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Sample records for act regulations safety

  1. Safety regulation and firm size: effects of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, G.R.; Nelson, J.P.

    1982-10-01

    The Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 has contributed to the decline in mine productivity, which must be weighed against safer working conditions for the miners. There may be some overstatement of the benefits if only fatalities are considered, however, because there was an increase in non-fatal accidents after 1970. Safety regulations have forced the closure of some small mines and raised some questions about the tradeoffs necessary when work safety reduces competition. A review of pertinent legislation, a hedonic wage-differential model, and the effects of union wage policy are applied to these questions. 4 tables. (DCK)

  2. Regulations for the administration and enforcement of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of the Act is to protect the public from unnecessary exposure to radiation from electronic products, including ionizing, nonionizing, electromagnetic, or particulate radiation, or any sonic, infrasonic, or ultrasonic wave. The regulations in the publication cover general provisions, statements of policy and interpretation, radiation protection recommendations, recordkeeping and reporting requirements for manufacturers, dealers, and distributors; notification requirements for defects or failure to comply; repurchase, repairs, or replacement of electronic products; importation of products; and performance standards for television receivers, cathode ray tubes, diagnostic x-ray equipment, radiographic equipment, fluoroscopic equipment, computer aided tomography equipment, microwave ovens, laser products, sunlamps, ultraviolet lamps, mercury lamps, and ultrasonic therapy products.

  3. Nuclear regulation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed. (DLC)

  4. FDA Food Safety Modernization Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sutton, Betty [D-OH-13

    2009-06-08

    01/04/2011 Became Public Law No: 111-353. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: H.R.2751 was introduced and first passed the House as the Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save Act. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. The French Space Operation Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinchero, J. P.; Lazare, B.

    2010-09-01

    The French Space Operation Act(FSOA) stipulates that a prime objective of the National technical regulations is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these technical regulations is mandatory as of 10 December 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations from French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by the applicant, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting technical regulations are as follows: requirements must as far as possible establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being the state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. Technical regulations are divided into three sections covering common requirements for the launch, control and return of a space object. A dedicated section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the technical regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth’s environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection.

  6. 75 FR 41370 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... amended. 75 FR 22320, Apr. 28, 2010. Interested persons were afforded an opportunity to participate in the... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 2201 Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Occupational Safety...

  7. 48 CFR 50.205-1 - SAFETY Act Considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.205-1 SAFETY Act Considerations. (a) SAFETY Act applicability. Requiring activities should review requirements to identify potential technologies that prevent... acquisitions involving such technologies, the requiring activity should ascertain through discussions with...

  8. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  9. 33 CFR 110.1a - Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchorages under Ports and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS § 110.1a Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act. (a) The anchorages listed in this section are regulated under the Ports and Waterways Safety Act...

  10. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  11. 75 FR 37287 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... April 19, 2010 (75 FR 20298) for a public comment period to end on June 18, 2010. This rule amends the... CFR Part 200 RIN 0430-AA03 Privacy Act Regulations AGENCY: Recovery Accountability and Transparency... regulations implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act), Public Law 93-579, 5 U.S.C. 552a. This...

  12. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Register, 73 FR 25594, May 7, 2008. The proposed amendments: (1) Waived all copying fees in..., 73 FR 54595, September 22, 2008, certain portions of BGFRS-37 (Electronic Applications) may be exempt... CFR Part 261a Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation AGENCY: Board of Governors of the...

  13. 75 FR 20298 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...,'' pursuant to the Privacy Act, as amended (74 FR 60302, Nov. 20, 2009). The Board received no comments on...; ] RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD 4 CFR Part 200 RIN 0430-AA03 Privacy Act Regulations AGENCY... and Transparency Board (Board) proposes to amend the Board's regulations implementing the Privacy...

  14. 48 CFR 52.250-4 - SAFETY Act Pre-qualification Designation Notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false SAFETY Act Pre-qualification Designation Notice. 52.250-4 Section 52.250-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... submitted for DHS review are based on the factors identified in 6 CFR 25.4(b). (e) Neither SAFETY...

  15. 78 FR 10200 - Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CWSA) amends the Lacey Act by making it illegal to...) and 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) of that code. Do not engage in commercial trade in the prohibited wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Captive Wildlife Safety Act AGENCY: Fish...

  16. Occupational Safety and Health Act: A Responsibility for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act for science teachers both as workers and as they encourage, in students, the development of positive safety attitudes for future occupations. (PEB)

  17. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  18. 48 CFR 22.403-3 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. 22.403-3 Section 22.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS...

  19. 48 CFR 22.403-3 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. 22.403-3 Section 22.403-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS...

  20. 48 CFR 52.250-5 - SAFETY Act-Equitable Adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false SAFETY Act-Equitable Adjustment. 52.250-5 Section 52.250-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION..., engineering services, software development services, software integration services, threat...

  1. Recent Cases: Administrative Law--Occupational Safety and Health Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Law Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 are described in two cases: Brennan v. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (Underhill Construction Corp.), and Anning-Johnson Co. v. United States Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. (LBH)

  2. Health and safety and the Human Rights Act 1998.

    PubMed

    Tearle, P

    2001-03-01

    The Human Rights Act 1998 came into effect on 2 October 2000. The list of human rights now embodied in United Kingdom law reflects the ideas and values of our changing and developing society. As a dynamic document the act has parallels with the ideals found in health and safety law. This article looks at the act and considers its implications for employers with regard to existing health and safety law.

  3. Regulations to implement 46 USC 3705(C) and 3706(D), formerly sections 5(7) (E) and (H) of the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Amendment of certain pollution prevention regulations of the Code of Federal Regulations is proposed to alter Coast Guard requirements concerning ballast tanks in crude oil and product carriers. The amended regulations would be applicable to all US vessels and all foreign vessels that enter navigable waters of the United States or transfer cargo at a port or place subject to US jurisdiction. The new regulations would require that existing crude oil carriers of 20,000 to 40,000 dead-weight tons (DWT) have segregated ballast tanks or a crude oil washing system before January 2, 1986 or when they reach 15 years of age, whichever occurred later, and existing product carriers of 20,000 to 40,000 DWT have segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks before January 2, 1986, or when they reach 15 years of age, whichever occurred later. An existing vessel is any self-propelled vessel for which the building contract was placed on or before June 1, 1979; for which the keel was laid on or before January 1, 1980; for which delivery was made on or before June 1, 1982; for which major conversion work was performed on or before June 1, 1979; or on which construction work was begun on or before January 1, 1980 or completed on or before June 1, 1982.

  4. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  5. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  6. 32 CFR 770.5 - Safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety regulations. 770.5 Section 770.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES LIMITING PUBLIC... Safety regulations. (a) Hunting is not permitted within 200 yards of the following: Ammunition...

  7. Federal Mine Safety and Health Act - identifying opportunities for partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Beverage, L.

    1996-12-31

    Opportunities for partnership provided by the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act (FMSHA) are identified. These opportunities include: putting the FMSHA into perspective; criticisms of the Mine Act: legislative reform initiatives; understanding FMSHA`s inspections and investigation system; understanding FMSHA`s enforcement tools; developing a partnership built on mutual respect; and post-enforcement challenges.

  8. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of...

  9. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... (76 FR 47436), we published a final rule to incorporate into our regulations ANSI/APSP-16 2011 as the... issued a final interpretive rule in the Federal Register (75 FR 21985) interpreting ``unblockable drain... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of...

  10. The Food Safety Modernization Act: a barrier to trade? Only if the science says so.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The Food Safety Modernization Act improves oversight of America's food safety system. Title III, which regulates imported food, may create extra burdens for importers and therefore act as a barrier to trade. What will be on trial before the World Trade Organization (WTO), however, is not the law's content, but the science supporting it. Under the WTO regime, food safety laws that could restrict the free movement of food commodities must be sufficiently justified by scientific evidence. Member states must engage in risk assessments and regulate food imports in a manner that is "no more restrictive than necessary" to protect against the health risks identified by scientific evidence. This article examines the requirements of the WTO to evaluate the FSMA's legality under WTO rules. It analyzes the case law of the WTO Panel and Appellate Body and compares the FMSA to the EU's General Food Law.

  11. 48 CFR 1480.102 - Buy Indian Act acquisition regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy Indian Act acquisition... INDIAN AFFAIRS SUPPLEMENT ACQUISITIONS UNDER THE BUY INDIAN ACT General 1480.102 Buy Indian Act... the Buy Indian Act. (b) This part is under the direct oversight and control of the Chief...

  12. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    PubMed

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  13. Chemical safety, health care costs and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Goldman, Lynn R

    2014-01-01

    On May 22, 2013, the late Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ), Senator David Vitter (R-LA) and 19 of their colleagues introduced bipartisan chemical safety legislation in the US Senate, "The Chemical Safety Improvement Act of 2013." The bill's purpose is to protect human health and the environment against the hazards of toxic chemicals, by requiring the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to examine the safety of all chemicals in consumer products. The bill is currently before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, chaired by Senator Barbara Boxer (D-CA). This legislation is critically important for physicians and healthcare organizations because it creates significant new opportunities to prevent disease and cut healthcare costs. PMID:24136096

  14. 76 FR 14590 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Regulation Supplement; Safety of Facilities, Infrastructure, and Equipment for Military Operations (DFARS... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010. Section 807 requires that facilities, infrastructure, and equipment that.... Facilities, infrastructure, and equipment shall be inspected prior to use to ensure safety and...

  15. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  16. An analysis of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: protection for consumers and boon for business.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Debra M

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes components of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, which was prompted by incidents of food contamination, exploring the history of its passage and explaining its significance, as well as its limitations. As the first time in 70 years that food law has been changed substantially, this new law represents only an initial but significant step in the direction of improving food safety. With bipartisan support from both Congress and the President, this legislation embodies a mandate that food safety is at this moment becoming a priority. As a result, the time is ripe for a reassessment of other areas of food laws--particularly genetically modified foods and the use of milk and meat from cloned animals and their progeny--which are allowed under current U.S. law with no labeling, preapprovals, or post-market monitoring. These areas warrant special regulation consistent with the new proactive policy towards securing the safety of the food supply.

  17. 48 CFR 1480.102 - Buy Indian Act acquisition regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy Indian Act acquisition... INDIAN AFFAIRS SUPPLEMENT ACQUISITIONS UNDER THE BUY INDIAN ACT Subpart 1480.1 General 1480.102 Buy... in implementing the Buy Indian Act. (b) This part is under the direct oversight and control of...

  18. 13 CFR 108.30 - Amendments to Act and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendments to Act and regulations. 108.30 Section 108.30 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Introduction to Part 108 § 108.30 Amendments to Act and regulations. A...

  19. 13 CFR 107.30 - Amendments to Act and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendments to Act and regulations. 107.30 Section 107.30 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Introduction to Part 107 § 107.30 Amendments to Act and regulations. A Licensee shall...

  20. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... amendments to the pipeline safety regulations (76 FR 73570). On January 12, 2012, the Interstate Natural Gas... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192 and 195 RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

  1. 77 FR 75521 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... 1, 2005. 70 FR 44256 (Aug. 2, 2005). As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of these... Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA). 70 FR 12148 (Mar. 11, 2005). See 12 U.S.C. 2808; 12 CFR 203.2(e)(1... the other federal banking agencies in its CRA rule set forth at 12 CFR part 563e. 72 FR 13429 (Mar....

  2. 75 FR 36270 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL 12 CFR Part 1102 Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act... (October 1998). List of Subjects in 12 CFR Part 1102 Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, banking... of the Code of Federal Regulations is amended as follows: PART 1102--APPRAISER REGULATION Subpart...

  3. 78 FR 79283 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... CRA purposes by the OCC, Board, and FDIC on August 2, 2005, effective September 1, 2005. 70 FR 44256... Act (HMDA). 70 FR 12148 (Mar. 11, 2005). See 12 U.S.C. 2808; 12 CFR 203.2(e)(1). On March 22, 2007... other federal banking agencies in its CRA rule previously set forth at 12 CFR 563e. 72 FR 13429 (Mar....

  4. 76 FR 79529 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... adopted for CRA purposes by the OCC, Board, and FDIC on August 2, 2005, effective September 1, 2005. 70 FR... Disclosure Act (HMDA). 70 FR 12148 (Mar. 22, 2007). See 12 U.S.C. 2808; 12 CFR 203.2(e)(1). On March 22, 2007... federal banking agencies in its CRA rule set forth at 12 CFR 563e. 72 FR 13429. Pursuant to the...

  5. ARIES-ACT1 Safety Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Merrill, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    ARIES-ACT1 (Advanced and Conservative Tokamak) is a 1000-MW(electric) tokamak design featuring advanced plasma physics and divertor and blanket engineering. Some relevant features include an advanced SiC blanket with PbLi as coolant and breeder; a helium-cooled steel structural ring and tungsten divertors; a thin-walled, helium-cooled vacuum vessel; and a room-temperature, water-cooled shield outside the vacuum vessel. We consider here some safety aspects of the ARIES-ACT1 design and model a series of design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents with the MELCOR code modified for fusion. The presence of multiple coolants (PbLi, helium, and water) makes possible a variety of such accidents. We consider here a loss-of-flow accident caused by a long-term station blackout (LTSBO), an ex-vessel helium break into the cryostat, and a beyond-design-basis accident in which a LTSBO is aggravated by a loss-of-coolant accident in ARIES-ACT1's ultimate decay heat removal system, the water-cooled shield. In the design-basis accidents, we find that the secondary confinement boundaries are not challenged, and the structural integrity of in-vessel components is not threatened by high temperatures or pressures; decay heat can be passively removed.

  6. A Safety and Health Guide for Vocational Educators. Incorporating Requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Relevant Pennsylvania Requirements with Particular Emphasis for Those Concerned with Cooperative Education and Work Study Programs. Volume 15. Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Ray

    Intended as a guide for vocational educators to incorporate the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970) and the requirements of various Pennsylvania safety and health regulations with their cooperative vocational programs, the first chapter of this document presents the legal implications of these safety and health…

  7. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  9. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  10. 47 CFR 80.305 - Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the Safety Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch requirements of the Communications Act... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.305 Watch requirements of the Communications Act and the...

  11. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act... LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Insurance Contracts § 726.203 Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety...

  12. 75 FR 21985 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 54301) announcing that it would be conducting a public... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable... ``unblockable drain'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act (``VGB Act''). DATES:...

  13. 75 FR 22320 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Government Act), as well as changes in OSHRC's own policies and procedures. DATES: Submit comments on or before May 28, 2010. ADDRESSES: OSHRC encourages electronic submission of comments. You may...

  14. 77 FR 75362 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1612 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations CFR Correction 0 In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 900 to 1899, revised as of July 1, 2012, on page 266, in Sec....

  15. New safety rules challenge U. K. operators, regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J. )

    1994-08-15

    Offshore safety regulations based on lessons learned from the Piper Alpha blast of 1988 have been in operation in the U.K. for a year. The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 1992 make operators of fixed and mobile installations (the duty holders'') responsible for producing a formal safety assessment, or safety case, for each installation. After the end of November 1995 it will be an offense to operate an installation without a safety case which has been approved by the government's Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Producing safety cases for installations is a major task for duty holder, while assessing them is a huge under taking for HSE's Offshore Safety Division (OSD). This paper reviews how HSE has established management arrangements to handle safety cases, considers progress in assessment, highlights some of the important lessons learned, and look to the future.

  16. 75 FR 75692 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Act Reporting Requirements; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Act Reporting Requirements; Notice.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards Reporting Requirements. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2502-0253. Description of...

  17. Identifying gaps in international food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Benn; Ho, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    The rise in food importation in countries such as the United States, coupled with food safety incidents, has led to increased concern with the safety of imported food. This concern has prompted discussion of how international law and governance mechanisms might enhance food safety. This paper identifies the objectives underlying multilateral approaches to food safety such as raising food safety standards abroad, information sharing and ensuring market access. The paper then explores how these objectives are integrated into the international system and identifies how the current state of the law creates imbalances in the pursuit of these objectives.

  18. 78 FR 11092 - Safety and Health Regulations for Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LABOR DEPARTMENT Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Safety and Health Regulations for Construction CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1926, revised as of July 1,...

  19. 76 FR 10362 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... communications systems. On March 19, 2009, the FCC, pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, renewed the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act;...

  20. 75 FR 74050 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... communications systems. On March 19, 2009, the FCC, pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, renewed the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act;...

  1. 75 FR 56533 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... communications systems. On March 19, 2009, the FCC, pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, renewed the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act;...

  2. The Food Safety Modernization Act: Implications for U.S. Small Scale Farms.

    PubMed

    Boys, Kathryn A; Ollinger, Michael; Geyer, Leon L

    2015-01-01

    The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) reforms law governing the safety of human and animal foods produced for consumption in the United States. Recognizing the challenges that the proposed regulations would impose on small farms, Congress included an amendment to exempt small farms from the full scope of FSMA requirements. This special treatment and other issues left unaddressed by FSMA, however, present challenges for buyers of small farm products and is inducing a private sector response to these regulatory gaps. This Article reviews the current treatment of small farms under FSMA and explores some key impacts and implications of FSMA on these organizations. Particular consideration is given to the unintended consequences of the Tester-Hagan Amendment and the unaddressed issue of liability for foodborne illness. PMID:26591825

  3. International perspectives on food safety and regulations - a need for harmonized regulations: perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiumei

    2014-08-01

    Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the 'Twelfth Five-year Plan' of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened.

  4. 33 CFR 109.07 - Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchorages under Ports and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES GENERAL § 109.07 Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act. The provisions of section 4 (a) and (b) of the Ports and Waterways Safety Act as delegated to the Commandant...

  5. 76 FR 30374 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology AGENCY: Coast... public comment on the availability of technology to meet certain provisions of the Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of 2010(CVSSA), specifically related to video recording and overboard...

  6. 76 FR 31350 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology AGENCY: Coast... technology to meet certain provisions of the Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of 2010(CVSSA), specifically related to video recording and overboard detection technologies. The Notice of request...

  7. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement. 726.203 Section 726.203 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  8. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement. 726.203 Section 726.203 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  9. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement. 726.203 Section 726.203 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  10. 75 FR 12167 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation AGENCY... ``public accommodation'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. DATES: Written...; blittle@cpsc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa...

  11. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... accommodations facility'' on March 15, 2010 (75 FR 12167). The proposed interpretive rule would interpret... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation AGENCY... ``public accommodations facility'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act....

  12. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act... OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Insurance Contracts § 726.203 Federal Coal Mine Health...

  13. Challenges in Developing Competency-based Training Curriculum for Food Safety Regulators in India

    PubMed Central

    Thippaiah, Anitha; Allagh, Komal Preet; Murthy, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Food Safety and Standards Act have redefined the roles and responsibilities of food regulatory workforce and calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Aims: 1) Identify the competencies needed among the food regulatory workforce in India. 2) Develop a competency-based training curriculum for food safety regulators in the country. 3) Develop training materials for use to train the food regulatory workforce. Settings and Design: The Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad, led the development of training curriculum on food safety with technical assistance from the Royal Society for Public Health, UK and the National Institute of Nutrition, India. The exercise was to facilitate the implementation of new Act by undertaking capacity building through a comprehensive training program. Materials and Methods: A competency-based training needs assessment was conducted before undertaking the development of the training materials. Results: The training program for Food Safety Officers was designed to comprise of five modules to include: Food science and technology, Food safety management systems, Food safety legislation, Enforcement of food safety regulations, and Administrative functions. Each module has a facilitator guide for the tutor and a handbook for the participant. Essentials of Food Hygiene-I (Basic level), II and III (Retail/ Catering/ Manufacturing) were primarily designed for training of food handlers and are part of essential reading for food safety regulators. Conclusion: The Food Safety and Standards Act calls for highly skilled human resources as it involves complex management procedures. Despite having developed a comprehensive competency-based training curriculum by joint efforts by the local, national, and international agencies, implementation remains a challenge in resource-limited setting. PMID:25136155

  14. PETRO-SAFE '92 conference papers: Volume 1 (Keynote session, environmental and safety regulations update, management strategies update, safety regulations) and Volume 2 (Environmental regulations)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes generated from a conference on the environment and safety aspects of the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries. This volume presents papers on environmental and safety regulations, methods for developing safety programs, hazardous operations/training regulations, and management planning strategies to meet these regulations. Papers discuss remediation of contaminated sites, emergency response planning, pending and developing regulations, and waste management practices.

  15. 76 FR 59071 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... follows: Authority: 50 U.S.C. 401-442; 50 U.S.C. 403a-403v; 5 U.S.C. 552; Executive Order 13392, 70 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1900 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency....

  16. 76 FR 45403 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Prepaid Access

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... regulations. See 75 FR 65806 (October 26, 2010) (Transfer and Reorganization of Bank Secrecy Act Regulations... Relating to Money Services Businesses, 74 FR 22129 (May 12, 2009), was issued before the Chapter X Final...), (c). \\16\\ 75 FR 36589. B. Prior Regulation of Stored Value In 1999, when FinCEN issued its final...

  17. 78 FR 46966 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... FR 45639). Utilizing the method set forth in section 736(c)(1) of the FD&C Act, FDA has calculated an... Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). These fees are... to the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 379j-31) to provide FDA with the authority to assess and collect fees...

  18. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  19. Youth Camp Safety & Health. Suggested State Statute & Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    To assist state regulatory agencies in development of comprehensive youth camp safety programs, this publication contains a brief suggested statute that could be used for initiation or modification of any state's youth camp safety programs and it outlines minimal regulations. Various categories of camps are covered--day, primitive, residential,…

  20. Medical loss ratio regulation under the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    The minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) regulations in the Affordable Care Act guarantee that a specific percentage of health insurance premiums is spent on medical care and specified activities to improve health care quality. This paper analyzes the regulations' potential unintended consequences and incentive effects, including: higher medical costs and premiums for some insurers; less innovation to align consumer, provider, and health plan incentives, less consumer choice and increased market concentration; and the risk that insurers will pay rebates if claim costs are lower than projected when premiums are established, despite the regulations' permitted "credibility adjustments." The paper discusses modifications and alternatives to the MLR regulations to help achieve their stated goals with less potential for adverse effects. PMID:23720876

  1. 77 FR 74347 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Information Act (FOIA) (U.S.C. 552) in the Federal Register. See 77 FR 42673, July 20, 2012. CIGIE provided..., Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. This regulation has not been reviewed by the Office of.... Authority: Pub. L. 110-409, 122 Stat. 4302; 5 U.S.C. App; E.O. 12600, 52 FR 23781, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p....

  2. Scientific perspectives on regulating the safety of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Gasson, M; Burke, D

    2001-03-01

    Regulation is often seen as the dull end of science. The recent storm over the introduction of genetically modified foods and the calls to regulate their consumption have had a negative effect on development of the science. Assuring the safety of genetically modified foods might raise questions where existing scientific data is limited and underline the need for further research.

  3. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... circuit supervisor (showing any modifications required by the circuit supervisor) to the Labels and Packaging Staff, Meat and Poultry Inspection, Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA, Washington, DC...

  4. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) of the Act; application of regulations. 381.222 Section 381.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... modifications required by the Circuit Supervisor) to the Labels and Packaging Staff, Meat and Poultry Inspection Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250,...

  5. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... circuit supervisor (showing any modifications required by the circuit supervisor) to the Labels and Packaging Staff, Meat and Poultry Inspection, Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA, Washington, DC...

  6. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  7. A comparison of some Mexican/U.S. safety regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bunner, W.R.

    1994-12-31

    In the US, safety and hygiene began to be enforced broadly with the formation of the US Department of Labor`s, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1970. In Mexico, the 1917 Constitution required companies to protect their workers against safety and hygiene hazards in the workplace. Additional requirements were added with the Federal Labor Law of 1931. General safety and hygiene regulations were added in 1934. Modern-day federal labor law in Mexico requires the creation of mixed safety and hygiene commissions in all industries. However, only about 114,000 workplaces have registered mixed commissions. In a similar vein, the most favored OSHA reform bill in the US proposes to require safety and health committees in all work places. At this time such committees are common in larger companies but not in smaller ones.

  8. 76 FR 35963 - Disclosure of Information; Privacy Act Regulations; Notice and Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 309 and 310 RIN 3064-AD83 Disclosure of Information; Privacy Act Regulations; Notice... for comments. SUMMARY: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Act), abolished... Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Privacy Act (PA) regulations will not be enforced by the FDIC...

  9. 76 FR 54234 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... interoperability of communications systems. On March 19, 2011, the FCC, pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act;...

  10. 77 FR 12054 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... the security, reliability, and interoperability of communications systems. On March 19, 2011, the FCC... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act;...

  11. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pursuant to 6 U.S.C. 442(d), as further delineated in 6 CFR 25.9, that a QATT for which a SAFETY Act... determination by DHS pursuant to 6 U.S.C. 441(b) and 6 U.S.C. 443(a), as further delineated in 6 CFR 25.4, that... review are based on the factors identified in 6 CFR 25.4(b). (e) Neither SAFETY Act designation...

  12. Juggling Act: Balancing Safety, Security, and Yield in School Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallack, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Although state laws governing school district investing are quite conservative, there have been some notable investment failures leading to the loss of public funds. School districts must beware three kinds of investment risks involving credit, market, and interest rates and consider safety, legality, liquidity, and cash-flow requirements. (MLH)

  13. 77 FR 61513 - Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1101 Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act CFR..., on page 147, in Sec. 1101.25 (a) and (b), the words ``5 working'' are corrected to read...

  14. 48 CFR 52.250-4 - SAFETY Act Pre-qualification Designation Notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... submitted for DHS review are based on the factors identified in 6 CFR 25.4(b). (e) Neither SAFETY Act..., injury or other loss to citizens or institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY... publication by the Government stating that the technology to be procured either affirmatively or...

  15. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... review are based on the factors identified in 6 CFR 25.4(b). (e) Neither SAFETY Act designation nor..., injury or other loss to citizens or institutions of the United States. Block certification means SAFETY... issued. For purposes of defining a QATT, technology means any product, equipment, service...

  16. Automobile safety regulations and death reductions in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of federal automobile safety standards was examined using detailed data on 236,000 vehicles in fatal crashes in the United States during 1975-1978. Controlling statistically for type of regulation, types of vehicles, and ages of vehicles, the federal motor vehicle safety standards were associated with substantial reductions in car occupant death per 100 million vehicle miles travelled, and some reductions in fatal collisions of the federally regulated vehicles with pedestrians, motorcyclists, and bicyclists. Some 37,000 fewer deaths occurred in 1975-1978 than would have been expected without the federal standards. PMID:7258443

  17. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E.; Pastides, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  18. 7 CFR 800.7 - Information about the Service, Act, and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information about the Service, Act, and regulations... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Administration § 800.7 Information about the Service, Act, and regulations. Information about the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, Service, Act,...

  19. 49 CFR 176.4 - Port security and safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the applicable provisions of 33 CFR parts 6, 109, 110, 125, 126, and 160. (b) Division 1.1 and 1.2... hazard as defined in 33 CFR 126.05(b); (2) An explosives anchorage listed in 33 CFR part 110; or (3) A... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Port security and safety regulations....

