to improve access to vital safety information: (1) amend the regulations governing ethical research in human subjects to reclassify pregnant women as non-vulnerable adults; (2) create incentives to generate safety data in pregnant women by granting a period of market exclusivity for drug companies that invest in this research; and (3) make the FDA pregnancy labeling regulations consistent with the routine FDA practice of requiring the display of balanced, human data on risk.

  5. To Set Up Norms for Drug Safety and Inspection: To Guarantee Administrative Sufficiency and Avoid Regulators from Being Wrongly Punished.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Qingsheng; Dong, Zuojun; Shao, Mingli

    2015-09-01

    Currently, as there is no systematic norm or standard for drug safety and inspection, it cannot be judged whether the regulatory authority or regulators have fulfilled their administrative responsibilities entirely or not, when a drug safety-related incident occurs. And there is a probability that some may even be wrongly punished. In this study, we have analyzed the risk of not having appropriate norms in place and also put forward recommendations for the government or the regulatory authorities to set up norms to be fulfilled for drug safety and inspection issues. This, on one hand, could provide a basic guideline for the regulatory authorities and regulators to improve their professional levels and administrative acumen and on the other hand, it could also provide a baseline for society to judge whether the regulatory authorities and regulators have fulfilled their responsibilities correctly and thereby also help prevent regulators from being mistakenly punished. This study proposes that a systematic and functional norm for drug safety and inspection could be set up relating to the determination of the responsibilities of regulatory authorities and scope of various inspections, number and frequency of inspections, number and qualifications of regulators, handling of inspection results, inspection records, and disciplinary codes for inspectors. This study also puts forward suggestions on who should be responsible for drafting the norms and what are the factors that need to be considered while formulating the norms.

  6. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies.

  7. 75 FR 63382 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AA93 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act... Crimes Enforcement Network (``FinCEN''), Treasury. ACTION: Final rule; extension of compliance date... to recordkeeping requirements under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.\\8\\ In light of...

  8. 77 FR 54843 - Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation X) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA19 Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement... certain disclosure requirements of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and the Real Estate Settlement... disclosure requirements of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures...

  9. 76 FR 40367 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ...-9, Buy American Act--Construction Materials, and FAR 52.225-11, Buy American Act--Construction Materials under Trade Agreements, provide that offerors/contractors requesting to use foreign construction material, other than construction material eligible under a trade agreement, shall provide...

  10. 77 FR 43782 - Acquisition Regulations; Buy Indian Act; Procedures for Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Planning and Review (Executive Order 12866) B. Regulatory Flexibility Act C. Small Business Regulatory... there was an inconsistency in the proposed rule regarding small business set-asides for acquisitions... Small Business Act Requirements, as it governs small purchases, and at the same time continue its...

  11. MicroRNAs act complementarily to regulate disease-related mRNA modules in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Sreenivas; Bruhn, Sören; Tiemann, Katrin; Saetrom, Pål; Barrenäs, Fredrik; Saito, Takaya; Kanduri, Kartiek; Wang, Hui; Benson, Mikael

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in regulating mRNA expression, and individual miRNAs have been proposed as diagnostic and therapeutic candidates. The identification of such candidates is complicated by the involvement of multiple miRNAs and mRNAs as well as unknown disease topology of the miRNAs. Here, we investigated if disease-associated miRNAs regulate modules of disease-associated mRNAs, if those miRNAs act complementarily or synergistically, and if single or combinations of miRNAs can be targeted to alter module functions. We first analyzed publicly available miRNA and mRNA expression data for five different diseases. Integrated target prediction and network-based analysis showed that the miRNAs regulated modules of disease-relevant genes. Most of the miRNAs acted complementarily to regulate multiple mRNAs. To functionally test these findings, we repeated the analysis using our own miRNA and mRNA expression data from CD4+ T cells from patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. This is a good model of complex diseases because of its well-defined phenotype and pathogenesis. Combined computational and functional studies confirmed that miRNAs mainly acted complementarily and that a combination of two complementary miRNAs, miR-223 and miR-139-3p, could be targeted to alter disease-relevant module functions, namely, the release of type 2 helper T-cell (Th2) cytokines. Taken together, our findings indicate that miRNAs act complementarily to regulate modules of disease-related mRNAs and can be targeted to alter disease-relevant functions.

  12. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  13. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  14. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  15. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  16. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  17. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  18. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  19. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  20. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  1. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  2. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  3. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  4. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  5. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  6. GP Supervisors' Experience in Supporting Self-Regulated Learning: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagasser, Margaretha H.; Kramer, Anneke W. M.; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is essential for professional development and lifelong learning. As self-regulated learning has many inaccuracies, the need to support self-regulated learning has been recommended. Supervisors can provide such support. In a prior study trainees reported on the variation in received supervisor support. This study aims at…

  7. Second-generation direct-acting-antiviral hepatitis C virus treatment: Efficacy, safety, and predictors of SVR12

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Christoph R; Schwarz, Julia M; Egetemeyr, Daniel P; Beck, Robert; Malek, Nisar P; Lauer, Ulrich M; Berg, Christoph P

    2016-01-01

    AIM To gather data on the antiviral efficacy and safety of second generation direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment with respect to sustained virological response (SVR) 12 wk after conclusion of treatment, and to determine predictors of SVR12 in this setting. METHODS Two hundred and sixty patients treated with SOF combination partners PR (n = 51), R (n = 10), SMV (n = 30), DCV (n = 81), LDV (n = 73), or 3D (n = 15). 144/260 were pre-treated, 89/260 had liver cirrhosis, 56/260 had portal hypertension with platelets < 100/nL, 25/260 had a MELD score ≥ 10 and 17/260 were post-liver transplantation patients. 194/260 had HCV GT1, 44/260 HCV GT3. RESULTS Two hundred and forty/256 (93.7%) patients achieved SVR12 (mITT); 4/260 were lost to follow-up. SVR12 rates for subgroups were: 92% for SOF/DCV, 93% for each SOF/SMV, SOF/PR, 94% for SOF/LDV, 100% for 3D, 94% for pretreated, 87% for liver cirrhosis, 82% for patients with platelets < 100/nL, 88% post-liver transplantation, 95% for GT1a, 93% for GT1b, 90% for GT3, 100% for GT2, 4, and 6. 12 patients suffered from relapse, 6 prematurely discontinued treatment, of which 4 died. Negative predictors of SVR12 were a platelet count < 100/nL, MELD score ≥ 10 (P < 0.0001), liver cirrhosis (P = 0.005) at baseline. In Interferon-free treatment GT3 had significantly lower SVR rates than GT1 (P = 0.016). Side effects were mild. CONCLUSION Excellent SVR12 rates and the favorable side-effect profile of DAA-combination therapy can be well translated into “real-world”. Patients with advanced liver disease, signs of portal hypertension, especially with platelets < 100/nL and patients with GT3 are in special need for further research efforts to overcome comparatively higher rates of virological failure. PMID:27672299

