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Sample records for act sba regulations

  1. 13 CFR 101.109 - Do SBA regulations include the section headings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do SBA regulations include the section headings? 101.109 Section 101.109 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.109 Do SBA regulations include the section headings? Yes. All SBA regulations...

  2. 13 CFR 108.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust... approved by SBA pursuant to these regulations shall either be regulated by a Federal financial...

  3. 13 CFR 101.108 - Has SBA waived any of the public participation exemptions of the Administrative Procedure Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Has SBA waived any of the public participation exemptions of the Administrative Procedure Act? 101.108 Section 101.108 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.108 Has SBA waived any of the...

  4. 13 CFR 108.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approved by SBA pursuant to these regulations shall either be regulated by a Federal financial regulatory... Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust... standing in respect to compliance with the financial, ethical, and reporting requirements of such...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approved by SBA pursuant to these regulations shall either be regulated by a Federal financial regulatory... Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial... standing in respect to compliance with the financial, ethical, and reporting requirements of such...

  6. 13 CFR 108.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1630 SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage... Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates. 108.1630 Section 108.1630...

  7. 13 CFR 108.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1630 SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage... Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates. 108.1630 Section 108.1630...

  8. 13 CFR 108.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1630 SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage... Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates. 108.1630 Section 108.1630...

  9. 13 CFR 142.9 - When will SBA issue a complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will SBA issue a complaint? 142.9 Section 142.9 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Procedures Leading to Issuance of A Complaint § 142.9 When will SBA issue...

  10. 13 CFR 103.5 - How does SBA regulate an Agent's fees and provision of service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Applicant or lender in any matter involving SBA assistance. SBA provides the form of compensation agreement and a suggested form of Lender Service Provider agreement to be used by Agents. (b) Compensation... suggested form of agreement. However, each agreement must indicate that both parties agree not to engage...

  11. 13 CFR 103.5 - How does SBA regulate an Agent's fees and provision of service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Applicant or lender in any matter involving SBA assistance. SBA provides the form of compensation agreement... any sharing of secondary market premiums, that the services to be provided are accurately described... splitting premiums, lenders have reasonable discretion in setting compensation for Lender Service...

  12. 13 CFR 108.1810 - Events of default and SBA's remedies for NMVC Company's noncompliance with terms of Debentures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... substantive regulation promulgated under the Act. (9) Failure to maintain diversity. You fail to maintain diversity between management and ownership as required by § 108.150. (g) SBA remedies for events of...

  13. 13 CFR 108.1810 - Events of default and SBA's remedies for NMVC Company's noncompliance with terms of Debentures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... substantive regulation promulgated under the Act. (9) Failure to maintain diversity. You fail to maintain diversity between management and ownership as required by § 108.150. (g) SBA remedies for events of...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates. 107.1630 Section 107.1630 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates. 107.1630 Section 107.1630 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates. 107.1630 Section 107.1630 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates. 107.1630 Section 107.1630 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates...

  18. 75 FR 37287 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... / Tuesday, June 29, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD 4 CFR Part 200 RIN 0430-AA03 Privacy Act Regulations AGENCY: Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board (Board) amends...

  19. 75 FR 82217 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Joint Final Rule The agencies' CRA regulations establish CRA performance standards for small and... between the standards used to evaluate savings associations and the standards used to evaluate banks. 72... Procedure Act (APA), an agency may, for good cause, find (and incorporate the finding and a brief...

  20. 76 FR 79529 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... of the Joint Final Rule The agencies' CRA regulations establish CRA performance standards for small... the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), an agency may, for good cause, find (and incorporate the.... Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3) of the APA, the required publication or service of a substantive rule shall...

  1. 77 FR 75521 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... CFR Part 228 FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 345 RIN 3064-AD90 Community... agencies) are amending their Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) regulations to adjust the asset-size..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: OCC: Margaret Hesse, Special Counsel, Community and Consumer...

  2. 13 CFR 120.460 - What are SBA's additional requirements for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the SBA Supervised Lender regulations that follow. (b) Operations and internal controls. Each SBA... company and does not have its own board of directors) must adopt an internal control policy which provides... operations, programs, and resources. The internal control policy must, at a minimum: (1) Direct management...

  3. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of...

  4. The Kentucky Civil Rights Act: Explanation, the Act, Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The Kentucky Civil Rights Act, introduced on January 4, 1966, enacted January 27, 1966 and effective July 1, 1966 is said to meet the requirements of the Federal Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1968, the Act was amended to prohibit housing discrimination. In 1972, the coverage of the Act was extended to prohibit employment discrimination because of…

  5. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  6. 13 CFR 121.103 - How does SBA determine affiliation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....103 How does SBA determine affiliation? (a) General Principles of Affiliation. (1) Concerns and... the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j), are not considered affiliated with the cooperative... agreements in principle) to have a present effect on the power to control a concern. SBA treats such...

  7. 76 FR 43585 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services Businesses AGENCY: Treasury... Proposed Rulemaking, Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services Businesses, 74 FR 22129... to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-- Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money...

  8. 75 FR 61035 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Education loan program; or (2) any private education loan as defined in the Truth in Lending Act, including... expenses,'' each of which is defined in the HEOA in the context of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Section... the Truth in Lending Act, as added by section 1011 of the HEOA. In turn, the HEOA defines a...

  9. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  10. 77 FR 15835 - Privacy Act of 1974: Revision of Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974: Revision of Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records. SUMMARY: SBA is revising the Privacy Act Systems of Records for the Loan System, SBA 21 (``SOR 21'') and the Suspension and...

  11. 78 FR 79283 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... CRA purposes by the OCC, Board, and FDIC on August 2, 2005, effective September 1, 2005. 70 FR 44256... Act (HMDA). 70 FR 12148 (Mar. 11, 2005). See 12 U.S.C. 2808; 12 CFR 203.2(e)(1). On March 22, 2007... other federal banking agencies in its CRA rule previously set forth at 12 CFR 563e. 72 FR 13429 (Mar....

  12. 75 FR 36270 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL 12 CFR Part 1102 Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council...-7577 or alice@asc.gov ; Appraisal Subcommittee; 1401 H Street, NW., Suite 760, Washington, DC...

  13. 77 FR 57043 - Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...The Federal Trade Commission proposes to amend its Regulations under the Fur Products Labeling Act to update its Fur Products Name Guide, provide more labeling flexibility, incorporate recently enacted Truth in Fur Labeling Act provisions, and eliminate unnecessary requirements. The Commission does not propose changing or providing alternatives to the required name on labels for nyctereutes......

  14. 77 FR 74347 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... GENERAL ON INTEGRITY AND EFFICIENCY 5 CFR Chapter XCVIII Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY... implement the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The final rule describes the policies and procedures for... provide the procedures and guidelines under which CIGIE will implement the Freedom of Information...

  15. 77 FR 66539 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... CONCILIATION SERVICE 29 CFR Part 1401 RIN 3076-AA06 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Federal... Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) rules relating to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The final... Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of information. For the reasons stated in the preamble,...

  16. 77 FR 75362 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1612 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations CFR Correction 0 In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 900 to 1899, revised as of July 1, 2012, on page 266, in Sec....

  17. 78 FR 6216 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 2 RIN 1093-AA15 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: This document...

  18. 76 FR 78977 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... December 20, 2011 Part II Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Part 1024 Real Estate Settlement... RIN 3170-AA06 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) rulemaking authority for the Real Estate...

  19. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  20. Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    2009-11-15

    The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

  1. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E.; Pastides, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. 76 FR 78483 - S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act (Regulations G & H)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1007 and 1008 RIN 3170-AA06 S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act (Regulations G & H) AGENCY... Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act (S.A.F.E. Act), the Bureau is publishing for public comment an interim final rule establishing a new Regulation G (S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act--Federal Registration...

  3. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  4. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  7. 13 CFR 120.1010 - SBA access to SBA Lender, Intermediary, and NTAP files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA access to SBA Lender, Intermediary, and NTAP files. 120.1010 Section 120.1010 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1010 SBA access to SBA...

  8. Regulations Under the Americans With Disabilities Act; Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-17

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) is issuing its final rule to amend the regulations and interpretive guidance implementing Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to provide guidance on the extent to which employers may use incentives to encourage employees to participate in wellness programs that ask them to respond to disability-related inquiries and/or undergo medical examinations. This rule applies to all wellness programs that include disability-related inquiries and/or medical examinations whether they are offered only to employees enrolled in an employer-sponsored group health plan, offered to all employees regardless of whether they are enrolled in such a plan, or offered as a benefit of employment by employers that do not sponsor a group health plan or group health insurance. Published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the EEOC also issued a final rule to amend the regulations implementing Title II of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) that addresses the extent to which employers may offer incentives for an employee's spouse to participate in a wellness program.

  9. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the...

  10. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales.

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development.

  11. Effect of the Family and Medical Leave Act on the operation of cafeteria plans. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    2001-10-17

    This document contains final regulations relating to cafeteria plans that reflect changes made by the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (Act). The final regulations provide the public with guidance needed to comply with the Act and affect employees who participate in cafeteria plans.

  12. 78 FR 72057 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... CFR Part 300 Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act AGENCY: Federal Trade... proposed amendments to the Rules and Regulations under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 (``Wool Rules... Commission issued the Wool Rules to implement the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, 15 U.S.C. 68-68j....

  13. 77 FR 29982 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method), by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  14. 75 FR 24862 - Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Wildlife Conservation Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We... and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980. The Act authorized financial and technical assistance to States... through 86. The regulations at part 83 implement the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980 (16...

  15. 20 CFR 626.4 - Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Table of contents for the Job Training..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.4 Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. The table of contents for the regulations...

  16. 29 CFR 2530.200a-2 - Treasury regulations for purposes of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treasury regulations for purposes of the Act. 2530.200a-2... RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200a-2 Treasury regulations for purposes of the...

  17. 29 CFR 1903.2 - Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards. 1903.2 Section 1903.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... § 1903.2 Posting of notice; availability of the Act, regulations and applicable standards. (a)(1)...

  18. 75 FR 58387 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time Reporting, Compensation Requirements AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration... Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time- Reporting, Compensation...

  19. 75 FR 58389 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting Requirements for Prime Contractors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting Requirements for...

  20. 75 FR 58388 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--Quarterly Reporting for Prime Contractors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA... Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Quarterly Reporting for Prime Contractors. Public comments are...

  1. 77 FR 19455 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...This document contains proposed regulations implementing amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA amended the BLBA in two ways. First, it revived a rebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis for certain claims. Second, it reinstituted derivative entitlement to benefits for......

  2. 76 FR 24027 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act Certificate AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act certificate. Public...-mail cecelia.davis@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose The Buy American Act requires...

  3. 75 FR 14547 - Tribal Consultation on Draft Buy Indian Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs 48 CFR Chapter 14 RIN 1076-AE95 Tribal Consultation on Draft Buy Indian Act... comments concerning draft regulations to implement the Buy Indian Act. See the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... implementation of the Buy Indian Act, 25 U.S.C. 47, which provides authority to set aside procurement...

  4. 77 FR 13328 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0154, Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual...

  5. Synthesis of composites SBA-15 mesoporous particles carrying oxytocin and evaluation of their properties, functions, and in vitro biological activities.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ming; Liu, Min; Duan, Mengna; Wu, Zhe; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Using the organic template method, we have synthesized mesoporous SBA-15 particles and characterized them by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bone metabolism regulating hormone oxytocin (OT) was selected as a model for preparation of drug/SBA-15 complexes. The process of drug loading was studied using X-ray diffraction and nitrogen absorption methods. Optimal drug loading parameters were experimentally investigated. The kinetics of drug release from the carrier was evaluated. Finally, the extractions of SBA-15 particles were tested for cytotoxicity, in vitro hemolysis, and the direct attachment toxicity. Our findings suggest that SBA-15 materials have good biocompatibility. Moreover, we demonstrated that OT/SBA-15 complex can stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblast cells. The study provides fundamental information for further in vivo drug-carrier testing.

  6. 75 FR 3665 - Regulations under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act; Termination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...The Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission'') has terminated its rulemaking concerning a proposed amendment to its regulations (``smokeless tobacco regulations''), , implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (``Smokeless Tobacco Act''). The proposed amendment expressly provided that sponsored racing vehicles and other event-related objects that......

  7. 20 CFR 626.2 - Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.2 Section 626.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the...

  8. 20 CFR 626.2 - Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.2 Section 626.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the...

  9. 76 FR 82117 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...This final rule contains regulations implementing amendments to the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (LHWCA) by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), relating to the exclusion of certain recreational-vessel workers from the LHWCA's definition of ``employee.'' These regulations clarify both the definition of ``recreational vessel'' and those circumstances......

  10. 20 CFR 626.2 - Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.2 Section 626.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the...

  11. 78 FR 41835 - Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... 3150-AJ25 Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended...

  12. 77 FR 234 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 303 Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products... Rules and Regulations under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile Rules'').\\1\\ The... the Textile Rules to implement the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 15 U.S.C. 70-70k....