  20. 49 CFR 176.4 - Port security and safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the applicable provisions of 33 CFR parts 6, 109, 110, 125, 126, and 160. (b) Division 1.1 and 1.2... hazard as defined in 33 CFR 126.05(b); (2) An explosives anchorage listed in 33 CFR part 110; or (3) A... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Port security and safety regulations....

  1. Food Safety and Regulation: Evaluation of an Online Multimedia Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintauro, Stephen J.; Krahl, Augusta G.; Buzzell, Paul R.; Chamberlain, Valerie M.

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of, and student attitudes toward, an online Food Safety and Regulation course (WEB) were compared with lecture (LECTURE) and combined lecture/online (COMBINED) courses. All students took identical pre-tests, post-tests, and attitude assessments. No significant differences were detected in pre-test scores. Post-test results for…

  2. Regulations Under the Americans With Disabilities Act; Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-17

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) is issuing its final rule to amend the regulations and interpretive guidance implementing Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to provide guidance on the extent to which employers may use incentives to encourage employees to participate in wellness programs that ask them to respond to disability-related inquiries and/or undergo medical examinations. This rule applies to all wellness programs that include disability-related inquiries and/or medical examinations whether they are offered only to employees enrolled in an employer-sponsored group health plan, offered to all employees regardless of whether they are enrolled in such a plan, or offered as a benefit of employment by employers that do not sponsor a group health plan or group health insurance. Published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the EEOC also issued a final rule to amend the regulations implementing Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) that addresses the extent to which employers may offer incentives for an employee's spouse to participate in a wellness program. PMID:27192736

  3. Regulations Under the Americans With Disabilities Act; Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-17

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) is issuing its final rule to amend the regulations and interpretive guidance implementing Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to provide guidance on the extent to which employers may use incentives to encourage employees to participate in wellness programs that ask them to respond to disability-related inquiries and/or undergo medical examinations. This rule applies to all wellness programs that include disability-related inquiries and/or medical examinations whether they are offered only to employees enrolled in an employer-sponsored group health plan, offered to all employees regardless of whether they are enrolled in such a plan, or offered as a benefit of employment by employers that do not sponsor a group health plan or group health insurance. Published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the EEOC also issued a final rule to amend the regulations implementing Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) that addresses the extent to which employers may offer incentives for an employee's spouse to participate in a wellness program.

  4. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development. PMID:27066197

  5. Rig safety depends on equipment, regulations, and personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, T.R. Jr.; Tait, S. ); Mumford, G. )

    1990-03-05

    The authors discuss how improvements that can increase rig safety can be made in equipment, regulations, and stabilized personnel levels. With regard to equipment, exposure to material handling must be reduced through automation, and well-control technology must be improved by enhanced use of computers and better systems to handle gas. According to this analysis, regulations are needed that are global in scope and have had their costs-to-benefits fully and fairly assessed. Self regulation must be used effectively throughout the industry. Job security and wages should be made adequate to maintain an experienced, motivated, and safe work force.

  6. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the...

  7. The European "clinical trial" regulation; relationship with the Jardé Act: a Giens workshop.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, François; Marchenay, Brigitte; Chassany, Olivier; Barthélémy, Philippe; Bouzzagou, Mohamed; Comet, Denis; Delval, Cécile; Dubray, Claude; Fouret, Cécile; Frija-Orvoen, Elisabeth; Gambotti, Laetitia; Lamarque, Véronique; d'Orsay, Geneviève; Plattner, Valérie; Sibenaler, Claire; Roux, Jacques; Thoby, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    In May 2014, the European Union Parliament and Council published a new regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which is designed to replace Directive 2001/20/EC. It will not come into effect until 2016. Nevertheless, it is essential to examine its relationship with national legislation, i.e. the Jardé Act, whose implementation has been delayed pending publication of the European regulation. The Giens workshop identified and examined the various issues that this relationship is bound to raise. In particular, it looked at trial methodology assessment procedures, the working relationship between the French National Agency of Drug Safety and Health Products (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé, ANSM) and ethics committees during the authorization application evaluation phase, review of post-authorization/registration studies on medicinal products and medical devices, and data transparency.

  8. Administrative and private searches for smoking articles conducted pursuant to the federal mine safety and health act: Constitutional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, D.J.; McCambley, M.E.

    1995-11-01

    Searches conducted to detect the presence of smoking articles are required to fulfill the legitimate, administrative objectives that underlie the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Consequently, such searches may be conducted by government mine safety enforcement officials without benefit of either a warrant based upon probable cause or an administrative warrant. The authority to conduct warrantless administrative searches on mine property is limited by FMSHA, however, and MSHA must either comply with the administrative substitutes for a warrant set forth in that Act or obtain an administrative warrant before entering onto a mine-operator`s property for purposes of conducting a search for smoking articles. Once mine safety enforcement officials properly gain entry onto mine property, no further warrants are required to conduct searches of individual miners. Miners who choose to work in underground mines are put on notice, by the FMSHA, MSHA regulations, and the training they receive, that they will be subject to searches for smoking articles. Thus, miners have no reasonable expectation that they will be free from the type of pat-down and personal effects searches used to detect the presence of smoking articles. The Fourth amendment is simply not implicated by such searches. This is true even though the legislative scheme designed to enhance mine safety imposes criminal as well as civil penalties on miners found with smoking articles.

  9. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327-333), as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 5). Under Section 102 of the Act, each contractor shall be required to compute the wages of every mechanic and... contracts and in excess of $2500 for other contracts that involve the employment of mechanics or...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327-333), as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 5). Under Section 102 of the Act, each contractor shall be required to compute the wages of every mechanic and... contracts and in excess of $2500 for other contracts that involve the employment of mechanics or...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Act. Where applicable, all contracts awarded by recipients in excess of $2000 for construction... Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327-333), as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 5). Under... permissible provided that the worker is compensated at a rate of not less than 11/2 times the basic rate...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Act. Where applicable, all contracts awarded by recipients in excess of $2000 for construction... Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327-333), as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 5). Under... permissible provided that the worker is compensated at a rate of not less than 11/2 times the basic rate...

  13. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Act. Where applicable, all contracts awarded by recipients in excess of $2000 for construction... Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 327-333), as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR part 5). Under... permissible provided that the worker is compensated at a rate of not less than 11/2 times the basic rate...

  14. Safety and efficacy of an ultrashort-acting β1-blocker on left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ito, Nobuhisa; Tashiro, Tadashi; Morishige, Noritsugu; Nishimi, Masaru; Hayashida, Yoshio; Minematsu, Noritoshi; Kuwahara, Go; Sukehiro, Yuta; Teratani, Hiromitsu

    2012-08-01

    Landiolol hydrochloride, an ultrashort-acting β1-selective blocker, is a highly regulated drug. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of this drug for cases of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with left ventricular dysfunction. Between September 2006 and August 2009, 32 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of <40% underwent CABG. Two groups of patients, a group administered landiolol hydrochloride and a control group not administered this drug, were compared. The administration of landiolol hydrochloride was initiated at 1 μg/kg per minute (γ) after cardiopulmonary bypass in on-pump cases and after completion of all the distal anastomoses in off-pump cases. We observed no significant differences between the groups with respect to preoperative patient background or incidences of complications, except for postoperative atrial fibrillation. The heart rate decreased significantly 30 minutes after landiolol hydrochloride administration, but no change was observed in arterial pressure. No change was observed in other parameters; the hemodynamics were stable. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation during the intensive care unit stay (during landiolol hydrochloride administration) was significantly lower in the administration group. The difference remained significant after multiple logistic regression analysis; landiolol hydrochloride was the sole inhibitory factor. PMID:22917822

  15. 7 CFR 868.10 - Information about the Service, Act, and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information about the Service, Act, and regulations... § 868.10 Information about the Service, Act, and regulations. Information about the Service, Act... INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT...

  16. 77 FR 57199 - 2012 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) Mortgage Servicing Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (the Bureau) is proposing to amend Regulation X, which implements the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 (RESPA) and the official interpretation of the regulation. The proposed amendments implement the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) provisions regarding mortgage loan servicing. Specifically, this......

  17. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  18. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  19. The Clery Act, Campus Safety, and the Perceptions of Senior Student Affairs Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty-seven senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) responded to a questionnaire about the effectiveness of the Clery Act and their views of campus safety. As a group, SSAO responses were very homogenous, resulting in few significant differences when institutional type (public v. private) and status (2-year v. 4-year) were…

  20. 77 FR 45636 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer Reinspection Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  1. 75 FR 9899 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ....goldthorp@fcc.gov or U.S. Postal Service Mail to Jeffery Goldthorp, Chief, Communications Systems Analysis... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act;...

  2. 76 FR 30727 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Inspections and Compliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Inspections and Compliance AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a...

  3. 21 CFR 16.24 - Regulatory hearing required by the act or a regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulation. 16.24 Section 16.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....24 Regulatory hearing required by the act or a regulation. (a) A regulatory hearing required by the act or a regulation under § 16.1(b) will be initiated in the same manner as other regulatory...

  4. 21 CFR 16.24 - Regulatory hearing required by the act or a regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulation. 16.24 Section 16.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....24 Regulatory hearing required by the act or a regulation. (a) A regulatory hearing required by the act or a regulation under § 16.1(b) will be initiated in the same manner as other regulatory...

  5. Product safety in Great Britain and the Consumer Protection Act 1987.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D W; Davies, B T

    1989-09-01

    The Consumer Protection Act 1987 imposes new demands on manufacturers regarding the safety of their products. They can be sued directly by any person injured by their defective goods and prosecuted if they fail to meet the new comprehensive general safety requirement and any other safety provision. Product designers and ergonomists need a sound understanding of and involvement in the legal aspects of product safety. It is now essential to take into account what may reasonably be done with goods, or foreseeable conditions of use, in order to satisfy the test of what is "reasonably safe" and meet the level of safety which "persons generally are entitled to expect" under the law. Any significant progress in product safety will now come through developments in technical standards which will be harmonised throughout the European Community. It is essential that ergonomics considerations be taken into account during the drafting of product specifications if users' interests are to be safeguarded more effectively. Ergonomists will be required to make an even greater contribution in the field of product safety, therefore, by assisting in the determination of the new statutory safety criteria. They are uniquely qualified to ensure that the product user is fully considered at the design and assessment stages which can now be looked upon as an essential pre-requisite of the law and not just sound engineering policy. PMID:15676737

  6. 75 FR 58387 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time... an extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time- Reporting, Compensation...

  7. 75 FR 58388 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--Quarterly... an extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Quarterly Reporting for Prime Contractors. Public comments are...

  8. An examination of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA): A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    On November 16,1990, President Bush signed into law the most comprehensive amendments to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) in 15 years. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990 (HMTUSA) was created by Congress in an effort to strengthen and clarify the HMTA. This paper will discuss the act`s provisions as they affect shipments of spent fuel and high-level radioactive materials as well as the impact of those provisions on routing and emergency response issues in the southern region. HMTUSA consists of seven key provisions that affect radioactive materials: clarification of regulatory jurisdiction; highway routing standards; broadened industry registration; safety permits for motor carriers of high risk materials; expanded nuclear transportation requirements; new provisions for emergency response training and planning; and a public process for assessing the feasibility of a federally operated central reporting system and data center. In addition to amending various HMTA provisions, the new HMTUSA act provides appropriations to carry out the specific goals of the legislation. The act authorizes appropriations for the 1991, 1992 and 1993 fiscal years.

  9. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  10. Improved nuclear power plant operations and safety through performance-based safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Golay, M W

    2000-01-01

    This paper illustrates some of the promise and needed future work for risk-informed, performance-based regulation (RIPBR). RIPBR is an evolving alternative to the current prescriptive method of nuclear safety regulation. Prescriptive regulation effectively constitutes a long, fragmented checklist of requirements that safety-related systems in a plant must satisfy. RIPBR, instead, concentrates upon satisfying negotiated performance goals and incentives for judging and rewarding licensee behavior to improve safety and reduce costs. In a project reported here, a case study was conducted concerning a pressurized water reactor (PWR) emergency diesel generator (EDG). Overall, this work has shown that the methods of RIPBR are feasible to use, and capable of justifying simultaneous safety and economic nuclear power improvements. However, it also reveals several areas where the framework of RIPBR should be strengthened. First, researchers need better data and understanding regarding individual component-failure modes that may cause components to fail. Not only are more data needed on failure rates, but more data and understanding are needed to enable analysts to evaluate whether these failures become more likely as the interval between tests is increased. This is because the current state of failure data is not sufficiently finely detailed to define the failure rates of individual component failure modes; such knowledge is needed when changing component-specific regulatory requirements. Second, the role of component testing, given that a component has failed, needs to be strengthened within the context of RIPBR. This includes formulating requirements for updating the prior probability distribution of a component failure rate and conducting additional or more frequent testing. Finally, as a means of compensating for unavoidable uncertainty as an obstacle to regulatory decision-making, limits to knowledge must be treated explicitly and formally. This treatment includes the

  11. An examination of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA): A southern perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    On November 16,1990, President Bush signed into law the most comprehensive amendments to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) in 15 years. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990 (HMTUSA) was created by Congress in an effort to strengthen and clarify the HMTA. This paper will discuss the act's provisions as they affect shipments of spent fuel and high-level radioactive materials as well as the impact of those provisions on routing and emergency response issues in the southern region. HMTUSA consists of seven key provisions that affect radioactive materials: clarification of regulatory jurisdiction; highway routing standards; broadened industry registration; safety permits for motor carriers of high risk materials; expanded nuclear transportation requirements; new provisions for emergency response training and planning; and a public process for assessing the feasibility of a federally operated central reporting system and data center. In addition to amending various HMTA provisions, the new HMTUSA act provides appropriations to carry out the specific goals of the legislation. The act authorizes appropriations for the 1991, 1992 and 1993 fiscal years.

  12. 78 FR 40443 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... of April 19, 2013 (76 FR 23546), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... verify whether pools and spas are in compliance with the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety...

  13. The calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum acts as a safety mechanism in rainbow trout heart

    PubMed Central

    Cros, Caroline; Sallé, Laurent; Warren, Daniel E.; Shiels, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte contraction depends on rapid changes in intracellular Ca2+. In mammals, Ca2+ influx as L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) triggers the release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) is critical for excitation-contraction coupling. In fish, the relative contribution of external and internal Ca2+ is unclear. Here, we characterized the role of ICa to trigger SR Ca2+ release in rainbow trout ventricular myocytes using ICa regulation by Ca2+ as an index of CICR. ICa was recorded with a slow (EGTA) or fast (BAPTA) Ca2+ chelator in control and isoproterenol conditions. In the absence of β-adrenergic stimulation, the rate of ICa inactivation was not significantly different in EGTA and BAPTA (27.1 ± 1.8 vs. 30.3 ± 2.4 ms), whereas with isoproterenol (1 μM), inactivation was significantly faster with EGTA (11.6 ± 1.7 vs. 27.3 ± 1.6 ms). When barium was the charge carrier, inactivation was significantly slower in both conditions (61.9 ± 6.1 vs. 68.0 ± 8.7 ms, control, isoproterenol). Quantification revealed that without isoproterenol, only 39% of ICa inactivation was due to Ca2+, while with isoproterenol, inactivation was Ca2+-dependent (∼65%) and highly reliant on SR Ca2+ (∼46%). Thus, SR Ca2+ is not released in basal conditions, and ICa is the main trigger of contraction, whereas during a stress response, SR Ca2+ is an important source of cytosolic Ca2+. This was not attributed to differences in SR Ca2+ load because caffeine-induced transients were not different in both conditions. Therefore, Ca2+ stored in SR of trout cardiomyocytes may act as a safety mechanism, allowing greater contraction when higher contractility is required, such as stress or exercise. PMID:25377479

  14. The calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum acts as a safety mechanism in rainbow trout heart.

    PubMed

    Cros, Caroline; Sallé, Laurent; Warren, Daniel E; Shiels, Holly A; Brette, Fabien

    2014-12-15

    Cardiomyocyte contraction depends on rapid changes in intracellular Ca(2+). In mammals, Ca(2+) influx as L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa) triggers the release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) is critical for excitation-contraction coupling. In fish, the relative contribution of external and internal Ca(2+) is unclear. Here, we characterized the role of ICa to trigger SR Ca(2+) release in rainbow trout ventricular myocytes using ICa regulation by Ca(2+) as an index of CICR. ICa was recorded with a slow (EGTA) or fast (BAPTA) Ca(2+) chelator in control and isoproterenol conditions. In the absence of β-adrenergic stimulation, the rate of ICa inactivation was not significantly different in EGTA and BAPTA (27.1 ± 1.8 vs. 30.3 ± 2.4 ms), whereas with isoproterenol (1 μM), inactivation was significantly faster with EGTA (11.6 ± 1.7 vs. 27.3 ± 1.6 ms). When barium was the charge carrier, inactivation was significantly slower in both conditions (61.9 ± 6.1 vs. 68.0 ± 8.7 ms, control, isoproterenol). Quantification revealed that without isoproterenol, only 39% of ICa inactivation was due to Ca(2+), while with isoproterenol, inactivation was Ca(2+)-dependent (∼65%) and highly reliant on SR Ca(2+) (∼46%). Thus, SR Ca(2+) is not released in basal conditions, and ICa is the main trigger of contraction, whereas during a stress response, SR Ca(2+) is an important source of cytosolic Ca(2+). This was not attributed to differences in SR Ca(2+) load because caffeine-induced transients were not different in both conditions. Therefore, Ca(2+) stored in SR of trout cardiomyocytes may act as a safety mechanism, allowing greater contraction when higher contractility is required, such as stress or exercise. PMID:25377479

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-4 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Overtime... excess of the standard workweek of 40 hours without paying overtime wages required by the Contract...

  16. 78 FR 32990 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ....regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2011-0551 in the ``Keyword'' box, and then clicking ``Search.'' They are also... Alcatraz Island. (77 FR 41902) The special local regulation and safety zone regulate the...

  17. 78 FR 20291 - Fisheries of the United States; Billfish Conservation Act of 2012 Implementing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Billfish Conservation Act of 2012 (BCA), Public Law 112-183, 16 U.S.C... States; Billfish Conservation Act of 2012 Implementing Regulations AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... the implementation of the Billfish Conservation Act of 2012. DATES: Written comments regarding...

  18. 76 FR 24027 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act Certificate AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act certificate. Public...-mail cecelia.davis@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose The Buy American Act requires...

  19. 75 FR 14547 - Tribal Consultation on Draft Buy Indian Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs 48 CFR Chapter 14 RIN 1076-AE95 Tribal Consultation on Draft Buy Indian Act... comments concerning draft regulations to implement the Buy Indian Act. See the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... implementation of the Buy Indian Act, 25 U.S.C. 47, which provides authority to set aside procurement...

  20. 78 FR 70515 - Petition To Promulgate Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Health Inspection Service has received a petition requesting that we amend the Animal Welfare Act..., Riverdale, MD 20737-1234; (301) 851-3751. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Animal Welfare Act...

  1. 76 FR 68690 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Wool Products Labeling Act, and the Fur Products Labeling Act: Final Rule, 63 FR 7508 (Feb. 13, 1998). \\2\\ Federal Trade Commission: Miscellaneous Rules: Final Rule, 63 FR 71582 (Dec. 29, 1998). \\3... and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Final Rule, 65 FR 75154 (Dec. 1,...

  2. 78 FR 29263 - Rules andRegulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 76 FR 68690 (Nov. 7, 2011). This Notice of Proposed...--Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 24 FR 4480, 4485 (June 2... Rulemaking, 50 FR 15100 at 15101 (Apr. 15, 1985). This Notice compared the Customs regulations in 19 CFR...

  3. 78 FR 41835 - Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... made the initial changes to the Price-Anderson Act amounts on October 27, 2005 (70 FR 61885), and the... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... 3150-AJ25 Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations...

  4. 5 CFR 293.202 - Records subject to Office or agency Privacy Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Privacy Act regulations. 293.202 Section 293.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Records subject to Office or agency Privacy Act regulations. When the Office of Personnel Management publishes in the Federal Register a notice of system of records for personnel records which are...

  5. H. R. 2266: Pipeline Safety Reauthorization Act of 1988. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, April 21, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bill would amend the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 to authorize appropriations for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. The bill describes certification, state notification and pipeline inventory, state enforcement, qualifications for state grant programs, Federal-State cooperation in case of accident, destruction of signs or markers, additional inspection and testing, feasibility of regulating excavation activities, and authorization for appropriations for natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. This bill would also specifically regulate the transport of carbon dioxide. Sections are included on grants-in-aid, additional hirings, minimum requirements for one-call notification systems, internal inspection of pipelines, and emergency flow restricting devices.

  6. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    .... Regulated Navigation Areas are water areas within a defined boundary for which regulations for vessels.../2011 USCG-2011-0596 Grande Isle, LA Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/2/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/4/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/24/2011...

  7. 49 CFR 397.2 - Compliance with Federal motor carrier safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with Federal motor carrier safety...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Federal motor carrier safety regulations. A motor carrier or other person to whom this part is...

  8. Overview of the regulation of hazardous chemicals: SDWA (Safe Drinking Water Act), RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of nonradioactive hazardous chemicals is carried out under a number of federal environmental laws that regulate either hazardous products, substances, or wastes. Because each law is intended to provide protection from different classes of substances (e.g., wastes vs products) or protect different media (e.g., air, water, land), the standards and levels of protection for different hazardous chemicals may be different. Nevertheless, one agency -- the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) -- has primary responsibility for both promulgating regulations mandated by Congress under the various statutes and enforcement of the regulations. One overriding principal underlies the maze of complex regulations that govern the transport, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous substances: protect human health and the environment. It is beyond the scope of this talk to comprehensively examine all of the regulations and standards that govern the management of hazardous chemicals. Instead this discussion will focus on three statutes, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that together provide a basis for a basic understanding of the approach that the EPA takes to regulating hazardous chemicals.

  9. 77 FR 57043 - Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Labeling Act (``TFLA''), and, on its own initiative, deleting unnecessary requirements. \\1\\ 76 FR 13550..., most recently in 1967.\\17\\ \\16\\ 15 U.S.C. 69e(b). \\17\\ 32 FR 6023 (Apr. 15, 1967). C. TFLA In 2010....ftc.gov/opa/2011/07/regreview.shtm . \\24\\ 76 FR 13550. \\25\\ The comments, along with a transcript...

  10. 77 FR 50390 - Equal Credit Opportunity Act (Regulation B)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ..., such as account numbers or social security numbers, should not be included. Comments will not be edited... from the Bureau's rulemaking authority by section 1029 of the Dodd-Frank Act). 76 FR 79442 (Dec. 21...-reference to the definition of ``dwelling'' that, as discussed below, is proposed to be moved to Sec....

  11. 77 FR 66539 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... electronic records and automated searches along with paper records and manual searches. In addition, FMCS's... twenty cents per page, while document search and review charges will increase to $4.00 per each quarter... revisions read as follows: Sec. 1401.36 Freedom of Information Act fee schedules. (a) * * * (2) Search...

  12. 78 FR 50351 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... without charge. These Direct Costs shall include the cost of operating a central processing unit for that... processing Requests for Information under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The revisions reorganize the... reached before the NCPC charges members of the public a processing fee for information. DATES:...

  13. 78 FR 32595 - Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ..., entitled ``Freedom of Information Act'' (74 FR 4683, January 26, 2009) and ``Transparency and Openness'' (74 FR 4685, January 26, 2009), which encourage federal agencies to apply a presumption of disclosure... published by the Department of Justice (DOJ) on March 21, 2011 (76 FR 15236). DOJ intended for these...

  14. The Equal Access Act: Policy and Regulations for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, H. Lawrence; Martin, James

    The Equal Access Act of 1984 was drafted to implement access for religious clubs to public secondary schools, but with constitutionally protected safeguards to preclude entanglement of church and state. A number of challenges were made on the constitutional grounds of excessive entanglement of church and state, as well as what the definition of…

  15. 49 CFR 177.804 - Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. 177.804 Section 177.804 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY...

  16. 76 FR 15841 - General Rules and Regulations, Securities Act of 1933

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 230 General Rules and Regulations, Securities Act of 1933 CFR Correction In Title 17 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 200 to 239, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 686, in.... 230.501 Definitions and terms used in Regulation D. * * * * * (e) * * * NOTE: The issuer must...

  17. The Final Regulations to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Alexandria, VA.

    This publication presents the final regulations to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990. The first section is an analysis of the regulations. This analysis compares the proposed regulations to the final version and explains the differences between the two and the potential impact on program administration.…

  18. 50 CFR 14.250 - What is the purpose of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Act § 14.250 What is the purpose of these regulations? The regulations in this subpart implement the Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CWSA), 117 Stat. 2871, which amended the Lacey Act Amendments of...

  19. 50 CFR 14.250 - What is the purpose of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Act § 14.250 What is the purpose of these regulations? The regulations in this subpart implement the Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CWSA), 117 Stat. 2871, which amended the Lacey Act Amendments of...

  20. 50 CFR 14.250 - What is the purpose of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Safety Act § 14.250 What is the purpose of these regulations? The regulations in this subpart implement the Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CWSA), 117 Stat. 2871, which amended the Lacey Act Amendments of...

  1. 50 CFR 14.250 - What is the purpose of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety Act § 14.250 What is the purpose of these regulations? The regulations in this subpart implement the Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CWSA), 117 Stat. 2871, which amended the Lacey Act Amendments of...

  2. 50 CFR 14.250 - What is the purpose of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Safety Act § 14.250 What is the purpose of these regulations? The regulations in this subpart implement the Captive Wildlife Safety Act (CWSA), 117 Stat. 2871, which amended the Lacey Act Amendments of...

  3. Sociological refigurations of patient safety; ontologies of improvement and 'acting with' quality collaboratives in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Zuiderent-Jerak, Teun; Strating, Mathilde; Nieboer, Anna; Bal, Roland

    2009-12-01

    The increasing focus on patient safety in the field of health policy is accompanied by research programs that articulate the role of the social sciences as one of contributing to enhancing safety in healthcare. Through these programs, new approaches to studying safety are facing a narrow definition of 'usefulness' in which researchers are to discover the factors that support or hamper the implementation of existing policy agendas. This is unfortunate since such claims for useful involvement in predefined policy agendas may undo one of the strongest assets of good social science research: the capacity to complexify the taken-for-granted conceptualizations of the object of study. As an alternative to this definition of 'usefulness', this article proposes a focus on multiple ontologies in the making when studying patient safety. Through such a focus, the role of social scientists becomes the involvement in refiguring the problem space of patient safety, the relations between research subjects and objects, and the existing policy agendas. This role gives medical sociologists the opportunity to focus on the question of which practices of 'effective care' are being enacted through different approaches for dealing with patient safety and what their consequences are for the care practices under study. In order to explore these questions, this article draws on empirical material from an ongoing evaluation of a large quality improvement collaborative for the care sectors in the Netherlands. It addresses how issues like 'effectiveness' and 'client participation' are at present articulated in this collaborative and shows that alternative figurations of these notions dissolve many 'implementation problems' presently experienced. Further it analyzes how such a focus of medical sociology on multiple ontologies engenders new potential for exploring particular spaces for 'acting with' quality improvement agents.

  4. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  5. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  6. International laser-safety regulations: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Robert M.