  8. 33 CFR 165.923 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL. 165.923 Section 165.923 Navigation and... Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.923 Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary... of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal located between mile marker 296.1 and mile marker 296.7....

  9. 78 FR 41300 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; 1625-AA00 Special Local Regulations and Safety... Acronyms COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LIS Long Island... unable to reschedule the event because of its previous history and present advertising of the...

  10. 78 FR 38198 - Safety Zones & Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zones for eleven fireworks displays and two swim... these fireworks displays and swim events. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel may enter... Memorial Great South Date: July 12, 2013. Bay Cross Bay Swim. Time: 7 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: Waters...

  11. 77 FR 38499 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various fireworks displays' and swimming events' safety... these regattas, fireworks displays and swim events. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel... Huntington Bay Open Water Date: July 15, 2012. Championships Swim. Time: 7:15 a.m. to noon. Location:...

  12. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule.

  13. A nucleostemin family GTPase, NS3, acts in serotonergic neurons to regulate insulin signaling and control body size

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Daniel D.; Zimmermann, Gregor; Suyama, Kaye; Meyer, Tobias; Scott, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Growth and body size are regulated by the CNS, integrating the genetic developmental program with assessments of an animal’s current energy state and environmental conditions. CNS decisions are transmitted to all cells of the animal by insulin/insulin-like signals. The molecular biology of the CNS growth control system has remained, for the most part, elusive. Here we identify NS3, a Drosophila nucleostemin family GTPase, as a powerful regulator of body size. ns3 mutants reach <60% of normal size and have fewer and smaller cells, but exhibit normal body proportions. NS3 does not act cell-autonomously, but instead acts at a distance to control growth. Rescue experiments were performed by expressing wild-type ns3 in many different cells of ns3 mutants. Restoring NS3 to only 106 serotonergic neurons rescued global growth defects. These neurons are closely apposed with those of insulin-producing neurons, suggesting possible communication between the two neuronal systems. In the brains of ns3 mutants, excess serotonin and insulin accumulate, while peripheral insulin pathway activation is low. Peripheral insulin pathway activation rescues the growth defects of ns3 mutants. The findings suggest that NS3 acts in serotonergic neurons to regulate insulin signaling and thus exert global growth control. PMID:18628395

  14. Food safety regulations: what we learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki

    2012-09-01

    On 11 March 2011, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake and a substantial tsunami struck off the northeast coast of Japan. The Fukushima nuclear power plants were inundated and stricken, followed by radionuclide releases outside the crippled reactors. Provisional regulation values for radioactivity in food and drink were set on 17 March and were adopted from the preset index values, except that for radioiodines in water and milk ingested by infants. For radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and transuranic α emitters, index values were defined in all food and drink not to exceed a committed effective dose of 5 mSv/year. Index values for radioiodines were defined not to exceed a committed equivalent dose to the thyroid of 50 mSv/year, and set in water, milk and some vegetables, but not in other foodstuffs. Index values were calculated as radioactive concentrations of indicator radionuclides ((131)I for radioiodines, (134)Cs and (137)Cs for radiocesiums) by postulating the relative radioactive concentration of coexisting radionuclides (e.g., (132)I, (133)I, (134)I, (135)I and (132)Te for (131)I). Surveys were thence conducted to monitor levels of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Provisional regulation values were exceeded in tap water, raw milk and some vegetables, and restrictions on distribution and consumption began on 21 March. Fish contaminated with radioiodines at levels of concern were then detected, so that the provisional regulation value for radioiodines in seafood adopted from that in vegetables were additionally set on 5 April. Overall, restrictions started within 25 days after the first excess in each food or drink item, and maximum levels were detected in leafy vegetables (54,100 Bq/kg for (131)I, and a total of 82,000 Bq/kg for (134)Cs and (137)Cs). This paper focuses on the logic behind such food safety regulations, and discusses its underlying issues. The outlines of the food monitoring results for 24,685 samples and the enforced restrictions will also be described.

  15. Emotion regulation during threat: Parsing the time course and consequences of safety signal processing.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Verona, Edelyn; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    Improved understanding of fear inhibition processes can inform the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Safety signals can reduce fear to threat, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. Safety signals may acquire attentional salience and affective properties (e.g., relief) independent of the threat; alternatively, safety signals may only hold affective value in the presence of simultaneous threat. To clarify such mechanisms, an experimental paradigm assessed independent processing of threat and safety cues. Participants viewed a series of red and green words from two semantic categories. Shocks were administered following red words (cue+). No shocks followed green words (cue-). Words from one category were defined as safety signals (SS); no shocks were administered on cue+ trials. Words from the other (control) category did not provide information regarding shock administration. Threat (cue+ vs. cue-) and safety (SS+ vs. SS-) were fully crossed. Startle response and ERPs were recorded. Startle response was increased during cue+ versus cue-. Safety signals reduced startle response during cue+, but had no effect on startle response during cue-. ERP analyses (PD130 and P3) suggested that participants parsed threat and safety signal information in parallel. Motivated attention was not associated with safety signals in the absence of threat. Overall, these results confirm that fear can be reduced by safety signals. Furthermore, safety signals do not appear to hold inherent hedonic salience independent of their effect during threat. Instead, safety signals appear to enable participants to engage in effective top-down emotion regulatory processes.