  13. 20 CFR 626.3 - Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.3 Section 626.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.3 Purpose, scope, and...

  14. 20 CFR 626.3 - Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.3 Section 626.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.3 Purpose, scope, and...

  15. 20 CFR 626.3 - Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose, scope, and applicability of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.3 Section 626.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.3 Purpose, scope, and...

  16. 75 FR 41370 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ..., 121 Stat. 2524. The OPEN Government Act amended various FOIA administrative procedures, such as when... procedural rules, final Commission decisions since 1972, final administrative law judges' decisions since 1993, administrative law judges' decisions pending Commission review, strategic plans,...

  17. 76 FR 78121 - Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (Regulation F)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Financial Protection (Bureau), effective July 21, 2011.\\4\\ See sections 1061 and 1089 of the Dodd-Frank Act... Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010. Public Law 111-203, section 1089(4); 15 U.S.C.1692l(d). II... Law 111-203, section 1089(1); 15 U.S.C. 1692o. B. Authority To Issue an Interim Final Rule...

  18. 78 FR 32595 - Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... practices with respect to FOIA. Finally, the rule would use current cost figures in calculating and charging... enacted by the OPEN Government Act of 2007, reflect developments in the case law, and include current cost... increased from that provided for under current Sec. 15.110(c). Duplication costs for media copies would...

  19. 75 FR 22320 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... deletion of materials under the FOIA on the responsive record. Second, as a result of the Chief FOIA...) to reflect the more detailed description of those duties set forth under the OPEN Government Act. 5 U... forth in paragraph (g) to include, where technically feasible, marking the exemption under which...

  20. 75 FR 38684 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2010-008, Recovery Act Subcontract Reporting Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... regulations it believes are necessary. OMB has determined that obtaining publicly reported jobs information at... Regulation; FAR Case 2010-008, Recovery Act Subcontract Reporting Procedures AGENCIES: Department of Defense... Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) have agreed on an interim rule amending the...

  1. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  2. 78 FR 8963 - Update of Existing Privacy Act-NASA Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1212 RIN 2700-AD86 Update of Existing Privacy Act--NASA Regulations... document contains corrections to the final regulations (NASA-2012-0005), which were published in the... Jennings, 202-358-0819. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background NASA's final regulations that published...

  3. 7 CFR 1945.26 - Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under Public Law 103-354 and SBA. 1945.26 Section 1945.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Public Law 103-354 and SBA. (a) General. Public Law 99-272 made agricultural enterprises ineligible for... a farm or nonfarm tract. It is the policy of USDA and FmHA or its successor agency under Public...

  4. 75 FR 41788 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AB07 Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Prepaid Access AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement.... Steele, Deputy Director, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. BILLING CODE 4810-02-P...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous... Securities or obligations held or guaranteed by SBA, and all legal or equitable rights accruing to SBA....

  6. 75 FR 63425 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Part 701 RIN 1240-AA02 Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels AGENCY: Office of Workers' Compensation... Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) is republishing the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking entitled...

  7. 77 FR 56592 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... language and structure of the FOIA regulations in order to improve the Department's FOIA performance. More... detailed information about Department procedures for making FOIA requests and descriptions of the types of... possible about the specific records or types of records that you are seeking. This will assist the...

  8. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    PubMed

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act.

  9. 78 FR 54650 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Regulation; Information Collection American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time... requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting... Requirements-- One Time Reporting for First-tier Subcontractors, by any of the following methods:...

  10. 78 FR 54648 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Reporting Requirements--One-Time... requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Reporting Requirements--One Time-Reporting... Requirements-- One Time-Reporting, Compensation Requirements, by any of the following methods:...

  11. 78 FR 57808 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...Based on comments received in response to its Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, the Federal Trade Commission (the ``Commission'' or ``FTC'') proposes amending its rules and regulations under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 (``Wool Rules'' or ``Rules'') to: conform to the requirements of the Wool Suit Fabric Labeling Fairness and International Standards Conforming Act, which revised......

  12. 75 FR 58390 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time Reporting for First-Tier Subcontractors AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration... Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time Reporting for First-Tier Subcontractors. Public comments...

  13. 76 FR 16977 - Regulations To Implement the Equal Employment Provisions of the Americans With Disabilities Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (the Commission or the EEOC) issues its final revised Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations and accompanying interpretive guidance in order to implement the ADA Amendments Act of 2008. The Commission is responsible for enforcement of title I of the ADA, as amended, which prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of disability.......

  14. Vapour phase hydrogenation of phenol over rhodium on SBA-15 and SBA-16.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Liliana; Bastidas-Barranco, Marlon; Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-10

    In the present work, mesoporous SBA-15 and SBA-16 were synthesised using classical methods, and their physicochemical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption. Rhodium (Rh, 1 wt %) was loaded on the mesoporous SBA-15 and SBA-16 by an impregnation method. The Rh surface coverage, dispersion and crystallite size were determined by room temperature H2 chemisorption on reduced samples. The catalytic activity of Rh supported on mesoporous SBA-15 and SBA-16 was evaluated for the first time in the hydrogenation of phenol in vapour phase in a temperature range between 130 and 270 °C at atmospheric pressure. The reaction over Rh/SBA-15 at 180 °C produced cyclohexanone as the major product (about 60%) along with lower amounts of cyclohexanol (about 35%) and cyclohexane (about 15%). The influences of temperature, H2/phenol ratio, contact time and the nature of the solvent on the catalytic performance were systematically investigated. The Rh/SBA-16 system offered lower phenol conversion compared to Rh/SBA-15, but both have a very high selectivity for cyclohexanone (above 60%).

  15. [Aliens Act regulations and consequences of inability to travel].

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, H-M

    2003-12-01

    The question as to whether a foreign national is (un)able to travel or not is often in the foreground of the decision-making process concerning a possible termination of their stay in the Federal Republic of Germany. Authorities responsible for aliens and administrative courts often require accredited medical reports to be able to decide whether inability to travel is actually the case. There are no clear legal criteria with regard to the definition of this term and an explicit provision by law is also missing. In cases where the decision has been made against inability to travel (i.e. a person is said to be able to travel), there may be considerable risks for the person concerned. Where the decision has been made in favour of inability to travel (i.e. the person is said to be unable to travel), a protective system based on the Aliens' Act takes effect. This article gives an overview of the legal consequences arising from a determined inability to travel; the legal difficulties with regard to the definition of this term; and the requirements to be made concerning clarity of a prognosis regarding possible risks. The pertinent legislation as well as opinions expressed in expert literature are presented.

  16. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  17. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  18. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  19. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  20. 77 FR 38717 - Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 531 and 553 Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 899, revised as of July...

  1. Functionalized SBA-15 materials for bilirubin adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tao; Zhao, Yanling; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jun; Deng, Feng

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials, a comparative study was carried out between pure siliceous SBA-15 and three functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous materials: CH 3-SBA-15 (MS), NH 2-SBA-15 (AS), and CH 3/NH 2-SBA-15 (AMS) that were synthesized by one-pot method. The obtained materials exhibited large surface areas (553-810 m 2/g) and pore size (6.6-7.1 nm) demonstrated by XRD and N 2-ad/desorption analysis. The SEM images showed that the materials had similar fiberlike morphology. The functionalization extent was calculated according to 29Si MAS NMR spectra and it was close to the designed value (10%). The synthesized mesoporous materials were used as bilirubin adsorbents and showed higher bilirubin adsorption capacities than the commercial active carbon. The adsorption capacities of amine functionalized samples AMS and AS were larger than those of pure siliceous SBA-15 and MS, indicating that electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption on mesoporous materials. Increasing the ionic strength of bilirubin solution by adding NaCl would decrease the bilirubin adsorption capacity of mesoporous material, which further demonstrated that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant driving force for bilirubin adsorption. In addition, the hydrophobic interaction provided by methyl groups could promote the bilirubin adsorption.

  2. 78 FR 18344 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0130, Buy American Act--Free Trade...

  3. 13 CFR 101.102 - Where is SBA's Headquarters located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where is SBA's Headquarters located? 101.102 Section 101.102 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.102 Where is SBA's Headquarters located? The Headquarters of SBA is at 409...

  4. 13 CFR 101.102 - Where is SBA's Headquarters located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where is SBA's Headquarters located? 101.102 Section 101.102 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.102 Where is SBA's Headquarters located? The Headquarters of SBA is at 409...

  5. 13 CFR 120.601 - SBA Secondary Market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA Secondary Market. 120.601... Market Fiscal and Transfer Agent (fta) § 120.601 SBA Secondary Market. The SBA secondary market (“Secondary Market”) consists of the sale of Certificates, representing either the entire guaranteed...

  6. 13 CFR 120.601 - SBA Secondary Market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA Secondary Market. 120.601... Market Fiscal and Transfer Agent (fta) § 120.601 SBA Secondary Market. The SBA secondary market (“Secondary Market”) consists of the sale of Certificates, representing either the entire guaranteed...

  7. 13 CFR 117.8 - Responsibilities of SBA recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibilities of SBA recipients. 117.8 Section 117.8 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... AMENDED § 117.8 Responsibilities of SBA recipients. (a) Each SBA recipient has the primary...

  8. 13 CFR 120.464 - Reports to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports to SBA. 120.464 Section 120.464 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Sba... Lender must submit to SBA two copies of an annual report including audited financial statements...

  9. 13 CFR 120.601 - SBA Secondary Market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA Secondary Market. 120.601... Market Fiscal and Transfer Agent (fta) § 120.601 SBA Secondary Market. The SBA secondary market (“Secondary Market”) consists of the sale of Certificates, representing either a fractional undivided...

  10. 13 CFR 120.601 - SBA Secondary Market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA Secondary Market. 120.601... Market Fiscal and Transfer Agent (fta) § 120.601 SBA Secondary Market. The SBA secondary market (“Secondary Market”) consists of the sale of Certificates, representing either a fractional undivided...

  11. 13 CFR 120.601 - SBA Secondary Market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA Secondary Market. 120.601... Market Fiscal and Transfer Agent (fta) § 120.601 SBA Secondary Market. The SBA secondary market (“Secondary Market”) consists of the sale of Certificates, representing either a fractional undivided...

  12. 76 FR 75799 - General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits; and Ineligibility for... remove Subpart C--General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation and Subpart F--Food... quality of the human environment, health, or safety. Therefore, neither an Environmental Assessment nor...

  13. 78 FR 70515 - Petition To Promulgate Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Promulgate Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... transportation of all species of bears held in captivity except polar bears, for which there are already... pigs and hamsters, rabbits, nonhuman primates, and marine mammals (including polar bears), and...

  14. 77 FR 60620 - Update of Existing Privacy Act-NASA Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1212 RIN 2700-AD86 Update of Existing Privacy Act--NASA Regulations AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 76 FR 10234 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ...FinCEN is issuing this final rule to amend the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) regulations regarding reports of foreign financial accounts. The rule addresses the scope of the persons that are required to file reports of foreign financial accounts. The rule further specifies the types of accounts that are reportable, and provides filing relief in the form of exemptions for certain persons with......

  16. 20 CFR 626.4 - Table of contents for the Job Training Partnership Act regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....601Applied VST budgeting. Subpart G—Experimental, Research, and Demonstration Projects 638.710Experimental, research, and demonstration projects. Subpart H—Administrative Provisions 638.800Program management. 638..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.4 Table...

  17. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  18. The National Labor Relations Act and the Regulation of Public Employee Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Walter; Smiley, Stafford

    1976-01-01

    The arguments for and against federal assumption of the responsibility for regulating the relationship between public employers and public employees are analyzed. It is suggested that the National Labor Relations Act should be extended to include them, thereby imposing upon them a duty to bargain collectively. Available from: the Harvard…

  19. 76 FR 35963 - Disclosure of Information; Privacy Act Regulations; Notice and Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...) Disclosure to federal financial institutions supervisory agencies and certain other agencies. The Director of... CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 309 and 310 RIN 3064-AD83 Disclosure of Information; Privacy Act Regulations; Notice... disclosure of information and the PA, as amended. In taking this action the FDIC's goal is to avoid...

  20. 78 FR 32547 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA37 Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth in... Compensation Requirements under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) Final Rule, issued on January 20, 2013...\\ One of these final rules was the Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth in...

  1. 76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Society of the United States, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the American... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We...

  2. 77 FR 4498 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... meaning set forth in Sec. 303.12 of the Textile Rules. 16 CFR 300.1(k). \\6\\ Federal Trade Commission... ``trimmings'' in Sec. 300.1(k), which incorporates by reference Section 303.12 of the Textile Rules? If so....12 of the Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile...

  3. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final...