    1990-07-01

    There is an increase in international laser safety requirements as part of the emphasis on world-wide standardization of products and regulations. In particular the documents which will evolve from the 1992 consolidation efforts of the European Community (EC) will impact both laser manufacturers and users. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of the various laser radiation standards. NORTH AMERICAN REQUIREMENTS United States Requirements on manufacturers from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been in effect since 1975. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) within that agency ensures that these mandatory requirements [1] are satisfied. The CDRH regulations include the division of products into classes depending on their potential for hazard criteria for power measurement and requirements for product features labels and manuals and records and reports. Manufacturers must test products and certify that they comply with the CDRH requirements. User requirements are found in a standard published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and in requirements from several individual states. Specific ANSI standards have also been published for fiber communications systems [34] and for lasers in medical applications [35]. Please note that the Appendix includes additional information on the standards discussed in this paper including sources for obtaining the documents. Canada In the past Canada has had requirements for two specified product categories (bar code scanners and educational lasers) [26 These will be replaced

  7. Organized labor and the origins of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

    PubMed

    Asher, Robert

    2014-11-01

    New Solutions is republishing this 1991 article by Robert Asher, which reviews the history of organized labor's efforts in the United States to secure health and safety protections for workers. The 1877 passage of the Massachusetts factory inspection law and the implementation of primitive industrial safety inspection systems in many states paralleled labor action for improved measures to protect workers' health and safety. In the early 1900s labor was focusing on workers' compensation laws. The New Deal expanded the federal government's role in worker protection, supported at least by the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), but challenged by industry and many members of the U.S. Congress. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the CIO backed opposing legal and inspection strategies in the late 1940s and through the 1950s. Still, by the late 1960s, several unions were able to help craft the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and secure new federal protections for U.S. workers.

  8. Twenty Years of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act--How Should Dietary Supplements Be Regulated?

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C

    2015-08-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 defines the FDA's statutory authority to regulate dietary supplement products in the United States. The dietary supplement industry has rapidly expanded since 1994, presenting an obvious need for "DSHEA 2.0." Current regulations surrounding dietary supplements have been increasingly and reasonably scrutinized, given their widespread use by over one-half of the US population as well as highly publicized safety concerns over the past 20 y. As the market continues to expand and evolve, so too must the laws that protect consumers from potential harm and misleading communication. This article is meant to begin a scientific dialogue on how regulations may be improved to provide both ease of access and safer products to the consumer by focusing on 4 topics: premarket approval, label claims, current Good Manufacturing Practices, and adverse event reporting. PMID:26063064

  9. Twenty Years of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act--How Should Dietary Supplements Be Regulated?

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C

    2015-08-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 defines the FDA's statutory authority to regulate dietary supplement products in the United States. The dietary supplement industry has rapidly expanded since 1994, presenting an obvious need for "DSHEA 2.0." Current regulations surrounding dietary supplements have been increasingly and reasonably scrutinized, given their widespread use by over one-half of the US population as well as highly publicized safety concerns over the past 20 y. As the market continues to expand and evolve, so too must the laws that protect consumers from potential harm and misleading communication. This article is meant to begin a scientific dialogue on how regulations may be improved to provide both ease of access and safer products to the consumer by focusing on 4 topics: premarket approval, label claims, current Good Manufacturing Practices, and adverse event reporting.

  10. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    PubMed

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  11. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    PubMed

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  12. Accidents and Apathy: The Construction of the ‘Robens Philosophy’ of Occupational Safety and Health Regulation in Britain, 1961–1974

    PubMed Central

    Sirrs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The 1972 Robens Report is widely regarded to have provided the underlying rationale for the ‘modern’ system of occupational health and safety regulation in Britain, embodied in the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW Act) 1974. The HSW Act advanced a new, more flexible system of regulation, premised on the ideal of self-regulation by industry. This article advances a more nuanced historical understanding of the Report and its ethos—the ‘Robens philosophy’—than hitherto developed, situating its assumptions about accidents, regulation and the role of the state in the social, economic and political context of Britain in the 1960s and early 1970s. Highlighting the interaction between these trends and long-established regulatory practices, the article argues that the turn to ‘self-regulation’ heralded by the Robens Report was highly convincing from a political and regulatory perspective at the time it was promulgated. PMID:26858514

  13. [Safety and health in work from the perspective of the Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hortigüela Amillo, J

    1996-01-01

    The passing of the Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act, (Ley 31/1995), constituted a change in direction in the development of occupational safety and health in Spain. This article describes the most salient points of this new legislation, from the criteria and principles that have to govern preventive activities, to the obligations and rights of both employers and workers, together with the co-operation and co-ordination of the activities of the various Administrations which have jurisdiction and the participation of employers' and workers' organisations, as the backbone of policy in matters concerning the prevention of occupational hazards.

  14. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  15. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  16. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  17. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  18. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  19. Auxin acts independently of DELLA proteins in regulating gibberellin levels.

    PubMed

    Reid, James B; Davidson, Sandra E; Ross, John J

    2011-03-01

    Shoot elongation is a vital process for plant development and productivity, in both ecological and economic contexts. Auxin and bioactive gibberellins (GAs), such as GA1, play critical roles in the control of elongation, along with environmental and endogenous factors, including other hormones such as the brassinosteroids. The effect of auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is at least in part mediated by its effect on GA metabolism, since auxin up-regulates biosynthesis genes such as GA 3-oxidase and GA 20-oxidase and down regulates GA catabolism genes such as GA 2-oxidases, leading to elevated levels of bioactive GA 1. In our recent paper, we have provided evidence that this action of IAA is largely independent of DELLA proteins, the negative regulators of GA action, since the auxin effects are still present in the DELLA-deficient la cry-s genotype of pea. This was a crucial issue to resolve, since like auxin, the DELLAs also promote GA 1 synthesis and inhibit its deactivation. DELLAs are deactivated by GA, and thereby mediate a feedback system by which bioactive GA regulates its own level. However, our recent results, in themselves, do not show the generality of the auxin-GA relationship across species and phylogenetic groups or across different tissue types and responses. Further, they do not touch on the ecological benefits of the auxin-GA interaction. These issues are discussed below as well as the need for the development of suitable experimental systems to allow this process to be examined. PMID:21358281

  20. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act.

  1. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. PMID:23581674

  2. 75 FR 80452 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings and Implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act of 1980

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Equal Access to Justice Act of 1980 AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB or Board). ACTION... concerning applications for fees and expenses under the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA). The NTSB is... update rules that may be outdated, in the interest of modernizing the rules to accommodate...

  3. The Fair Labor Standards Act and the Child Care Industry--What Regulations Apply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Elisa

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the federal Fair Labor Standard Act (FLSA) affects the wages and work hours of child care employees and how FLSA interacts with analogous state laws. Examines how child care centers can determine whether FLSA regulations apply to them, existing exemptions to the current act, minimum wage and overtime, whether training time is working…

  4. 20 CFR 626.2 - Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including complaint processing and compliance reviews, will be governed by the provisions of 29 CFR part 34... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act... LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the...

  5. 20 CFR 626.2 - Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including complaint processing and compliance reviews, will be governed by the provisions of 29 CFR part 34... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act... LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the...

  6. 20 CFR 626.4 - Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Job Training Partnership Act, 20 CFR parts 626-638 and 1005, 1 is as follows: 1 Part 1005 was... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents for the Job Training..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.4 Table...

  7. 20 CFR 626.4 - Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Job Training Partnership Act, 20 CFR parts 626-638 and 1005, 1 is as follows: 1 Part 1005 was... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents for the Job Training..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.4 Table...

  8. 78 FR 54648 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Reporting Requirements--One-Time... identified by Information Collection 9000- 0168, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Reporting..., company name (if any), and ``Information Collection 9000-0168, American Recovery and Reinvestment...

  9. 78 FR 54650 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Regulation; Information Collection American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0167, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting.... Instructions: Please submit comments only and cite Information Collection 9000-0167, American Recovery...

  10. 76 FR 40367 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... (Grimberg Decision). Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information is..., American Act--Construction (Grimberg Decision), by any of the following methods: ] Regulations.gov : http... Collection 9000-0141,'' American Act--Construction (Grimberg Decision), under the heading ``Enter Keyword...

  11. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  12. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  13. Safety of long-acting beta agonists and inhaled corticosteroids in children and adolescents with asthma.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ying; Kelton, Christina M L; Xue, Liang; Guo, Jeff J; Bian, Boyang; Wigle, Patricia R

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) was considered a major advance in bronchodilator therapy for adult, as well as pediatric, patients with asthma. However, the use of LABAs has raised safety concerns, especially the potential for severe asthma exacerbations (SAEs) resulting in hospitalizations or even death. Meanwhile, the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), a cornerstone in the treatment of mild-to-severe persistent asthma, has been associated with growth suppression in children. The purpose of this review was to identify and discuss the major published safety studies surrounding LABA, ICS, and combined LABA/ICS usage in children. By way of a critical search for influential published clinical trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies, six studies relevant to the safety of LABA monotherapy, seven studies relevant to ICS monotherapy, and four studies on the subject of LABA/ICS combination usage were identified and reviewed. Based on the reviewed literature, the controversy surrounding these anti-asthma medications was clearly exposed. On the one hand, there is some evidence that LABA monotherapy may be associated with SAEs and asthma-related death, while ICS monotherapy may be associated with a higher risk of growth suppression. On the other hand, the concurrent use of a LABA with an ICS has been associated with positive outcomes including symptom reduction and reduced rate and severity of exacerbations. Further clinical research is warranted and has been called for by the US Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25114786

  14. Safety of long-acting beta agonists and inhaled corticosteroids in children and adolescents with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ying; Kelton, Christina M. L.; Xue, Liang; Bian, Boyang; Wigle, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) was considered a major advance in bronchodilator therapy for adult, as well as pediatric, patients with asthma. However, the use of LABAs has raised safety concerns, especially the potential for severe asthma exacerbations (SAEs) resulting in hospitalizations or even death. Meanwhile, the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), a cornerstone in the treatment of mild-to-severe persistent asthma, has been associated with growth suppression in children. The purpose of this review was to identify and discuss the major published safety studies surrounding LABA, ICS, and combined LABA/ICS usage in children. By way of a critical search for influential published clinical trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies, six studies relevant to the safety of LABA monotherapy, seven studies relevant to ICS monotherapy, and four studies on the subject of LABA/ICS combination usage were identified and reviewed. Based on the reviewed literature, the controversy surrounding these anti-asthma medications was clearly exposed. On the one hand, there is some evidence that LABA monotherapy may be associated with SAEs and asthma-related death, while ICS monotherapy may be associated with a higher risk of growth suppression. On the other hand, the concurrent use of a LABA with an ICS has been associated with positive outcomes including symptom reduction and reduced rate and severity of exacerbations. Further clinical research is warranted and has been called for by the US Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25114786

  15. 78 FR 77385 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; AA00 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to update special local regulations and permanent safety...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  17. Motor Vehicle Safety Authorization Act of 1986. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, September 17, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The House Committee on Energy and Commerce suggests several amendments to H.R. 2248, which authorizes National Highway Traffic Safety Administration appropriations for 1987-1988. The legislation addresses such safety issues as the requirement that dealers inform potential buyers of true odometer readings, tire registration, bumper strength, and defects. The report covers automobile recalls of the past decade, the need for safety standard equality certification for imports, and state safety inspection programs. Oversight hearings and findings of the committee also addressed mandatory seat belt use. The bill affects the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 and the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The report notes several areas of compromise.

  18. 77 FR 38717 - Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 531 and 553 Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 899, revised as of July...

  19. 7 CFR 27.4 - Obligations and rights under Act: not affected by regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations and rights under Act: not affected by regulations. 27.4 Section 27.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS...

  20. 7 CFR 27.95 - Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations. 27.95 Section 27.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND...

  1. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  2. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  3. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  4. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  5. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  6. 76 FR 78130 - Mortgage Acts and Practices-Advertising (Regulation N); Mortgage Assistance Relief Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... the Bureau, the Bureau is publishing for public comment an interim final rule establishing a new Regulation N (Mortgage Acts and Practices-- Advertising Rule) and a new Regulation O (Mortgage Assistance Relief Services Rule). This interim final rule does not impose any new substantive obligations on...

  7. 75 FR 59609 - Rescission of Regulations Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... its smokeless tobacco regulations, 16 CFR Part 307, on November 4, 1986.\\1\\ 51 FR 40015. \\1\\ The... on utilitarian items. 56 FR 11654 (Mar. 20, 1991). II. Basis for Removal of Regulations On June 22... the enactment of the Family Smoking Prevention Act. 75 FR 3665 (Jan. 22, ] 2010). The...

  8. 78 FR 8963 - Update of Existing Privacy Act-NASA Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... document contains corrections to the final regulations (NASA-2012-0005), which were published in the Federal Register of Thursday, October 4, 2012 (77 FR 60620). The regulations relate to requests to access... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1212 RIN 2700-AD86 Update of Existing Privacy Act--NASA...

  9. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  10. Adaptive regulation or governmentality: patient safety and the changing regulation of medicine.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores how current 'patient safety' reforms offer to change the regulation of medicine. Drawing on existing literature, it is argued that this policy agenda represents a new frontier in medical/managerial relations, introducing a disciplinary expertise within the health service that provides managers with the knowledge and legitimacy to survey and scrutinise medical performance, made real through procedures for incident reporting and root-cause analysis. The extent of regulatory change is investigated, drawing on an ethnographic case study of one hospital. It is shown that, as with other organisational and managerial reforms, doctors are resisting managerial prerogatives through seeking to subvert and 'capture' components of reform. I describe this as 'adaptive regulation' to account for how doctors seek to maintain their regulatory monopoly and limit managerial encroachment. It is speculated, however, that this process could signal the future 'modernisation' of medical professionalism where emerging managerial discourses, within the wider context of public sector reform, are increasingly internalised with medical practice and culture. This leads to new and rearticulated forms of self-surveillance, self-management or 'governmentality', ultimately negating the need for external groups to explicitly manage or regulate professional practice. PMID:17381811

  11. 76 FR 43585 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... 31 of the Code of Federal Regulations for the BSA regulations. See 75 FR 65806 (October 26, 2010... Proposed Rulemaking, Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services Businesses, 74 FR 22129... financing of terrorist activities; \\7\\ (2) file Currency Transaction Reports (``CTRs'') \\8\\ and...

  12. Regulations on Meat Hygiene and Safety in the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwinger, Ron H.; Golden, Thomas E.; Hatakka, Maija; Chalus, Thierry

    Meat safety concerns physical, chemical and biological aspects. With regard to these aspects it is important that the slaughterhouse and processing industry implement a HACCP programme. By implementing such a programme all hazards, which could affect human safety, will have to be identified, monitored when considered as critical and eliminated, reduced or prevented. With regard to preventing physical hazards, a metal detector should be a regular piece of equipment in the meat processing industry.

  13. 78 FR 39901 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (Regulation B), Real...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... purposes under the mortgage regulations, application of the loan originator compensation rules to bank... Bureau issued Escrow Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z), 78 FR 4726 (Jan. 30... Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X), 78 FR 6856 (Jan. 31, 2013) (2013 HOEPA Final Rule), and Ability...

  14. Comparative policy analysis of coal-mine safety regulation in the United States and Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The study concerns an analysis of the factors which influence death rates in coal mines in the United States and Poland. The study uses multiple regression and time series analysis on data since the end of World War II. A formal causal model is derived from political economy literatures and safety studies to analyze the determinants of death rates. Independent variables hypothesized to affect death rate include government regulation, numerous technical safety measures, profit, production, productivity, legislation and differences between the two countries' industrial and planning systems and ideologies. Death rate was reduced dramatically in Poland by the mid-1950s, due primarily to stringent safety regulations, and extensive safety training programs for workers. American death rate remained much higher than Polish death rate until the late 1970s, due to weaker legislation and regulations. Fines, closure orders, and safety training most strongly reduce American death rate. In both countries, political values relevant to safety are more important than centralized planning and administration in reducing American death rate. In both countries, political values relevant to safety are more important than centralized planning and administration in reducing death rates. Political values and regulation stringency are more favorable to safety in Poland than in the United States.

  15. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    .../2008 USCG-2008-0948 Shark River Channel, NJ.. Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 10/3/2008 USCG-2008-0981... 165)...... 3/6/2009 USCG-2009-0095 White River Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 12/22/2008 USCG-2009-0096...)...... 7/2/2009 USCG-2009-0564 Great Lakes Special Local Regulation 6/26/2009 (Part 100)....

  16. 16 CFR 1500.88 - Exemptions from lead limits under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions from lead limits under section... 1500.88 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... stripe, the address electrode, the barrier ribs, the seal frit and frit ring as well as in print...

  17. 75 FR 65263 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... of such establishment as the residence of such proprietor'' (75 FR 12167). The Commission is... definition of ``public accommodations facility in the Federal Register of March 15, 2010 (75 FR 12167). The... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation;...

  18. 78 FR 17611 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... On July 9, 2012, President Obama signed the Food and Drug Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Pub. L... Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the U.S. Senate and the Committee on Energy and... these new sections. On November 23, 2012 (77 FR 70166), FDA issued a Federal Register...

  19. 78 FR 36711 - Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII-Drug Supply Chain; Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII--Drug Supply Chain; Standards for Admission of Imported Drugs, Registration of...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification of public meeting; request for...

  20. 77 FR 70166 - Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Related to Medical Gases; Establishment of a Public Docket AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is establishing a...

  1. 75 FR 24862 - Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...'' (59 FR 22951), E.O. 13175, and 512 DM 2. We have determined that there are no potential effects. This... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 83 RIN 1018-AX00 Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...

  2. 75 FR 36589 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Definitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... revise the Bank Secrecy Act (``BSA'') regulations applicable to Money Services Businesses with regard to...-bank financial institutions that offer specific services (often in combination) and are without a... Services Business NPRM On May 12, 2009, FinCEN published an NPRM entitled ``Amendment to the Bank...

  3. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  4. The National Labor Relations Act and the Regulation of Public Employee Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Walter; Smiley, Stafford

    1976-01-01

    The arguments for and against federal assumption of the responsibility for regulating the relationship between public employers and public employees are analyzed. It is suggested that the National Labor Relations Act should be extended to include them, thereby imposing upon them a duty to bargain collectively. Available from: the Harvard…

  5. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final...

  6. 77 FR 234 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 303 Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission''). ACTION: Extension of the... to the following address: Federal Trade Commission, Office of the Secretary, Room H-113 (Annex...

  7. 77 FR 4498 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ...: Miscellaneous Rules: Final Rule, 63 FR 71582 (Dec. 29, 1998). \\7\\ Federal Trade Commission: Rules and... and Request for Public Comment on the Federal Trade Commission's Regulatory Review Program, 76 FR...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 300 Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act...

  8. 75 FR 19241 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... for Mutual Funds, 67 FR 21117 (April 29, 2002); Customer Identification Programs for Mutual Funds, 68 FR 25131 (May 9, 2003); Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Requirement That Mutual Funds Report Suspicious Activity, 71 FR 26213 (May 4, 2006); Anti-Money Laundering Programs; Special...

  9. 75 FR 58390 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time... extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning the American Recovery and... particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information is necessary for the proper performance...

  10. 78 FR 27308 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth In Lending Act (Regulation Z...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... adopting Sec. 1026.36(i). \\1\\ 78 FR 11279 (Feb. 15, 2013). A. Title XIV Rulemaking Effective Dates In... become effective sooner than January 2014.\\5\\ \\5\\ 77 FR 55272 (Sept. 7, 2012). The Bureau received very... Requirements Under the Truth In Lending Act (Regulation Z); Prohibition on Financing Credit Insurance...

  11. 76 FR 52295 - Amendment of Privacy Act Regulations, Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 43 CFR Part 2 RIN 1090-AA94 Amendment of Privacy Act Regulations, Request for Comments AGENCY: Office... on October 3, 2011. ADDRESSES: Send written comments, identified by RIN 1090-AA94, by one of...

  12. 76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to... changes to our horse protection regulations and our current enforcement practices and related policies... are noting, however, that certain requests in the petition lack authority in the Horse Protection...

  13. 22 CFR 91.1 - Answering inquiries regarding tariff acts and customs regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Answering inquiries regarding tariff acts and customs regulations. 91.1 Section 91.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES... matters upon which hey are not competent to pass....

  14. Laser sources in dentistry and radiation safety regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, D.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays laser sources are largely adopted in dentistry due to their unique properties making them good candidates to substitute traditional scalpel and conventional diamond bur in the surgery of the soft and hard oral tissue, respectively. The large use of laser sources outside the research laboratories without the need of highly specialized personnel can ask for a widespread knowledge of safety issues related to this kind of equipment. The main hazard of accidental exposures regards eyes injury but increasing the power of the laser beam also skin can be involved. Safety legislations in Europe and U.S.A. take into account non ionizing radiations and laser radiation for the hazards for the health deriving from physical agents. Laser safety standards introduce 3 useful parameters for hazard characterization: "Accessible Emission Limit" (AEL), "Maximum Permissible Exposure" (MPE) and "Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance" (NOHD). We measured the MPE and NOHD for Er:YAG and other laser sources currently adopted in dentistry and we compared our results with data elaborated from standards in order to single out safe and comfortable working conditions. In fact an experimental assessment of the hazard parameters and the comparison with those of reference from safety standards turns out to be useful in order to estimate the residual hazard that can be still present after applying all the engineering protection and administrative rules.

  15. Chapter 2: The Need for Physical Protection, Safety, and Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry; Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the need for physical protection and care of infants and young children and families. One of the most important preventable challenges to children's physical safety and protection is toxic substances in their environment. Many toxic substances that affect the central nervous system are in drinking water, soil, air, and areas…

  16. 76 FR 38597 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road... Regulations to operators of certain farm vehicles and off-road agricultural equipment. The public comment... determine whether off-road farm equipment or implements of husbandry operated on public roads for...

  17. Industry invites regulation: the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.

    PubMed

    Barkan, I D

    1985-01-01

    Ending its 27-year stranglehold on proposals for federal pure food and drug legislation, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and its companion bill, the Meat Inspection Act, on June 30, 1906. An unprecedented convergence of consumer, scientific, and industrial support in 1906 prompted such action; most industries even planned for it, hoping regulation would restore the competitiveness of their products on weak foreign and domestic markets. The ways in which these interests converged, and the reasons therefore, suggest a change in their relationships to each other and with the federal government as America headed into the twentieth century. PMID:3881052

  18. Industry invites regulation: the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, I D

    1985-01-01

    Ending its 27-year stranglehold on proposals for federal pure food and drug legislation, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and its companion bill, the Meat Inspection Act, on June 30, 1906. An unprecedented convergence of consumer, scientific, and industrial support in 1906 prompted such action; most industries even planned for it, hoping regulation would restore the competitiveness of their products on weak foreign and domestic markets. The ways in which these interests converged, and the reasons therefore, suggest a change in their relationships to each other and with the federal government as America headed into the twentieth century. Images p21-a p21-b PMID:3881052

  19. Regulating Space Assets Safety - China's Experience and Lex Ferenda of International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2012-01-01

    With advantages of the fast development of space activities, the world witnesses more and more accidents and disasters relating to the space assets causing tremendous loss. No one can guarantee that the American and Russian satellites collision happened 2009 will never happen again. The regulations governing the space assets safety are inadequate both nationally and internationally. The further development of commercialization of space activities will give more pressure on the weakness of the already crowded space and of he already inadequate space regulations. As a quick developing space country, China has at least three levels of national regulations relating to space assets safety though the National Space Law will not promulgated in the soon future. All these regulations play very active roles in China's space activities, and may contribute to the future National Space Law. Based on the necessity of national and international regulations of space assets safety, this paper will clarify the status quo of China's regulations relating to the space assets safety, and explore the legal basis and possibility of international cooperation on space assets safety.

  20. New paradigms for conserved, multifactorial, cis-acting regulation of meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Wahls, Wayne P; Davidson, Mari K

    2012-11-01

    How do cells position the Spo11 (Rec12)-dependent initiation of meiotic recombination at hotspots? The mechanisms are poorly understood and a prevailing view is that they differ substantially between phylogenetic groups. However, recent work discovered that individual species have multiple different DNA sequence-specific, protein-DNA complexes that regulate (and are essential for the activation of) recombination hotspots. The cis-acting elements function combinatorially with documented examples of synergism, antagonism and redundancy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that all currently well-defined modules of this multifactorial, cis-acting regulation are conserved functionally between taxa whose latest common ancestor occurred more than 1 billion years ago. Functionally conserved components include the ATF/CREB-family heterodimer Atf1-Pcr1 and its CRE-like DNA site M26, the CCAAT-box-binding complex Php2-Php3-Php5 and the CCAAT-box, and the zinc-finger protein Rst2 and its Oligo-C motif. The newfound multiplicity, functional redundancy and conservation of cis-acting controls constitute a paradigm shift with broad implications. They provide compelling evidence that most meiotic recombination is, like transcription, regulated by sequence-specific protein-DNA complexes. And the new findings provide important mechanistic insight, such as a solution to the conundrum that Prdm9 is a 'master regulator' of--yet is dispensable for--hotspot activity in mammals. PMID:22904082

  1. Offshore safety regulations in Norway: from model to system in erosion.

    PubMed

    Ryggvik, H

    2000-01-01

    There are indications that the Norwegian oil province has experienced a decrease in incidents since the introduction of its external control system, which gives industry an important role in setting and maintaining safety standards. This article argues that much of the veneration of the Norwegian model is based on a misreading of the Norwegian offshore health and safety system. The author suggests that improvements in offshore safety in Norway were not caused by the adoption of the internal control system alone, but rather by a number of factors which included the introduction of the stringent Norwegian Work Environment Act, which gives union representatives the right to stop work when they feel safety is jeopardized, as well as the maintenance of strong offshore unions with a comprehensive network of trade union-appointed safety representatives.

  2. The Maharashtra Felling of Trees (Regulation) (Amendment) Act, 1988 (No. 26 of 1989), 5 August 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Act amends the Maharashtra (India) Felling of Trees (Regulation) Act, 1964, to authorize the Tree Officer to order the planting of trees in any land (other than government-designated drought land) that he thinks does not contain an adequate number of trees. Owners and occupiers of the land must comply with the order, after being given a reasonable opportunity to be heard. If they do not comply, they can be charged for expenses incurred in having the trees planted. In 1989 the government of West Bengal enacted The Indian Forest (West Bengal Amendment) Act, 1989 (No. 22 of 1988) (Calcutta Gazette, Extraordinary, Part III, 3 February 1989). This Act increases the punishment for various infractions of the Indian Forest Act, 1927, as applied to West Bengal and inserts new language relating to the power of officers to stop and search vehicles; the ability of the state government to seize contraband and related tools, vehicles, boats, and cattle; and punishment for abetting offenses delineated by the Act. PMID:12344326

  3. Efficacy and safety of conventional long acting β2- agonists: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Aslani, Jafar; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually considered one of the leading causes of death worldwide, so finding proper therapeutic strategies for this disease is of high importance. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed the existing literature on the efficacy and safety of conventional long acting beta agonists (LABAs) in COPD patients. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and Google scholar to identify relevant articles. We limited data to double-blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data of 14, 832 COPD subjects including 7540 patients under a β2 agonist (cases) and 7292 taking placebo (controls) retrieved from 20 randomized controlled trials and were enrolled into this meta-analysis. Evaluated outcomes included overall mortality, exacerbations and tolerance to the drug. Results: The analysis of survival showed no significant difference between those taking LABAs or placebo (relative risk (RR): 0.945, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.821-1.088, P=0.432). Exacerbation rate, however, was significantly lower among the cases than among the controls (RR: 0.859, 95%CI: 0.800-0.922, p<0.001). Similar observation was detected in analyzing the rate of drug withdrawal in patients of the two groups with patients under placebo having significantly higher rate of drug discontinuation due to adverse events or disease symptoms (RR:0.821, 95% CI: 0.774-0.871; p<0.007). Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that the use of conventional LABA therapy in COPD patients is associated with a lower exacerbation rate of the disease as well as higher tolerance to the drug, but no survival advantage is expectable. Substitution of LABAs with new agents is recommended. PMID:27386055

  4. Draft Regulations for the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program. Amendment to Regulations of the Commissioner of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Facilities Planning.