  16. Regulation of caulimovirus gene expression and the involvement of cis-acting elements on both viral transcripts.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Gowda, S; Shepherd, R J

    1992-09-01

    In a further analysis of gene regulation of figwort mosaic virus (FMV), a caulimovirus, we studied transient gene expression with modified viral genomes in Nicotiana edwardsonii cell suspension protoplasts. The results demonstrated that the presence of the promoter for the full-length RNA interferes with expression from the separate downstream promoter for gene VI. In addition, expression of gene VI was inhibited by cis-acting sequences within gene VI itself. Both inhibitory effects could be partially relieved by coelectroporation with a plasmid that produces gene VI protein, demonstrating that expression of gene VI is transactivated by its own product. Subsequent expression studies with partially redundant FMV plasmids containing a reporter gene in frame with gene IV showed that efficient transactivation of CAT expression relies on a cis-acting element inside the downstream gene VI. Insertions of a transcriptional terminator upstream of the cis-acting element for premature termination of transcription showed that the cis-acting region is not a DNA element but is active only as a feature of the RNA transcript. We conclude that the cis-acting element, together with the transacting gene VI product, enhances expression of all major genes, including gene VI, from the polycistronic mRNA and the separate mRNA for gene VI.

  17. Adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Gorukanti, Anuradha; Delucchi, Kevin; Ling, Pamela; Fisher-Travis, Raymond; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has dramatically increased. While studies have examined adolescents' attitudes towards smoking, few have extended this research to adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' attitudes regarding e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, accessibility, price, and regulation; and determine whether attitudes differ by past cigarette/e-cigarette use. Participants were 786 9th and 12th graders from California (63.21% females; mean age=16.10years [SD=1.6]; 26.61% White, 21.98% Asian/Pacific Islander, 29.82% Hispanic, and 21.59% other). Results indicated that 19.05% of participants believed smoke from e-cigarettes is water; 23.03% believed e-cigarettes aren't a tobacco product; 40.36% considered e-cigarettes to be for cessation, and 43.13% felt they were safer than cigarettes. Participants felt it was more acceptable to use e-cigarettes indoors and outdoors compared to cigarettes (p<0.0001), 23.13% felt raising e-cigarette taxes is a bad idea, 63.95% thought e-cigarettes were easier to get than cigarettes, 54.42% felt e-cigarettes cost too much, 64.33% felt the age for buying e-cigarettes should be raised, and 64.37% favored e-cigarette regulation. Adolescents who used e-cigarettes and/or cigarettes had significantly more favorable e-cigarette attitudes than non-users. This study indicates that adolescents are aware of some of the risks of e-cigarettes, although many harbor misperceptions and hold more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes than cigarettes. Of concern is the relationship between favorable e-cigarette attitudes and use. Findings suggest the need to provide adolescents with correct information about e-cigarette ingredients, risks, and the insufficient evidence of their role in cigarette cessation.

  18. Children and Youth Camp Safety Act, 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Child and Human Development of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, 95th Congress, 2nd Session on S. 258--To Provide for the Development and Implementation of Programs for Children and Youth Camp Safety (March 21, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    The product of some 10 years of work directed toward federal legislation addressing and defining youth camp safety, the Youth Camp Safety Act (S. 258), as presented in these hearings, calls for the federal government to assume a role in the development of state health and safety standards for children attending youth camps in any state in the…

  19. Safety and efficacy of fertility-regulating methods: a decade of research.

    PubMed Central

    Skegg, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    An international venture was launched in 1985 to fill a recognized gap in post-marketing surveillance of fertility-regulating methods. For this purpose a new task force was set up by the Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction, which is cosponsored by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Population Fund, the World Bank, and WHO. Research priorities were chosen and epidemiological studies inaugurated, involving a total of 47 countries--mostly from the developing world. Important progress has been made, especially in helping to define the beneficial and possible adverse effects of oral contraceptives on the risk of neoplasia; in showing that the injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate protects against endometrial cancer and does not increase the overall risk of breast cancer, in clarifying which groups of women are susceptible to the rare cardiovascular complications of oral contraceptives (myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism); and in establishing the long-term effectiveness and safety of intrauterine devices. The research has already made a significant impact on family planning policies and practice. Critical appraisal of this venture, which has been modestly funded, confirms the value of mission-oriented research. It also illustrates the potential of collaboration that bridges the global divide between developing and developed countries. PMID:10534894

  20. Vhnf1 acts downstream of Bmp, Fgf, and RA signals to regulate endocrine beta cell development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianbo; Kim, Hyon J; Gong, Zhiyuan; Liu, Ning-Ai; Lin, Shuo

    2007-03-15

    Bmp, Fgf, and retinoic acid (RA) signals have been implicated as regulators of pancreas development. However, the integration of these signaling pathways in vivo is not fully understood. Variant hnf1 (Vhnf1) is a transcription factor involved in pancreas, liver, and kidney development and its mutation in zebrafish causes underdeveloped pancreas and liver. We investigated the signaling pathways that regulate vhnf1 expression during pancreas development. First, we showed that Bmp activity is required for vhnf1 expression in the endoderm. In chordin (a Bmp antagonist) morpholino (MO)-injected embryos, vhnf1 expression in endoderm and in endocrine beta cells is expanded. On the other hand, in alk8 (a type I TGFbeta receptor) MO-injected embryos, vhnf1 expression in the endoderm is significantly reduced. Second, we showed that Fgf signaling participates in regulation of pancreas development through the vhnf1 pathway. Third, we demonstrated that RA fails to rescue reduction of insulin expression in vhnf1 mutants, whereas overexpression of vhnf1 restores insulin expression that is repressed by treatment with a RA receptor inhibitor. And finally, we revealed that both Bmp and Fgf signals act genetically upstream of RA in directing pancreas development. Taken together, our data establish that vhnf1 acts downstream of the signaling pathways of RA, Bmp, and Fgf to regulate pancreas development in zebrafish.

  1. The implications of RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA.

  2. 47 CFR 80.159 - Operator requirements of Title III of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator... Radio Operator License, as specified in § 13.7 of this chapter. (e) Each ship transporting more than...