  4. Comparative study on functionalized SBA-15 and SBA-16 nanostructured materials used for immobilization of D-amino acid oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hy, Le Gia; Phuong, Dang Tuyet; Yen, Hoang; Hoan, Nguyen Thi Vuong; Linh, Bui Thi Hai; Thang, Hoang vinh; Hoa, Tran Thi Kim; Thang, Dinh Cao; Nguyen, Vu Thi Hanh; Thao, Phan Thi Hong; Giap, Chu Van; Tuan, Vu Anh

    2008-12-01

    SBA-15 and SBA-16 nanostucrured materials were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment and were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES). The obtained samples were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, BET, IR and TEM. After functionalization, it showed that these nanostrucrured materials were still maintained the hexagonal pore structure of the parent SBA-15 and cubic cage structure of the parent SBA-16. The non-functionalized pure silica SBA-15 and SBA-16 as well as functionalized SBA-15 and SBA-16 materials were used to immobilize DAAO, which is industrially important enzyme for the production of glutaryl 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (GL-7-ACA) from cephalosporin C (CPC). The obtained results revealed that functionalized SBA- 15 and SBA-16 materials exhibited higher enzymatic activity and stability than those of non-functionalized ones. This might be due to the enhancing of surface hydrophobicity upon functionalization. The surface functionalization of the nanostructured silicas with organic groups can enhance the interaction between enzyme and the supports and consequently increasing the operational stability of the immobilized enzyme. The loading of enzyme on SBA-15 materials was higher than that on SBA-16 samples (both functionalized and non-functionalized types). This might be explained by the difference in pore size and type (cylindrical for SBA-15 and bottle-neck for SBA-16) as well as structure shape (hexagonal for SBA-15 and cubic cage for SBA-16) of both mesoporous materials. Additionally, nature of functionalized groups significantly affected the enzymatic activity. Effects on surface binding force, nature of functional groups, pore size of supports were investigated and discussed.

  5. Rationing health protection: a proposal to exempt nuisance dust from US Clean Air Act regulations.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Colson, Gregory

    2013-03-15

    The US House of Representative has passed a bill called the "Farm Dust Regulation Prevention Act" (Dust Act) that would exempt most types of particulate matter (PM) in rural areas from the air quality controls of the US Clean Air Act. The Dust Act would markedly change the country's air quality standards. An examination of the proposed provisions shows that they would exempt non-combustion PM pollutants from mining, smelting, petroleum production, and power generation from existing air quality standards. Persons downwind from pollutants generated in rural areas could be exposed to concentrations of carcinogenic heavy metals, asbestos, and benzene known to adversely affect their health and ecological resources. Existing federal air quality standards based on science would be replaced by a flexible standard that rations health protection.

  6. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The board of directors (or management, if the SBA Supervised Lender is a division of another company and does not have its own board of directors) of each SBA Supervised Lender must determine capital... risks inherent in its operation. (b) Capital plan. (1) The board of directors of each SBA...

  7. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The board of directors (or management, if the SBA Supervised Lender is a division of another company and does not have its own board of directors) of each SBA Supervised Lender must determine capital... risks inherent in its operation. (b) Capital plan. (1) The board of directors of each SBA...

  8. Removal of patulin from aqueous solutions by propylthiol functionalized SBA-15.

    PubMed

    Appell, Michael; Jackson, Michael A; Dombrink-Kurtzman, Mary Ann

    2011-03-15

    Propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 silica was investigated to detoxify aqueous solutions contaminated with the regulated mycotoxin patulin. Micelle templated silicas with a specific pore size were synthetically modified to possess propylthiol groups, a functional group known to form Michael reaction products with the conjugated double bond system of patulin. BET surface area analysis indicated the propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 possesses channels with the pore size of 5.4 nm and a surface area of 345 m(2)g(-1). Elemental analysis indicates the silicon/sulfur ratio to be 10:1, inferring one propylthiol substituent for every ten silica residues. The propylthiol modified SBA-15 was effective at significantly reducing high levels of patulin from aqueous solutions (pH 7.0) in batch sorption assays at room temperature. The material was less effective at lower pH; however heating low pH solutions and apple juice to 60 °C in the presence of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 significantly reduced the levels of patulin in contaminated samples. Composite molecular models developed by semi-empirical PM3 and empirical force field methods support patulin permeation through the mesoporous channels of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15. Density functional study at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level predicts the proposed patulin adducts formed by reaction with the thiol residues exhibit less electrophilic properties than patulin. It is demonstrated the use of propylthiol functionalized SBA-15 is a viable approach to reduce patulin levels in aqueous solutions, including contaminated apple juice.

  9. Industry invites regulation: the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, I D

    1985-01-01

    Ending its 27-year stranglehold on proposals for federal pure food and drug legislation, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and its companion bill, the Meat Inspection Act, on June 30, 1906. An unprecedented convergence of consumer, scientific, and industrial support in 1906 prompted such action; most industries even planned for it, hoping regulation would restore the competitiveness of their products on weak foreign and domestic markets. The ways in which these interests converged, and the reasons therefore, suggest a change in their relationships to each other and with the federal government as America headed into the twentieth century. Images p21-a p21-b PMID:3881052

  10. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS General Provisions § 1271.10 Are my HCT/P's regulated solely.../P is regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part if it...

  11. 76 FR 14275 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 35 Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum... requirements under the Export Grape and Plum Act. This rule changes the minimum bunch weight requirement for... under authority of the Export Grape and Plum Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 591-599), hereinafter referred...

  12. 77 FR 33635 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 31 CFR Part 1010 RIN 1506-AB17 Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations--Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain Currency Transactions AGENCY: Financial Crimes... Financial Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and...

  13. 17 CFR 270.14a-1 - Use of notification pursuant to regulation E under the Securities Act of 1933.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of 1933 by a small business investment company operating under the Small Business Investment Act of... to regulation E under the Securities Act of 1933. 270.14a-1 Section 270.14a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT...

  14. 78 FR 45842 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Parts 1024 and 1026 RIN 3170-AA37 Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation X) and the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) Correction...

  15. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1:...

  16. Allosteric ACTion: the varied ACT domains regulating enzymes of amino-acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lang, Eric J M; Cross, Penelope J; Mittelstädt, Gerd; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Parker, Emily J

    2014-12-01

    Allosteric regulation of enzyme activity plays important metabolic roles. Here we review the allostery of enzymes of amino-acid metabolism conferred by a discrete domain known as the ACT domain. This domain of 60-70 residues has a βαββαβ topology leading to a four-stranded β4β1β3β2 antiparallel sheet with two antiparallel helices on one face. Extensive sequence variation requires a combined sequence/structure/function analysis for identification of the ACT domain. Common features include highly varied modes of self-association of ACT domains, ligand binding at domain interfaces, and transmittal of allosteric signals through conformational changes and/or the manipulation of quaternary equilibria. A recent example illustrates the relatively facile adoption of this versatile module of allostery by gene fusion.

  17. 13 CFR 108.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1600 SBA authority to issue and... of any TC. (b) SBA authority to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its...

  18. 13 CFR 108.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1600 SBA authority to issue and... of any TC. (b) SBA authority to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its...

  19. 13 CFR 108.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 108.1600 SBA authority to issue and... of any TC. (b) SBA authority to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its...

  20. 77 FR 75362 - Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities of SBA-Effectuation of the Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 117 Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities of SBA--Effectuation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended CFR Correction 0 In Title 13 of the Code...

  1. 13 CFR 120.1830 - What are the terms and conditions of an SBA loan to an SISMBD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Registered Holders. (b) Loan amount. There is no statutory limit to the maximum loan size for a loan to a... seventy-five percent (75%) of the total dollar amount of an SISMBD's purchases in the SBA Secondary Market... Loan balance, pursuant to section 509(F) of the Recovery Act, to result in a cost of the direct loan...

  2. New paradigms for conserved, multifactorial, cis-acting regulation of meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Wahls, Wayne P.; Davidson, Mari K.

    2012-01-01

    How do cells position the Spo11 (Rec12)-dependent initiation of meiotic recombination at hotspots? The mechanisms are poorly understood and a prevailing view is that they differ substantially between phylogenetic groups. However, recent work discovered that individual species have multiple different DNA sequence-specific, protein–DNA complexes that regulate (and are essential for the activation of) recombination hotspots. The cis-acting elements function combinatorially with documented examples of synergism, antagonism and redundancy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that all currently well-defined modules of this multifactorial, cis-acting regulation are conserved functionally between taxa whose latest common ancestor occurred more than 1 billion years ago. Functionally conserved components include the ATF/CREB-family heterodimer Atf1-Pcr1 and its CRE-like DNA site M26, the CCAAT-box-binding complex Php2-Php3-Php5 and the CCAAT-box, and the zinc-finger protein Rst2 and its Oligo-C motif. The newfound multiplicity, functional redundancy and conservation of cis-acting controls constitute a paradigm shift with broad implications. They provide compelling evidence that most meiotic recombination is, like transcription, regulated by sequence-specific protein–DNA complexes. And the new findings provide important mechanistic insight, such as a solution to the conundrum that Prdm9 is a ‘master regulator’ of—yet is dispensable for—hotspot activity in mammals. PMID:22904082

  3. 13 CFR 101.200 - When does SBA hire private counsel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Employment of Private Counsel § 101.200 When does SBA hire private counsel? (a) Business loans. SBA may hire... sufficient to require a full-time SBA employee, or the area is too remote for economical use of a...

  4. 13 CFR 101.200 - When does SBA hire private counsel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Employment of Private Counsel § 101.200 When does SBA hire private counsel? (a) Business loans. SBA may hire... sufficient to require a full-time SBA employee, or the area is too remote for economical use of a...

  5. 78 FR 13298 - Notice of Retrospective Review of the Americans With Disabilities Act Regulations for Over-the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Act Regulations for Over-the-Road Bus Operators; Request for Comments AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...) implementing regulations for over-the-road bus (OTRB) operators. The DOT will review regulations specified in... Stat. 327, 42 U.S.C. 225 and 611), which required the accessibility of new over-the-road buses...

  6. 78 FR 44685 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Final Rule), 78 FR 6407 (Jan. 30, 2013). \\2\\ Mortgage Servicing Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement... Final Rules), 78 FR 10695 (Feb. 14, 2013) (Regulation X), 78 FR 10901 (Feb. 14, 2013) (Regulation Z). \\3\\ Amendments to the 2013 Escrows Final Rule under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z), 78 FR 30739 (May...

  7. Transportin acts to regulate mitotic assembly events by target binding rather than Ran sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Bernis, Cyril; Swift-Taylor, Beth; Nord, Matthew; Carmona, Sarah; Chook, Yuh Min; Forbes, Douglass J.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear import receptors importin β and transportin play a different role in mitosis: both act phenotypically as spatial regulators to ensure that mitotic spindle, nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore assembly occur exclusively around chromatin. Importin β is known to act by repressing assembly factors in regions distant from chromatin, whereas RanGTP produced on chromatin frees factors from importin β for localized assembly. The mechanism of transportin regulation was unknown. Diametrically opposed models for transportin action are as follows: 1) indirect action by RanGTP sequestration, thus down-regulating release of assembly factors from importin β, and 2) direct action by transportin binding and inhibiting assembly factors. Experiments in Xenopus assembly extracts with M9M, a superaffinity nuclear localization sequence that displaces cargoes bound by transportin, or TLB, a mutant transportin that can bind cargo and RanGTP simultaneously, support direct inhibition. Consistently, simple addition of M9M to mitotic cytosol induces microtubule aster assembly. ELYS and the nucleoporin 107–160 complex, components of mitotic kinetochores and nuclear pores, are blocked from binding to kinetochores in vitro by transportin, a block reversible by M9M. In vivo, 30% of M9M-transfected cells have spindle/cytokinesis defects. We conclude that the cell contains importin β and transportin “global positioning system”or “GPS” pathways that are mechanistically parallel. PMID:24478460

  8. Transportin acts to regulate mitotic assembly events by target binding rather than Ran sequestration.

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cyril; Swift-Taylor, Beth; Nord, Matthew; Carmona, Sarah; Chook, Yuh Min; Forbes, Douglass J

    2014-04-01

    The nuclear import receptors importin β and transportin play a different role in mitosis: both act phenotypically as spatial regulators to ensure that mitotic spindle, nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore assembly occur exclusively around chromatin. Importin β is known to act by repressing assembly factors in regions distant from chromatin, whereas RanGTP produced on chromatin frees factors from importin β for localized assembly. The mechanism of transportin regulation was unknown. Diametrically opposed models for transportin action are as follows: 1) indirect action by RanGTP sequestration, thus down-regulating release of assembly factors from importin β, and 2) direct action by transportin binding and inhibiting assembly factors. Experiments in Xenopus assembly extracts with M9M, a superaffinity nuclear localization sequence that displaces cargoes bound by transportin, or TLB, a mutant transportin that can bind cargo and RanGTP simultaneously, support direct inhibition. Consistently, simple addition of M9M to mitotic cytosol induces microtubule aster assembly. ELYS and the nucleoporin 107-160 complex, components of mitotic kinetochores and nuclear pores, are blocked from binding to kinetochores in vitro by transportin, a block reversible by M9M. In vivo, 30% of M9M-transfected cells have spindle/cytokinesis defects. We conclude that the cell contains importin β and transportin "global positioning system"or "GPS" pathways that are mechanistically parallel.