    The New York State Department of Education provides the amendments to regulations of the Commissioner of Education concerning the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program effective May 7, 1999. Amended items include those involving the school district 5-year capital assets preservation facilities plan, building inspections, construction…

  5. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1:...

  6. 26 CFR 18.0 - Effective date of temporary regulations under the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Effective date of temporary regulations under the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982. 18.0 Section 18.0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... SUBCHAPTER S REVISION ACT OF 1982 § 18.0 Effective date of temporary regulations under the Subchapter...

  7. 26 CFR 18.0 - Effective date of temporary regulations under the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date of temporary regulations under the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982. 18.0 Section 18.0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... SUBCHAPTER S REVISION ACT OF 1982 § 18.0 Effective date of temporary regulations under the Subchapter...

  8. 78 FR 45842 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Parts 1024 and 1026 RIN 3170-AA37 Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation X) and the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) Correction...

  9. Occupational health and safety regulation in the coal mining industry: public health at the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    The strategy for preventing occupational disease and injury in the coal mining industry employs several elements. Standards are set and enforced; technical assistance, research, and development are provided; and surveillance is conducted. Compensation for black lung is a vivid reminder of the consequences of failure to prevent disease. And, workers are represented by a union that encourages active participation in all aspects of this strategy. There are significant problems in each of these elements. Regulatory reform threatens to weaken many standards, there is a decline in government research budgets, surveillance is not well monitored, and compensation for black lung is significantly more difficult to obtain now than in the past. Moreover, the conservative governments of the past decade are not friendly towards unions. Nevertheless, the fundamental structure of disease and injury prevention remains intact and, more importantly, it has a historical record of success. The Mine Safety and Health Act provided for a wide array of basic public health measures to prevent occupational disease and injury in the mining industry. These measures have been effective in reducing both risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable coal mine dust. They are also associated with temporary declines in productivity. In recent years, however, productivity has increased, while risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable dust have declined. At individual mines, productivity with longwall mining methods appear to be associated with increases in exposure to respirable dust. These trends are not inconsistent with similar trends following implementation of regulations by OSHA. When OSHA promulgated regulations to control exposure to vinyl chloride monomer, enforcement of the standard promoted significant efficiencies in vinyl chloride production (5).21 references.

  10. 76 FR 73570 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... December 1991 final rule (56 FR 637770-637771), PHMSA's predecessor agency, the Research and Special...-2251. Mail: Docket Management System: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, Room... all comments received for any of our dockets. You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act...

  11. New paradigms for conserved, multifactorial, cis-acting regulation of meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Wahls, Wayne P.; Davidson, Mari K.

    2012-01-01

    How do cells position the Spo11 (Rec12)-dependent initiation of meiotic recombination at hotspots? The mechanisms are poorly understood and a prevailing view is that they differ substantially between phylogenetic groups. However, recent work discovered that individual species have multiple different DNA sequence-specific, protein–DNA complexes that regulate (and are essential for the activation of) recombination hotspots. The cis-acting elements function combinatorially with documented examples of synergism, antagonism and redundancy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that all currently well-defined modules of this multifactorial, cis-acting regulation are conserved functionally between taxa whose latest common ancestor occurred more than 1 billion years ago. Functionally conserved components include the ATF/CREB-family heterodimer Atf1-Pcr1 and its CRE-like DNA site M26, the CCAAT-box-binding complex Php2-Php3-Php5 and the CCAAT-box, and the zinc-finger protein Rst2 and its Oligo-C motif. The newfound multiplicity, functional redundancy and conservation of cis-acting controls constitute a paradigm shift with broad implications. They provide compelling evidence that most meiotic recombination is, like transcription, regulated by sequence-specific protein–DNA complexes. And the new findings provide important mechanistic insight, such as a solution to the conundrum that Prdm9 is a ‘master regulator’ of—yet is dispensable for—hotspot activity in mammals. PMID:22904082

  12. Predictors of Payer Mix and Financial Performance Among Safety Net Hospitals Prior to the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Stone, Juliana; Kane, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use audited hospital financial statements to identify predictors of payer mix and financial performance in safety net hospitals prior to the Affordable Care Act. We analyzed the 2010 financial statements of 98 large, urban safety net hospital systems in 34 states, supplemented with data on population demographics, hospital features, and state policies. We used multivariate regression to identify independent predictors of three outcomes: 1) Medicaid-reliant payer mix (hospitals for which at least 25% of hospital days are paid for by Medicaid); 2) safety net revenue-to-cost ratio (Medicaid and Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital payments and local government transfers, divided by charity care costs and Medicaid payment shortfall); and 3) operating margin. Medicaid-reliant payer mix was positively associated with more inclusive state Medicaid eligibility criteria and more minority patients. More inclusive Medicaid eligibility and higher Medicaid reimbursement rates positively predicted safety net revenue-to-cost ratio. University governance was the strongest positive predictor of operating margin. Safety net hospital financial performance varied considerably. Academic hospitals had higher operating margins, while more generous Medicaid eligibility and reimbursement policies improved hospitals' ability to recoup costs. Institutional and state policies may outweigh patient demographics in the financial health of safety net hospitals.

  13. Predictors of Payer Mix and Financial Performance Among Safety Net Hospitals Prior to the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Stone, Juliana; Kane, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use audited hospital financial statements to identify predictors of payer mix and financial performance in safety net hospitals prior to the Affordable Care Act. We analyzed the 2010 financial statements of 98 large, urban safety net hospital systems in 34 states, supplemented with data on population demographics, hospital features, and state policies. We used multivariate regression to identify independent predictors of three outcomes: 1) Medicaid-reliant payer mix (hospitals for which at least 25% of hospital days are paid for by Medicaid); 2) safety net revenue-to-cost ratio (Medicaid and Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital payments and local government transfers, divided by charity care costs and Medicaid payment shortfall); and 3) operating margin. Medicaid-reliant payer mix was positively associated with more inclusive state Medicaid eligibility criteria and more minority patients. More inclusive Medicaid eligibility and higher Medicaid reimbursement rates positively predicted safety net revenue-to-cost ratio. University governance was the strongest positive predictor of operating margin. Safety net hospital financial performance varied considerably. Academic hospitals had higher operating margins, while more generous Medicaid eligibility and reimbursement policies improved hospitals' ability to recoup costs. Institutional and state policies may outweigh patient demographics in the financial health of safety net hospitals. PMID:25995304

  14. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part, and if so what must I do? 1271.10 Section 1271.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED...

  15. HIPAA Mental Health Parity Act--IRS. Notice of proposed rulemaking by cross-reference to temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    1997-12-22

    Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the IRS is issuing temporary regulations relating to mental health parity requirements imposed on group health plans. These requirements were added to the Internal Revenue Code by section 1532 of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997. The IRS is issuing the temporary regulations at the same time that the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor and the Health Care Financing Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations relating to mental health parity requirements added by the Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Public Health Service Act. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers and group health plans relating to the new mental health parity requirements. The text of those temporary regulations also serves as the text of these proposed regulations.

  16. The precautionary principle and the regulation of U.S. food and drug safety.

    PubMed

    Soule, Ed

    2004-06-01

    This article probes the advisability of regulating U.S. food and drug safety according to the precautionary principle. To do so, a precautionary regulatory regime is formulated on the basis of the beliefs that motivate most proponents of this initiative. That hypothetical regime is critically analyzed on the basis of an actual instantiation of a similarly stylized initiative. It will be argued that the precautionary principle entails regulatory constraints that are apt to violate basis tenets of political legitimacy. The modifications that would change this finding would also change precautionary regulation to the point that it would be indistinguishable from orthodox safety protocols. It is concluded on the basis of its impoverished content that the precautionary principle should not be taken seriously as a formal approach to the regulation of U.S. food and drug safety.

  17. USP21 negatively regulates antiviral response by acting as a RIG-I deubiquitinase

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yihui; Mao, Renfang; Yu, Yang; Liu, Shangfeng; Shi, Zhongcheng; Cheng, Jin; Zhang, Huiyuan; An, Lei; Zhao, Yanling; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhenghu; Kogiso, Mari; Zhang, Dekai; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Pumin; Jung, Jae U.; Li, Xiaonan

    2014-01-01

    Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of RIG-I is essential in antiviral immune defense, yet the molecular mechanism that negatively regulates this critical step is poorly understood. Here, we report that USP21 acts as a novel negative regulator in antiviral responses through its ability to bind to and deubiquitinate RIG-I. Overexpression of USP21 inhibited RNA virus–induced RIG-I polyubiquitination and RIG-I–mediated interferon (IFN) signaling, whereas deletion of USP21 resulted in elevated RIG-I polyubiquitination, IRF3 phosphorylation, IFN-α/β production, and antiviral responses in MEFs in response to RNA virus infection. USP21 also restricted antiviral responses in peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). USP21-deficient mice spontaneously developed splenomegaly and were more resistant to VSV infection with elevated production of IFNs. Chimeric mice with USP21-deficient hematopoietic cells developed virus-induced splenomegaly and were more resistant to VSV infection. Functional comparison of three deubiquitinases (USP21, A20, and CYLD) demonstrated that USP21 acts as a bona fide RIG-I deubiquitinase to down-regulate antiviral response independent of the A20 ubiquitin-editing complex. Our studies identify a previously unrecognized role for USP21 in the negative regulation of antiviral response through deubiquitinating RIG-I. PMID:24493797

  18. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements of the Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters (16 CFR part 1210); devices that contain more than... Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters, 16 CFR part 1210. In developing that standard, the Commission... number of features from the cigarette lighter standard, 16 CFR part 1210, in order to minimize...

  19. Risk adjustment under the Affordable Care Act: a guide for federal and state regulators.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    To achieve the aims of the Affordable Care Act, state and federal regulators must construct an effective system of risk adjustment, one that protects health insurers that attract a disproportionate share of patients with poor health risks. This brief, which summarizes a Commonwealth Fund–supported conference of leading risk adjustment experts, explores the challenges regulators will face, considers the consequences of the law's risk adjustment provisions, and analyzes the merits of different risk adjustment strategies. Among other recommendations, the brief suggests that regulators use diagnostic rather than only demographic risk measures, that they allow states some but limited flexibility to tailor risk adjustment methods to local circumstances, and that they phase in the use of risk transfer payments to give insurers more time to predict and understand the full effects of risk adjustment.

  20. Regulation of toxic pollutants under the Clean Water Act: EPA's ten-year rulemaking nears completion

    SciTech Connect

    Wyche, B.W.

    1983-01-01

    Whether it's footdragging, or compliance is impossible, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) usually fails to meet its deadlines for issuing regulations. The best-known case is probably EPA's 10-year struggle to establish regulatory controls on toxic pollutants under the Clean Water Act. The developmental process is reviewed from the initial statutory framework (enacted in 1948) and the effluent limitations amendments (legislated in 1972), through its litigation history, to an analysis of the federal district court's three substantive opinions delivered during 1982. The author considers the possibility of legislative intervention because deadlines for compliance have been issued but the regulations have not. He concludes that without Toxics Consent Decree litigation, the toxic pollutant control program might have become a reality. EPA's toxic pollutant control regulations as of April 1, 1983, are tabulated. 129 references, 4 tables.

  1. [Topical issues of biological safety under current conditions. Part 3. Scientific provision for the national regulation of the biological safety framework in its broad interpretation].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolensky, V Yu; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Yu V; Toporkov, V P; Toporkov, A V; Lyapin, M N; Kutyrev, V V

    2014-01-01

    Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population". PMID:25971137

  2. [Topical issues of biological safety under current conditions. Part 3. Scientific provision for the national regulation of the biological safety framework in its broad interpretation].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolensky, V Yu; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Yu V; Toporkov, V P; Toporkov, A V; Lyapin, M N; Kutyrev, V V

    2014-01-01

    Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population".

  3. Safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of long acting versus intermediate acting insulin for patients with type 1 diabetes: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tricco, Andrea C; Ashoor, Huda M; Antony, Jesmin; Beyene, Joseph; Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Harrington, Alana; Wilson, Charlotte; Tsouros, Sophia; Soobiah, Charlene; Yu, Catherine H; Hutton, Brian; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Moher, David; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of long acting insulin for type 1 diabetes. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and grey literature were searched through January 2013. Study selection Randomized controlled trials or non-randomized studies of long acting (glargine, detemir) and intermediate acting (neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH), lente) insulin for adults with type 1 diabetes were included. Results 39 studies (27 randomized controlled trials including 7496 patients) were included after screening of 6501 titles/abstracts and 190 full text articles. Glargine once daily, detemir once daily, and detemir once/twice daily significantly reduced hemoglobin A1c compared with NPH once daily in network meta-analysis (26 randomized controlled trials, mean difference −0.39%, 95% confidence interval −0.59% to −0.19%; −0.26%, −0.48% to −0.03%; and −0.36%, −0.65% to −0.08%; respectively). Differences in network meta-analysis were observed between long acting and intermediate acting insulin for severe hypoglycemia (16 randomized controlled trials; detemir once/twice daily versus NPH once/twice daily: odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.91) and weight gain (13 randomized controlled trials; detemir once daily versus NPH once/twice daily: mean difference 4.04 kg, 3.06 to 5.02 kg; detemir once/twice daily versus NPH once daily: −5.51 kg, −6.56 to −4.46 kg; glargine once daily versus NPH once daily: −5.14 kg, −6.07 to −4.21). Compared with NPH, detemir was less costly and more effective in 3/14 cost effectiveness analyses and glargine was less costly and more effective in 2/8 cost effectiveness analyses. The remaining cost effectiveness analyses found that detemir and glargine were more costly but more effective than NPH. Glargine was not cost effective compared with detemir in 2/2 cost effectiveness analyses

  4. 78 FR 13298 - Notice of Retrospective Review of the Americans With Disabilities Act Regulations for Over-the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Act Regulations for Over-the-Road Bus Operators; Request for Comments AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...) implementing regulations for over-the-road bus (OTRB) operators. The DOT will review regulations specified...

  5. Inconsistencies among European Union Pharmaceutical Regulator Safety Communications: A Cross-Country Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Lefèvre, Jérémie H.; Downing, Nicholas; Bergeron, Henri; Ross, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and national regulators share the responsibility to communicate to healthcare providers postmarketing safety events but little is known about the consistency of this process. We aimed to compare public availability of safety-related communications and drug withdrawals from the EMA and European Union member countries for novel medicines. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis using public Dear Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) for all novel medicines authorized between 2001 and 2010 by the EMA and available for use in France, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Between 2001 and 2010, the EMA approved 185 novel medicines. DHPCs could not be ascertained for the EMA. Among the 4 national regulators, as of April 30, 2013, at least one safety DHPC or withdrawal occurred for 53 (28.6%) medicines, totaling 90 DHPCs and 5 withdrawals. Among these 53 medicines, all 4 national agencies issued at least one communication for 17 (32.1%), three of the four for 25 (47.2%), two of the four for 6 (11.3%), and one of the four for 5 (9.4%). Five drugs were reported to be withdrawn, three by all four countries, one by three and one by two. Among the 95 DHPCs and withdrawals, 20 (21.1%) were issued by all 4 national regulators, 37 (38.9%) by 3 of the 4, 22 (23.2%) by 2 of the 4, and 16 (16.8%) by one. Consistency of making publicly available all identified safety DHPC or withdrawal across regulator pairs varied from 33% to 73% agreement. Conclusions Safety communications were not made publicly available by the EMA. Among the 4 European member countries with national regulators that make DHPCs publicly available since at least 2001, there were substantial inconsistencies in safety communications for novel medicines. The impact of those inconsistencies in terms of public health remains to be determined. PMID:25333986

  6. ATH1 and KNAT2 proteins act together in regulation of plant inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Pi, Limin; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

    2012-02-01

    The inflorescence of flowering plants is a highly organized structure, not only contributing to plant reproductive processes, but also constituting an important part of the entire plant morphology. Previous studies have revealed that the class-I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP or KNAT1), KNAT2, and KNAT6 play essential roles in inflorescence architecture. Pedicel morphology is known to contribute greatly to inflorescence architecture, and BP negatively regulates KNAT2 and KNAT6 to ensure that pedicels have a normal upward-pointing orientation. These findings indicate that a genetic network exists in controlling pedicel orientation, but how this network functions in the developmental process remains elusive. Here it is reported that the ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1) gene, which belongs to the BELL1-like homeodomain gene family, is a new member participating in regulating pedicel orientation in the class-I KNOX network. In a genetic screening for suppressors of isoginchaku-2D, a gain-of-function ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 mutant that displays downward-pointing pedicels, a suppressor mutant was obtained. Characterization of this mutant revealed that the mutation corresponds to ATH1. Genetic analysis indicated that ATH1 acts mainly in the KNAT2 pathway. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that ATH1 physically interacts with KNAT2. The data indicate that the ATH1-KNAT2 complex acts redundantly with KNAT6, both of which are negatively regulated by BP during pedicel development.

  7. Nuclear power meets the 101st Congress, a {open_quotes}one-act{close_quotes} comedy: Regulation of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, R.

    1992-12-31

    In the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate all radioactive pollutants, including those emitted from facilities licensed and regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Thus began the era of so-called {open_quotes}dual regulation.{close_quotes} Thirteen years later, that era ended with the passage of section 112(d)(9) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which authorized the EPA to refrain from regulating any category of NRC-licensed facility if it found that NRC regulation was adequate to protect public health. This story of how Congress reversed regulatory policy is actually a story more about nuclear power than air pollution. Dual regulation was authorized in 1977 because of two concerns: fears about the public health risks associated with the nation`s growing commitment to nuclear power and doubts about the integrity of nuclear regulation by the NRC. Although neither of these concerns had abated by 1990, the legislative process was so adroitly manipulated by the proponents of nuclear power that Congress, unwittingly, restored the NRC`s regulatory monopoly.

  8. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 Acts in Regulating Abscisic Acid Signaling and Drought Response.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongliang; Huo, Yongjin; Wei, Yangyang; Chen, Qiansi; Xu, Ziwei; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique endosomes containing vesicles in the lumens and play essential roles in many eukaryotic cellular processes. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5), a positive regulator of MVB biogenesis, has critical roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, whether the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling is involved in LIP5-mediated stress response is largely unknown. Here, we report that LIP5 functions in regulating ABA signaling and drought response in Arabidopsis. Analyses of a LIP5 promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct revealed substantial GUS activity in whole seedlings. The expression of LIP5 was induced by ABA and drought, and overexpression of LIP5 led to ABA hypersensitivity, enhanced stomatal closure, reduced water loss, and, therefore, increased drought tolerance. On the contrary, LIP5 knockdown mutants showed ABA-insensitive phenotypes and reduced drought tolerance; suggesting that LIP5 acts in regulating ABA response. Further analysis using a fluorescent dye revealed that ABA and water stress induced cell endocytosis or vesicle trafficking in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of several drought- or ABA-inducible marker genes was significantly down-regulated in the lip5 mutant seedlings. Collectively, our data suggest that LIP5 positively regulates drought tolerance through ABA-mediated cell signaling. PMID:27313589

  9. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 Acts in Regulating Abscisic Acid Signaling and Drought Response

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zongliang; Huo, Yongjin; Wei, Yangyang; Chen, Qiansi; Xu, Ziwei; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique endosomes containing vesicles in the lumens and play essential roles in many eukaryotic cellular processes. The Arabidopsis LYST INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5), a positive regulator of MVB biogenesis, has critical roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, whether the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling is involved in LIP5-mediated stress response is largely unknown. Here, we report that LIP5 functions in regulating ABA signaling and drought response in Arabidopsis. Analyses of a LIP5 promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct revealed substantial GUS activity in whole seedlings. The expression of LIP5 was induced by ABA and drought, and overexpression of LIP5 led to ABA hypersensitivity, enhanced stomatal closure, reduced water loss, and, therefore, increased drought tolerance. On the contrary, LIP5 knockdown mutants showed ABA-insensitive phenotypes and reduced drought tolerance; suggesting that LIP5 acts in regulating ABA response. Further analysis using a fluorescent dye revealed that ABA and water stress induced cell endocytosis or vesicle trafficking in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of several drought- or ABA-inducible marker genes was significantly down-regulated in the lip5 mutant seedlings. Collectively, our data suggest that LIP5 positively regulates drought tolerance through ABA-mediated cell signaling. PMID:27313589

  10. Administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, (1987 annual report). Report for January-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This document is an annual report submitted to the President for transmittal to the Congress. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Center for Devices and Radiological Health, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. The report provides a summary of the operations of the Center in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1987. In reviewing the operations of the CDRH as reported in the document, it should be kept in mind that the day-to-day administration of the Act is only part of the Center's function. Other responsibilities include the administration and enforcement of the 1976 Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (not covered in the report). Manufacturers of electronic products are required by 21 CFR 1002.20 to report accidental radiation occurrences to the CDRH. The Center no longer maintains a Radiation Incidents Registry, since accidental radiation occurrences are reported through the Device Experience Network (DEN) and through the requirements of the Medical Device Reporting (MDR) regulations.

  11. The ethics of postmarketing observational studies of drug safety under section 505(o)(3) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    PubMed

    Evans, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Congress granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) new powers to order pharmaceutical companies to conduct drug safety studies and clinical trials in the postmarketing period after drugs are approved The methodologies include observational studies that examine patients' insurance claims data and clinical records to infer whether drugs are safe in actual clinical practice. Such studies offer a valuable tool for improving drug safety, but they raise ethical and privacy concerns because they would entail widespread use of patients' health information in commercial research by drug manufacturers. This is the first article to explore the ethics of these section 505(0)(3) observational studies, so named after the section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that authorizes them. Data access problems threaten to make the FDA's section 505(0)(3) study requirements unenforceable. Under existing federal privacy regulations, it appears highly unlikely that pharmaceutical companies will have reliable access to crucial data resources, such as insurance claims data and healthcare records, to use in these studies. State privacy laws present another potential barrier to data access. If pharmaceutical companies do manage to gain access to the needed data, this will raise serious privacy concerns because section 505(0)(3) observational studies do not appear to be covered by any of the major federal regulations that afford ethical and privacy protections to persons whose data are used in research. If the FDA's program of section 505(o)(3) observational studies fails because of the above problems, this failure will have a number of bad consequences: the public will be exposed to avoidable drug safety risks; taxpayers may be forced to bear the costs of having the FDA conduct drug safety investigations that would have been funded by drug manufacturers if data had been available; and, perhaps most troubling, the FDA may be forced to order postmarketing clinical trials to

  12. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Supratim; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  13. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. PMID:23553336

  14. 77 FR 15323 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zone; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may...; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemorations, Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard... special local regulations and safety zone in the Chesapeake Bay and Port of Baltimore, Maryland for War...

  15. 76 FR 52138 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... a proposed rule at 76 FR 14641 on March 17, 2011, to add a contract clause that clearly identifies... published at 76 FR 14642 on March 17, 2011. Briefly, the combination of the actions of the design control... Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS Case 2010-D022) AGENCY:...

  16. 76 FR 31279 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road... whether off-road farm equipment or implements of husbandry operated on public roads for limited distances... concerning off-road construction equipment. Questions 6 and 7 from 49 CFR 383.3 and Questions 7 and 8 for...

  17. 76 FR 50433 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road... vehicles (76 FR 31279). Recognizing that changes in regulatory guidance (if implemented by a State) could... generally local--5 to 10 miles--on rural roads with little traffic. They stated that FMCSA has...

  18. 78 FR 13576 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... amended in the March 23, 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR 16932). The Coast Guard revised the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA00, AA08 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within the Fifth Coast Guard District...

  19. 78 FR 29629 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ..., 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR 16932). The Coast Guard revised the list of permanent safety... and Fireworks Displays within the Fifth Coast Guard District'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 13576... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA00, AA08 Special Local Regulations and...

  20. Coast Guard Regulations Applied to Offshore Drilling. Module SH-45. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on Coast Guard regulations applied to offshore drilling is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents requirements that apply to the design, construction, equipment, inspection, and operation of offshore drilling units. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  1. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public....O. 12777, sec. 2; E.O. 13286, sec. 34, 68 FR 10619; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No... regulated navigation areas (RNAs) and safety and security zones for deepwater liquefied natural gas...

  2. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade.

  3. 76 FR 14641 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Identification of Critical Safety Items (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    .... L. 108-136), section 802, entitled ``Quality Control in Procurement of Aviation Critical Safety... weapon system which, if it failed, could cause catastrophic damage, unacceptable risk of personal injury, or loss of life. Implementing regulations established processes for designated design...

  4. 49 CFR 177.804 - Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Carrier Safety Regulations. Motor carriers and other persons subject to this part must comply with 49 CFR part 383 and 49 CFR parts 390 through 397 (excluding §§ 397.3 and 397.9) to the extent those... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Federal Motor Carrier...

  5. 75 FR 50700 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Washington, WA...... Special Local Regulation (Part 8/31/2008 100). USCG-2008-0734 Lake Washington, WA... Building ground floor, room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 between 9 a.m. and 5.../2007 165). COTP San Francisco Bay 07-043 South Lake Tahoe, CA..... Safety Zones (Parts 147 and...

  6. 77 FR 22706 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... the ``America's Cup World Series,'' the ``Louis Vuitton Cup'' challenger selection series, and the... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... public input, we proposed a special local regulation and safety zone on January 30, 2012 (77 FR 4501)....