  3. Global Space Safety Regulations and Standards: The Conflicting Perspectives of the 'Merchants', the 'Guardians' and the 'Civilian' Space Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    2010-09-01

    This article seek to explore the difference in viewpoint and approach to space safety that is now developing with regard to those that wish to exploit space commercially(i.e. the Merchants) versus those that see space as an extension of national defense and area of strategic interest(i.e. the Guardians), and those that pursue space as an area of civil governmental activity and oversight(i.e. the Civil Space Advocates ).1 These “actors” in the field of space and the key “definers” of space policy in future decades often see the purpose and goals related to outer space activities in fundamentally different ways. They also have quite different views as to how best to regulate and develop space safety standards and practices. With the recent shift in U.S. space policy toward commercial human flight development these issues become of even greater import to the future of space safety development and its regulation. New technological, political, defense and economic opportunities may well likely lead to increasing conflicts over best forms of management practices, appropriate regulations and standards, best ways to finance and implement new space initiatives, and even the best way to establish priorities for new projects and initiatives. This article seeks to analyze in some detail the differences in perspective and approach for all three types of actors in the field of space safety.

  4. Rab35, acting through ACAP2 switching off Arf6, negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamori, Natsuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells differentiate to produce myelin sheaths that insulate axons to ensure fast propagation of action potentials. Many aspects of differentiation are regulated by multiple extracellular signals. However, their intracellular signalings remain elusive. We show that Rab35 and its effector, ACAP2, a GTPase-activating protein that switches off Arf6 activity, negatively regulate oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. Knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 with their respective small interfering RNAs promotes differentiation. As differentiation initiates, the activities of Rab35 and ACAP2 are down-regulated. The activity of Arf6, in contrast, is up-regulated. Arf6 knockdown inhibits differentiation, indicating that Rab35 and ACAP2 negatively regulate differentiation by down-regulating Arf6. Importantly, as differentiation proceeds, the activity of cytohesin-2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that switches on Arf6 activity, is up-regulated. Pharmacological inhibition of cytohesin-2 inhibits differentiation, suggesting that cytohesin-2 promotes differentiation by activating Arf6. Furthermore, using oligodendrocyte-neuronal cocultures, we find that knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 promotes myelination, whereas inhibition of cytohesin-2 or knockdown of Arf6 inhibits myelination. Thus Rab35/ACAP2 and cytohesin-2 antagonistically control oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination through Arf6 regulation, presenting a unique small GTPase on/off switching mechanism. PMID:24600047

  5. 75 FR 46859 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... proposing to establish definitions for the terms ``common cultivar'' and ``common food crop.'' The... regulation. Our proposed definitions would specify which plants and plant products will be subject to...

  6. 78 FR 40940 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ...; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... definitions for the terms ``common cultivar'' and ``common food crop'' and several related terms. The... regulation. Our definitions specify which plants and plant products will be excluded from the provisions...

  7. 76 FR 10527 - Regulatory Flexibility Act: Section 610 Review of National Organic Program Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Organic Program Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Review and request for... National Organic Program (NOP) regulations (7 CFR part 205). This review will be conducted under criteria... Specialist, National Organic Program, USDA-AMS-NOP, 1400 Independence Ave., SW., Room 2646-So., Ag Stop...

  8. Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Garza, Claribel; Murray, Alison E.; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; McCue, Lee Ann; Romine, Margaret F.; Loffler, F. E.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-03-30

    EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing regulators Fnr in E. coli and Anr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively; however, its regulatory role of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella spp. is not well understood. The expression of the nap genes, nrfA, cymA and hcp was significantly reduced in etrA deletion mutant EtrA7-1; however, limited anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction occurred, suggesting that multiple regulators control nitrate reduction in this strain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and fumarate reductase gene expression was down regulated at least 2-fold and the EtrA7-1 mutant grew poorly with fumarate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), suggesting both respiratory pathways are under EtrA control. Transcript analysis further suggested a role of EtrA in prophage activation and down regulation of genes implicated in aerobic metabolism. In contrast to previous studies that attributed a minor regulatory role to EtrA in Shewanella spp., this study demonstrates that EtrA acts as a global transcriptional regulator and confers physiological advantages to strain MR-1 under certain growth conditions. In conjunction with other regulators, EtrA fine-tunes the expression of genes involved in anaerobic metabolism in S. oneidensis strain MR-1.

  9. 76 FR 38077 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... number is 202-366-9329. To avoid duplication, please use only one of these four methods. See the ``Public... delivery, but please use only one of these means. If you submit a comment online via www.regulations.gov... of Transportation to use the Docket Management Facility. Privacy Act Anyone can search the...

  10. 78 FR 60686 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... document corrects that error and changes the contact information. DATES: Effective October 25, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carol A. Campbell, Acting Deputy Director, Division of Coal Mine Workers... the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section has changed as set forth above. 2. On page 59112, in...

  11. 78 FR 27078 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... through a commitment to consultation with Indian Tribes and recognition of their right to self-governance.... National Environmental Policy Act This rule does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. A detailed statement under the National Environmental...

  12. 77 FR 74546 - Posting of Pamphlet Provided for in the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Act, Title D of Public Law 109-162, provided that the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation... such pamphlet be posted on the Web sites of the Department of State and all consular posts processing... posted on the Web site of the Bureau of Consular Affairs of the Department of State at:...

  13. Rules and Regulations for Implementing the Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg. Office for Aid to Nonpublic Education.

    The Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act was passed into law in June 1968. It authorizes the Superintendent of Public Instruction of that State to enter into contracts to purchase secular educational service from nonpublic schools in Pennsylvania. This guide contains (1) the law, (2) definitions of terms, (3) a statement…

  14. Pneumococcal galactose catabolism is controlled by multiple regulators acting on pyruvate formate lyase

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Firas A. Y.; Kahya, Hasan F. H.; Damianou, Andreas; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Andrew, Peter W.; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Catabolism of galactose by Streptococcus pneumoniae alters the microbe’s metabolism from homolactic to mixed acid fermentation, and this shift is linked to the microbe’s virulence. However, the genetic basis of this switch is unknown. Pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) is a crucial enzyme for mixed acid fermentation. Functional PFL requires the activities of two enzymes: pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme (coded by pflA) and pyruvate formate lyase (coded by pflB). To understand the genetic basis of mixed acid fermentation, transcriptional regulation of pflA and pflB was studied. By microarray analysis of ΔpflB, differential regulation of several transcriptional regulators were identified, and CcpA, and GlnR’s role in active PFL synthesis was studied in detail as these regulators directly interact with the putative promoters of both pflA and pflB, their mutation attenuated pneumococcal growth, and their expression was induced on host-derived sugars, indicating that these regulators have a role in sugar metabolism, and multiple regulators are involved in active PFL synthesis. We also found that the influence of each regulator on pflA and pflB expression was distinct in terms of activation and repression, and environmental condition. These results show that active PFL synthesis is finely tuned, and feed-back inhibition and activation are involved. PMID:28240278