  9. ATH1 and KNAT2 proteins act together in regulation of plant inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Pi, Limin; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

    2012-02-01

    The inflorescence of flowering plants is a highly organized structure, not only contributing to plant reproductive processes, but also constituting an important part of the entire plant morphology. Previous studies have revealed that the class-I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP or KNAT1), KNAT2, and KNAT6 play essential roles in inflorescence architecture. Pedicel morphology is known to contribute greatly to inflorescence architecture, and BP negatively regulates KNAT2 and KNAT6 to ensure that pedicels have a normal upward-pointing orientation. These findings indicate that a genetic network exists in controlling pedicel orientation, but how this network functions in the developmental process remains elusive. Here it is reported that the ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1) gene, which belongs to the BELL1-like homeodomain gene family, is a new member participating in regulating pedicel orientation in the class-I KNOX network. In a genetic screening for suppressors of isoginchaku-2D, a gain-of-function ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 mutant that displays downward-pointing pedicels, a suppressor mutant was obtained. Characterization of this mutant revealed that the mutation corresponds to ATH1. Genetic analysis indicated that ATH1 acts mainly in the KNAT2 pathway. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that ATH1 physically interacts with KNAT2. The data indicate that the ATH1-KNAT2 complex acts redundantly with KNAT6, both of which are negatively regulated by BP during pedicel development.

  10. 13 CFR 107.630 - Requirement for Licensees to file financial statements with SBA (Form 468).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Form 468 must be audited by an independent public accountant acceptable to SBA. (2) Insurance requirement for public accountant. Unless SBA approves otherwise, your independent public accountant...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1720... Debentures or Participating Securities or any other circumstances which might constitute a legal or...

  12. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Supratim; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  13. Carbon material formation on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 and residue constituents during acetylene decomposition.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Ho, Yung-Shou; Zeng, Li-Xuan

    2014-07-15

    Carbon materials including carbon spheres and nanotubes were formed from acetylene decomposition on hydrogen-reduced SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 at 650-850°C. The physicochemical characteristics of SBA-15, Ni-SBA-15 and carbon materials were analyzed by field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), Raman spectrometry, and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). In addition, the contents of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the tar and residue and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaust were determined during acetylene decomposition on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15. Spherical carbon materials were observed on SBA-15 during acetylene decomposition at 750 and 850°C. Carbon filaments and ball spheres were formed on Ni-SBA-15 at 650-850°C. Raman spectroscopy revealed peaks at 1290 (D-band, disorder mode, amorphous carbon) and 1590 (G-band, graphite sp(2) structure)cm(-1). Naphthalene (2 rings), pyrene (4 rings), phenanthrene (3 rings), and fluoranthene (4 rings) were major PAHs in tar and residues. Exhaust constituents of hydrocarbon (as propane), H2, and C2H2 were 3.9-2.6/2.7-1.5, 1.4-2.8/2.6-4.3, 4.2-2.4/3.2-1.7% when acetylene was decomposed on SBA-15/Ni-SBA-15, respectively, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 650 to 850°C. The concentrations of 52 VOCs ranged from 9359 to 5658 and 2488 to 1104ppm for SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 respectively, at acetylene decomposition temperatures from 650 to 850°C, and the aromatics contributed more than 87% fraction of VOC concentrations.

  14. The European "clinical trial" regulation; relationship with the Jardé Act: a Giens workshop.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, François; Marchenay, Brigitte; Chassany, Olivier; Barthélémy, Philippe; Bouzzagou, Mohamed; Comet, Denis; Delval, Cécile; Dubray, Claude; Fouret, Cécile; Frija-Orvoen, Elisabeth; Gambotti, Laetitia; Lamarque, Véronique; d'Orsay, Geneviève; Plattner, Valérie; Sibenaler, Claire; Roux, Jacques; Thoby, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    In May 2014, the European Union Parliament and Council published a new regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which is designed to replace Directive 2001/20/EC. It will not come into effect until 2016. Nevertheless, it is essential to examine its relationship with national legislation, i.e. the Jardé Act, whose implementation has been delayed pending publication of the European regulation. The Giens workshop identified and examined the various issues that this relationship is bound to raise. In particular, it looked at trial methodology assessment procedures, the working relationship between the French National Agency of Drug Safety and Health Products (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé, ANSM) and ethics committees during the authorization application evaluation phase, review of post-authorization/registration studies on medicinal products and medical devices, and data transparency.

  15. Disruption of a long-range cis-acting regulator for Shh causes preaxial polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Lettice, Laura A; Horikoshi, Taizo; Heaney, Simon J H; van Baren, Marijke J; van der Linde, Herma C; Breedveld, Guido J; Joosse, Marijke; Akarsu, Nurten; Oostra, Ben A; Endo, Naoto; Shibata, Minoru; Suzuki, Mikio; Takahashi, Eiichi; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nakahori, Yutaka; Ayusawa, Dai; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Stephen W; Heutink, Peter; Hill, Robert E; Noji, Sumihare

    2002-05-28

    Preaxial polydactyly (PPD) is a common limb malformation in human. A number of polydactylous mouse mutants indicate that misexpression of Shh is a common requirement for generating extra digits. Here we identify a translocation breakpoint in a PPD patient and a transgenic insertion site in the polydactylous mouse mutant sasquatch (Ssq). The genetic lesions in both lie within the same respective intron of the LMBR1/Lmbr1 gene, which resides approximately 1 Mb away from Shh. Genetic analysis of Ssq reveals that the Lmbr1 gene is incidental to the phenotype and that the mutation directly interrupts a cis-acting regulator of Shh. This regulator is most likely the target for generating PPD mutations in human.

  16. Disruption of a long-range cis-acting regulator for Shh causes preaxial polydactyly

    PubMed Central

    Lettice, Laura A.; Horikoshi, Taizo; Heaney, Simon J. H.; van Baren, Marijke J.; van der Linde, Herma C.; Breedveld, Guido J.; Joosse, Marijke; Akarsu, Nurten; Oostra, Ben A.; Endo, Naoto; Shibata, Minoru; Suzuki, Mikio; Takahashi, Eiichi; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nakahori, Yutaka; Ayusawa, Dai; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Scherer, Stephen W.; Heutink, Peter; Hill, Robert E.; Noji, Sumihare

    2002-01-01

    Preaxial polydactyly (PPD) is a common limb malformation in human. A number of polydactylous mouse mutants indicate that misexpression of Shh is a common requirement for generating extra digits. Here we identify a translocation breakpoint in a PPD patient and a transgenic insertion site in the polydactylous mouse mutant sasquatch (Ssq). The genetic lesions in both lie within the same respective intron of the LMBR1/Lmbr1 gene, which resides ≈1 Mb away from Shh. Genetic analysis of Ssq reveals that the Lmbr1 gene is incidental to the phenotype and that the mutation directly interrupts a cis-acting regulator of Shh. This regulator is most likely the target for generating PPD mutations in human. PMID:12032320

  17. PDCD10/CCM3 acts downstream of {gamma}-protocadherins to regulate neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chengyi; Meng, Shuxia; Zhu, Tina; Wang, Xiaozhong

    2010-12-31

    γ-Protocadherins (PCDH-γ) regulate neuronal survival in the vertebrate central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms of how PCDH-γ mediates this function are still not understood. In this study, we show that through their common cytoplasmic domain, different PCDH-γ isoforms interact with an intracellular adaptor protein named PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10). PDCD10 is also known as CCM3, a causative genetic defect for cerebral cavernous malformations in humans. Using RNAi-mediated knockdown, we demonstrate that PDCD10 is required for the occurrence of apoptosis upon PCDH-γ depletion in developing chicken spinal neurons. Moreover, overexpression of PDCD10 is sufficient to induce neuronal apoptosis. Taken together, our data reveal a novel function for PDCD10/CCM3, acting as a critical regulator of neuronal survival during development.

  18. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.706-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question...

  19. Report: EPA Relying on Existing Clean Air Act Regulations to Reduce Atmospheric Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay and its Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00009, February 28, 2007. EPA’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office is relying on anticipated nitrogen deposition reductions from Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations already issued by EPA, combined with other non-air sources' anticipated reductions.

  20. 13 CFR 121.410 - What are the size standards for SBA's Section 8(d) Subcontracting Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the size standards for SBA's Section 8(d) Subcontracting Program? 121.410 Section 121.410 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and...

  1. 75 FR 44163 - Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...-AB07 Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of... clarify conditions for industry compliance with the P&S Act and provide for a fairer market place. DATES... fairer market place. We have received comments asking for an extension of the comment period, and...

  2. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  3. FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in hormonal regulation of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jonathan C.; Fong, Ka-Wing; Jin, Hong-Jian; Yang, Yeqing A; Kim, Jung; Yu, Jindan

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal regulation of gene expression by androgen receptor (AR) is tightly controlled by many transcriptional cofactors, including pioneer factors FOXA1 and GATA2, which, however, exhibit distinct expression patterns and functional roles in prostate cancer. Here, we examined how FOXA1, GATA2, and AR crosstalk and regulate hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer cells. ChIP-seq analysis revealed that FOXA1 reprograms both AR and GATA2 cistrome by preferably recruiting them to FKHD-containing genomic sites. By contrast, GATA2 is unable to shift AR or FOXA1 to GATA motifs. Rather, GATA2 co-occupancy enhances AR and FOXA1 binding to nearby ARE and FKHD sites, respectively. Similarly, AR increases, but not re-programs, GATA2 and FOXA1 cistromes. Concordantly, GATA2 and AR strongly enhance the transcriptional program of each other, whereas FOXA1 regulates GATA2- and AR-mediated gene expression in a context-dependent manner due to its reprogramming effects. Taken together, our data delineated for the first time the distinct mechanisms by which GATA2 and FOXA1 regulate AR cistrome and suggest that FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in determining hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer. PMID:26751772

  4. FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in hormonal regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J C; Fong, K-W; Jin, H-J; Yang, Y A; Kim, J; Yu, J

    2016-08-18

    Hormonal regulation of gene expression by androgen receptor (AR) is tightly controlled by many transcriptional cofactors, including pioneer factors FOXA1 and GATA2, which, however, exhibit distinct expression patterns and functional roles in prostate cancer. Here, we examined how FOXA1, GATA2 and AR crosstalk and regulate hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis revealed that FOXA1 reprograms both AR and GATA2 cistrome by preferably recruiting them to FKHD-containing genomic sites. By contrast, GATA2 is unable to shift AR or FOXA1 to GATA motifs. Rather, GATA2 co-occupancy enhances AR and FOXA1 binding to nearby ARE and FKHD sites, respectively. Similarly, AR increases, but not reprograms, GATA2 and FOXA1 cistromes. Concordantly, GATA2 and AR strongly enhance the transcriptional program of each other, whereas FOXA1 regulates GATA2- and AR-mediated gene expression in a context-dependent manner due to its reprogramming effects. Taken together, our data delineated for the first time the distinct mechanisms by which GATA2 and FOXA1 regulate AR cistrome and suggest that FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in determining hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer.

  5. Global regulation of alternative splicing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR).

    PubMed

    Solomon, Oz; Oren, Shirley; Safran, Michal; Deshet-Unger, Naamit; Akiva, Pinchas; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Cesarkas, Karen; Kabesa, Reut; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gideon; Eyal, Eran

    2013-05-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is a major mechanism for gene regulation and transcriptome diversity. Despite the extent of the phenomenon, the regulation and specificity of the splicing machinery are only partially understood. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of pre-mRNA by ADAR enzymes has been linked to splicing regulation in several cases. Here we used bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray of ADAR knockdown cells to globally examine how ADAR and its A-to-I RNA editing activity influence alternative mRNA splicing. Although A-to-I RNA editing only rarely targets canonical splicing acceptor, donor, and branch sites, it was found to affect splicing regulatory elements (SREs) within exons. Cassette exons were found to be significantly enriched with A-to-I RNA editing sites compared with constitutive exons. RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray revealed that ADAR knockdown in hepatocarcinoma and myelogenous leukemia cell lines leads to global changes in gene expression, with hundreds of genes changing their splicing patterns in both cell lines. This global change in splicing pattern cannot be explained by putative editing sites alone. Genes showing significant changes in their splicing pattern are frequently involved in RNA processing and splicing activity. Analysis of recently published RNA-seq data from glioblastoma cell lines showed similar results. Our global analysis reveals that ADAR plays a major role in splicing regulation. Although direct editing of the splicing motifs does occur, we suggest it is not likely to be the primary mechanism for ADAR-mediated regulation of alternative splicing. Rather, this regulation is achieved by modulating trans-acting factors involved in the splicing machinery.

  6. ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing.