  7. Disruption of a long-range cis-acting regulator for Shh causes preaxial polydactyly

    PubMed Central

    Lettice, Laura A.; Horikoshi, Taizo; Heaney, Simon J. H.; van Baren, Marijke J.; van der Linde, Herma C.; Breedveld, Guido J.; Joosse, Marijke; Akarsu, Nurten; Oostra, Ben A.; Endo, Naoto; Shibata, Minoru; Suzuki, Mikio; Takahashi, Eiichi; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nakahori, Yutaka; Ayusawa, Dai; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Stephen W.; Heutink, Peter; Hill, Robert E.; Noji, Sumihare

    2002-01-01

    Preaxial polydactyly (PPD) is a common limb malformation in human. A number of polydactylous mouse mutants indicate that misexpression of Shh is a common requirement for generating extra digits. Here we identify a translocation breakpoint in a PPD patient and a transgenic insertion site in the polydactylous mouse mutant sasquatch (Ssq). The genetic lesions in both lie within the same respective intron of the LMBR1/Lmbr1 gene, which resides ≈1 Mb away from Shh. Genetic analysis of Ssq reveals that the Lmbr1 gene is incidental to the phenotype and that the mutation directly interrupts a cis-acting regulator of Shh. This regulator is most likely the target for generating PPD mutations in human. PMID:12032320

  8. Disruption of a long-range cis-acting regulator for Shh causes preaxial polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Lettice, Laura A; Horikoshi, Taizo; Heaney, Simon J H; van Baren, Marijke J; van der Linde, Herma C; Breedveld, Guido J; Joosse, Marijke; Akarsu, Nurten; Oostra, Ben A; Endo, Naoto; Shibata, Minoru; Suzuki, Mikio; Takahashi, Eiichi; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nakahori, Yutaka; Ayusawa, Dai; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Stephen W; Heutink, Peter; Hill, Robert E; Noji, Sumihare

    2002-05-28

    Preaxial polydactyly (PPD) is a common limb malformation in human. A number of polydactylous mouse mutants indicate that misexpression of Shh is a common requirement for generating extra digits. Here we identify a translocation breakpoint in a PPD patient and a transgenic insertion site in the polydactylous mouse mutant sasquatch (Ssq). The genetic lesions in both lie within the same respective intron of the LMBR1/Lmbr1 gene, which resides approximately 1 Mb away from Shh. Genetic analysis of Ssq reveals that the Lmbr1 gene is incidental to the phenotype and that the mutation directly interrupts a cis-acting regulator of Shh. This regulator is most likely the target for generating PPD mutations in human.

  9. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  10. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  11. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  12. FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in hormonal regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J C; Fong, K-W; Jin, H-J; Yang, Y A; Kim, J; Yu, J

    2016-08-18

    Hormonal regulation of gene expression by androgen receptor (AR) is tightly controlled by many transcriptional cofactors, including pioneer factors FOXA1 and GATA2, which, however, exhibit distinct expression patterns and functional roles in prostate cancer. Here, we examined how FOXA1, GATA2 and AR crosstalk and regulate hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis revealed that FOXA1 reprograms both AR and GATA2 cistrome by preferably recruiting them to FKHD-containing genomic sites. By contrast, GATA2 is unable to shift AR or FOXA1 to GATA motifs. Rather, GATA2 co-occupancy enhances AR and FOXA1 binding to nearby ARE and FKHD sites, respectively. Similarly, AR increases, but not reprograms, GATA2 and FOXA1 cistromes. Concordantly, GATA2 and AR strongly enhance the transcriptional program of each other, whereas FOXA1 regulates GATA2- and AR-mediated gene expression in a context-dependent manner due to its reprogramming effects. Taken together, our data delineated for the first time the distinct mechanisms by which GATA2 and FOXA1 regulate AR cistrome and suggest that FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in determining hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer.

  13. Global regulation of alternative splicing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Oz; Oren, Shirley; Safran, Michal; Deshet-Unger, Naamit; Akiva, Pinchas; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Cesarkas, Karen; Kabesa, Reut; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gideon; Eyal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is a major mechanism for gene regulation and transcriptome diversity. Despite the extent of the phenomenon, the regulation and specificity of the splicing machinery are only partially understood. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of pre-mRNA by ADAR enzymes has been linked to splicing regulation in several cases. Here we used bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray of ADAR knockdown cells to globally examine how ADAR and its A-to-I RNA editing activity influence alternative mRNA splicing. Although A-to-I RNA editing only rarely targets canonical splicing acceptor, donor, and branch sites, it was found to affect splicing regulatory elements (SREs) within exons. Cassette exons were found to be significantly enriched with A-to-I RNA editing sites compared with constitutive exons. RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray revealed that ADAR knockdown in hepatocarcinoma and myelogenous leukemia cell lines leads to global changes in gene expression, with hundreds of genes changing their splicing patterns in both cell lines. This global change in splicing pattern cannot be explained by putative editing sites alone. Genes showing significant changes in their splicing pattern are frequently involved in RNA processing and splicing activity. Analysis of recently published RNA-seq data from glioblastoma cell lines showed similar results. Our global analysis reveals that ADAR plays a major role in splicing regulation. Although direct editing of the splicing motifs does occur, we suggest it is not likely to be the primary mechanism for ADAR-mediated regulation of alternative splicing. Rather, this regulation is achieved by modulating trans-acting factors involved in the splicing machinery. PMID:23474544

  14. 76 FR 39007 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations- Definition of “Indian Tribe”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Office of the Secretary of the Interior 43 CFR Part 10 RIN 1024-AD98 Native American Graves Protection... regulations implementing the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) removes the... implementation of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, including the issuance...

  15. Confinement regulates complex biochemical networks: initiation of blood clotting by "diffusion acting".

    PubMed

    Shen, Feng; Pompano, Rebecca R; Kastrup, Christian J; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2009-10-21

    This study shows that environmental confinement strongly affects the activation of nonlinear reaction networks, such as blood coagulation (clotting), by small quantities of activators. Blood coagulation is sensitive to the local concentration of soluble activators, initiating only when the activators surpass a threshold concentration, and therefore is regulated by mass transport phenomena such as flow and diffusion. Here, diffusion was limited by decreasing the size of microfluidic chambers, and it was found that microparticles carrying either the classical stimulus, tissue factor, or a bacterial stimulus, Bacillus cereus, initiated coagulation of human platelet-poor plasma only when confined. A simple analytical argument and numerical model were used to describe the mechanism for this phenomenon: confinement causes diffusible activators to accumulate locally and surpass the threshold concentration. To interpret the results, a dimensionless confinement number, Cn, was used to describe whether a stimulus was confined, and a Damköhler number, Da(2), was used to describe whether a subthreshold stimulus could initiate coagulation. In the context of initiation of coagulation by bacteria, this mechanism can be thought of as "diffusion acting", which is distinct from "diffusion sensing". The ability of confinement and diffusion acting to change the outcome of coagulation suggests that confinement should also regulate other biological "on" and "off" processes that are controlled by thresholds.

  16. S. 1583: This Act may be cited as the Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 1991, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, September 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill would amend the Natural Gas Pipeline Act of 1968 and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 to authorize appropriations and to improve pipeline safety. The bill describes the following: authorization of appropriations; definitions; environmental protection; identification of certain pipelines; rapid shutdown of pipeline facilities; excess flow valves; replacement of cast iron pipelines; safety of pipe not owned by pipeline operators; one-call notification systems; underwater abandoned pipeline facilities; study of underwater abandoned pipeline facilities; and exemption from hours of service requirements.

  17. Tough but True: School Board Neglect of Bus Safety Led to Government's Overblown, Under-Researched Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The apparent lack of concern school boards evidenced in the past over school bus safety has precipitated the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration regulations that have angered board members and bus manufacturers alike. It is argued that the new regulations are not based on research. (Author/IRT)

  18. Assessing coal-mine safety regulation: A pooled time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Youngpyoung.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the independent, relative, and conjoint effects of four types of variables on coal-mine safety: administrative (mine inspections, mine investigations, and mine safety grants); political (state party competition, gubernatorial party affiliation, and deregulation); economic (state per-capita income and unemployment rates); task-related (mine size, technology, and type of mining), and state dummy variables. Trend, Pearson correlation, and pooled time-series analyses are performed on fatal and nonfatal injury rates reported in 25 coal-producing states during the 1975-1985 time period. These are then interpreted in light of three competing theories of regulation: capture, nonmarket failure, and threshold. Analysis reveals: (1) distinctions in the total explanatory power of the model across different types of injuries, as well as across presidential administrations; (2) a consistently more powerful impact on safety of informational implementation tools (safety education grants) over command-and-control approaches (inspections and investigations) or political variables; and (3) limited, albeit conjectural, support for a threshold theory of regulation in the coal mine safety arena.

  19. 76 FR 42683 - Establishment of a Team Under the National Construction Safety Team Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... tornado that touched down in Joplin, MO, on May 22, 2011. DATES: The National Construction Safety Team was... data related to the tornado that touched down in Joplin, MO, on May 22, 2011. Based on the... Department of Commerce, established a Team to study the effects of the tornado that touched down in...

  20. 76 FR 23810 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... advises interested persons that the FCC Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety Advisory....fullano@fcc.gov (e-mail); or Brian Hurley, Deputy Designated Federal Official for PSAC at (202) 418-2220 (voice) or brian.hurley@fcc.gov (e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The PSAC is a Federal...

  1. 78 FR 14309 - Implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act Provision Requiring FDA To Establish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    .... Conduct two food product tracing pilot projects--one in coordination with the processed food sector and... points of service; 6. Demonstrate the tracking and tracing of: (a) A selected processed food and its key... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization...

  2. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ..., December 18, 1995) and for juice (21 CFR part 120) in 2001 (66 FR 6138, January 19, 2001). Similarly, in... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... human consumption (the produce safety proposed rule) and for current good manufacturing practice...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 1212. This definition includes products that are referred to as micro-torches. Multi-purpose... requirements of the Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters (16 CFR part 1210); devices that contain more than.... Manufacturers would have to devote some resources to the development or modification of technology to...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 1212. This definition includes products that are referred to as micro-torches. Multi-purpose... requirements of the Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters (16 CFR part 1210); devices that contain more than... fireplaces, charcoal or gas-fired grills, camp fires, camp stoves, lanterns, or fuel-fired appliances...

  5. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 1212. This definition includes products that are referred to as micro-torches. Multi-purpose... requirements of the Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters (16 CFR part 1210); devices that contain more than... fireplaces, charcoal or gas-fired grills, camp fires, camp stoves, lanterns, or fuel-fired appliances...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1212. This definition includes products that are referred to as micro-torches. Multi-purpose... requirements of the Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters (16 CFR part 1210); devices that contain more than... fireplaces, charcoal or gas-fired grills, camp fires, camp stoves, lanterns, or fuel-fired appliances...

  7. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... foregoing. Design services, consulting services, engineering services, software development services, software integration services, threat assessments, vulnerability studies, and other analyses relevant to... pursuant to 6 U.S.C. 442(d), as further delineated in 6 CFR 25.9, that a QATT for which a SAFETY...

  8. 78 FR 59082 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Docket Management System in the Federal Register published on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may... please contact: Pam Gosier-Cox, FMCSA Privacy Officer, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... please contact: Claire W. Barrett, Departmental Chief Privacy Officer, Privacy Office, Department...

  9. 78 FR 57320 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... importers currently rely to help manage the safety of their global food supply chains. The purpose of these... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1 and 16 Food and Drug Administration Food... of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies; Public Meetings AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  10. 78 FR 49988 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... importers currently rely to help manage the safety of their global food supply chains. The purpose of the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1 and 16 Food and Drug Administration Food... of Third-Party Auditors/Certification Bodies; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  11. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... foregoing. Design services, consulting services, engineering services, software development services, software integration services, threat assessments, vulnerability studies, and other analyses relevant to... pursuant to 6 U.S.C. 442(d), as further delineated in 6 CFR 25.9, that a QATT for which a SAFETY...

  12. 48 CFR 52.250-3 - SAFETY Act Block Designation/Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... foregoing. Design services, consulting services, engineering services, software development services, software integration services, threat assessments, vulnerability studies, and other analyses relevant to... pursuant to 6 U.S.C. 442(d), as further delineated in 6 CFR 25.9, that a QATT for which a SAFETY...

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... employing laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to... all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract and shall make them...

  14. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... employing laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to... all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract and shall make them...

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... duplicate those required for construction work by Department of Labor regulations at 29 CFR 5.5(a)(3... employing laborers or mechanics (see Federal Acquisition Regulation 22.300) shall require or permit them to... all laborers and mechanics working on the contract during the contract and shall make them...

  16. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam’s pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk–benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes. PMID:22690037

  17. 77 FR 42548 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316-3317), or you may visit www.dot.gov/privacy . Docket: For access to the docket..., applicable to all DOT Privacy Act systems of records, are published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 82132... this system may make a written request to the following address: NIC Technologies, 4601 N....

  18. Clinical safety of tbo-filgrastim, a short-acting human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Pettengell, Ruth; Bias, Peter; Mueller, Udo; Lang, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    The recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) known as filgrastim (Tevagrastim(®), Ratiograstim(®), Biograstim(®)) in Europe (approved in 2008) and tbo-filgrastim (Granix(®)) in the USA (approved in 2012; Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel) is indicated to reduce the duration of severe neutropenia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive anti-cancer drugs associated with a clinically significant incidence of febrile neutropenia. This article presents pooled clinical data for tbo-filgrastim compared with Neupogen(®) (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) as well as tbo-filgrastim post-marketing safety data. The safety and efficacy of tbo-filgrastim were evaluated in three phase III studies in 677 patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy and study drug (348 patients with breast cancer, 237 with lung cancer, 92 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma). In each study, the efficacy of tbo-filgrastim was similar to that of Neupogen. Overall, 633 (93.5 %) patients receiving the study drug experienced 6093 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), most of which were related to chemotherapy. Adverse events related to the study drug (tbo-filgrastim or Neupogen) were experienced by 185 (27.3 %) patients; 19 (2.8 %) had severe drug-related AEs, 5 (0.7 %) had drug-related serious AEs, and 6 (0.9 %) discontinued the study due to drug-related AEs. Overall, the most common drug-related AEs were bone pain (7.1 %), myalgia (4.0 %), and asthenia (4.4 %). The post-marketing safety profile of tbo-filgrastim was consistent with that observed during the clinical studies. The availability of tbo-filgrastim, a G-CSF with safety and efficacy comparable to those of Neupogen, provides physicians with an alternative treatment option for supportive care of patients with non-myeloid malignancies receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. PMID:26780505

  19. Polycomb Group Protein Pcgf6 Acts as a Master Regulator to Maintain Embryonic Stem Cell Identity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Shun; Chang, Kung-Yen; Dang, Jason; Rana, Tariq M.

    2016-01-01

    The polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is a multi-subunit complex that plays critical roles in the epigenetic modulation of gene expression. Here, we show that the PRC1 component polycomb group ring finger 6 (Pcgf6) is required to maintain embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity. In contrast to canonical PRC1, Pcgf6 acts as a positive regulator of transcription and binds predominantly to promoters bearing active chromatin marks. Pcgf6 is expressed at high levels in ESCs, and knockdown reduces the expression of the core ESC regulators Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. Conversely, Pcgf6 overexpression prevents downregulation of these factors and impairs differentiation. In addition, Pcgf6 enhanced reprogramming in both mouse and human somatic cells. The genomic binding profile of Pcgf6 is highly similar to that of trithorax group proteins, but not of PRC1 or PRC2 complexes, suggesting that Pcgf6 functions atypically in ESCs. Our data reveal novel roles for Pcgf6 in directly regulating Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Lin28 expression to maintain ESC identity. PMID:27247273

  20. Abelson kinase acts as a robust, multifunctional scaffold in regulating embryonic morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Edward M.; Spracklen, Andrew J.; Bilancia, Colleen G.; Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Allred, S. Colby; Nowotarski, Stephanie H.; Schaefer, Kristina N.; Ritchie, Benjamin J.; Peifer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abelson family kinases (Abls) are key regulators of cell behavior and the cytoskeleton during development and in leukemia. Abl’s SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase domains are joined via a linker to an F-actin–binding domain (FABD). Research on Abl’s roles in cell culture led to several hypotheses for its mechanism of action: 1) Abl phosphorylates other proteins, modulating their activity, 2) Abl directly regulates the cytoskeleton via its cytoskeletal interaction domains, and/or 3) Abl is a scaffold for a signaling complex. The importance of these roles during normal development remains untested. We tested these mechanistic hypotheses during Drosophila morphogenesis using a series of mutants to examine Abl’s many cell biological roles. Strikingly, Abl lacking the FABD fully rescued morphogenesis, cell shape change, actin regulation, and viability, whereas kinase-dead Abl, although reduced in function, retained substantial rescuing ability in some but not all Abl functions. We also tested the function of four conserved motifs in the linker region, revealing a key role for a conserved PXXP motif known to bind Crk and Abi. We propose that Abl acts as a robust multidomain scaffold with different protein motifs and activities contributing differentially to diverse cellular behaviors. PMID:27385341

  1. 12 CFR 335.901 - Delegation of authority to act on matters with respect to disclosure laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... respect to disclosure laws and regulations. 335.901 Section 335.901 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT... § 335.901 Delegation of authority to act on matters with respect to disclosure laws and regulations. (a... Supervision and Consumer Protection (DSC), and where confirmed in writing by the director, to a...

  2. atonal regulates neurite arborization but does not act as a proneural gene in the Drosophila brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; He, Y.; Sun, Y.; Jan, Y. N.; Zoghbi, H. Y.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila atonal (ato) is the proneural gene of the chordotonal organs (CHOs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the larval and adult photoreceptor organs. Here, we show that ato is expressed at multiple stages during the development of a lineage of central brain neurons that innervate the optic lobes and are required for eclosion. A novel fate mapping approach shows that ato is expressed in the embryonic precursors of these neurons and that its expression is reactivated in third instar larvae (L3). In contrast to its function in the PNS, ato does not act as a proneural gene in the embryonic brain. Instead, ato performs a novel function, regulating arborization during larval and pupal development by interacting with Notch.

  3. Enhancer of zeste acts as a major developmental regulator of Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Emilie; Martinand-Mari, Camille; Martin, Marianne; Feuillard, Jérôme; Boublik, Yvan; Godefroy, Nelly; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paradigm of developmental regulation by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins posits that they maintain silencing outside the spatial expression domains of their target genes, particularly of Hox genes, starting from mid embryogenesis. The Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] PcG protein is the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, which silences its targets via deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. Here, we studied the ascidian Ciona intestinalis counterpart of E(z). Ci-E(z) is detected by immunohistochemistry as soon as the 2- and 4-cell stages as a cytoplasmic form and becomes exclusively nuclear thereafter, whereas the H3K27me3 mark is detected starting from the gastrula stage and later. Morpholino invalidation of Ci-E(z) leads to the total disappearance of both Ci-E(z) protein and its H3K27me3 mark. Ci-E(z) morphants display a severe phenotype. Strikingly, the earliest defects occur at the 4-cell stage with the dysregulation of cell positioning and mitotic impairment. At later stages, Ci-E(z)-deficient embryos are affected by terminal differentiation defects of neural, epidermal and muscle tissues, by the failure to form a notochord and by the absence of caudal nerve. These major phenotypic defects are specifically rescued by injection of a morpholino-resistant Ci-E(z) mRNA, which restores expression of Ci-E(z) protein and re-deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. As observed by qPCR analyses, Ci-E(z) invalidation leads to the early derepression of tissue-specific developmental genes, whereas late-acting developmental genes are generally down-regulated. Altogether, our results suggest that Ci-E(z) plays a major role during embryonic development in Ciona intestinalis by silencing early-acting developmental genes in a Hox-independent manner. PMID:26276097

  4. The Impact of Regulations, Safety Considerations and Physical Limitations on Research Progress at Maximum Biocontainment

    PubMed Central

    Shurtleff, Amy C.; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S.; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  5. The impact of regulations, safety considerations and physical limitations on research progress at maximum biocontainment.

    PubMed

    Shurtleff, Amy C; Garza, Nicole; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Carrion, Ricardo; Griffiths, Anthony; Patterson, Jean; Edwin, Samuel S; Bavari, Sina

    2012-12-01

    We describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. These limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. Acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) are highly regulated due to their potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. All federal, state, city, and local regulations must be followed to obtain and maintain registration for the institution to conduct research involving BSAT. These include initial screening and continuous monitoring of personnel, controlled access to containment laboratories, accurate and current BSAT inventory records. Safety considerations are paramount in BSL-4 containment laboratories while considering the types of research tools, workflow and time required for conducting both in vivo and in vitro experiments in limited space. Required use of a positive-pressure encapsulating suit imposes tremendous physical limitations on the researcher. Successful mitigation of these constraints requires additional time, effort, good communication, and creative solutions. Test and evaluation of novel vaccines and therapeutics conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions for FDA approval are prioritized and frequently share the same physical space with important ongoing basic research studies. The possibilities and limitations of biomedical research involving microbial pathogens of biodefense concern in BSL-4 containment laboratories are explored in this review. PMID:23342380

  6. Genome-wide prediction of cis-acting RNA elements regulating tissue-specific pre-mRNA alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Kejun; Radovich, Milan; Wang, Yue; Wang, Guohua; Feng, Weixing; Sanford, Jeremy R; Liu, Yunlong

    2009-01-01

    Background Human genes undergo various patterns of pre-mRNA splicing across different tissues. Such variation is primarily regulated by trans-acting factors that bind on exonic and intronic cis-acting RNA elements (CAEs). Here we report a computational method to mechanistically identify cis-acting RNA elements that contribute to the tissue-specific alternative splicing pattern. This method is an extension of our previous model, SplicingModeler, which predicts the significant CAEs that contribute to the splicing differences between two tissues. In this study, we introduce tissue-specific functional levels estimation step, which allows evaluating regulatory functions of predicted CAEs that are involved in more than two tissues. Results Using a publicly available Affymetrix Genechip® Human Exon Array dataset, our method identifies 652 cis-acting RNA elements (CAEs) across 11 human tissues. About one third of predicted CAEs can be mapped to the known RBP (RNA binding protein) binding sites or match with other predicted exonic splicing regulator databases. Interestingly, the vast majority of predicted CAEs are in intronic regulatory regions. A noticeable exception is that many exonic elements are found to regulate the alternative splicing between cerebellum and testes. Most identified elements are found to contribute to the alternative splicing between two tissues, while some are important in multiple tissues. This suggests that genome-wide alternative splicing patterns are regulated by a combination of tissue-specific cis-acting elements and "general elements" whose functional activities are important but differ across multiple tissues. Conclusion In this study, we present a model-based computational approach to identify potential cis-acting RNA elements by considering the exon splicing variation as the combinatorial effects of multiple cis-acting regulators. This methodology provides a novel evaluation on the functional levels of cis-acting RNA elements by estimating

  7. The French Space Operation Act: Scope and Main Features. Introduction to the Technical Regulation Considerations about the Implementation in the Launcher Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, Francois

    2010-09-01

    This publication provides a presentation of the new French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA). The main objectives of FSOA are to institute a clarified legal regime for launch operations. The technical regulation associated to the act is set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. First, we give an overview of the institutional and legal framework implemented in accordance with the act. The general purpose of this French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA) is to set up a coherent national regime of authorization and control of Space operations under the French jurisdiction or for which the French Government bears international liability either under UN Treaties principles(namely the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, the 1972 Liability Convention and the 1976 Registration Convention) or in accordance with its European commitments with the ESA organization and its Members States. For a given space operation, the operator must show that systems and procedures that he intends to implement are compliant with the technical regulation. The regime of authorization leads to a request of authorization for each launch operation. Thus, licences concerning operator management organization or a given space system can be obtained. These licences help to simplify the authorization file required for a given space operation. The technical regulation is presented in another article, and will be issued in 2010 by the French Minister in charge of space activities. A brief description of the organization associated to the implementation of the authorization regime in the launcher field is presented.

  8. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  9. Progesterone acts via progesterone receptors A and B to regulate breast cancer resistance protein expression.

    PubMed

    Vore, Mary; Leggas, Markos

    2008-03-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) is an ATP-dependent efflux multidrug transporter that belongs to the G family of half-transporters that consist of six transmembrane-spanning domains and must homodimerize to form the active membrane transporter. It is expressed in the apical plasma membrane domain of the small intestine, endothelium, and liver, where it has been shown to play an important role in limiting drug absorption and distribution and in enhancing drug clearance, respectively. BCRP is also expressed in the apical membrane of mammary alveolar epithelia, where it mediates efflux of substrates into milk, and in the placental syncytiotro-phoblasts, where it reduces fetal exposure to these substrates. BCRP substrates include numerous drugs (topotecan, nitrofurantoin, cimetidine) as well as food carcinogens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and the vitamins riboflavin and folic acid. BCRP expression is regulated by a number of nuclear transcription factors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Hif-1. This issue of Molecular Pharmacology includes a study (p. 845) now conclusively demonstrating that progesterone acts via the progesterone A and B receptors to regulate BCRP expression in a placental cell line.

  10. PKR is activated by cellular dsRNAs during mitosis and acts as a mitotic regulator

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoosik; Lee, Jung Hyun; Park, Jong-Eun; Cho, Jun; Yi, Hyerim; Kim, V. Narry

    2014-01-01

    dsRNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme well known for its roles in immune response. Upon binding to viral dsRNA, PKR undergoes autophosphorylation, and the phosphorylated PKR (pPKR) regulates translation and multiple signaling pathways in infected cells. Here, we found that PKR is activated in uninfected cells, specifically during mitosis, by binding to dsRNAs formed by inverted Alu repeats (IRAlus). While PKR and IRAlu-containing RNAs are segregated in the cytosol and nucleus of interphase cells, respectively, they interact during mitosis when nuclear structure is disrupted. Once phosphorylated, PKR suppresses global translation by phosphorylating the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). In addition, pPKR acts as an upstream kinase for c-Jun N-terminal kinase and regulates the levels of multiple mitotic factors such as CYCLINS A and B and POLO-LIKE KINASE 1 and phosphorylation of HISTONE H3. Disruption of PKR activation via RNAi or expression of a transdominant-negative mutant leads to misregulation of the mitotic factors, delay in mitotic progression, and defects in cytokinesis. Our study unveils a novel function of PKR and endogenous dsRNAs as signaling molecules during the mitosis of uninfected cells. PMID:24939934

  11. PKR is activated by cellular dsRNAs during mitosis and acts as a mitotic regulator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoosik; Lee, Jung Hyun; Park, Jong-Eun; Cho, Jun; Yi, Hyerim; Kim, V Narry

    2014-06-15

    dsRNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme well known for its roles in immune response. Upon binding to viral dsRNA, PKR undergoes autophosphorylation, and the phosphorylated PKR (pPKR) regulates translation and multiple signaling pathways in infected cells. Here, we found that PKR is activated in uninfected cells, specifically during mitosis, by binding to dsRNAs formed by inverted Alu repeats (IRAlus). While PKR and IRAlu-containing RNAs are segregated in the cytosol and nucleus of interphase cells, respectively, they interact during mitosis when nuclear structure is disrupted. Once phosphorylated, PKR suppresses global translation by phosphorylating the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). In addition, pPKR acts as an upstream kinase for c-Jun N-terminal kinase and regulates the levels of multiple mitotic factors such as cyclins A and B and Polo-like kinase 1 and phosphorylation of histone H3. Disruption of PKR activation via RNAi or expression of a transdominant-negative mutant leads to misregulation of the mitotic factors, delay in mitotic progression, and defects in cytokinesis. Our study unveils a novel function of PKR and endogenous dsRNAs as signaling molecules during the mitosis of uninfected cells.

  12. Neuropeptide Y acts in the paraventricular nucleus to suppress sympathetic nerve activity and its baroreflex regulation.