  15. Identification of cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in the regulation of BIM Pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Juan, Wen Chun; Roca, Xavier; Ong, S Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant changes in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BCL-2-like 11 (BIM), can result in either impaired or excessive apoptosis, which can contribute to tumorigenesis and degenerative disorders, respectively. Altering BIM pre-mRNA splicing is an attractive approach to modulate apoptosis because BIM activity is partly determined by the alternative splicing of exons 3 or 4, whereby exon 3-containing transcripts are not apoptotic. Here we identified several cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in BIM alternative splicing, as a step to better understand the regulation of BIM expression. We analyzed a recently discovered 2,903-bp deletion polymorphism within BIM intron 2 that biased splicing towards exon 3, and which also impaired BIM-dependent apoptosis. We found that this region harbors multiple redundant cis-acting elements that repress exon 3 inclusion. Furthermore, we have isolated a 23-nt intronic splicing silencer at the 3' end of the deletion that is important for excluding exon 3. We also show that PTBP1 and hnRNP C repress exon 3 inclusion, and that downregulation of PTBP1 inhibited BIM-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, these findings start building our understanding of the cis-acting elements and splicing factors that regulate BIM alternative splicing, and also suggest potential approaches to alter BIM splicing for therapeutic purposes.

  16. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  17. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  18. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis. (1) Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence.

  19. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis.1 Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence. PMID:26236960

  20. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    .../30/2009 USCG-2009-0207 Destin, FL Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 3/26/2009 USCG-2009-0208 Panama City...)...... 7/25/2009 USCG-2009-0334 Hood Canal, WA Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 5/1/2009 USCG-2009-0336...-2009-1012 San Diego, CA Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 12/4/2009 USCG-2009-1015 Sabine-Neches Canal,...

  1. Use of long-acting risperidone in psychiatric disorders: focus on efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Keith, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, usually necessitating lifelong treatment. Although atypical antipsychotic agents have improved outcomes in schizophrenia, their clinical potential remains limited by patients' nonadherence to medication. Long-acting antipsychotics were developed in the 1960s to enhance treatment adherence and simplify the medication process. However, although conventional long-acting agents assure medication delivery, they are associated with similar side effects to their oral equivalents. The need for an agent combining the advantages of a long-acting formulation with those of an atypical antipsychotic was highlighted in 1997 by the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia. The first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta, Johnson & Johnson), has since been developed. This article discusses the efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, and suggests possibilities for how its role in clinical practice may change over the next 5 years.

  2. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein acts to regulate the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers on rice DNA

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Changxun; Chen, Weisi; Li, Chengxun; Jian, Xin; Li, Yingzhe; Lin, Hongmei; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    UVB radiation causes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) to form on the DNA of living organisms. This study found that overexpression of the silicon absorbance gene Lsi1 reduced the accumulation of CPDs in rice, which profited from the reactivation by photolyase. The transcript abundance of deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase (Os10g0167600) was generally correlated with the silicon content of the rice, and the up-regulation of Os10g0167600 was found to be highest in the UVB-treated Lsi1-overexpressed (Lsi1-OX) rice. A trans-acting factor, methyl-CpG binding domain protein (OsMeCP), was found to interact with the cis-element of Os10g0167600. The nucleic location of OsMeCP effectively enabled the transcriptional regulation. Compared with the WT, the level of OsMeCP was lower in the Lsi1-OX rice but higher in the Lsi1-RNAi line. Rice cultured in a high silicate-concentration solution also exhibited less OsMeCP abundance. Overexpression of OsMeCP led to lower Os10g0167600 transcript levels and a higher CPD content than in the WT, but the reverse was true in the OsMeCP-RNAi line. These findings indicate that OsMeCP acts as a negative regulator of silicon, and can mediate the repression of the transcription from Os10g0167600, which inhibits the photoreactivation of the photolyase involved in the repair of CPDs. PMID:27694845

  3. Medicolegal issues and ergogenic aids: trade, tragedy, and public safety, the example of ephedra and the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act.

    PubMed

    Phillips, George C

    2004-08-01

    On February 6, 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration banned dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra) pending Congressional review. The ban culminates a 7-year regulatory process, the first of its kind under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). This paper reviews that process, and the governing rules of DSHEA, within the contexts of modern science and the history of food and drug legislation. The example of ephedra reflects a longstanding conflict between trade and safety and suggests inherent weaknesses within DSHEA that place the public at risk.

  4. A study of influences of the workers' compensation and injury management regulations on aviation safety at a workplace.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid protein and glucose examinations and tuberculosis:
Will laboratory safety regulations force a change of practice?

    PubMed

    Tormey, William P; O'Hagan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and glucose examinations are usually performed in chemical pathology departments on autoanalysers. Tuberculosis (TB) is a group 3 biological agent under Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament but in the biochemistry laboratory, no extra precautions are taken in its analysis in possible TB cases. The issue of laboratory practice and safety in the biochemical analyses of CSF specimens, when tuberculosis infection is in question is addressed in the context of ambiguity in the implementation of current national and international health and safety regulations. Additional protective measures for laboratory staff during the analysis of CSF TB samples should force a change in current laboratory practice and become a regulatory issue under ISO 15189. Annual Mantoux skin test or an interferon-γ release assay for TB should be mandatory for relevant staff. This manuscript addresses the issue of biochemistry laboratory practice and safety in the biochemical analyses of CSF specimens when tuberculosis infection is in question in the context of the ambiguity of statutory health and safety regulations.

  6. 76 FR 14641 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... any items being purchased that are critical safety items so that the proper risk-based surveillance... This DFARS case was initiated at the request of the Defense Contract Management Agency so that when DoD requiring activities identify procurements involving critical safety items, the buying activities...