    PubMed

    Royo, Hélène; Prosser, Haydn; Ruzankina, Yaroslava; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Baumann, Marek; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Höög, Christer; Tóth, Attila; de Rooij, Dirk G; Bradley, Allan; Brown, Eric J; Turner, James M A

    2013-07-01

    In mammals, homologs that fail to synapse during meiosis are transcriptionally inactivated. This process, meiotic silencing, drives inactivation of the heterologous XY bivalent in male germ cells (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]) and is thought to act as a meiotic surveillance mechanism. The checkpoint protein ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) localizes to unsynapsed chromosomes, but its role in the initiation and maintenance of meiotic silencing is unknown. Here we show that ATR has multiple roles in silencing. ATR first regulates HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) domain protein HORMAD1/2 phosphorylation and localization of breast cancer I (BRCA1) and ATR cofactors ATR-interacting peptide (ATRIP)/topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) at unsynapsed axes. Later, it acts as an adaptor, transducing signaling at unsynapsed axes into surrounding chromatin in a manner that requires interdependence with mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and H2AFX. Finally, ATR catalyzes histone H2AFX phosphorylation, the epigenetic event leading to gene inactivation. Using a novel genetic strategy in which MSCI is used to silence a chosen gene in pachytene, we show that ATR depletion does not disrupt the maintenance of silencing and that silencing comprises two phases: The first is dynamic and reversible, and the second is stable and irreversible. Our work identifies a role for ATR in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and presents a new technique for ablating gene function in the germline.

  7. Confinement regulates complex biochemical networks: initiation of blood clotting by "diffusion acting".

    PubMed

    Shen, Feng; Pompano, Rebecca R; Kastrup, Christian J; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2009-10-21

    This study shows that environmental confinement strongly affects the activation of nonlinear reaction networks, such as blood coagulation (clotting), by small quantities of activators. Blood coagulation is sensitive to the local concentration of soluble activators, initiating only when the activators surpass a threshold concentration, and therefore is regulated by mass transport phenomena such as flow and diffusion. Here, diffusion was limited by decreasing the size of microfluidic chambers, and it was found that microparticles carrying either the classical stimulus, tissue factor, or a bacterial stimulus, Bacillus cereus, initiated coagulation of human platelet-poor plasma only when confined. A simple analytical argument and numerical model were used to describe the mechanism for this phenomenon: confinement causes diffusible activators to accumulate locally and surpass the threshold concentration. To interpret the results, a dimensionless confinement number, Cn, was used to describe whether a stimulus was confined, and a Damköhler number, Da(2), was used to describe whether a subthreshold stimulus could initiate coagulation. In the context of initiation of coagulation by bacteria, this mechanism can be thought of as "diffusion acting", which is distinct from "diffusion sensing". The ability of confinement and diffusion acting to change the outcome of coagulation suggests that confinement should also regulate other biological "on" and "off" processes that are controlled by thresholds.

  8. MecA Protein Acts as a Negative Regulator of Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Gaofeng; Liu, Tianlei; Gomez, Zubelda A.; Wahl, Astrid; Hols, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans develops competence for genetic transformation through a complex network that receives inputs from at least two signaling peptides, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) and sigX-inducing peptide (XIP). The key step of competence induction is the transcriptional activation of comX, which encodes an alternative sigma factor, SigX (σX), controlling the expression of late competence genes essential for DNA uptake and recombination. In this study, we provide evidence that MecA acts as a negative regulator in the posttranslational regulation of SigX in S. mutans. Using luxAB transcriptional reporter strains, we demonstrate that MecA represses the expression of late competence genes in S. mutans grown in a complex medium that is subpermissive for competence induction by CSP. The negative regulation of competence by MecA requires the presence of a functional SigX. Accordingly, inactivation of MecA results in a prolonged competence state of S. mutans under this condition. We have also found that the AAA+ protease ClpC displays a similar repressing effect on late competence genes, suggesting that both MecA and ClpC function coordinately to regulate competence in the same regulatory circuit in S. mutans. This suggestion is strongly supported by the results of bacterial two-hybrid assays, which demonstrate that MecA interacts with both SigX and ClpC, forming a ternary SigX-MecA-ClpC complex. Western blot analysis also confirms that inactivation of MecA or ClpC results in the intracellular accumulation of the SigX in S. mutans. Together, our data support the notion that MecA mediates the formation of a ternary SigX-MecA-ClpC complex that sequesters SigX and thereby negatively regulates genetic competence in S. mutans. PMID:24039267

  9. 13 CFR 120.464 - Reports to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... management on internal control weaknesses; and (vii) The auditor's report. (2) Quarterly Condition Reports... Supervised Lender must submit such report promptly, but no later than ten days after its management becomes... (including, but not limited to, where an SBA Supervised Lender has a relatively small SBA loan portfolio),...

  10. 13 CFR 108.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 108.1720 Section 108.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage)...

  11. 13 CFR 108.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 108.1720 Section 108.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage)...

  12. 13 CFR 108.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 108.1720 Section 108.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage)...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 107.1720 Section 107.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous §...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 107.1720 Section 107.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous §...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 107.1720 Section 107.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous §...

  16. 13 CFR 108.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 108.1720 Section 108.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage)...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 107.1720 Section 107.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous §...

  18. 13 CFR 108.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 108.1720 Section 108.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage)...

  19. 13 CFR 120.413 - Advertisement of relationship with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertisement of relationship with SBA. 120.413 Section 120.413 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Participation Criteria § 120.413 Advertisement of relationship with SBA. A Lender...

  20. 75 FR 9257 - SBA Lender Risk Rating System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SBA Lender Risk Rating System AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of revised Risk Rating System; request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice implements changes to the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) Risk Rating System (Risk Rating System). The Risk Rating System is an internal tool...

  1. 13 CFR 130.810 - SBA review authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA review authority. 130.810 Section 130.810 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.810 SBA review authority. (a) Site visits. The AA/SBDCs, or a representative, on notice...

  2. 46 CFR 391.1 - Scope of section 607 of the Act and the regulations in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of section 607 of the Act and the regulations in this part. 391.1 Section 391.1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.1...

  3. Epithelial IL-1R2 acts as a homeostatic regulator during remission of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Buch, R; Dotti, I; Planell, N; Calderón-Gómez, E; Jung, P; Masamunt, M C; Llach, J; Ricart, E; Batlle, E; Panés, J; Salas, A

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease that may undergo periods of activity followed by remission. We aimed to identify the endogenous regulatory mechanisms that may promote disease remission. Transcriptional and protein analysis of the intestinal mucosa revealed that the IL-1 decoy receptor, interleukin-1 receptor type 2 (IL1R2), was upregulated in remission compared with active UC and controls. We identified epithelial cells as being responsible for increased IL-1R2 production during remission. Expression of IL1R2 was negatively regulated by Wnt/beta-catenin signals in colonic crypts or epithelial stem cell cultures; accordingly, epithelial stem cells upregulated IL-1R2 upon differentiation. Blocking IL-1R2 in isolated colonic crypt cultures of UC patients in remission and T-cell cultures stimulated with biopsy supernatant from UC patients in remission boosted IL-1β-dependent production of inflammation-related cytokines. Finally, IL1R2 transcription was significantly lower in patients that relapsed during a 1-year follow-up period compared with those in endoscopic remission. Collectively, our results reveal that the IL-1/IL-1R2 axis is differentially regulated in the remitting intestinal mucosa of UC patients. We hypothesize that IL-1R2 in the presence of low concentrations of IL-1β may act locally as a regulator of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:26530134

  4. Abelson kinase acts as a robust, multifunctional scaffold in regulating embryonic morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Edward M.; Spracklen, Andrew J.; Bilancia, Colleen G.; Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Allred, S. Colby; Nowotarski, Stephanie H.; Schaefer, Kristina N.; Ritchie, Benjamin J.; Peifer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abelson family kinases (Abls) are key regulators of cell behavior and the cytoskeleton during development and in leukemia. Abl’s SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase domains are joined via a linker to an F-actin–binding domain (FABD). Research on Abl’s roles in cell culture led to several hypotheses for its mechanism of action: 1) Abl phosphorylates other proteins, modulating their activity, 2) Abl directly regulates the cytoskeleton via its cytoskeletal interaction domains, and/or 3) Abl is a scaffold for a signaling complex. The importance of these roles during normal development remains untested. We tested these mechanistic hypotheses during Drosophila morphogenesis using a series of mutants to examine Abl’s many cell biological roles. Strikingly, Abl lacking the FABD fully rescued morphogenesis, cell shape change, actin regulation, and viability, whereas kinase-dead Abl, although reduced in function, retained substantial rescuing ability in some but not all Abl functions. We also tested the function of four conserved motifs in the linker region, revealing a key role for a conserved PXXP motif known to bind Crk and Abi. We propose that Abl acts as a robust multidomain scaffold with different protein motifs and activities contributing differentially to diverse cellular behaviors. PMID:27385341

  5. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  6. 75 FR 51420 - Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Wildlife Conservation Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the... Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980. The Act authorized financial and technical assistance to States to... Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980 (16 U.S.C. 2901-2911). This act authorized the Service to give...

  7. Preparation, characterization, and luminescence of (SBA-15) immobilized pepsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qing-Zhou; Sun, Si-Jia

    2014-12-01

    SBA-15 mesoporous silica was synthesized by hydrothermal method and its surface was methylated by treatment with methyltrimethoxysilane. Pepsin was immobilized on the obtained materials giving host-guest composite materials (SBA-15)-pepsin and (methylated SBA-15)-pepsin. The optimum conditions for preparation of these materials were established. Methylated SBA-15 (M-SBA-15) has improved immobilization efficiency of enzyme compared to initial SBA-15 silica. It was shown that with the gradual increase of NaCl solution ionic strength the immobilized amount of enzyme was reduced. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the host frameworks in the prepared host-guest composite materials are intact and the ordered structure was retained. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed fibrous morphologic characteristics of the SBA-15 and the immobilized pepsin composite materials. The average particle diameter of (SBA-15)-pepsin composite was 338 ± 10 and 343 ± 10 nm for (M-SBA-15)-pepsin. The low temperature N2 adsorption-desorption study at 77 K showed that the pore sizes and specific surface areas of the host-guest composite materials were smaller than those before the introduction of the enzyme, suggesting that the immobilized enzyme occupied a definite position in the host material pore channels. The UV-vis solid diffuse reflectance and luminescence studies showed that the enzyme was successfully immobilized on to the host material and that after the immobilization of enzyme on SBA-15 the conformation of pepsin macromolecule has not been changed.

  8. 13 CFR 120.462 - What are SBA's additional requirements on capital maintenance for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The board of directors (or management, if the SBA Supervised Lender is a division of another company... in developing the SBA Supervised Lender's capital adequacy plan: (i) Management capability; (ii...; (iv) Asset quality and the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses within the loan portfolio;...

  9. 13 CFR 114.110 - What is SBA's policy with respect to indemnifying and providing legal representation to SBA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is SBA's policy with respect... Employees § 114.110 What is SBA's policy with respect to indemnifying and providing legal representation to..., judgment, or other monetary award is rendered personally against the employee in any civil suit in state...

  10. 78 FR 71704 - Request for Comments on Draft SBA Strategic Plan for FY 2014-2018

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... plan is available on SBA's Web site at http://www.sba.gov/about-sba/sba_performance/strategic_planning... Administrator for Performance Management & Chief Financial Officer, Small Business Administration. ACTION... Business Administration, Office of Performance Management & Chief Financial Officer, Attn: Strategic...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1600 SBA authority to issue and... to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its discretion may arrange for public...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1600 SBA authority to issue and... to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its discretion may arrange for public...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1600 SBA authority to issue and... to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its discretion may arrange for public...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1600 SBA authority to issue and... to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its discretion may arrange for public...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1600 SBA authority to issue and... to arrange public or private fundings of Leverage. SBA in its discretion may arrange for public...

  16. atonal regulates neurite arborization but does not act as a proneural gene in the Drosophila brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; He, Y.; Sun, Y.; Jan, Y. N.; Zoghbi, H. Y.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila atonal (ato) is the proneural gene of the chordotonal organs (CHOs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the larval and adult photoreceptor organs. Here, we show that ato is expressed at multiple stages during the development of a lineage of central brain neurons that innervate the optic lobes and are required for eclosion. A novel fate mapping approach shows that ato is expressed in the embryonic precursors of these neurons and that its expression is reactivated in third instar larvae (L3). In contrast to its function in the PNS, ato does not act as a proneural gene in the embryonic brain. Instead, ato performs a novel function, regulating arborization during larval and pupal development by interacting with Notch.