    PubMed

    Cassaglia, Priscila A; Shi, Zhigang; Li, Baoxin; Reis, Wagner L; Clute-Reinig, Nicholas M; Stern, Javier E; Brooks, Virginia L

    2014-04-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a brain neuromodulator that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of energy balance, also acts centrally to inhibit sympathetic nerve activity (SNA); however, the site and mechanism of action are unknown. In chloralose-anaesthetized female rats, nanoinjection of NPY into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) dose-dependently suppressed lumbar SNA (LSNA) and its baroreflex regulation, and these effects were blocked by prior inhibition of NPY Y1 or Y5 receptors. Moreover, PVN injection of Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists in otherwise untreated rats increased basal and baroreflex control of LSNA, indicating that endogenous NPY tonically inhibits PVN presympathetic neurons. The sympathoexcitation following blockade of PVN NPY inhibition was eliminated by prior PVN nanoinjection of the melanocortin 3/4 receptor inhibitor SHU9119. Moreover, presympathetic neurons, identified immunohistochemically using cholera toxin b neuronal tract tracing from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), express NPY Y1 receptor immunoreactivity, and patch-clamp recordings revealed that both NPY and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) inhibit and stimulate, respectively, PVN-RVLM neurons. Collectively, these data suggest that PVN NPY inputs converge with α-MSH to influence presympathetic neurons. Together these results identify endogenous NPY as a novel and potent inhibitory neuromodulator within the PVN that may contribute to changes in SNA that occur in states associated with altered energy balance, such as obesity and pregnancy. PMID:24535439

  13. Flavonoids Act as Negative Regulators of Auxin Transport in Vivo in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dana E.; Rashotte, Aaron M.; Murphy, Angus S.; Normanly, Jennifer; Tague, Brian W.; Peer, Wendy A.; Taiz, Lincoln; Muday, Gloria K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport. PMID:11402184

  14. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems for long-acting contraception: current perspectives, safety, and patient counseling

    PubMed Central

    Costescu, Dustin J

    2016-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a significant global problem. In 2008, there were over 100 million unplanned pregnancies worldwide, representing approximately 41% of global conceptions. Family planning strategies in many countries are shifting from increasing the uptake of contraception among nonusers to increasing the uptake of the most effective methods among users of less effective methods. One of the most effective and acceptable methods of contraception is the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS); however, its uptake varies widely by country. This article reviews the currently available LNG IUSs, the rationale for increasing uptake of these methods, and evidence regarding safety, and discusses counseling strategies to best inform women about this option for contraception. PMID:27785107

  15. Third annual report of health activities under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The federal mine health program in 1980 is discussed. Health hazard evaluations were completed for exposure to crystalline silica (7631869), oil shale, perchloroethylene (127184), and heat stress. A report from the coal workers health surveillance program is presented. Mine health research projects are reported on diesel exhausts, vibration, manual materials handling, coal workers pneumoconiosis, new miner studies, stomach cancer, metal toxicity on lung cells, lipid peroxidation, and diesel and metal particulates effects on interferon synthesis. Criteria documentation, standards development, and related research on radon daughters, heat stress, asbestos, silica, welding fumes, mine sanitation, and emergency medical services are reported. Respirators, personal dust samplers, and other safety equipment testing and certification are reported and mine health education programs are presented. This report represents an effort by NIOSH to identify, evaluate, and control work related disease among miners.

  16. Decree No. 0784 of 18 April 1989 regulating, in part, Act 21 of 1982 and Act 71 of 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Colombian Decree regulates certain aspects of the system of family allowances. Among other things, it provides that allowances can be granted in terms of food, clothing, school scholarships, textbooks, drugs, and other substitutes for money. Further provisions of the Decree deal with the definition of persons affiliated to the regime, booklets certifying affiliation, family service subsidies, and financing. PMID:12344547

  17. Decree No. 0784 of 18 April 1989 regulating, in part, Act 21 of 1982 and Act 71 of 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Colombian Decree regulates certain aspects of the system of family allowances. Among other things, it provides that allowances can be granted in terms of food, clothing, school scholarships, textbooks, drugs, and other substitutes for money. Further provisions of the Decree deal with the definition of persons affiliated to the regime, booklets certifying affiliation, family service subsidies, and financing.

  18. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  19. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations.

  20. HIPAA Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act--IRS. Notice of proposed rulemaking by cross-reference to temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    1998-10-27

    Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the IRS is issuing temporary regulations relating to minimum hospital length-of-stay requirements imposed on group health plans with respect to mothers and newborns. The hospital length-of-stay requirements were added to the Internal Revenue Code by section 1531 of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997. The IRS is issuing the temporary regulations at the same time that the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor and the Health Care Financing Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations relating to hospital length-of-stay requirements added by the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act of 1996 to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Public Health Service Act. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers and group health plans relating to the new hospital length-of-stay requirements. The text of those temporary regulations also serves as the text of these proposed regulations.

  1. Have government regulations improved workplace safety? A test of the asynchronous regulatory effects in China's coal industry, 1995-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.P.

    2009-07-01

    Empirical studies on the effectiveness of workplace safety regulations are inconclusive. This study hypothesizes that the asynchronous effects of safety regulations occur because regulations need time to become effective. Safety regulations will work initially by reducing the most serious accidents, and later by improving overall safety performance. The hypothesis is tested by studying a provincial level aggregate panel dataset for China's coal industry using two different models with different sets of dependent variables: a fixed-effects model on mortality rate, which is defined as fatalities per 1,000 employees; and a negative binominal model on the annual number (frequency) of disastrous accidents. Safety regulations can reduce the frequency of disastrous accidents, but have not reduced mortality rate, which represents overall safety performance. Policy recommendations are made, including shifting production from small to large mines through industrial consolidation, improving the safety performance of large mines, addressing consequences of decentralization, and facilitating the implementation of regulations through carrying on institutional actions and supporting legislation.

  2. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  3. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market. PMID:23794245

  4. The differential regulation of human ACT1 isoforms by Hsp90 in IL-17 signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ling; Wang, Chenhui; Boisson, Bertrand; Misra, Saurav; Rayman, Patricia; Finke, James H.; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Li, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. ACT1 is an essential adaptor molecule in the IL-17 signaling pathway. A missense single nucleotide polymorphism (rs33980500; SNP-D10N) that resulted in the substitution of an asparagine for an aspartic acid at position 10 of ACT1 (ACT1-D10N) is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. Due to alternative splicing in humans, SNP-D10N encodes two mutated ACT1 proteins, ACT1-D10N and ACT1-D19N. Though both ACT1 isoforms are Hsp90 ‘client’ proteins, the nine additional amino acids in ACT1-D19N provide an additional Hsp90 binding site that is absent in ACT1-D10N. Therefore, while ACT1-D10N is a dead protein that is unable to transduce IL-17 signals for gene expression, ACT1-D19N is fully responsive to IL-17. Intriguingly, the two ACT1 isoforms are differentially expressed in ACT1D10N/D10N fibroblasts and T cells. Fibroblasts express both isoforms equally, enabling ACT1-D19N to compensate for the loss of ACT1-D10N function. ACT1D10N/D10N T cells, however, express predominantly ACT1-D10N. Lacking this compensatory mechanism, ACT1D10N/D10N T cells behave like ACT1-deficient T cells, exhibiting a dysregulated and hyperactive Th17 phenotype with overproduction of IL-22 and IL-17. The hyperactive Th17 response combined with fully responsive fibroblasts likely synergized to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility in SNP-D10N patients. PMID:25024377

  5. The differential regulation of human ACT1 isoforms by Hsp90 in IL-17 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Wang, Chenhui; Boisson, Bertrand; Misra, Saurav; Rayman, Patricia; Finke, James H; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Li, Xiaoxia

    2014-08-15

    IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. ACT1 is an essential adaptor molecule in the IL-17 signaling pathway. A missense single nucleotide polymorphism (rs33980500; SNP-D10N) that resulted in the substitution of an asparagine for an aspartic acid at position 10 of ACT1 (ACT1-D10N) is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. Due to alternative splicing in humans, SNP-D10N encodes two mutated ACT1 proteins, ACT1-D10N and ACT1-D19N. Although both ACT1 isoforms are Hsp90 client proteins, the nine additional amino acids in ACT1-D19N provide an additional Hsp90 binding site that is absent in ACT1-D10N. Therefore, whereas ACT1-D10N is a dead protein that is unable to transduce IL-17 signals for gene expression, ACT1-D19N is fully responsive to IL-17. Intriguingly, the two ACT1 isoforms are differentially expressed in ACT1(D10N/D10N) fibroblasts and T cells. Fibroblasts express both isoforms equally, enabling ACT1-D19N to compensate for the loss of ACT1-D10N function. ACT1(D10N/D10N) T cells, however, express predominantly ACT1-D10N. Lacking this compensatory mechanism, ACT1(D10N/D10N) T cells behave like ACT1-deficient T cells, exhibiting a dysregulated and hyperactive Th17 phenotype with overproduction of IL-22 and IL-17. The hyperactive Th17 response combined with fully responsive fibroblasts likely synergized to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility in SNP-D10N patients. PMID:25024377

  6. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  7. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  8. Tanker navigation safety standards: Tanker navigation safety research baseline: A study required by section 4111(b)(9) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 directed the Secretary of Transportation to review and incorporate the results of past studies, including studies by the Coast Guard and Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). This literature search and review focuses on materials pertinent to determining or evaluating current and/or `best` practices, and not on the adequacy of current statutes or regulations. In addition, it is not the intention of the report to assess best practices (e.g., suggest the appropriate crew sizes or what navigation equipment should be required on tankers), but to establish the baseline for future study of best practices. The report does not provide answers to new analytical quations, but presents the status of research so that questions addressed previoulsy will not be duplicated by future studies.

  9. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  10. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  11. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  12. 33 CFR 165.117 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Safety and Security Zones: Deepwater Ports, First Coast Guard District. 165.117 Section 165.117 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.117 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety and...

  13. [Efficacy and safety in the new regulation of pharmaceutical products in Peru].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Hans; Salas, Sofía; Figueroa, Linder; Gutiérrez, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, pharmaceutical products (FP) are authorized after their risk-benefit profile has been assessed, taking into account efficacy, safety and quality parameters. In 2009, it was established in Peru that all pharmaceutical products to be commercialized should show proof of their efficacy and safety. According to the new regulation, in effect as of 2012, the pharmaceutical specialties (FS) have been grouped into three categories: category 1, if included in the National List of Essential Medicines; category 2, if authorized in countries with high health surveillance; and category 3, if not included in categories 1 or 2. The scientific documentation to be submitted for the registration or re-registration of the product in the regulatory entity will depend on its FS category. PMID:23338643

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Women With Cardiovascular Conditions.

    PubMed

    Vu, Quyen; Micks, Elizabeth; McCoy, Erin; Prager, Sarah

    2016-01-15

    The physiological changes that occur during pregnancy can be deleterious to women with a cardiovascular condition. Evidence-based contraceptive counseling and provision is essential in this patient population. Although long-acting reversible contraception (LARCs), which include the intrauterine device (IUD) and the etonogestrel contraceptive implant, have been found to be safe and effective in healthy women, there are inadequate data regarding LARC use in patients with cardiovascular conditions. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women diagnosed with cardiovascular disease who had a copper IUD, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or contraceptive implant placed at the University of Washington Medical Center from 2007 to 2012. We abstracted and analyzed patient demographic characteristics, medical conditions, indications for LARC placement, and complications. The sample included 470 women with cardiovascular conditions. The mean age was 34.6 years. One hundred twenty-four patients (26.11%) were nulligravid and 169 patients (35.58%) were nulliparous. Four hundred ten chose the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (87.23%), 33 patients (7.02%) opted for the copper IUD, and 23 patients (4.89%) chose the etonogestrel implant. Eighteen patients (3.83%) had a confirmed IUD expulsion, 2 patients (0.43%) became pregnant, and there were 4 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease (0.85%). There were no cases of perforation. There were no confirmed cases of infective endocarditis associated with LARC insertion. In conclusion, LARC devices appear safe with few complications for women with cardiovascular conditions. Clinicians can be reassured that LARC may be offered as an appropriate option when counseling women with cardiovascular disease on safe contraceptive methods.

  15. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods. PMID:23781843

  16. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  17. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  18. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-01

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  19. Positive Selection within a Diatom Species Acts on Putative Protein Interactions and Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Julie A.; Swanson, Willie J.; Armbrust, E. Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Diatoms are the most species-rich group of microalgae, and their contribution to marine primary production is important on a global scale. Diatoms can form dense blooms through rapid asexual reproduction; mutations acquired and propagated during blooms likely provide the genetic, and thus phenotypic, variability upon which natural selection may act. Positive selection was tested using genome and transcriptome-wide pair-wise comparisons of homologs in three genera of diatoms (Pseudo-nitzschia, Ditylum, and Thalassiosira) that represent decreasing phylogenetic distances. The signal of positive selection was greatest between two strains of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Further testing among seven strains of T. pseudonana yielded 809 candidate genes of positive selection, which are 7% of the protein-coding genes. Orphan genes and genes encoding protein-binding domains and transcriptional regulators were enriched within the set of positively selected genes relative to the genome as a whole. Positively selected genes were linked to the potential selective pressures of nutrient limitation and sea surface temperature based on analysis of gene expression profiles and identification of positively selected genes in subsets of strains from locations with similar environmental conditions. The identification of positively selected genes presents an opportunity to test new hypotheses in natural populations and the laboratory that integrate selected genotypes in T. pseudonana with their associated phenotypes and selective forces. PMID:23097498

  20. Positive selection within a diatom species acts on putative protein interactions and transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Koester, Julie A; Swanson, Willie J; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2013-02-01

    Diatoms are the most species-rich group of microalgae, and their contribution to marine primary production is important on a global scale. Diatoms can form dense blooms through rapid asexual reproduction; mutations acquired and propagated during blooms likely provide the genetic, and thus phenotypic, variability upon which natural selection may act. Positive selection was tested using genome and transcriptome-wide pair-wise comparisons of homologs in three genera of diatoms (Pseudo-nitzschia, Ditylum, and Thalassiosira) that represent decreasing phylogenetic distances. The signal of positive selection was greatest between two strains of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Further testing among seven strains of T. pseudonana yielded 809 candidate genes of positive selection, which are 7% of the protein-coding genes. Orphan genes and genes encoding protein-binding domains and transcriptional regulators were enriched within the set of positively selected genes relative to the genome as a whole. Positively selected genes were linked to the potential selective pressures of nutrient limitation and sea surface temperature based on analysis of gene expression profiles and identification of positively selected genes in subsets of strains from locations with similar environmental conditions. The identification of positively selected genes presents an opportunity to test new hypotheses in natural populations and the laboratory that integrate selected genotypes in T. pseudonana with their associated phenotypes and selective forces. PMID:23097498

  1. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  2. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic α emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012. PMID:22843368

  3. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2012-09-01

    An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic α emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012.

  4. 78 FR 79729 - Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...Sections 1098 and 1100A of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) direct the Bureau to publish rules and forms that combine certain disclosures that consumers receive in connection with applying for and closing on a mortgage loan under the Truth in Lending Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act. Consistent with this requirement, the Bureau is......

  5. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES... objective intent; (3) The manufacture of the HCT/P does not involve the combination of the cells or tissues... not have a systemic effect and is not dependent upon the metabolic activity of living cells for...

  6. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES... objective intent; (3) The manufacture of the HCT/P does not involve the combination of the cells or tissues... not have a systemic effect and is not dependent upon the metabolic activity of living cells for...

  7. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  8. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  9. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  10. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  11. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  12. 78 FR 4725 - Escrow Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... persons excluded from coverage by section 1029 of the Dodd-Frank Act). See 76 FR 79768 (Dec. 22, 2011... granted to the Board by the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994 (HOEPA). See 73 FR 44522... of sections 1461 and 1462 of the Dodd-Frank Act. 76 FR 11598 (Mar. 2, 2011) (the Board's 2011...

  13. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  14. 78 FR 60381 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (Regulation B), Real...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... February 15, 2013, at 78 FR 11280. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Whitney Patross, Attorney; Richard... Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z), 78 FR 4726 (Jan. 22, 2013) (2013 Escrows Final Rule...), 78 FR 6856 (Jan. 31, 2013) (2013 HOEPA Final Rule), and Ability-to-Repay and Qualified...

  15. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  16. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 381.222 Section 381.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Designating Establishments With Operations Which Would Clearly Endanger the Public Health; Disposition...

  17. 76 FR 28966 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The...

  18. 29 CFR 102.117 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations: Board materials and formal documents available for public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the cost of conducting computer searches for information and for providing information in electronic... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act Regulations: Board materials and... for response; appeal from denial of request; fees for document search and duplication; files...

  19. 77 FR 33635 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ...\\ 66 FR 67680 (December 31, 2001), codified at 31 CFR 1010.330. \\7\\ 26 CFR 1.6050I-1. As amended... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 31 CFR Part 1010 RIN 1506-AB17 Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain Currency Transactions AGENCY: Financial...

  20. 78 FR 63408 - Petition To Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... 5, 2013 (78 FR 47215) is reopened. We will consider all comments that we receive on or before.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 5, 2013, we published in the Federal Register (78 FR 47215-47217, Docket No... Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears, and Nonhuman...

  1. 78 FR 23171 - Amendments to the 2013 Escrows Final Rule Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... loans made in ``rural'' or ``underserved'' areas. \\1\\ 78 FR 4726 (Jan. 22, 2013). \\2\\ The other rules...) (2013 ATR Final Rule), 78 FR 6407; High-Cost Mortgages and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the... Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) (2013 HOEPA Final Rule), 78 FR 6855; Disclosure and...

  2. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 381.222 Section 381.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Designating Establishments With Operations Which Would Clearly Endanger the Public Health; Disposition...

  3. Application of TALEs, CRISPR/Cas and sRNAs as trans-acting regulators in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Matthew F; Politz, Mark C; Pfleger, Brian F

    2014-10-01

    The last several years have witnessed an explosion in the understanding and use of novel, versatile trans-acting elements. TALEs, CRISPR/Cas, and sRNAs can be easily fashioned to bind any specific sequence of DNA (TALEs, CRISPR/Cas) or RNA (sRNAs) because of the simple rules governing their interactions with nucleic acids. This unique property enables these tools to repress the expression of genes at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels, respectively, without prior manipulation of cis-acting and/or chromosomal target DNA sequences. These tools are now being harnessed by synthetic biologists, particularly those in the eukaryotic community, for genome-wide regulation, editing, or epigenetic studies. Here we discuss the exciting opportunities for using TALEs, CRISPR/Cas, and sRNAs as synthetic trans-acting regulators in prokaryotes.

  4. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974: rules and regulations for administration and enforcement; claims procedure. Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, Labor. Final regulation.

    PubMed

    2000-11-21

    This document contains a final regulation revising the minimum requirements for benefit claims procedures of employee benefit plans covered by Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act). The regulation establishes new standards for the processing of claims under group health plans and plans providing disability benefits and further clarifies existing standards for all other employee benefit plans. The new standards are intended to ensure more timely benefit determinations, to improve access to information on which a benefit determination is made, and to assure that participants and beneficiaries will be afforded a full and fair review of denied claims. When effective, the regulation will affect participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans, employers who sponsor employee benefit plans, plan fiduciaries, and others who assist in the provision of plan benefits, such as third-party benefits administrators and health service providers or health maintenance organizations that provide benefits to participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans.

  5. Analysis of human tissue management models for medical research: preparation for implementation of the 2012 revision of the Bioethics and Safety Act of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Young-Joon; Kim, Hankyeom; Jang, Sejin; Koo, Young-Mo

    2013-06-01

    Efficient management of human tissue samples is a critical issue; the supply of samples is unable to satisfy the current demands for research. Lack of informed consent is also an ethical problem. One of the goals of the 2012 revision of Korea's Bioethics and Safety Act was to implement regulations that govern the management of human tissue samples. To remain competitive, medical institutions must prepare for these future changes. In this report, we review two tissue management models that are currently in use; model 1 is the most common system utilized by hospitals in Korea and model 2 is implemented by some of the larger institutions. We also propose three alternative models that offer advantages over the systems currently in use. Model 3 is a multi-bank model that protects the independence of physicians and pathologists. Model 4 utilizes a comprehensive single bioresource bank; although in this case, the pathologists gain control of the samples, which may make it difficult to implement. Model 5, which employs a bioresource utilization steering committee (BUSC), is viable to implement and still maintains the advantages of Model 4. To comply with the upcoming law, we suggest that physicians and pathologists in an institution should collaborate to choose one of the improved models of tissue management system that best fits for their situation. PMID:23772141

  6. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  7. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  8. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  9. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  10. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sea. The Administrator may amend the regulations in this part and 15 CFR part 970 at any time as the... issued or maintained pursuant to this part or 15 CFR part 970, except that amended regulations which... conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and property at sea. 971.804 Section...

  11. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    PubMed

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  12. A double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus with improved safety for adenocarcinoma therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Na; Fan, Jun Kai; Gu, Jin Fa; He, Ling Feng; Tang, Wen Hao; Cao, Xin; Liu, Xin Yuan

    2009-10-16

    Safety and efficiency are equally important to be considered in developing oncolytic adenovirus. Previously, we have reported that ZD55, an oncolytic adenovirus with the deletion of E1B-55K gene, exhibited potent antitumor activity. In this study, to improve the safety of ZD55, we utilized MUC1 promoter to replace the native promoter of E1A on the basis of ZD55, and generated a double-regulated adenovirus, named MUD55. Our data demonstrated that the expression of early and late genes of MUD55 was both reduced in MUC1-negative cells, resulting in its stricter glandular-tumor selective progeny production. The cytopathic effect of MUD55 was about 10-fold lower than mono-regulated adenovirus ZD55 or Ad.MUC1 in normal cells and not obviously attenuated in glandular tumor cells. Moreover, MUD55 showed the least liver toxicity when administrated by intravenous injection in nude mice. These results indicate that MUD55 could be a promising candidate for the treatment of adenocarcinoma.

  13. Annual report on the administration of the Radiation Control for health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, April 1, 1991. Rept. for Jan-Dec 90

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Secretary of Health and Human Services is required by Subpart 3, Part F of Title III of the Public Health Service Act; 42 USC 263b et seq. (Public Law 90-602) to submit an annual report to the President for transmittal to the Congress on or before April 1 on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act. The detailed information required in the report is outlined in Section 360D of the Public Health Service Act. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Center for Devices and Radiological Health, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. The report provides a summary of the operations of the Center in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1990. In reviewing the operations of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health as reported in the document, it should be kept in mind that the day-to-day administration of the Act is only part of the Center's function. Other responsibilities include the administration and enforcement of the 1976 Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (not covered in the report). Manufacturers of electronic products are required by 21 CFR 1002.20 to report accidental radiation occurrences to the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. The Center no longer maintains a Radiation Incidents Registry, since accidental radiation occurrences are reported through the Device Experience Network (DEN) and through the requirements of the Medical Device Reporting (MDR) Regulations.

  14. 76 FR 10527 - Regulatory Flexibility Act: Section 610 Review of National Organic Program Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... regulations implementing the National Organic Program (NOP) were published December 21, 2000 (65 FR 80548... FR 14827), its schedule to review certain regulations, including the NOP regulations, under criteria... Organic Program Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Review and request...

  15. How to evaluate the risks of work equipment and installations for health and safety? Research and activities of the German Committee for Plant Safety and consequences for regulation.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R

    2012-01-01

    Work equipment and installations with a high risk for health and safety of employees should be paid a special attention. The German Product Safety Act, which is aimed to manufacturers or distributors in order to protect consumers, maintains a conclusive catalogue of these so-called "installations in need of monitoring" fixing the work equipment and installations for which such special inspections can be demanded. This catalogue has remained unchanged for decades and has been transformed nearly unmodified into the Plant Safety Ordinance. Currently, there is a discussion about this catalogue in Germany. A major point of concern is the definition and the significance of "especially" dangerous work equipment and installations. Two recent research projects are dealing with the problem how to define "especially".

  16. On-site Consultation Hearings, Occupational Safety and Health Act. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Manpower, Compensation, and Health and Safety of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The hearings consider a bill, H.R. 8618, to amend the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) which would provide on-site consultative services to employers desiring to comply with OSHA standards. H.R. 8616 was introduced to strengthen OSHA by providing an additional program that would encourage employers to voluntarily comply with…

  17. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    PubMed

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  18. [On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union].

    PubMed

    Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of

  19. 75 FR 12377 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations-Disposition of Culturally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... first rules to implement the Act on December 4, 1995 (43 CFR part 10, 60 FR 62158). --We published rules for assessing civil penalties under the Act on April 3, 2003 (43 CFR 10.12, 68 FR 16354). --We....13, 72 FR 13189). --We are publishing this rule today. --We are developing additional rules to...

  20. 75 FR 38684 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2010-008, Recovery Act Subcontract Reporting Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA... 2009-009 in the Federal Register, (74 FR 14639) as an interim rule amending the FAR to implement section 1512 of the Recovery Act, which requires contractors to report on their use of Recovery Act...

  1. 75 FR 46859 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... addition, Section 3 of the Lacey Act, as amended, makes it unlawful, beginning December 15, 2008, to import... is being phased in, as described in two notices we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 5911-5913 and 74 FR 45415- 45418, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0119). Under the Act, ``Plant'' means: ``Any wild...

  2. Buyback Our Safety Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Deutch, Theodore E. [D-FL-21

    2013-01-14

    01/25/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Chemical Safety Improvement Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Lautenberg, Frank R. [D-NJ

    2013-05-22

    02/04/2014 Committee on Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Water and Wildlife. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Online Pharmacy Safety Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2011-12-15

    12/15/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S8685-8687) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Genetically Engineered Safety Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Kucinich, Dennis J. [D-OH-10

    2011-12-02

    12/19/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. School Bus Safety Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Braley, Bruce L. [D-IA-1

    2014-05-07

    06/13/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Personalized Handgun Safety Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Tierney, John F. [D-MA-6

    2013-05-15

    06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Child Handgun Safety Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Speier, Jackie [D-CA-14

    2013-06-27

    07/15/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Cis elements and trans-acting factors affecting regulation of a nonphotosynthetic light-regulated gene for chloroplast glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, G; Edwards, J W; Coruzzi, G M

    1995-01-01

    The glutamine synthetase (GS) gene family in pea (Pisum sativum) consists of four nuclear genes encoding distinct isoenzymes. Molecular studies have show that the GS2 gene encoding chloroplast-localized GS is expected in specific cell types and is regulated by diverse factors such as light and photorespiration. Here, we present the nucleotide sequence of the pea GS2 gene promoter. To identify the elements involved in regulation of GS2 expression, GS2 promoter-deletion analyses were performed using GS2-GUS fusions in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). This analysis revealed that the GS2 transit peptide is not required for mesophyll cell-specific expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). GUS activity was induced 2- to 4-fold in light-grown versus etiolated T1 seedlings. However, high levels of GUS activity were observed in etiolated seedlings. This observation demonstrated that regulation of expression of GS2, a nonphotosynthetic light-regulated gene, involves additional factors. A 323-bp GS2 promoter sequence is sufficient to confer light regulation to the GUS reporter gene in leaves of mature transgenic tobacco. Light-regulated expression of this pea gene promoter is observed in both tobacco and Arabidopsis, suggesting that the regulatory elements are conserved. Gel-shift analysis detected DNA-protein complexes formed with potential transcription elements within this short, light-responsive GS2 promoter fragment. PMID:7630938

  10. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L. 91... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and...