  7. 49 CFR 177.804 - Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY General Information and Regulations § 177.804 Compliance with Federal Motor... those regulations apply. (b) Additional prohibitions. A person transporting a quantity of...

  8. 47 CFR 80.159 - Operator requirements of Title III of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator... radiotelegraph auto alarm must carry a radio officer holding a first or second class radiotelegraph operator's certificate who has had at least six months service as a radio officer on board U.S. ships. If...

  9. 76 FR 40860 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...\\ NHTSA said that it recognized that quieter cars, such as hybrid-electric vehicles in low-speed operation... requiring electric and hybrid vehicles to be equipped with a pedestrian alert sound system that would... intends to propose a Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring electric and hybrid vehicles to...

  10. Disemployment effects caused by regulation of drilling fluids and produced waters as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Flaim, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report reviews and compares several studies of the effects on employment of regulating wastes from oil and natural gas exploration and extraction under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste management scenarios on which most of the studies were based were developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analyses show that as many as 500,000-700,000 jobs may be lost in the first year if RCRA Subtitle C rules are applied to drilling fluids and produced waters. As a results, unemployment in major oil-producing states could rise by as much as six percentage points. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian

  12. Nitric Oxide Acts as a Positive Regulator to Induce Metamorphosis of the Ascidian Herdmania momus

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian

  13. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  14. SlgA, the homologue of the human schizophrenia associated PRODH gene, acts in clock neurons to regulate Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Vulsteke, Veerle; Buhl, Edgar; Hodge, James J L; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-03-22

    Mutations in proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) are linked to behavioral alterations in schizophrenia and as part of DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndromes, but the role of PRODH in their etiology remains unclear. We here establish a Drosophila model to study the role of PRODH in behavioral disorders. We determine the distribution of the Drosophila PRODH homolog slgA in the brain and show that knock-down and overexpression of human PRODH and slgA in the lateral neurons ventral (LNv) lead to altered aggressive behavior. SlgA acts in an isoform-specific manner and is regulated by casein kinase II (CkII). Our data suggest that these effects are, at least partially, due to effects on mitochondrial function. We thus show that precise regulation of proline metabolism is essential to drive normal behavior and we identify Drosophila aggression as a model behavior relevant for the study of mechanisms impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  16. 75 FR 19241 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Service lacks the authority to examine for compliance with the BSA. The definition of ``mutual fund'' at... funds within the general definition of ``financial institution'' in regulations implementing the Bank... information for transmittals of funds. Additionally, the final rule amends the definition of mutual fund...

  17. 76 FR 52295 - Amendment of Privacy Act Regulations, Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...; --Use the active voice to address readers directly; --Use clear language rather than jargon; --Be... relevance and necessity to accomplish a purpose of the agency will be clear. 4. From subsections (e)(4)(G... the criteria of section 3(b)(2) requiring that all regulations be written in clear language...

  18. 75 FR 66699 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... period for our proposed rule that would establish definitions for the terms ``common cultivar'' and... definitions for the terms ``common cultivar'' and ``common food crop.'' We proposed to establish...

  19. 78 FR 27308 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth In Lending Act (Regulation Z...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... implementing regulations by that date.\\2\\ To avoid uncertainty and potential disruption in the national... rules, as needed; (4) publication of readiness guides for the new rules; and (5) education of consumers... disruptions in the provision of credit insurance products to consumers while interpretive questions...

  20. 75 FR 50718 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... measured by excluding from the measurement certain attached structures. Currently, the regulations state that ``length means a straight line measurement of the overall length from the foremost part of the vessel to the aftmost part of the vessel, measured parallel to the center line. The measurement shall...

  1. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... hazardous only because they fail the test for the Toxicity Characteristic (Hazardous Waste Codes...

  2. 77 FR 76861 - Removal of Job Training Partnership Act Implementing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... accessible to the public. Therefore, the Department recommends that commenters remove personal information such as Social Security Numbers, personal addresses, telephone numbers, and email addresses included in....regulations.gov Web site. It is the responsibility of the commenter to safeguard their personal...

  3. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the regulation of the health insurance industry.

    PubMed

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive and multipronged reform of the US health care system. The legislation makes incremental changes to Medicare, Medicaid, and the market for employer-sponsored health insurance. However, it makes substantial changes to the market for individual and small-group health insurance. The purpose of this article is to introduce the key regulatory reforms in the market for individual and small-group health insurance and explain how these reforms tackle adverse selection and risk classification and improve access to health care for the hitherto uninsured or underinsured population.

  4. GIGANTEA acts in blue light signaling and has biochemically separable roles in circadian clock and flowering time regulation.

    PubMed

    Martin-Tryon, Ellen L; Kreps, Joel A; Harmer, Stacey L

    2007-01-01

    Circadian clocks are widespread in nature. In higher plants, they confer a selective advantage, providing information regarding not only time of day but also time of year. Forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have led to the identification of many clock components, but the functions of most of these genes remain obscure. To identify both new constituents of the circadian clock and new alleles of known clock-associated genes, we performed a mutant screen. Using a clock-regulated luciferase reporter, we isolated new alleles of ZEITLUPE, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, and GIGANTEA (GI). GI has previously been reported to function in red light signaling, central clock function, and flowering time regulation. Characterization of this and other GI alleles has helped us to further define GI function in the circadian system. We found that GI acts in photomorphogenic and circadian blue light signaling pathways and is differentially required for clock function in constant red versus blue light. Gene expression and epistasis analyses show that TIMING OF CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN1 (TOC1) expression is not solely dependent upon GI and that GI expression is only indirectly affected by TOC1, suggesting that GI acts both in series with and in parallel to TOC1 within the central circadian oscillator. Finally, we found that the GI-dependent promotion of CONSTANS expression and flowering is intact in a gi mutant with altered circadian regulation. Thus GI function in the regulation of a clock output can be biochemically separated from its role within the circadian clock.