  17. Enhancer of zeste acts as a major developmental regulator of Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Emilie; Martinand-Mari, Camille; Martin, Marianne; Feuillard, Jérôme; Boublik, Yvan; Godefroy, Nelly; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-08-14

    The paradigm of developmental regulation by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins posits that they maintain silencing outside the spatial expression domains of their target genes, particularly of Hox genes, starting from mid embryogenesis. The Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] PcG protein is the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, which silences its targets via deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. Here, we studied the ascidian Ciona intestinalis counterpart of E(z). Ci-E(z) is detected by immunohistochemistry as soon as the 2- and 4-cell stages as a cytoplasmic form and becomes exclusively nuclear thereafter, whereas the H3K27me3 mark is detected starting from the gastrula stage and later. Morpholino invalidation of Ci-E(z) leads to the total disappearance of both Ci-E(z) protein and its H3K27me3 mark. Ci-E(z) morphants display a severe phenotype. Strikingly, the earliest defects occur at the 4-cell stage with the dysregulation of cell positioning and mitotic impairment. At later stages, Ci-E(z)-deficient embryos are affected by terminal differentiation defects of neural, epidermal and muscle tissues, by the failure to form a notochord and by the absence of caudal nerve. These major phenotypic defects are specifically rescued by injection of a morpholino-resistant Ci-E(z) mRNA, which restores expression of Ci-E(z) protein and re-deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. As observed by qPCR analyses, Ci-E(z) invalidation leads to the early derepression of tissue-specific developmental genes, whereas late-acting developmental genes are generally down-regulated. Altogether, our results suggest that Ci-E(z) plays a major role during embryonic development in Ciona intestinalis by silencing early-acting developmental genes in a Hox-independent manner.

  18. Extracellular calcium acts as a “third messenger” to regulate enzyme and alkaline secretion

    PubMed Central

    Caroppo, Rosa; Gerbino, Andrea; Fistetto, Gregorio; Colella, Matilde; Debellis, Lucantonio; Hofer, Aldebaran M.; Curci, Silvana

    2004-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the functional consequences of stimulation with Ca2+-mobilizing agonists are derived exclusively from the second messenger action of intracellular Ca2+, acting on targets inside the cells. However, during Ca2+ signaling events, Ca2+ moves in and out of the cell, causing changes not only in intracellular Ca2+, but also in local extracellular Ca2+. The fact that numerous cell types possess an extracellular Ca2+ “sensor” raises the question of whether these dynamic changes in external [Ca2+] may serve some sort of messenger function. We found that in intact gastric mucosa, the changes in extracellular [Ca2+] secondary to carbachol-induced increases in intracellular [Ca2+] were sufficient and necessary to elicit alkaline secretion and pepsinogen secretion, independent of intracellular [Ca2+] changes. These findings suggest that extracellular Ca2+ can act as a “third messenger” via Ca2+ sensor(s) to regulate specific subsets of tissue function previously assumed to be under the direct control of intracellular Ca2+. PMID:15240573

  19. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  20. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  1. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  2. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  3. Retargeting a Dual-Acting sRNA for Multiple mRNA Transcript Regulation.

    PubMed

    Lahiry, Ashwin; Stimple, Samuel D; Wood, David W; Lease, Richard A

    2017-01-24

    Multitargeting small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) represent a potentially useful tool for metabolic engineering applications. Natural multitargeting sRNAs govern bacterial gene expression by binding to the translation initiation regions of protein-coding mRNAs through base pairing. We designed an Escherichia coli based genetic system to create and assay dual-acting retargeted-sRNA variants. The variants can be assayed for coordinate translational regulation of two alternate mRNA leaders fused to independent reporter genes. Accordingly, we began with the well-characterized E. coli native DsrA sRNA. The merits of using DsrA include its well-characterized separation of function into two independently folded stem-loop domains, wherein alterations at one stem do not necessarily abolish activity at the other stem. Expression of the sRNA and each reporter mRNA was independently controlled by small inducer molecules, allowing precise quantification of the regulatory effects of each sRNA:mRNA interaction in vivo with a microtiter plate assay. Using this system, we semirationally designed DsrA variants screened in E. coli for their ability to regulate key mRNA leader sequences from the Clostridium acetobutylicum n-butanol synthesis pathway. To coordinate intervention at two points in a metabolic pathway, we created bifunctional sRNA prototypes by combining sequences from two singly retargeted DsrA variants. This approach constitutes a platform for designing sRNAs to specifically target arbitrary mRNA transcript sequences, and thus provides a generalizable tool for retargeting and characterizing multitarget sRNAs for metabolic engineering.

  4. Catalytic ozonation of Orange-G through highly interactive contributions of hematite and SBA-16 - To better understand azo-dye oxidation in nature.

    PubMed

    Larouk, Safa; Ouargli, Rachida; Shahidi, Dariush; Olhund, Leanne; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Chergui, Nacira; Sehili, Tahar; Roy, René; Azzouz, Abdelkrim

    2017-02-01

    Hematite-SBA-16 mixture (HS) exhibited high catalytic activity in Orange-G (OG) ozonation in water. Total OG discoloration was achieved in half the time required with hematite or SBA-16 alone, all UV-Vis bands disappeared in less than 2 min. Liquid chromatography- Mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed that OG ozonation triggers via both hydroxylation and desulfonation of the aromatic rings into specific intermediates. Prolonged ozonation in the presence of hematite and SBA-16 alone resulted in different distributions of common derivatives. The latter were not detected after 25 min ozonation with HS. Stochastic modeling of the evolution in time of the UV-Vis bands of OG revealed strong binary interaction between the initial pH and catalyst concentration. This was explained in terms of reciprocal contributions of: i. the catalytic properties of hematite in spite of its low porosity; ii. the high specific surface area of SBA-16 for adsorption and surface reaction notwithstanding its low intrinsic catalytic activity. The weak basicity of SBA-16 surface seems to play a key-role in adsorption. These findings are of great interest for envisaging flexible oxidative treatments, where Fe(3+) containing soils or mixtures of sand and rust may also act as catalyst for total mineralization of various azo-dyes, regardless to their structures.

  5. Pyrethroid mode(s) of action in the context of Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) regulation.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Derek W; Leggett, Michael F; Clark, John M

    2011-04-13

    A Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) in June 2009 concluded that a common mode of action existed for pyrethroids, with two subgroups. The purpose of this SAP was to advise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on the validity of regulation of pyrethroids as a single class under the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Two types of pyrethroid action were first described for clinical signs in the rat and clinical signs/nerve effects in the cockroach. In insects, Type I clinical signs correlate with repetitive firing in nerve axons, especially fine sensory axons. The Na(+) inward current is via a TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). Type II (α-CN) effects on VGSCs do not include repetitive firing following stimulation in these axons. Instead, Type II effects on VGSCs include prolonged Na(+) tail currents along with depolarization of nerve membrane. Other Type II effects have been measured on VG Ca(2+) and K(+) channels and VG and GABA-activated Cl(-) channels. In conclusion, in vivo pyrethroid effects in mammals should be linked with specific channel effects, allowing the use of specific clinical signs or ion channel effects for pyrethroid risk assessment.

  6. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  7. Egr2 induced during DC development acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of DC immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Miah, Mohammad Alam; Byeon, Se Eun; Ahmed, Md Selim; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Ha, Sang-Jun; Bae, Yong-Soo

    2013-09-01

    Early growth response gene 2 (Egr2), which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, is rapidly and transiently induced in various cell types independently of de novo protein synthesis. Although a role for Egr2 is well established in T-cell development, Egr2 expression and its biological function in dendritic cells (DCs) have not yet been described. Here, we demonstrate Egr2 expression during DC development, and its role in DC-mediated immune responses. Egr2 is expressed in the later stage of DC development from BM precursor cells. Even at steady state, Egr2 is highly expressed in mouse splenic DCs. Egr2-knockdown (Egr2-KD) DCs showed increased levels of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I and II and co-stimulatory molecules, and enhanced antigen uptake and migratory capacities. Furthermore, Egr2-KD abolished SOCS1 expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation during DC development, probably resulting in the enhancement of IL-12 expression and Th1 immunogenicity of a DC vaccine. DC-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation and antitumor immunity were significantly enhanced by Egr2-KD, and impaired by Egr2 overexpression in antigen-pulsed DC vaccines. These data suggest that Egr2 acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of DC immunogenicity and can be an attractive molecular target for DC vaccine development.

  8. 78 FR 79729 - Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...Sections 1098 and 1100A of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) direct the Bureau to publish rules and forms that combine certain disclosures that consumers receive in connection with applying for and closing on a mortgage loan under the Truth in Lending Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act. Consistent with this requirement, the Bureau is......

  9. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES... objective intent; (3) The manufacture of the HCT/P does not involve the combination of the cells or tissues... not have a systemic effect and is not dependent upon the metabolic activity of living cells for...

  10. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES... objective intent; (3) The manufacture of the HCT/P does not involve the combination of the cells or tissues... not have a systemic effect and is not dependent upon the metabolic activity of living cells for...

  11. 13 CFR 120.150 - What are SBA's lending criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reasonably assure repayment. SBA will consider: (a) Character, reputation, and credit history of the... operate on a sound financial basis; (g) Potential for long-term success; (h) Nature and value...

  12. 13 CFR 120.150 - What are SBA's lending criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasonably assure repayment. SBA will consider: (a) Character, reputation, and credit history of the... operate on a sound financial basis; (g) Potential for long-term success; (h) Nature and value...

  13. 13 CFR 120.150 - What are SBA's lending criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reasonably assure repayment. SBA will consider: (a) Character, reputation, and credit history of the... operate on a sound financial basis; (g) Potential for long-term success; (h) Nature and value...

  14. 13 CFR 120.150 - What are SBA's lending criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reasonably assure repayment. SBA will consider: (a) Character, reputation, and credit history of the... operate on a sound financial basis; (g) Potential for long-term success; (h) Nature and value...

  15. 76 FR 72878 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Imposition of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Act Regulations--Imposition of Special Measure Against the Islamic Republic of Iran as a Jurisdiction... of FinCEN, found that reasonable grounds exist for concluding that the Islamic Republic of Iran...CEN has determined that reasonable grounds exist for concluding that the Islamic Republic of Iran is...

  16. 78 FR 63408 - Petition To Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears, and Nonhuman Primates... exceptions, from coming into direct or physical contact with big cats, bears, or nonhuman primates of any age... big cats, bears, and nonhuman primates and the separation of such animals from their dams before...

  17. 76 FR 39007 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations- Definition of “Indian Tribe”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... and Repatriation Act Regulations-- Definition of ``Indian Tribe'' AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... definition of ``Indian tribe,'' because it is inconsistent with the statutory definition of that term. DATES... definition of ``Indian tribe'' into NAGPRA verbatim from the Indian Self Determination and...

  18. 75 FR 29526 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... No: 2010-12622] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [131 FERC ] 61,161; Docket No. RM93-11-000] Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods May 19, 2010. The...

  19. 76 FR 28966 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The...

  20. 77 FR 29997 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The...

  1. 78 FR 30296 - Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Revisions to Oil Pipeline Regulations Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992; Notice of Annual Change in the Producer Price Index for Finished Goods The...

  2. 78 FR 30739 - Amendments to the 2013 Escrows Final Rule under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...) and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X... Appraisals Final Rule), 78 FR 7215 (Jan. 31, 2013); Mortgage Servicing Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement...). \\13\\ 73 FR 44522 (July 30, 2008). IV. Section-by-Section Analysis Section 1026.35 Requirements...

  3. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  4. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 381.222 Section 381.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Designating Establishments With Operations Which Would Clearly Endanger the Public Health; Disposition...

  5. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  6. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  7. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 381.222 Section 381.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Designating Establishments With Operations Which Would Clearly Endanger the Public Health; Disposition...

  8. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  9. 9 CFR 381.222 - States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 5(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 381.222 Section 381.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Designating Establishments With Operations Which Would Clearly Endanger the Public Health; Disposition...

  10. 9 CFR 331.3 - States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false States designated under paragraph 301(c) of the Act; application of regulations. 331.3 Section 331.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DESIGNATED STATES AND TERRITORIES; AND FOR DESIGNATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH ENDANGER PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1640 SBA access...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1640 SBA access...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1640 SBA access...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba-Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 107.1640 SBA access...

  15. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974: rules and regulations for administration and enforcement; claims procedure. Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, Labor. Final regulation.

    PubMed

    2000-11-21

    This document contains a final regulation revising the minimum requirements for benefit claims procedures of employee benefit plans covered by Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act). The regulation establishes new standards for the processing of claims under group health plans and plans providing disability benefits and further clarifies existing standards for all other employee benefit plans. The new standards are intended to ensure more timely benefit determinations, to improve access to information on which a benefit determination is made, and to assure that participants and beneficiaries will be afforded a full and fair review of denied claims. When effective, the regulation will affect participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans, employers who sponsor employee benefit plans, plan fiduciaries, and others who assist in the provision of plan benefits, such as third-party benefits administrators and health service providers or health maintenance organizations that provide benefits to participants and beneficiaries of employee benefit plans.

  16. 13 CFR 120.463 - Regulatory accounting-What are SBA's regulatory accounting requirements for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (ii) Meets the independence requirements and interpretations of the Securities and Exchange Commission... Lender discharges or changes its auditor, it must notify SBA in writing within ten days of the...