  11. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L. 91... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and...

  12. GP Supervisors' Experience in Supporting Self-Regulated Learning: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagasser, Margaretha H.; Kramer, Anneke W. M.; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is essential for professional development and lifelong learning. As self-regulated learning has many inaccuracies, the need to support self-regulated learning has been recommended. Supervisors can provide such support. In a prior study trainees reported on the variation in received supervisor support. This study aims at…

  13. Foundations for the Future of Alberta's Metis Settlements. Report of the MacEwan Joint Metis-Government Committee to Review the Metis Betterment Act and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Edmonton.

    Prepared as a working document for officials of the Alberta (Canada) government, this report reviews the Metis Betterment Act and regulations made under the Act with one goal being to ensure that any proposals for a new Act would place the major responsibility for the political, social, economic, and cultural development of the settlements firmly…

  14. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  15. Cardiac repolarisation and drug regulation: assessing cardiac safety 10 years after the CPMP guidance.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2007-01-01

    December 2007 marks the 10-year anniversary of the first regulatory guidance for evaluation of drug-induced QT interval prolongation. A decade on, it seems surprising that this document, which was released by the Committee on Proprietary Medicinal Products, caused such acrimony in the industry. Sponsors now routinely evaluate their new drugs for an effect on cardiac electrophysiology in preclinical studies, in addition to obtaining ECGs in all phases of drug development and conducting a formal thorough QT study in humans.However, concurrently, new concerns have also emerged on broader issues related to the cardiovascular safety of drugs because of their potential to shorten the QT interval as well as to induce proischaemic, profibrotic or prothrombotic effects. Drugs may also have an indirect effect by adversely affecting one or more of the cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. through fluid retention or induction of dyslipidaemia). In addition to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists and cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective inhibitors, three other drugs, darbepoetin alfa, pergolide and tegaserod, provide a more contemporary regulatory stance on tolerance of cardiovascular risk of drugs and their benefit-risk assessment. This recent, more assertive, risk-averse stance has significant implications for future drug development. These include the routine evaluation of cardiovascular safety for certain classes of drugs. Drugs that are intended for long-term use will almost certainly require long-term clinical evaluation in studies that enrol populations that most closely resemble the ultimate target population. Novel mechanisms of action and biomarkers by themselves are no guarantee of improved safety or benefits. Even some traditional biomarkers have come to be viewed with scepticism. Requirements for more extensive and earlier postmarketing assessment of clinical benefits and rare, but serious risks associated with new medicinal products should create a new standard

  16. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  17. Changes in technical regulations and drivers' safety in top‐class motor sports

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, G; Salvagno, G L; Franchini, M; Guidi, G C

    2007-01-01

    Motor racing is a dangerous sport and an inherently risky activity. The organisers of top‐class motor sports championships, Formula One and MotoGP, have agreed on a set of regulations to reduce speed and improve safety over the last 10 years. These changes include limitations in weight, fuel and engine capacity. Nevertheless, there is evidence that most of the restrictions that have been introduced over the past 10 years have failed slow down vehicles, since the lap times have decreased almost linearly from 1995 to 2006 and drivers continue to die or to sustain serious injuries that keep them away from competition. Therefore, new and efficient measures should be adopted, such as lowering the cornering speed, having heavier and safer vehicles, having barriers surrounding the track to protect both spectators and competitors better, and having innovative clothing and protective devices to defend key anatomical structures while minimising the hindrance to the rider. PMID:17925386

  18. Self‐Regulative Nanogelator Solid Electrolyte: A New Option to Improve the Safety of Lithium Battery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Qizhen; Tan, Guoqiang; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable nonflammable electrolytes has delayed battery application in electric vehicles. A new approach to improve the safety performance for lithium battery is proposed here. This technology is based on a nanogelator‐based solid electrolyte made of porous oxides and an ionic liquid. The electrolyte is fabricated using an in situ method and the porous oxides serve as a nonflammable “nanogelator” that spontaneously immobilizes the ionic liquid. The electrolyte exhibits a high liquid‐like apparent ionic conductivity of 2.93 × 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature. The results show that the nanogelator, which possess self‐regulating ability, is able to immobilize imidazolium‐, pyrrolidinium‐, or piperidinium‐based ionic liquids, simply by adjusting the ion transport channels. Our prototype batteries made of Ti‐nanogeltor solid electrolyte outperform conventional lithium batteries made using ionic liquid and commercial organic liquid electrolytes. PMID:27774385

  19. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. P.; Crandall, R. S.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin.

  20. The Regulation of Medical Computer Software as a “Device” under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

    PubMed Central

    Brannigan, Vincent

    1986-01-01

    Recent developments in computer software have raised the possibility that federal regulators may claim to control medical computer software as a “device” under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the FDCA to determine whether computer software is included in the statutory scheme, examine constitutional arguments relating to computer software, and discuss regulatory principles that should be taken into account when deciding appropriate regulation. This paper is limited to computer program output used by humans in deciding appropriate medical therapy for a patient.

  1. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mikols, E.H.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-07-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III.

  2. DAY NEUTRAL FLOWERING does not act through GIGANTEA and FKF1 to regulate CONSTANS expression and flowering time.

    PubMed

    Morris, Karl; Jackson, Stephen P

    2010-09-01

    The regulation of CONSTANS (CO) gene expression and protein levels is the critical factor in determining a plant's response to photoperiod, flowering is induced when high levels of CO protein are present in the light. The regulation of CO transcription is mediated in part by GIGANTEA (GI), FKF1 and the CYCLING DOF FACTORS (CDFs) and factors affecting the levels of these proteins will also affect CO expression. The DAY NEUTRAL FLOWERING (DNF) protein is an E3 ligase involved in repressing CO expression in the early part of the day. In this article we present evidence to support the argument that DNF is not acting through the GI/FKF1/CDF regulatory mechanism to repress CO expression, but that it acts on another transcriptional activator of CO.

  3. On-shift training of plant personnel on environmental, safety and health regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1996-08-01

    As one of the standing committees under the American Petroleum Institute (API) General Committee of Refining, the Central Committee on Training and Development has several goals. These include improving plant operations and maintenance, reducing occupational injuries and illnesses, reducing the incidence of fires, maintaining effective environmental controls, and improving plant security. An additional responsibility is to develop cost and resource effective training materials. One of the activities the committee uses to achieve its goal is by sponsoring a series of biannual regional training conferences that attract participants from a variety of refineries and petrochemical plants. During the 1995 Spring Conferences, conference attendees were asked if on-shift training of plant personnel on environmental, safety and health was being utilized to assist compliance efforts and to achieve cost and resource effective training. In general, use of on-shift training is increasingly finding acceptance among the sites. One west coast refiner reported that their refinery had implemented a program of on-shift training for plant personnel on all environmental, safety and health regulations, and had achieved nearly one-hundred percent compliance through the first quarter of the effort.

  4. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule.

  5. Active and Passive Fatigue in Simulated Driving: Discriminating Styles of Workload Regulation and Their Safety Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Saxby, Dyani J.; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S.; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Neubauer, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. PMID:24041288

  6. Ligand recognition by ActR, a TetR-like regulator of actinorhodin export.

    PubMed

    Tahlan, Kapil; Yu, Zhou; Xu, Ye; Davidson, Alan R; Nodwell, Justin R

    2008-11-21

    TetR-like transcriptional repressors interact with small-molecule ligands to control many facets of prokaryotic biology, including clinical antibiotic resistance. ActR is a TetR-like protein encoded in the biosynthetic gene cluster for the antibiotic actinorhodin and controls the expression of two actinorhodin exporters. We showed previously that actinorhodin and its precursor 4-dihydro-9-hydroxy-1-methyl-10-oxo-3-H-naphtho-[2,3-c]-pyran-3-(S)-acetic acid can bind ActR and prevent its interaction with DNA. Here, we compare ActR's interaction with naturally occurring and synthetic molecules to show that pathway intermediates bind to ActR 5- to 10-fold more tightly than actinorhodin itself, consistent with our suggestion that they are the biologically relevant triggers for actinorhodin export. We also find that the ligand-binding cavity of this protein can accommodate a surprisingly large diversity of ligands, many of which can release ActR from DNA in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that the actR locus could be activated by, and perhaps adapted to confer resistance to other antibiotics.

  7. Safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TV-1106, a long-acting GH treatment for GH deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Sakov, Anat; Rasamoelisolo, Michele; Bassan, Merav; Brown, Kurt; Mendzelevski, Boaz; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Background TV-1106 (Teva Pharmaceuticals) is a genetically fused recombinant protein of human GH (hGH) and human serum albumin, in development for treatment of GH deficiency (GHD). TV-1106 is expected to have an extended duration of action compared to daily GH treatment and may enable a reduction in the frequency of injections and improve compliance and quality of life for adults and children requiring GHD therapy. Objective To assess the safety, local tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TV-1106 following single s.c. injections in healthy male volunteers. Methods Subjects (n=56) were assigned to one of seven ascending dose groups (3–100 mg) and received either a single dose of TV-1106 (n=6) or placebo (n=2) by s.c. injection. Results Eighteen subjects reported 43 adverse effects (AEs), which were mild to moderate; no serious AEs (SAEs) occurred. In 50, 70 and 100 mg groups there were mild to moderate increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure that significantly correlated with higher levels of IGF1. TV-1106 showed pharmacokinetic characteristics of a long-acting hGH as demonstrated by a terminal elimination half-life of 23–35 h, delayed time of peak concentration, and systemic levels seen up to 7 days after dosing. IGF1 levels increased in a dose-dependent manner, before reaching a plateau, with levels above baseline extending beyond 7 days post dose. Conclusion Single administration of TV-1106 up to 100 mg was safe in healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics support once-weekly administration in patients with GHD. PMID:26286586

  8. Regulation of caulimovirus gene expression and the involvement of cis-acting elements on both viral transcripts.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Gowda, S; Shepherd, R J

    1992-09-01

    In a further analysis of gene regulation of figwort mosaic virus (FMV), a caulimovirus, we studied transient gene expression with modified viral genomes in Nicotiana edwardsonii cell suspension protoplasts. The results demonstrated that the presence of the promoter for the full-length RNA interferes with expression from the separate downstream promoter for gene VI. In addition, expression of gene VI was inhibited by cis-acting sequences within gene VI itself. Both inhibitory effects could be partially relieved by coelectroporation with a plasmid that produces gene VI protein, demonstrating that expression of gene VI is transactivated by its own product. Subsequent expression studies with partially redundant FMV plasmids containing a reporter gene in frame with gene IV showed that efficient transactivation of CAT expression relies on a cis-acting element inside the downstream gene VI. Insertions of a transcriptional terminator upstream of the cis-acting element for premature termination of transcription showed that the cis-acting region is not a DNA element but is active only as a feature of the RNA transcript. We conclude that the cis-acting element, together with the transacting gene VI product, enhances expression of all major genes, including gene VI, from the polycistronic mRNA and the separate mRNA for gene VI.

  9. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    .../2011 USCG-2011-0213 Erie Basin, NY Safety Zone (Part 165)... 6/11/2011 USCG-2011-0217 Knoxville, TN... Safety Zone (Part 165)... 4/12/2011 USCG-2011-0273 Lake Michigan Safety and Security Zone 4/14/2011 (Part.../28/2011 USCG-2011-0282 Lake Michigan Safety and Security Zone 4/27/2011 (Part 165). ]...

  10. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies.

  11. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies. PMID:25881665

  12. 75 FR 51420 - Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... implementing regulations (50 CFR 83) in the May 6, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 24862) and invited public... with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951), E.O. 13175, and 512 DM 2. We have determined... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 83 RIN 1018-AX00 Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish...

  13. 76 FR 78483 - S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act (Regulations G & H)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Insurance Corporation, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development for the Secure and Fair... regulated by the Farm Credit Administration. This interim final rule does not impose any new substantive... by a Federal banking agency, or employees of institutions regulated by the Farm Credit...

  14. 76 FR 57940 - Revision of Department of Justice Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ..., the regulations will be updated to reflect developments in the case law and to include current cost... NRPM published on March 21, 2011 (76 FR 15236), closed on April 20, 2011. This document reopens the... revising its existing regulations under the FOIA. (See 76 FR 15236.) The rule proposed to amend...

  15. 76 FR 25576 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Regulation PHMSA estimates the 30-year net present values \\5\\ of compliance costs for this final rule to be... the regulation would cause is also unknown. The final 30-year net present values of benefits of this... present value of benefits of this final rule is $326.5 million. PHMSA expects the regulatory changes...

  16. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... low-stress pipeline. Costs of the Regulation PHMSA estimates the 30-year net present values \\3\\ of... by OMB Circular No. A-94 for 30-year net present values. Subpart A--General Subpart B--Annual... Regulation The 30-year net present value of benefits of this NPRM is $326.5 million. PHMSA expects...

  17. Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Garza, Claribel; Murray, Alison E.; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; McCue, Lee Ann; Romine, Margaret F.; Loffler, F. E.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-03-30

    EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing regulators Fnr in E. coli and Anr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively; however, its regulatory role of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella spp. is not well understood. The expression of the nap genes, nrfA, cymA and hcp was significantly reduced in etrA deletion mutant EtrA7-1; however, limited anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction occurred, suggesting that multiple regulators control nitrate reduction in this strain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and fumarate reductase gene expression was down regulated at least 2-fold and the EtrA7-1 mutant grew poorly with fumarate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), suggesting both respiratory pathways are under EtrA control. Transcript analysis further suggested a role of EtrA in prophage activation and down regulation of genes implicated in aerobic metabolism. In contrast to previous studies that attributed a minor regulatory role to EtrA in Shewanella spp., this study demonstrates that EtrA acts as a global transcriptional regulator and confers physiological advantages to strain MR-1 under certain growth conditions. In conjunction with other regulators, EtrA fine-tunes the expression of genes involved in anaerobic metabolism in S. oneidensis strain MR-1.

  18. 78 FR 36693 - Rules and Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... guaranties annually. \\10\\ 78 FR 29263 (May 20, 2013). In light of the proposed amendments to the Textile... Act, 77 FR 57043 (Sept. 17, 2012). \\8\\ National Retail Federation Comment 00025 at 1-5, available at... Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, 7 FR 10744 (Feb. 23, 2012). D. Projected...

  19. 20 CFR 626.4 - Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....805Security and law enforcement. 638.806Property management and procurement. 638.807Imprest and petty cash... the Job Training Partnership Act, 20 CFR parts 626-638 and 1005, 1 is as follows: 1 Part 1005 was...-risk” recipients and subrecipients. 627.424Prohibition of subawards to debarred and suspended...

  20. 77 FR 43782 - Acquisition Regulations; Buy Indian Act; Procedures for Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Planning and Review (Executive Order 12866) B. Regulatory Flexibility Act C. Small Business Regulatory... to set aside procurement contracts for Indian-owned and controlled businesses. This rule supplements... ownership of business enterprises from a mandatory 100 percent to minimum 51 percent. In addition,...

  1. 76 FR 63817 - Disclosure of Information; Privacy Act Regulations; Notice and Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... supervisory agency, for purposes of Sec. 309.6, to which exempt records could be disclosed.\\1\\ \\1\\ 76 FR 35963.... D. Plain Language Section 722 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (Pub. L. 106-102, 113 Stat. 1338, 1471), requires the Federal banking agencies to use plain language in all proposed and final rules published...

  2. 77 FR 23196 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 10 RIN 1024-AD99 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation... Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) is responsible for implementation of the Native American Graves... implementing the Native American ] Graves Protection and Repatriation Act for purposes of factual accuracy...

  3. Trans-acting factors regulate the expression of CD44 splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Konig, H; Moll, J; Ponta, H; Herrlich, P

    1996-01-01

    Variant isoforms of the cell surface glycoprotein CD44 (CD44v) are expressed during development, in selected adult tissues and in certain metastatic tumor cells. CD44v differ from the standard isoform (CD44s) by up to ten additional exon sequences included by alternative splicing. By cell fusion experiments, we have obtained evidence for the existence of cell-type specific trans-acting factors recruiting CD44 variant exon sequences. Stable cell hybrids of CD44s and CD44v expressing cells indicated a dominant mechanism for variant-exon inclusion. In transient interspecies heterokaryons of human keratinocytes and rat fibroblasts, the ability of the keratinocytes to include all variant exon sequences in CD44 was conferred completely on the rat fibroblast nucleus. Fusions of cells with complex CD44 splice patterns do not permit interpretation of splice control by the relative abundance of a single trans-acting factor, but rather by (a) positively acting factor(s) recruiting variant exon sequences in the 3' to 5' direction and additional factors selecting individual exons. Since the pancreatic carcinoma cell line BSp73ASML (in contrast to the cervix carcinoma cell lines SiHa and ME180) could not transfer its specific splice pattern in cell fusions, we conclude that in some tumors, splicing is also controlled by mutation of cis-acting recognition sites. Images PMID:8670907

  4. 77 FR 74546 - Posting of Pamphlet Provided for in the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Act, Title D of Public Law 109-162, provided that the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation... such pamphlet be posted on the Web sites of the Department of State and all consular posts processing applications for K (fianc (e) or spouse of U.S. citizen) visas. This notice announces that this pamphlet...

  5. 77 FR 29982 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...: A. Purpose Government contracting officers may include FAR clause 52.222-32, Davis-Bacon Act--Price... may reasonably require. The information is used by ] Government contracting officers to establish the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 75 FR 63425 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels, published on August 17, 2010 (75 FR 50718... comments. 75 FR 50718 (Aug. 17, 2010). As explained in the supplementary information section below, the..., 2009 (see Secretary's Order 10-2009, 74 FR 58834 (Nov. 13, 2009)), that title was no longer...

  7. The Strong Expression and Conserved Regulation of ACT2 in Arabidopsis and Physcomitrella Patens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Actin genes encode structurally and functionally conserved proteins essential in a variety of cellular functions across eukaryotic species. In this report, we demonstrated that regulatory activity of ACT2 5’ regulatory region was significantly higher than that of the CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis...

  8. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  9. 48 CFR 50.205-3 - Authorization of offers contingent upon SAFETY Act designation or certification before contract...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY...; (2) To the contracting officer's knowledge, the Government has not provided advance notice so...

  10. 75 FR 66699 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 46859-46861, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0018) a proposal to establish... Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  11. 75 FR 3665 - Regulations under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act; Termination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... cars, banners, flags, and other event-related objects. On November 4, 1993 (58 FR 58810), the FTC... Tobacco to Protect Children and Adolescents, 61 FR 44615-618 (Aug. 28, 1996). Those regulations...

  12. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis. (1) Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence. PMID:26236960

  13. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... through Lewiston, ID on the Snake River. (d) Compliance. The large passenger vessel security and safety... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Notice of enforcement...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... through Lewiston, ID on the Snake River. (d) Compliance. The large passenger vessel security and safety... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone (a) Notice of enforcement...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... through Lewiston, ID on the Snake River. (d) Compliance. The large passenger vessel security and safety... Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1318 Section 165..., Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Notice of enforcement...

  16. 77 FR 50373 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series Regattas, San Francisco Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Cup Race Management DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed...'' regatta scheduled to occur August 21-26, 2012 (77 FR 41902). That rule created a special local regulation... temporary safety zone to govern these events from noon to 5 p.m. (77 FR 41902); however, the events...

  17. Second-generation direct-acting-antiviral hepatitis C virus treatment: Efficacy, safety, and predictors of SVR12

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Christoph R; Schwarz, Julia M; Egetemeyr, Daniel P; Beck, Robert; Malek, Nisar P; Lauer, Ulrich M; Berg, Christoph P

    2016-01-01

    AIM To gather data on the antiviral efficacy and safety of second generation direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment with respect to sustained virological response (SVR) 12 wk after conclusion of treatment, and to determine predictors of SVR12 in this setting. METHODS Two hundred and sixty patients treated with SOF combination partners PR (n = 51), R (n = 10), SMV (n = 30), DCV (n = 81), LDV (n = 73), or 3D (n = 15). 144/260 were pre-treated, 89/260 had liver cirrhosis, 56/260 had portal hypertension with platelets < 100/nL, 25/260 had a MELD score ≥ 10 and 17/260 were post-liver transplantation patients. 194/260 had HCV GT1, 44/260 HCV GT3. RESULTS Two hundred and forty/256 (93.7%) patients achieved SVR12 (mITT); 4/260 were lost to follow-up. SVR12 rates for subgroups were: 92% for SOF/DCV, 93% for each SOF/SMV, SOF/PR, 94% for SOF/LDV, 100% for 3D, 94% for pretreated, 87% for liver cirrhosis, 82% for patients with platelets < 100/nL, 88% post-liver transplantation, 95% for GT1a, 93% for GT1b, 90% for GT3, 100% for GT2, 4, and 6. 12 patients suffered from relapse, 6 prematurely discontinued treatment, of which 4 died. Negative predictors of SVR12 were a platelet count < 100/nL, MELD score ≥ 10 (P < 0.0001), liver cirrhosis (P = 0.005) at baseline. In Interferon-free treatment GT3 had significantly lower SVR rates than GT1 (P = 0.016). Side effects were mild. CONCLUSION Excellent SVR12 rates and the favorable side-effect profile of DAA-combination therapy can be well translated into “real-world”. Patients with advanced liver disease, signs of portal hypertension, especially with platelets < 100/nL and patients with GT3 are in special need for further research efforts to overcome comparatively higher rates of virological failure.

  18. Second-generation direct-acting-antiviral hepatitis C virus treatment: Efficacy, safety, and predictors of SVR12

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Christoph R; Schwarz, Julia M; Egetemeyr, Daniel P; Beck, Robert; Malek, Nisar P; Lauer, Ulrich M; Berg, Christoph P

    2016-01-01

    AIM To gather data on the antiviral efficacy and safety of second generation direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment with respect to sustained virological response (SVR) 12 wk after conclusion of treatment, and to determine predictors of SVR12 in this setting. METHODS Two hundred and sixty patients treated with SOF combination partners PR (n = 51), R (n = 10), SMV (n = 30), DCV (n = 81), LDV (n = 73), or 3D (n = 15). 144/260 were pre-treated, 89/260 had liver cirrhosis, 56/260 had portal hypertension with platelets < 100/nL, 25/260 had a MELD score ≥ 10 and 17/260 were post-liver transplantation patients. 194/260 had HCV GT1, 44/260 HCV GT3. RESULTS Two hundred and forty/256 (93.7%) patients achieved SVR12 (mITT); 4/260 were lost to follow-up. SVR12 rates for subgroups were: 92% for SOF/DCV, 93% for each SOF/SMV, SOF/PR, 94% for SOF/LDV, 100% for 3D, 94% for pretreated, 87% for liver cirrhosis, 82% for patients with platelets < 100/nL, 88% post-liver transplantation, 95% for GT1a, 93% for GT1b, 90% for GT3, 100% for GT2, 4, and 6. 12 patients suffered from relapse, 6 prematurely discontinued treatment, of which 4 died. Negative predictors of SVR12 were a platelet count < 100/nL, MELD score ≥ 10 (P < 0.0001), liver cirrhosis (P = 0.005) at baseline. In Interferon-free treatment GT3 had significantly lower SVR rates than GT1 (P = 0.016). Side effects were mild. CONCLUSION Excellent SVR12 rates and the favorable side-effect profile of DAA-combination therapy can be well translated into “real-world”. Patients with advanced liver disease, signs of portal hypertension, especially with platelets < 100/nL and patients with GT3 are in special need for further research efforts to overcome comparatively higher rates of virological failure. PMID:27672299

  19. Food safety regulations: what we learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki

    2012-09-01

    On 11 March 2011, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake and a substantial tsunami struck off the northeast coast of Japan. The Fukushima nuclear power plants were inundated and stricken, followed by radionuclide releases outside the crippled reactors. Provisional regulation values for radioactivity in food and drink were set on 17 March and were adopted from the preset index values, except that for radioiodines in water and milk ingested by infants. For radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and transuranic α emitters, index values were defined in all food and drink not to exceed a committed effective dose of 5 mSv/year. Index values for radioiodines were defined not to exceed a committed equivalent dose to the thyroid of 50 mSv/year, and set in water, milk and some vegetables, but not in other foodstuffs. Index values were calculated as radioactive concentrations of indicator radionuclides ((131)I for radioiodines, (134)Cs and (137)Cs for radiocesiums) by postulating the relative radioactive concentration of coexisting radionuclides (e.g., (132)I, (133)I, (134)I, (135)I and (132)Te for (131)I). Surveys were thence conducted to monitor levels of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Provisional regulation values were exceeded in tap water, raw milk and some vegetables, and restrictions on distribution and consumption began on 21 March. Fish contaminated with radioiodines at levels of concern were then detected, so that the provisional regulation value for radioiodines in seafood adopted from that in vegetables were additionally set on 5 April. Overall, restrictions started within 25 days after the first excess in each food or drink item, and maximum levels were detected in leafy vegetables (54,100 Bq/kg for (131)I, and a total of 82,000 Bq/kg for (134)Cs and (137)Cs). This paper focuses on the logic behind such food safety regulations, and discusses its underlying issues. The outlines of the food monitoring results for 24,685 samples and the enforced restrictions will also be described.

  20. 48 CFR 923.7002 - Worker safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... penalties (implemented at 10 CFR part 851) for a violation under section 234C of the Atomic Energy Act (42 U... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Worker safety and health... Occupational Safety Programs 923.7002 Worker safety and health. (a)(1) Except when the clause prescribed at...

  1. 48 CFR 923.7002 - Worker safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... penalties (implemented at 10 CFR part 851) for a violation under section 234C of the Atomic Energy Act (42 U... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Worker safety and health... Occupational Safety Programs 923.7002 Worker safety and health. (a)(1) Except when the clause prescribed at...

  2. 48 CFR 923.7002 - Worker safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... penalties (implemented at 10 CFR part 851) for a violation under section 234C of the Atomic Energy Act (42 U... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Worker safety and health... Occupational Safety Programs 923.7002 Worker safety and health. (a)(1) Except when the clause prescribed at...

  3. 48 CFR 923.7002 - Worker safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... penalties (implemented at 10 CFR part 851) for a violation under section 234C of the Atomic Energy Act (42 U... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Worker safety and health... Occupational Safety Programs 923.7002 Worker safety and health. (a)(1) Except when the clause prescribed at...

  4. The Consumer Product Safety Commission: Benefit or Boondoggle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Laurence P.