  5. An extracytoplasmic function sigma factor acts as a general stress response regulator in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Sauviac, Laurent; Philippe, Heinui; Phok, Kounthéa; Bruand, Claude

    2007-06-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti genes transcriptionally up-regulated after heat stress, as well as upon entry into stationary phase, were identified by microarray analyses. Sixty stress response genes were thus found to be up-regulated under both conditions. One of them, rpoE2 (smc01506), encodes a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor. We showed that this sigma factor controls its own transcription and is activated by various stress conditions, including heat and salt, as well as entry into stationary phase after either carbon or nitrogen starvation. We also present evidence that the product of the gene cotranscribed with rpoE2 negatively regulates RpoE2 activity, and we therefore propose that it plays the function of anti-sigma factor. By combining transcriptomic, bioinformatic, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses, we identified 44 RpoE2-controlled genes and predicted the number of RpoE2 targets to be higher. Strikingly, more than one-third of the 60 stress response genes identified in this study are RpoE2 targets. Interestingly, two genes encoding proteins with known functions in stress responses, namely, katC and rpoH2, as well as a second ECF-encoding gene, rpoE5, were found to be RpoE2 regulated. Altogether, these data suggest that RpoE2 is a major global regulator of the general stress response in S. meliloti. Despite these observations, and although this sigma factor is well conserved among alphaproteobacteria, no in vitro nor in planta phenotypic difference from the wild-type strain could be detected for rpoE2 mutants. This therefore suggests that other important actors in the general stress response have still to be identified in S. meliloti.

  6. 29 CFR 1981.102 - Obligations and prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obligations and prohibited acts. 1981.102 Section 1981.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Orders § 1981.102 Obligations and prohibited acts. (a) No employer may discharge any employee...

  7. 29 CFR 1981.102 - Obligations and prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obligations and prohibited acts. 1981.102 Section 1981.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Orders § 1981.102 Obligations and prohibited acts. (a) No employer may discharge any employee...

  8. The multi zinc-finger protein Trps1 acts as a regulator of histone deacetylation during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Wuelling, Manuela; Pasdziernik, Markus; Moll, Carina N; Thiesen, Andrea M; Schneider, Sabine; Johannes, Christian; Vortkamp, Andrea

    2013-07-15

    TRPS1, the gene mutated in human "Tricho-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome," encodes a multi zinc-finger nuclear regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Here, we have identified a new function of Trps1 in controlling mitotic progression in chondrocytes. Loss of Trps1 in mice leads to an increased proportion of cells arrested in mitosis and, subsequently, to chromosome segregation defects. Searching for the molecular basis of the defect, we found that Trps1 acts as regulator of histone deacetylation. Trps1 interacts with two histone deacetylases, Hdac1 and Hdac4, thereby increasing their activity. Loss of Trps1 results in histone H3 hyperacetylation, which is maintained during mitosis. Consequently, chromatin condensation and binding of HP1 is impaired, and Trps1-deficient chondrocytes accumulate in prometaphase. Overexpression of Hdac4 rescues the mitotic defect of Trps1-deficient chondrocytes, identifying Trps1 as an important regulator of chromatin deacetylation during mitosis in chondrocytes. Our data provide the first evidence that the control of mitosis can be linked to the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by epigenetic consequences of altered Hdac activity.

  9. Privacy versus Safety: Uses and Interpretations of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in the Wake of Campus Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act has sometimes caused confusion among higher education professionals since the legislation was introduced by Senator James Buckley in 1974. Reasons for this confusion range from the fact that it became a law without the usual congressional considerations to the belief that FERPA was never intended to…

  10. An Arabidopsis F-box protein acts as a transcriptional co-factor to regulate floral development.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eunyoung; Tan, Queenie K-G; Hill, Theresa A; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-04-01

    Plants flower in response to both environmental and endogenous signals. The Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor is crucial in integrating these signals, and acts in part by activating the expression of multiple floral homeotic genes. LFY-dependent activation of the homeotic APETALA3 (AP3) gene requires the activity of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), an F-box component of an SCF ubiquitin ligase, yet how this regulation is effected has remained unclear. Here, we show that UFO physically interacts with LFY both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction is necessary to recruit UFO to the AP3 promoter. Furthermore, a transcriptional repressor domain fused to UFO reduces endogenous LFY activity in plants, supporting the idea that UFO acts as part of a transcriptional complex at the AP3 promoter. Moreover, chemical or genetic disruption of proteasome activity compromises LFY-dependent AP3 activation, indicating that protein degradation is required to promote LFY activity. These results define an unexpected role for an F-box protein in functioning as a DNA-associated transcriptional co-factor in regulating floral homeotic gene expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism for promoting flower development via protein degradation and concomitant activation of the LFY transcription factor. This mechanism may be widely conserved, as homologs of UFO and LFY have been identified in a wide array of plant species.

  11. Superoxide dismutase 1 acts as a nuclear transcription factor to regulate oxidative stress resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Chi Kwan; Liu, Yuan; Thomas, Janice; Zhang, Yanjie; Zheng, X. F. Steven

    2015-01-01

    Summary Superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) has been known for nearly half a century for catalysis of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Here we report a new Sod1 function in oxidative signaling: in response to elevated endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), Sod1 rapidly relocates into the nucleus, which is important for maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, H2O2 is sufficient to promote Sod1 nuclear localization, indicating that it is responding to general ROS rather than Sod1 substrate superoxide. ROS signaling is mediated by Mec1/ATM and its effector Dun1/Cds1 kinase, through Dun1 interaction with Sod1 and regulation of Sod1 by phosphorylation at S60, 99. In the nucleus, Sod1 binds to the promoters and regulates the expression of oxidative resistance and repair genes. Altogether, our study unravels an unorthodox function of Sod1 as a transcription factor and elucidates the regulatory mechanism for its localization. PMID:24647101

  12. Two Group A Streptococcal Peptide Pheromones Act through Opposing Rgg Regulators to Control Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jennifer C.; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C.; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  13. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer C; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  14. Phosphorylation acts positively and negatively to regulate MRTF-A subcellular localisation and activity