  17. Auxin Acts through MONOPTEROS to Regulate Plant Cell Polarity and Pattern Phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Neha; Bozorg, Behruz; Larsson, André; Ohno, Carolyn; Jönsson, Henrik; Heisler, Marcus G

    2016-12-05

    The periodic formation of plant organs such as leaves and flowers gives rise to intricate patterns that have fascinated biologists and mathematicians alike for hundreds of years [1]. The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in establishing these patterns by promoting organ formation at sites where it accumulates due to its polar, cell-to-cell transport [2-6]. Although experimental evidence as well as modeling suggest that feedback from auxin to its transport direction may help specify phyllotactic patterns [7-12], the nature of this feedback remains unclear [13]. Here we reveal that polarization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is regulated by the auxin response transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) [14]. We find that in the shoot, cell polarity patterns follow MP expression, which in turn follows auxin distribution patterns. By perturbing MP activity both globally and locally, we show that localized MP activity is necessary for the generation of polarity convergence patterns and that localized MP expression is sufficient to instruct PIN1 polarity directions non-cell autonomously, toward MP-expressing cells. By expressing MP in the epidermis of mp mutants, we further show that although MP activity in a single-cell layer is sufficient to promote polarity convergence patterns, MP in sub-epidermal tissues helps anchor these polarity patterns to the underlying cells. Overall, our findings reveal a patterning module in plants that determines organ position by orienting transport of the hormone auxin toward cells with high levels of MP-mediated auxin signaling. We propose that this feedback process acts broadly to generate periodic plant architectures.

  18. 13 CFR 107.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees... related materials associated with Debentures, Participating Securities and TCs available to SBA for...

  19. Dicer-1-dependent Dacapo suppression acts downstream of Insulin receptor in regulating cell division of Drosophila germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jenn-Yah; Reynolds, Steven H.; Hatfield, Steve D.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.; Fischer, Karin A.; Ward, Ellen J.; Long, Dang; Ding, Ye; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2009-01-01

    Summary It is important to understand the regulation of stem cell division because defects in this process can cause altered tissue homeostasis or cancer. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo (Dap), a p21/p27 homolog, acts downstream of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway to regulate the cell cycle in Drosophila melanogaster germline stem cells (GSCs). Tissue-extrinsic signals, including insulin, also regulate cell division of GSCs. We report that intrinsic and extrinsic regulators intersect in GSC division control; the Insulin receptor (InR) pathway regulates Dap levels through miRNAs, thereby controlling GSC division. Using GFP-dap 3′UTR sensors in vivo, we show that in GSCs the dap 3′UTR is responsive to Dicer-1, an RNA endonuclease III required for miRNA processing. Furthermore, the dap 3′UTR can be directly targeted by miR-7, miR-278 and miR-309 in luciferase assays. Consistent with this, miR-278 and miR-7 mutant GSCs are partially defective in GSC division and show abnormal cell cycle marker expression, respectively. These data suggest that the GSC cell cycle is regulated via the dap 3′UTR by multiple miRNAs. Furthermore, the GFP-dap 3′UTR sensors respond to InR but not to TGF-β signaling, suggesting that InR signaling utilizes Dap for GSC cell cycle regulation. We further demonstrate that the miRNA-based Dap regulation may act downstream of InR signaling; Dcr-1 and Dap are required for nutrition-dependent cell cycle regulation in GSCs and reduction of dap partially rescues the cell cycle defect of InR-deficient GSCs. These data suggest that miRNA- and Dap-based cell cycle regulation in GSCs can be controlled by InR signaling. PMID:19336466

  20. Dicer-1-dependent Dacapo suppression acts downstream of Insulin receptor in regulating cell division of Drosophila germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jenn-Yah; Reynolds, Steven H; Hatfield, Steve D; Shcherbata, Halyna R; Fischer, Karin A; Ward, Ellen J; Long, Dang; Ding, Ye; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2009-05-01

    It is important to understand the regulation of stem cell division because defects in this process can cause altered tissue homeostasis or cancer. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo (Dap), a p21/p27 homolog, acts downstream of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway to regulate the cell cycle in Drosophila melanogaster germline stem cells (GSCs). Tissue-extrinsic signals, including insulin, also regulate cell division of GSCs. We report that intrinsic and extrinsic regulators intersect in GSC division control; the Insulin receptor (InR) pathway regulates Dap levels through miRNAs, thereby controlling GSC division. Using GFP-dap 3'UTR sensors in vivo, we show that in GSCs the dap 3'UTR is responsive to Dicer-1, an RNA endonuclease III required for miRNA processing. Furthermore, the dap 3'UTR can be directly targeted by miR-7, miR-278 and miR-309 in luciferase assays. Consistent with this, miR-278 and miR-7 mutant GSCs are partially defective in GSC division and show abnormal cell cycle marker expression, respectively. These data suggest that the GSC cell cycle is regulated via the dap 3'UTR by multiple miRNAs. Furthermore, the GFP-dap 3'UTR sensors respond to InR but not to TGF-beta signaling, suggesting that InR signaling utilizes Dap for GSC cell cycle regulation. We further demonstrate that the miRNA-based Dap regulation may act downstream of InR signaling; Dcr-1 and Dap are required for nutrition-dependent cell cycle regulation in GSCs and reduction of dap partially rescues the cell cycle defect of InR-deficient GSCs. These data suggest that miRNA- and Dap-based cell cycle regulation in GSCs can be controlled by InR signaling.

  1. 75 FR 63382 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AA93 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act... Crimes Enforcement Network (``FinCEN''), Treasury. ACTION: Final rule; extension of compliance date... to recordkeeping requirements under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.\\8\\ In light of...

  2. 77 FR 54843 - Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation X) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA19 Integrated Mortgage Disclosures Under the Real Estate Settlement... certain disclosure requirements of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and the Real Estate Settlement... disclosure requirements of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures...

  3. 76 FR 40367 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ...-9, Buy American Act--Construction Materials, and FAR 52.225-11, Buy American Act--Construction Materials under Trade Agreements, provide that offerors/contractors requesting to use foreign construction material, other than construction material eligible under a trade agreement, shall provide...

  4. 77 FR 43782 - Acquisition Regulations; Buy Indian Act; Procedures for Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Planning and Review (Executive Order 12866) B. Regulatory Flexibility Act C. Small Business Regulatory... there was an inconsistency in the proposed rule regarding small business set-asides for acquisitions... Small Business Act Requirements, as it governs small purchases, and at the same time continue its...

  5. MicroRNAs act complementarily to regulate disease-related mRNA modules in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Sreenivas; Bruhn, Sören; Tiemann, Katrin; Saetrom, Pål; Barrenäs, Fredrik; Saito, Takaya; Kanduri, Kartiek; Wang, Hui; Benson, Mikael

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in regulating mRNA expression, and individual miRNAs have been proposed as diagnostic and therapeutic candidates. The identification of such candidates is complicated by the involvement of multiple miRNAs and mRNAs as well as unknown disease topology of the miRNAs. Here, we investigated if disease-associated miRNAs regulate modules of disease-associated mRNAs, if those miRNAs act complementarily or synergistically, and if single or combinations of miRNAs can be targeted to alter module functions. We first analyzed publicly available miRNA and mRNA expression data for five different diseases. Integrated target prediction and network-based analysis showed that the miRNAs regulated modules of disease-relevant genes. Most of the miRNAs acted complementarily to regulate multiple mRNAs. To functionally test these findings, we repeated the analysis using our own miRNA and mRNA expression data from CD4+ T cells from patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. This is a good model of complex diseases because of its well-defined phenotype and pathogenesis. Combined computational and functional studies confirmed that miRNAs mainly acted complementarily and that a combination of two complementary miRNAs, miR-223 and miR-139-3p, could be targeted to alter disease-relevant module functions, namely, the release of type 2 helper T-cell (Th2) cytokines. Taken together, our findings indicate that miRNAs act complementarily to regulate modules of disease-related mRNAs and can be targeted to alter disease-relevant functions.

  6. 13 CFR 101.103 - Where are SBA's field offices located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... addresses, phone numbers and jurisdictions served is periodically published in the Federal Register. You can also obtain the address and phone number of an SBA office to serve you by calling 1-800-8-ASK-SBA or...

  7. 13 CFR 101.103 - Where are SBA's field offices located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... addresses, phone numbers and jurisdictions served is periodically published in the Federal Register. You can also obtain the address and phone number of an SBA office to serve you by calling 1-800-8-ASK-SBA or...

  8. 13 CFR 101.103 - Where are SBA's field offices located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... addresses, phone numbers and jurisdictions served is periodically published in the Federal Register. You can also obtain the address and phone number of an SBA office to serve you by calling 1-800-8-ASK-SBA or...

  9. 13 CFR 101.103 - Where are SBA's field offices located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... addresses, phone numbers and jurisdictions served is periodically published in the Federal Register. You can also obtain the address and phone number of an SBA office to serve you by calling 1-800-8-ASK-SBA or...

  10. 13 CFR 101.103 - Where are SBA's field offices located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... addresses, phone numbers and jurisdictions served is periodically published in the Federal Register. You can also obtain the address and phone number of an SBA office to serve you by calling 1-800-8-ASK-SBA or...

  11. 13 CFR 120.713 - Does SBA provide technical assistance to Intermediaries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Microloan Program § 120.713 Does SBA provide technical assistance to Intermediaries? SBA may procure technical assistance for an Intermediary to improve its knowledge, skill,...

  12. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  13. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  14. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  15. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  16. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  17. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  18. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  19. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  20. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  1. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  2. 76 FR 14566 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Socioeconomic Program Parity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... 9000-AL88 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Socioeconomic Program Parity AGENCY: Department of Defense...), which became effective on February 4, 2011. SBA's rule provides parity for WOSBs with SBA's other small.... Section 1347 clarified that there is parity, rather than an order of precedence, and the purpose of...

  3. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  4. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  5. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  6. 25 CFR 101.10 - Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair Credit Reporting... ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.10 Federal Reserve Regulation Z and Fair... subject to the provisions of Federal Reserve Regulation Z (Truth In Lending, 12 CFR part 226; Pub. L....

  7. GP Supervisors' Experience in Supporting Self-Regulated Learning: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagasser, Margaretha H.; Kramer, Anneke W. M.; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is essential for professional development and lifelong learning. As self-regulated learning has many inaccuracies, the need to support self-regulated learning has been recommended. Supervisors can provide such support. In a prior study trainees reported on the variation in received supervisor support. This study aims at…

  8. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule.

  9. A nucleostemin family GTPase, NS3, acts in serotonergic neurons to regulate insulin signaling and control body size

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Daniel D.; Zimmermann, Gregor; Suyama, Kaye; Meyer, Tobias; Scott, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Growth and body size are regulated by the CNS, integrating the genetic developmental program with assessments of an animal’s current energy state and environmental conditions. CNS decisions are transmitted to all cells of the animal by insulin/insulin-like signals. The molecular biology of the CNS growth control system has remained, for the most part, elusive. Here we identify NS3, a Drosophila nucleostemin family GTPase, as a powerful regulator of body size. ns3 mutants reach <60% of normal size and have fewer and smaller cells, but exhibit normal body proportions. NS3 does not act cell-autonomously, but instead acts at a distance to control growth. Rescue experiments were performed by expressing wild-type ns3 in many different cells of ns3 mutants. Restoring NS3 to only 106 serotonergic neurons rescued global growth defects. These neurons are closely apposed with those of insulin-producing neurons, suggesting possible communication between the two neuronal systems. In the brains of ns3 mutants, excess serotonin and insulin accumulate, while peripheral insulin pathway activation is low. Peripheral insulin pathway activation rescues the growth defects of ns3 mutants. The findings suggest that NS3 acts in serotonergic neurons to regulate insulin signaling and thus exert global growth control. PMID:18628395

  10. 13 CFR 127.604 - How will SBA process an EDWOSB or WOSB status protest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Protests § 127.604 How will SBA... a notice of dismissal, citing the reason(s) for the dismissal. Notwithstanding SBA's dismissal of... protestable allegations, SBA will: (1) Notify the protested concern of the protest and of its right to...

  11. 13 CFR 126.306 - How will SBA process the certification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will SBA process the... PROGRAM Certification § 126.306 How will SBA process the certification? (a) The D/HUB or designee is... not process incomplete packages. SBA will make its determination within 30 calendar days after...

  12. 13 CFR 120.950 - SBA and CDC must appoint agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA and CDC must appoint agents... Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.950 SBA and CDC must appoint agents. SBA and the CDC must appoint the following agents to facilitate the sale and service of...

  13. 13 CFR 120.950 - SBA and CDC must appoint agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA and CDC must appoint agents... Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.950 SBA and CDC must appoint agents. SBA and the CDC must appoint the following agents to facilitate the sale and service of...

  14. 13 CFR 120.950 - SBA and CDC must appoint agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA and CDC must appoint agents... Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.950 SBA and CDC must appoint agents. SBA and the CDC must appoint the following agents to facilitate the sale and service of...