    1977-01-01

    The Consumer Product Safety Commission has been subject to the criticism of all parties involved in the regulation of the safety of consumer products. Evaluates the Commission's performance, examining both the sources of the Commission's regulatory problems and the extent to which recent amendments to the Consumer Product Safety Act will solve…

  5. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein acts to regulate the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers on rice DNA

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Changxun; Chen, Weisi; Li, Chengxun; Jian, Xin; Li, Yingzhe; Lin, Hongmei; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    UVB radiation causes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) to form on the DNA of living organisms. This study found that overexpression of the silicon absorbance gene Lsi1 reduced the accumulation of CPDs in rice, which profited from the reactivation by photolyase. The transcript abundance of deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase (Os10g0167600) was generally correlated with the silicon content of the rice, and the up-regulation of Os10g0167600 was found to be highest in the UVB-treated Lsi1-overexpressed (Lsi1-OX) rice. A trans-acting factor, methyl-CpG binding domain protein (OsMeCP), was found to interact with the cis-element of Os10g0167600. The nucleic location of OsMeCP effectively enabled the transcriptional regulation. Compared with the WT, the level of OsMeCP was lower in the Lsi1-OX rice but higher in the Lsi1-RNAi line. Rice cultured in a high silicate-concentration solution also exhibited less OsMeCP abundance. Overexpression of OsMeCP led to lower Os10g0167600 transcript levels and a higher CPD content than in the WT, but the reverse was true in the OsMeCP-RNAi line. These findings indicate that OsMeCP acts as a negative regulator of silicon, and can mediate the repression of the transcription from Os10g0167600, which inhibits the photoreactivation of the photolyase involved in the repair of CPDs. PMID:27694845

  6. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Guard will enforce a safety zone on Lake Washington, WA for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show from... establish a safety zone on the waters of Lake Washington for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show... area is designated as a safety zone: All waters of Lake Washington, Washington State, enclosed by...

  7. Emotion regulation during threat: Parsing the time course and consequences of safety signal processing.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Verona, Edelyn; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    Improved understanding of fear inhibition processes can inform the etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. Safety signals can reduce fear to threat, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. Safety signals may acquire attentional salience and affective properties (e.g., relief) independent of the threat; alternatively, safety signals may only hold affective value in the presence of simultaneous threat. To clarify such mechanisms, an experimental paradigm assessed independent processing of threat and safety cues. Participants viewed a series of red and green words from two semantic categories. Shocks were administered following red words (cue+). No shocks followed green words (cue-). Words from one category were defined as safety signals (SS); no shocks were administered on cue+ trials. Words from the other (control) category did not provide information regarding shock administration. Threat (cue+ vs. cue-) and safety (SS+ vs. SS-) were fully crossed. Startle response and ERPs were recorded. Startle response was increased during cue+ versus cue-. Safety signals reduced startle response during cue+, but had no effect on startle response during cue-. ERP analyses (PD130 and P3) suggested that participants parsed threat and safety signal information in parallel. Motivated attention was not associated with safety signals in the absence of threat. Overall, these results confirm that fear can be reduced by safety signals. Furthermore, safety signals do not appear to hold inherent hedonic salience independent of their effect during threat. Instead, safety signals appear to enable participants to engage in effective top-down emotion regulatory processes.

  8. The transcription factor TFEB acts as a molecular switch that regulates exogenous antigen-presentation pathways.

    PubMed

    Samie, Mohammad; Cresswell, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) can initiate immune responses by presenting exogenous antigens to T cells via both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathways and MHC class II pathways. Lysosomal activity has an important role in modulating the balance between these two pathways. The transcription factor TFEB regulates lysosomal function by inducing lysosomal activation. Here we report that TFEB expression inhibited the presentation of exogenous antigen by MHC class I while enhancing presentation via MHC class II. TFEB promoted phagosomal acidification and protein degradation. Furthermore, we found that the activation of TFEB was regulated during DC maturation and that phagosomal acidification was impaired in DCs in which the gene encoding TFEB was silenced. Our data indicate that TFEB is a key participant in the differential regulation of the presentation of exogenous antigens by DCs.

  9. Nitric Oxide Acts as a Positive Regulator to Induce Metamorphosis of the Ascidian Herdmania momus

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian

  10. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian

  11. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  12. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination. PMID:26996102

  13. Safety and efficacy of fertility-regulating methods: a decade of research.

    PubMed Central

    Skegg, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    An international venture was launched in 1985 to fill a recognized gap in post-marketing surveillance of fertility-regulating methods. For this purpose a new task force was set up by the Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction, which is cosponsored by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Population Fund, the World Bank, and WHO. Research priorities were chosen and epidemiological studies inaugurated, involving a total of 47 countries--mostly from the developing world. Important progress has been made, especially in helping to define the beneficial and possible adverse effects of oral contraceptives on the risk of neoplasia; in showing that the injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate protects against endometrial cancer and does not increase the overall risk of breast cancer, in clarifying which groups of women are susceptible to the rare cardiovascular complications of oral contraceptives (myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism); and in establishing the long-term effectiveness and safety of intrauterine devices. The research has already made a significant impact on family planning policies and practice. Critical appraisal of this venture, which has been modestly funded, confirms the value of mission-oriented research. It also illustrates the potential of collaboration that bridges the global divide between developing and developed countries. PMID:10534894

  14. Disemployment effects caused by regulation of drilling fluids and produced waters as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Flaim, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report reviews and compares several studies of the effects on employment of regulating wastes from oil and natural gas exploration and extraction under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste management scenarios on which most of the studies were based were developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analyses show that as many as 500,000-700,000 jobs may be lost in the first year if RCRA Subtitle C rules are applied to drilling fluids and produced waters. As a results, unemployment in major oil-producing states could rise by as much as six percentage points. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. 77 FR 19455 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... 65 FR 79920, 80029 (Dec. 20, 2000); 20 CFR 725.4(d) (2011). Consequently, there is no reason to..., 20 CFR 718.2 (2011); 45 FR 13677, 13679 (Feb. 29, 1980). The proposed rule does, however, retain... Federal Regulations in 2000. See 65 FR 79920, 80029 (Dec. 20, 2000); 20 CFR 725.4(d) (2011)....

  16. 75 FR 68911 - Regulations Under the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... document. See 74 FR 9056 (March 2, 2009). Several days earlier, on February 25, 2009, the Commission held a... FR 51664. The HHS Office for Civil Rights is responsible for issuing the regulations applicable to GINA section 105 and issued a proposed rule on October 7, 2009 at 74 FR 51698. Among the various...

  17. 78 FR 60686 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 59102). The preamble incorrectly stated that the Office of Information and Regulatory... of Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Parts 718 and 725 RIN 1240-AA04 Regulations Implementing the... Benefits; Correction AGENCY: Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, Labor. ACTION: Final...

  18. 78 FR 59101 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... public comment. 77 FR 19456-19478 (Mar. 30, 2012). These amendments reinstated two BLBA entitlement... Department recounted the history of these provisions in the NPRM. 77 FR at 19456-58. The Department also... streamlining the regulations where possible. See generally Executive Order 13563, 76 FR 3821 (January 18,...

  19. Global Space Safety Regulations and Standards: The Conflicting Perspectives of the 'Merchants', the 'Guardians' and the 'Civilian' Space Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    2010-09-01

    This article seek to explore the difference in viewpoint and approach to space safety that is now developing with regard to those that wish to exploit space commercially(i.e. the Merchants) versus those that see space as an extension of national defense and area of strategic interest(i.e. the Guardians), and those that pursue space as an area of civil governmental activity and oversight(i.e. the Civil Space Advocates ).1 These “actors” in the field of space and the key “definers” of space policy in future decades often see the purpose and goals related to outer space activities in fundamentally different ways. They also have quite different views as to how best to regulate and develop space safety standards and practices. With the recent shift in U.S. space policy toward commercial human flight development these issues become of even greater import to the future of space safety development and its regulation. New technological, political, defense and economic opportunities may well likely lead to increasing conflicts over best forms of management practices, appropriate regulations and standards, best ways to finance and implement new space initiatives, and even the best way to establish priorities for new projects and initiatives. This article seeks to analyze in some detail the differences in perspective and approach for all three types of actors in the field of space safety.

  20. GIGANTEA acts in blue light signaling and has biochemically separable roles in circadian clock and flowering time regulation.

    PubMed

    Martin-Tryon, Ellen L; Kreps, Joel A; Harmer, Stacey L

    2007-01-01

    Circadian clocks are widespread in nature. In higher plants, they confer a selective advantage, providing information regarding not only time of day but also time of year. Forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have led to the identification of many clock components, but the functions of most of these genes remain obscure. To identify both new constituents of the circadian clock and new alleles of known clock-associated genes, we performed a mutant screen. Using a clock-regulated luciferase reporter, we isolated new alleles of ZEITLUPE, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, and GIGANTEA (GI). GI has previously been reported to function in red light signaling, central clock function, and flowering time regulation. Characterization of this and other GI alleles has helped us to further define GI function in the circadian system. We found that GI acts in photomorphogenic and circadian blue light signaling pathways and is differentially required for clock function in constant red versus blue light. Gene expression and epistasis analyses show that TIMING OF CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN1 (TOC1) expression is not solely dependent upon GI and that GI expression is only indirectly affected by TOC1, suggesting that GI acts both in series with and in parallel to TOC1 within the central circadian oscillator. Finally, we found that the GI-dependent promotion of CONSTANS expression and flowering is intact in a gi mutant with altered circadian regulation. Thus GI function in the regulation of a clock output can be biochemically separated from its role within the circadian clock.

  1. Proteins bound at adjacent DNA elements act synergistically to regulate human proenkephalin cAMP inducible transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Comb, M; Mermod, N; Hyman, S E; Pearlberg, J; Ross, M E; Goodman, H M

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis of the endogenous opioid precursor, proenkephalin, is regulated by neurotransmitters and membrane depolarization. These events act through second messenger dependent signal transduction pathways via a short inducible DNA enhancer to regulate transcription of the proenkephalin gene. Two DNA elements located within this enhancer are essential for the transcriptional response to cAMP and phorbol ester. Inactivation of either element by mutation or by alteration of their stereospecific alignment eliminates inducible enhancer activity. The promoter distal element, ENKCRE-1, in the absence of a functional adjacent ENKCRE-2 element, has no inherent capacity to activate transcription. However, in the presence of a functional ENKCRE-2 element, this element synergistically augments cAMP and phorbol ester inducible transcription. The promoter proximal element, ENKCRE-2, is essential for both basal and regulated enhancer function. Four different protein factors found in HeLa cell nuclear extracts bind in vitro to the enhancer region. ENKTF-1, a novel enhancer binding protein, binds to the DNA region encompassing ENKCRE-1. The transcription factors AP-1 and AP-4 bind to overlapping sites spanning ENKCRE-2, and a fourth transcription factor, AP-2, binds to a site immediately downstream of ENKCRE-2. The binding of ENKTF-1 to mutant ENKCRE-1 sequences in vitro correlates with the in vivo inducibility of the mutant elements suggesting that ENKTF-1 acts in combination with factors that recognize the ENKCRE-2 domain to regulate cAMP inducible transcription. Together, the two DNA elements, ENKCRE-1 and ENKCRE-2 and the protein factors with which they interact, play a critical role in the transduction and reception of signals transmitted from cell surface receptors to the proenkephalin nuclear transcription complex. Images PMID:2850173

  2. Strigolactone acts downstream of auxin to regulate bud outgrowth in pea and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Philip B; Dun, Elizabeth A; Ferguson, Brett J; Rameau, Catherine; Beveridge, Christine A

    2009-05-01

    During the last century, two key hypotheses have been proposed to explain apical dominance in plants: auxin promotes the production of a second messenger that moves up into buds to repress their outgrowth, and auxin saturation in the stem inhibits auxin transport from buds, thereby inhibiting bud outgrowth. The recent discovery of strigolactone as the novel shoot-branching inhibitor allowed us to test its mode of action in relation to these hypotheses. We found that exogenously applied strigolactone inhibited bud outgrowth in pea (Pisum sativum) even when auxin was depleted after decapitation. We also found that strigolactone application reduced branching in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) auxin response mutants, suggesting that auxin may act through strigolactones to facilitate apical dominance. Moreover, strigolactone application to tiny buds of mutant or decapitated pea plants rapidly stopped outgrowth, in contrast to applying N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an auxin transport inhibitor, which significantly slowed growth only after several days. Whereas strigolactone or NPA applied to growing buds reduced bud length, only NPA blocked auxin transport in the bud. Wild-type and strigolactone biosynthesis mutant pea and Arabidopsis shoots were capable of instantly transporting additional amounts of auxin in excess of endogenous levels, contrary to predictions of auxin transport models. These data suggest that strigolactone does not act primarily by affecting auxin transport from buds. Rather, the primary repressor of bud outgrowth appears to be the auxin-dependent production of strigolactones. PMID:19321710

  3. RCRA, Superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (updated February 1998); Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this module is to explain the purpose, scope, and reporting requirements under the Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures (SPCC) and related regulations and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

  4. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  5. Thyroid Hormone May Regulate mRNA Abundance in Liver by Acting on MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongyan; Paquette, Martin; Williams, Andrew; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Wade, Mike; Yauk, Carole

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are extensively involved in diverse biological processes. However, very little is known about the role of miRNAs in mediating the action of thyroid hormones (TH). Appropriate TH levels are known to be critically important for development, differentiation and maintenance of metabolic balance in mammals. We induced transient hypothyroidism in juvenile mice by short-term exposure to methimazole and perchlorate from post natal day (PND) 12 to 15. The expression of miRNAs in the liver was analyzed using Taqman Low Density Arrays (containing up to 600 rodent miRNAs). We found the expression of 40 miRNAs was significantly altered in the livers of hypothyroid mice compared to euthyroid controls. Among the miRNAs, miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b exhibited a massive increase in expression (50- to 500-fold). The regulation of TH on the expression of miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b was confirmed in various mouse models including: chronic hypothyroid, short-term hyperthyroid and short-term hypothyroid followed by TH supplementation. TH regulation of these miRNAs was also confirmed in mouse hepatocyte AML 12 cells. The expression of precursors of miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b were examined in AML 12 cells and shown to decrease after TH treatment, only pre-mir-206 and pre-mir-133b reached statistical significance. To identify the targets of these miRNAs, DNA microarrays were used to examine hepatic mRNA levels in the short-term hypothyroid mouse model relative to controls. We found transcripts from 92 known genes were significantly altered in these hypothyroid mice. Web-based target predication software (TargetScan and Microcosm) identified 14 of these transcripts as targets of miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b. The vast majority of these mRNA targets were significantly down-regulated in hypothyroid mice, corresponding with the up-regulation of miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b in hypothyroid mouse liver. To further investigate target genes, miR-206 was over-expressed in AML 12 cells. TH

  6. Annual report on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, April 1, 1990. Report for January-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration, through its Center for Devices and Radiological Health, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. The report provides a summary of the operations of the Center in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1989. In reviewing the operations of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health as reported in the document, it should be kept in mind that the day-to-day administration of the Act is only part of the Center's function. Other responsibilities include the administration and enforcement of the 1976 Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (not covered in the report). Manufacturers of electronic products are required by 21 CFR 1003.20 to report accidental radiation occurrences to the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. The Center no longer maintains a Radiation Incidents Registry, since accidental radiation occurrences are reported through the Device Experience Network (DEN) and through the requirements of the Medical Device Reporting (MDR) regulations.

  7. Superoxide dismutase 1 acts as a nuclear transcription factor to regulate oxidative stress resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Chi Kwan; Liu, Yuan; Thomas, Janice; Zhang, Yanjie; Zheng, X. F. Steven

    2015-01-01

    Summary Superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) has been known for nearly half a century for catalysis of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Here we report a new Sod1 function in oxidative signaling: in response to elevated endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), Sod1 rapidly relocates into the nucleus, which is important for maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, H2O2 is sufficient to promote Sod1 nuclear localization, indicating that it is responding to general ROS rather than Sod1 substrate superoxide. ROS signaling is mediated by Mec1/ATM and its effector Dun1/Cds1 kinase, through Dun1 interaction with Sod1 and regulation of Sod1 by phosphorylation at S60, 99. In the nucleus, Sod1 binds to the promoters and regulates the expression of oxidative resistance and repair genes. Altogether, our study unravels an unorthodox function of Sod1 as a transcription factor and elucidates the regulatory mechanism for its localization. PMID:24647101

  8. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Acts in the Drosophila Mushroom Body to Negatively Regulate Sleep.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lei; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-11-01

    Though evidence is mounting that a major function of sleep is to maintain brain plasticity and consolidate memory, little is known about the molecular pathways by which learning and sleep processes intercept. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk), the gene encoding a tyrosine receptor kinase whose inadvertent activation is the cause of many cancers, is implicated in synapse formation and cognitive functions. In particular, Alk genetically interacts with Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) to regulate growth and associative learning in flies. We show that Alk mutants have increased sleep. Using a targeted RNAi screen we localized the negative effects of Alk on sleep to the mushroom body, a structure important for both sleep and memory. We also report that mutations in Nf1 produce a sexually dimorphic short sleep phenotype, and suppress the long sleep phenotype of Alk. Thus Alk and Nf1 interact in both learning and sleep regulation, highlighting a common pathway in these two processes. PMID:26536237

  9. Lysophosphatidic acid acts as a nutrient-derived developmental cue to regulate early hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haisen; Yue, Rui; Wei, Bin; Gao, Ge; Du, Jiulin; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Primitive hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac blood islands during vertebrate embryogenesis, where abundant phosphatidylcholines (PC) are available as important nutrients for the developing embryo. However, whether these phospholipids also generate developmental cues to promote hematopoiesis is largely unknown. Here, we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a signaling molecule derived from PC, regulated hemangioblast formation and primitive hematopoiesis. Pharmacological and genetic blockage of LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1) or autotoxin (ATX), a secretory lysophospholipase that catalyzes LPA production, inhibited hematopoietic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and impaired the formation of hemangioblasts. Mechanistic experiments revealed that the regulatory effect of ATX-LPA signaling was mediated by PI3K/Akt-Smad pathway. Furthermore, during in vivo embryogenesis in zebrafish, LPA functioned as a developmental cue for hemangioblast formation and primitive hematopoiesis. Taken together, we identified LPA as an important nutrient-derived developmental cue for primitive hematopoiesis as well as a novel mechanism of hemangioblast regulation. PMID:24829209

  10. Cux2 acts as a critical regulator for neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Walter; Iulianella, Angelo; Gunhaga, Lena

    2014-04-01

    Signaling pathways and transcription factors are crucial regulators of vertebrate neurogenesis, exerting their function in a spatial and temporal manner. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the molecular regulation of embryonic neurogenesis, little is known regarding how different signaling pathways interact to tightly regulate this process during the development of neuroepithelia. To address this, we have investigated the events lying upstream and downstream of a key neurogenic factor, the Cut-like homeodomain transcription factor-2 (Cux2), during embryonic neurogenesis in chick and mouse. By using the olfactory epithelium as a model for neurogenesis we have analyzed mouse embryos deficient in Cux2, as well as chick embryos exposed to Cux2 silencing (si) RNA or a Cux2 over-expression construct. We provide evidence that enhanced BMP activity increases Cux2 expression and suppresses olfactory neurogenesis in the chick olfactory epithelium. In addition, our results show that up-regulation of Cux2, either BMP-induced or ectopically over-expressed, reduce Delta1 expression and suppress proliferation. Interestingly, the loss of Cux2 activity, using mutant mice or siRNA in chick, also diminishes neurogenesis, Notch activity and cell proliferation in the olfactory epithelium. Our results suggest that controlled low levels of Cux2 activity are necessary for proper Notch signaling, maintenance of the proliferative pool and ongoing neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium. Thus, we demonstrate a novel conserved mechanism in vertebrates in which levels of Cux2 activity play an important role for ongoing neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium.

  11. Identification of cis- and trans-acting elements regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kresoja-Rakic, Jelena; Kapaklikaya, Esra; Ziltener, Gabriela; Dalcher, Damian; Santoro, Raffaella; Christensen, Brock C; Johnson, Kevin C; Schwaller, Beat; Weder, Walter; Stahel, Rolf A; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela

    2016-04-19

    Calretinin (CALB2) is a diagnostic marker for epithelioid mesothelioma. It is also a prognostic marker since patients with tumors expressing high calretinin levels have better overall survival. Silencing of calretinin decreases viability of epithelioid mesothelioma cells. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma. Analysis of calretinin transcript and protein suggested a control at the mRNA level. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and analysis of TCGA data indicated that promoter methylation is not likely to be involved. Therefore, we investigated CALB2 promoter by analyzing ~1kb of genomic sequence surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) + 1 using promoter reporter assay. Deletion analysis of CALB2 proximal promoter showed that sequence spanning the -161/+80bp region sustained transcriptional activity. Site-directed analysis identified important cis-regulatory elements within this -161/+80bp CALB2 promoter. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed binding of NRF-1 and E2F2 to the CALB2 promoter and siRNA knockdown of NRF-1 led to decreased expression of calretinin. Cell synchronization experiment showed that calretinin expression was cell cycle regulated with a peak of expression at G1/S phase. This study provides the first insight in the regulation of CALB2 expression in mesothelioma cells.

  12. Phosphorylation acts positively and negatively to regulate MRTF-A subcellular localisation and activity

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotou, Richard; Miralles, Francesc; Pawlowski, Rafal; Diring, Jessica; Flynn, Helen R; Skehel, Mark; Treisman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) regulate cytoskeletal genes through their partner transcription factor SRF. The MRTFs bind G-actin, and signal-regulated changes in cellular G-actin concentration control their nuclear accumulation. The MRTFs also undergo Rho- and ERK-dependent phosphorylation, but the function of MRTF phosphorylation, and the elements and signals involved in MRTF-A nuclear export are largely unexplored. We show that Rho-dependent MRTF-A phosphorylation reflects relief from an inhibitory function of nuclear actin. We map multiple sites of serum-induced phosphorylation, most of which are S/T-P motifs and show that S/T-P phosphorylation is required for transcriptional activation. ERK-mediated S98 phosphorylation inhibits assembly of G-actin complexes on the MRTF-A regulatory RPEL domain, promoting nuclear import. In contrast, S33 phosphorylation potentiates the activity of an autonomous Crm1-dependent N-terminal NES, which cooperates with five other NES elements to exclude MRTF-A from the nucleus. Phosphorylation thus plays positive and negative roles in the regulation of MRTF-A. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15460.001 PMID:27304076

  13. Identification of cis- and trans-acting elements regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kresoja-Rakic, Jelena; Kapaklikaya, Esra; Ziltener, Gabriela; Dalcher, Damian; Santoro, Raffaella; Christensen, Brock C.; Johnson, Kevin C.; Schwaller, Beat; Weder, Walter; Stahel, Rolf A.; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Calretinin (CALB2) is a diagnostic marker for epithelioid mesothelioma. It is also a prognostic marker since patients with tumors expressing high calretinin levels have better overall survival. Silencing of calretinin decreases viability of epithelioid mesothelioma cells. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma. Analysis of calretinin transcript and protein suggested a control at the mRNA level. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and analysis of TCGA data indicated that promoter methylation is not likely to be involved. Therefore, we investigated CALB2 promoter by analyzing ~1kb of genomic sequence surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) + 1 using promoter reporter assay. Deletion analysis of CALB2 proximal promoter showed that sequence spanning the −161/+80bp region sustained transcriptional activity. Site-directed analysis identified important cis-regulatory elements within this −161/+80bp CALB2 promoter. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed binding of NRF-1 and E2F2 to the CALB2 promoter and siRNA knockdown of NRF-1 led to decreased expression of calretinin. Cell synchronization experiment showed that calretinin expression was cell cycle regulated with a peak of expression at G1/S phase. This study provides the first insight in the regulation of CALB2 expression in mesothelioma cells. PMID:26848772

  14. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights......

  15. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights......

  16. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights......

  17. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights......

  18. An Arabidopsis F-box protein acts as a transcriptional co-factor to regulate floral development.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eunyoung; Tan, Queenie K-G; Hill, Theresa A; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-04-01

    Plants flower in response to both environmental and endogenous signals. The Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor is crucial in integrating these signals, and acts in part by activating the expression of multiple floral homeotic genes. LFY-dependent activation of the homeotic APETALA3 (AP3) gene requires the activity of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), an F-box component of an SCF ubiquitin ligase, yet how this regulation is effected has remained unclear. Here, we show that UFO physically interacts with LFY both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction is necessary to recruit UFO to the AP3 promoter. Furthermore, a transcriptional repressor domain fused to UFO reduces endogenous LFY activity in plants, supporting the idea that UFO acts as part of a transcriptional complex at the AP3 promoter. Moreover, chemical or genetic disruption of proteasome activity compromises LFY-dependent AP3 activation, indicating that protein degradation is required to promote LFY activity. These results define an unexpected role for an F-box protein in functioning as a DNA-associated transcriptional co-factor in regulating floral homeotic gene expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism for promoting flower development via protein degradation and concomitant activation of the LFY transcription factor. This mechanism may be widely conserved, as homologs of UFO and LFY have been identified in a wide array of plant species. PMID:18287201

  19. The exosome and trans-acting small interfering RNAs regulate cuticular wax biosynthesis during Arabidopsis inflorescence stem development.

    PubMed

    Lam, Patricia; Zhao, Lifang; Eveleigh, Nathan; Yu, Yu; Chen, Xuemei; Kunst, Ljerka

    2015-02-01

    The primary aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a cuticle, a protective layer composed of the cutin polyester matrix and cuticular waxes. Previously, we discovered a unique mechanism of regulating cuticular wax biosynthesis during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stem elongation that involves ECERIFERUM7 (CER7), a core subunit of the exosome. Because loss-of-function mutations in CER7 result in reduced expression of the wax biosynthetic gene CER3, we proposed that CER7 is involved in degrading a messenger RNA encoding a CER3 repressor. To identify this putative repressor, we performed a cer7 suppressor screen that resulted in the isolation of the posttranscriptional gene-silencing components RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE1 and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3, indicating that small RNAs regulate CER3 expression. To establish the identity of the effector RNA species and determine whether these RNAs control CER3 transcript levels directly, we cloned additional genes identified in our suppressor screen and performed next-generation sequencing of small RNA populations that differentially accumulate in the cer7 mutant in comparison with the wild type. Our results demonstrate that the trans-acting small interfering RNA class of small RNAs are the effector molecules involved in direct silencing of CER3 and that the expression of five additional genes (EARLY RESPONSE TO DEHYDRATION14, AUXIN RESISTANT1, a translation initiation factor SUI1 family protein, and two genes of unknown function) is controlled by both CER7 and trans-acting small interfering RNAs.

  20. An Arabidopsis F-box protein acts as a transcriptional co-factor to regulate floral development.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eunyoung; Tan, Queenie K-G; Hill, Theresa A; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-04-01

    Plants flower in response to both environmental and endogenous signals. The Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor is crucial in integrating these signals, and acts in part by activating the expression of multiple floral homeotic genes. LFY-dependent activation of the homeotic APETALA3 (AP3) gene requires the activity of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), an F-box component of an SCF ubiquitin ligase, yet how this regulation is effected has remained unclear. Here, we show that UFO physically interacts with LFY both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction is necessary to recruit UFO to the AP3 promoter. Furthermore, a transcriptional repressor domain fused to UFO reduces endogenous LFY activity in plants, supporting the idea that UFO acts as part of a transcriptional complex at the AP3 promoter. Moreover, chemical or genetic disruption of proteasome activity compromises LFY-dependent AP3 activation, indicating that protein degradation is required to promote LFY activity. These results define an unexpected role for an F-box protein in functioning as a DNA-associated transcriptional co-factor in regulating floral homeotic gene expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism for promoting flower development via protein degradation and concomitant activation of the LFY transcription factor. This mechanism may be widely conserved, as homologs of UFO and LFY have been identified in a wide array of plant species.