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotou, Richard; Miralles, Francesc; Pawlowski, Rafal; Diring, Jessica; Flynn, Helen R; Skehel, Mark; Treisman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) regulate cytoskeletal genes through their partner transcription factor SRF. The MRTFs bind G-actin, and signal-regulated changes in cellular G-actin concentration control their nuclear accumulation. The MRTFs also undergo Rho- and ERK-dependent phosphorylation, but the function of MRTF phosphorylation, and the elements and signals involved in MRTF-A nuclear export are largely unexplored. We show that Rho-dependent MRTF-A phosphorylation reflects relief from an inhibitory function of nuclear actin. We map multiple sites of serum-induced phosphorylation, most of which are S/T-P motifs and show that S/T-P phosphorylation is required for transcriptional activation. ERK-mediated S98 phosphorylation inhibits assembly of G-actin complexes on the MRTF-A regulatory RPEL domain, promoting nuclear import. In contrast, S33 phosphorylation potentiates the activity of an autonomous Crm1-dependent N-terminal NES, which cooperates with five other NES elements to exclude MRTF-A from the nucleus. Phosphorylation thus plays positive and negative roles in the regulation of MRTF-A. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15460.001 PMID:27304076

  15. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-16

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly.

  16. FOXL2 and BMP2 Act Cooperatively to Regulate Follistatin Gene Expression during Ovarian Development

    PubMed Central

    Kashimada, Kenichi; Pelosi, Emanuele; Chen, Huijun; Schlessinger, David; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Follistatin is a secreted glycoprotein required for female sex determination and early ovarian development, but the precise mechanisms regulating follistatin (Fst) gene expression are not known. Here, we investigate the roles of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and forkhead-domain transcription factor L2 (FOXL2) in the regulation of Fst expression in the developing mouse ovary. Bmp2 and Fst showed similar temporal profiles of mRNA expression, whereas FOXL2 protein and Fst mRNA were coexpressed in the same ovarian cells. In a cell culture model, both FOXL2 and BMP2 up-regulated Fst expression. In ex vivo mouse fetal gonad culture, exogenous BMP2 increased Fst expression, but this effect was counteracted by the BMP antagonist Noggin. Moreover, in Foxl2-null mice, Fst expression was reduced throughout fetal ovarian development, and Bmp2 expression was also reduced. Our data support a model in which FOXL2 and BMP2 cooperate to ensure correct expression of Fst in the developing ovary. Further, Wnt4-knockout mice showed reduced expression of Fst limited to early ovarian development, suggesting a role for WNT4 in the initiation, but not the maintenance, of Fst expression. PMID:21084449

  17. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation

    PubMed Central

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here, we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. Intriguingly, our genetic data suggest that SAS-7 is required for daughter centrioles to become competent for duplication, and for mother centrioles to maintain this competence. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20353.001 PMID:28092264

  18. Identification of cis- and trans-acting elements regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kresoja-Rakic, Jelena; Kapaklikaya, Esra; Ziltener, Gabriela; Dalcher, Damian; Santoro, Raffaella; Christensen, Brock C.; Johnson, Kevin C.; Schwaller, Beat; Weder, Walter; Stahel, Rolf A.; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Calretinin (CALB2) is a diagnostic marker for epithelioid mesothelioma. It is also a prognostic marker since patients with tumors expressing high calretinin levels have better overall survival. Silencing of calretinin decreases viability of epithelioid mesothelioma cells. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma. Analysis of calretinin transcript and protein suggested a control at the mRNA level. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and analysis of TCGA data indicated that promoter methylation is not likely to be involved. Therefore, we investigated CALB2 promoter by analyzing ~1kb of genomic sequence surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) + 1 using promoter reporter assay. Deletion analysis of CALB2 proximal promoter showed that sequence spanning the −161/+80bp region sustained transcriptional activity. Site-directed analysis identified important cis-regulatory elements within this −161/+80bp CALB2 promoter. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed binding of NRF-1 and E2F2 to the CALB2 promoter and siRNA knockdown of NRF-1 led to decreased expression of calretinin. Cell synchronization experiment showed that calretinin expression was cell cycle regulated with a peak of expression at G1/S phase. This study provides the first insight in the regulation of CALB2 expression in mesothelioma cells. PMID:26848772

  19. Hand rolling cigarette papers as the reference point for regulating cigarette fire safety

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, M; Duncanson, M; Fraser, T; McClellan, V; Linehan, B; Shirley, R

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare the burning characteristics of the tobacco and paper of manufactured and hand rolled cigarettes, and set a fire safety standard of manufacture to largely reduce the fire risk from discarded cigarettes. Methods: (1) Cigarette extinction test of ignition strength: 40 cigarettes per brand, lit and placed on 15 layers of filter paper, in accordance with ASTM test standard E2187-02. (2) Citrate extracted by 0.1N hydrochloric acid from cigarette papers and from tobacco in manufactured cigarettes, the supernatant analysed by high performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet visual light spectrophotometer. (3) Survey of 750 nationally representative adults age 18 years and over, by telephone, including 184 smokers. Materials: (a) New Zealand made Holiday, and Horizon, and US made Marlboro manufactured cigarettes; (b) US manufactured Merit with banded paper; (c) Holiday, Horizon and Marlboro hand rolling tobaccos, hand rolled in Rizla cigarette papers; (d) manufactured cigarettes as in (a), reconstructed using Rizla hand rolling cigarette papers. Results: 1. (a) For each brand of manufactured cigarettes, 40/40 burnt full length; (b) for Merit banded paper cigarettes 29/40 (73%) burnt full length; (c) for each brand of hand rolled cigarettes 0/40 burnt full length; (d) 0/40 manufactured cigarettes reconstructed with Rizla hand rolling paper burnt full length. 2. Citrate content: (a) In manufactured cigarette papers: 0.3–0.8 mg; in tobacco of manufactured cigarettes: Holiday 0, Horizon 0, Marlboro 8.8 mg; (b) Merit: in banded paper 0.418 mg; in tobacco 10.23 mg; (c) In hand rolled cigarettes: in the papers < 0.08 mg; in hand rolled tobacco 13.3–15.0 mg; (d) In hand rolling papers of reconstructed cigarettes: < 0.018 mg. 3. Requiring manufactured cigarettes to compulsorily self-extinguish when left unattended was supported by 67% of smokers, 61% of manufactured cigarette smokers, 82% of hand rolled smokers, and by 68% of non-smokers. Conclusion: The

  20. The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.