  15. 13 CFR 120.950 - SBA and CDC must appoint agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA and CDC must appoint agents... Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.950 SBA and CDC must appoint agents. SBA and the CDC must appoint the following agents to facilitate the sale and service of...

  16. 13 CFR 120.950 - SBA and CDC must appoint agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA and CDC must appoint agents... Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.950 SBA and CDC must appoint agents. SBA and the CDC must appoint the following agents to facilitate the sale and service of...

  17. 13 CFR 101.105 - Who may use SBA's official seal and for what purpose?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who may use SBA's official seal... ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.105 Who may use SBA's official seal and for what purpose? (a) General. This section describes the official seal of the SBA and prescribes rules for its use....

  18. 13 CFR 124.401 - Which SBA field office services a Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Which SBA field office services a Participant? 124.401 Section 124.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a... Development § 124.401 Which SBA field office services a Participant? The SBA district office which serves...

  19. 13 CFR 124.401 - Which SBA field office services a Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which SBA field office services a Participant? 124.401 Section 124.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a... Development § 124.401 Which SBA field office services a Participant? The SBA district office which serves...

  20. 13 CFR 124.401 - Which SBA field office services a Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Which SBA field office services a Participant? 124.401 Section 124.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a... Development § 124.401 Which SBA field office services a Participant? The SBA district office which serves...

  1. 13 CFR 124.401 - Which SBA field office services a Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Which SBA field office services a Participant? 124.401 Section 124.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a... Development § 124.401 Which SBA field office services a Participant? The SBA district office which serves...

  2. 13 CFR 124.401 - Which SBA field office services a Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Which SBA field office services a Participant? 124.401 Section 124.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a... Development § 124.401 Which SBA field office services a Participant? The SBA district office which serves...

  3. 13 CFR 103.2 - Who may conduct business with SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may conduct business with SBA? 103.2 Section 103.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS FOR CONDUCTING BUSINESS WITH SBA § 103.2 Who may conduct business with SBA? (a) If you are an Applicant,...

  4. 13 CFR 120.1850 - Will the Collateral be held by SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Collateral be held by SBA... Loan Program) § 120.1850 Will the Collateral be held by SBA? Yes, SBA or its expressly authorized agent... all Collateral for SISMBD Loans in a custodial account. Certificates held as Collateral must be...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1570 - Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Distribution to private investors and SBA. 107.1570 Section 107.1570 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... private investors and SBA. If you have outstanding Participating Securities or Earmarked Assets, you may... and your private investors in proportion to the capital contributions of each. You must notify SBA...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1570 - Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Distribution to private investors and SBA. 107.1570 Section 107.1570 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... private investors and SBA. If you have outstanding Participating Securities or Earmarked Assets, you may... and your private investors in proportion to the capital contributions of each. You must notify SBA...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1570 - Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Distribution to private investors and SBA. 107.1570 Section 107.1570 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... private investors and SBA. If you have outstanding Participating Securities or Earmarked Assets, you may... and your private investors in proportion to the capital contributions of each. You must notify SBA...

  8. 13 CFR 107.1570 - Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Distribution to private investors and SBA. 107.1570 Section 107.1570 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... private investors and SBA. If you have outstanding Participating Securities or Earmarked Assets, you may... and your private investors in proportion to the capital contributions of each. You must notify SBA...

  9. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  14. 13 CFR 108.140 - SBA approval of initial Management Expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SBA approval of initial Management Expenses. A NMVC Company must have its Management Expenses approved by SBA at the time of designation as a NMVC Company. (See § 108.520 for the definition of Management... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA approval of initial...

  15. 13 CFR 126.304 - What must a concern submit to SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must a concern submit to SBA? 126.304 Section 126.304 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Certification § 126.304 What must a concern submit to SBA? (a) To be certified by SBA as a qualified HUBZone...

  16. 13 CFR 126.804 - Will SBA decide all HUBZone status protests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will SBA decide all HUBZone status protests? 126.804 Section 126.804 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Protests § 126.804 Will SBA decide all HUBZone status protests? SBA will decide all protests not dismissed as premature, untimely...

  17. 13 CFR 101.100 - What is the purpose of SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the purpose of SBA? 101.100 Section 101.100 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.100 What is the purpose of SBA? The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) aids,...

  18. 13 CFR 101.107 - What SBA forms are approved for public use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What SBA forms are approved for public use? 101.107 Section 101.107 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.107 What SBA forms are approved for public use? (a) SBA uses forms approved by...

  19. 13 CFR 107.1530 - How a Licensee computes SBA's Profit Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How a Licensee computes SBA's...) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1530 How a Licensee computes SBA's Profit Participation. This section tells you how to compute SBA's Profit Participation. Profit Participation is included in...

  20. Regulation of caulimovirus gene expression and the involvement of cis-acting elements on both viral transcripts.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Gowda, S; Shepherd, R J

    1992-09-01

    In a further analysis of gene regulation of figwort mosaic virus (FMV), a caulimovirus, we studied transient gene expression with modified viral genomes in Nicotiana edwardsonii cell suspension protoplasts. The results demonstrated that the presence of the promoter for the full-length RNA interferes with expression from the separate downstream promoter for gene VI. In addition, expression of gene VI was inhibited by cis-acting sequences within gene VI itself. Both inhibitory effects could be partially relieved by coelectroporation with a plasmid that produces gene VI protein, demonstrating that expression of gene VI is transactivated by its own product. Subsequent expression studies with partially redundant FMV plasmids containing a reporter gene in frame with gene IV showed that efficient transactivation of CAT expression relies on a cis-acting element inside the downstream gene VI. Insertions of a transcriptional terminator upstream of the cis-acting element for premature termination of transcription showed that the cis-acting region is not a DNA element but is active only as a feature of the RNA transcript. We conclude that the cis-acting element, together with the transacting gene VI product, enhances expression of all major genes, including gene VI, from the polycistronic mRNA and the separate mRNA for gene VI.

  1. Vhnf1 acts downstream of Bmp, Fgf, and RA signals to regulate endocrine beta cell development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianbo; Kim, Hyon J; Gong, Zhiyuan; Liu, Ning-Ai; Lin, Shuo

    2007-03-15

    Bmp, Fgf, and retinoic acid (RA) signals have been implicated as regulators of pancreas development. However, the integration of these signaling pathways in vivo is not fully understood. Variant hnf1 (Vhnf1) is a transcription factor involved in pancreas, liver, and kidney development and its mutation in zebrafish causes underdeveloped pancreas and liver. We investigated the signaling pathways that regulate vhnf1 expression during pancreas development. First, we showed that Bmp activity is required for vhnf1 expression in the endoderm. In chordin (a Bmp antagonist) morpholino (MO)-injected embryos, vhnf1 expression in endoderm and in endocrine beta cells is expanded. On the other hand, in alk8 (a type I TGFbeta receptor) MO-injected embryos, vhnf1 expression in the endoderm is significantly reduced. Second, we showed that Fgf signaling participates in regulation of pancreas development through the vhnf1 pathway. Third, we demonstrated that RA fails to rescue reduction of insulin expression in vhnf1 mutants, whereas overexpression of vhnf1 restores insulin expression that is repressed by treatment with a RA receptor inhibitor. And finally, we revealed that both Bmp and Fgf signals act genetically upstream of RA in directing pancreas development. Taken together, our data establish that vhnf1 acts downstream of the signaling pathways of RA, Bmp, and Fgf to regulate pancreas development in zebrafish.

  2. The implications of RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA.

  3. Rab35, acting through ACAP2 switching off Arf6, negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamori, Natsuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells differentiate to produce myelin sheaths that insulate axons to ensure fast propagation of action potentials. Many aspects of differentiation are regulated by multiple extracellular signals. However, their intracellular signalings remain elusive. We show that Rab35 and its effector, ACAP2, a GTPase-activating protein that switches off Arf6 activity, negatively regulate oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. Knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 with their respective small interfering RNAs promotes differentiation. As differentiation initiates, the activities of Rab35 and ACAP2 are down-regulated. The activity of Arf6, in contrast, is up-regulated. Arf6 knockdown inhibits differentiation, indicating that Rab35 and ACAP2 negatively regulate differentiation by down-regulating Arf6. Importantly, as differentiation proceeds, the activity of cytohesin-2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that switches on Arf6 activity, is up-regulated. Pharmacological inhibition of cytohesin-2 inhibits differentiation, suggesting that cytohesin-2 promotes differentiation by activating Arf6. Furthermore, using oligodendrocyte-neuronal cocultures, we find that knockdown of Rab35 or ACAP2 promotes myelination, whereas inhibition of cytohesin-2 or knockdown of Arf6 inhibits myelination. Thus Rab35/ACAP2 and cytohesin-2 antagonistically control oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination through Arf6 regulation, presenting a unique small GTPase on/off switching mechanism. PMID:24600047

  4. 75 FR 46859 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... proposing to establish definitions for the terms ``common cultivar'' and ``common food crop.'' The... regulation. Our proposed definitions would specify which plants and plant products will be subject to...

  5. 78 FR 40940 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ...; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... definitions for the terms ``common cultivar'' and ``common food crop'' and several related terms. The... regulation. Our definitions specify which plants and plant products will be excluded from the provisions...

  6. 76 FR 10527 - Regulatory Flexibility Act: Section 610 Review of National Organic Program Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Organic Program Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Review and request for... National Organic Program (NOP) regulations (7 CFR part 205). This review will be conducted under criteria... Specialist, National Organic Program, USDA-AMS-NOP, 1400 Independence Ave., SW., Room 2646-So., Ag Stop...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  8. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  9. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  12. 13 CFR 123.412 - What happens if SBA declines your business' pre-disaster mitigation loan request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... business disagrees with SBA's decision, it may respond in accordance with § 123.13. If SBA reverses its decision, SBA will use the date it received your business' last request for reconsideration or appeal as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if SBA declines...

  13. Antibacterial effect of antibiotic-loaded SBA-15 on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Colomer, Anna; Doadrio, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Jorge, Concepción; Manzano, Miguel; Vallet-Regí, Maria; Esteban, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are human pathogens involved in implant-related infections. During those diseases, they are able to form biofilms showing resistance to the effect of many different antibiotics. Drug delivery systems allow a local and effective delivery of antibiotics at high concentrations in the infected tissue without causing the cytotoxic effects commonly linked to systemic administration. We report the use of a porous ceramic biomaterial, such as SBA-15 loaded with antibiotics, to deliver them directly to the infected tissue. SBA-15 discs were loaded with Vancomycin, Rifampin and a combination of both, introduced in a suspension of S. aureus 15981 and S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 and incubated during 6 and 24 h. A statistically significant decrease in the biofilm density and the number of viable bacteria was detected for all antibiotics at 6 h in both bacteria. Rifampin showed an increase in the biofilm density and the number of viable bacteria at 24 h. No differences were detected between Vancomycin and the combination of antibiotics. S. epidermidis was more sensitive to the effect of the antibiotics than S. aureus. Here we have demonstrated that SBA-15 is able to act as an effective drug delivery system not only from a pharmaceutical point of view, but also from a biological one.

  14. Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Garza, Claribel; Murray, Alison E.; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; McCue, Lee Ann; Romine, Margaret F.; Loffler, F. E.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-03-30

    EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing regulators Fnr in E. coli and Anr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively; however, its regulatory role of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella spp. is not well understood. The expression of the nap genes, nrfA, cymA and hcp was significantly reduced in etrA deletion mutant EtrA7-1; however, limited anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction occurred, suggesting that multiple regulators control nitrate reduction in this strain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and fumarate reductase gene expression was down regulated at least 2-fold and the EtrA7-1 mutant grew poorly with fumarate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), suggesting both respiratory pathways are under EtrA control. Transcript analysis further suggested a role of EtrA in prophage activation and down regulation of genes implicated in aerobic metabolism. In contrast to previous studies that attributed a minor regulatory role to EtrA in Shewanella spp., this study demonstrates that EtrA acts as a global transcriptional regulator and confers physiological advantages to strain MR-1 under certain growth conditions. In conjunction with other regulators, EtrA fine-tunes the expression of genes involved in anaerobic metabolism in S. oneidensis strain MR-1.

  15. Sol Gel-Derived SBA-16 Mesoporous Material

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Huirache-Acuña, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review current knowledge related to the synthesis and characterization of sol gel-derived SBA-16 mesoporous silicas, as well as a review of the state of the art in this issue, to take stock of knowledge about current and future applications. The ease of the method of preparation, the orderly structure, size and shape of their pores and control, all these achievable through simple changes in the method of synthesis, makes SBA-16 a very versatile material, potentially applicable in many areas of science and molecular engineering of materials. PMID:20957080

  16. 78 FR 60686 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... document corrects that error and changes the contact information. DATES: Effective October 25, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carol A. Campbell, Acting Deputy Director, Division of Coal Mine Workers... the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section has changed as set forth above. 2. On page 59112, in...

  17. 78 FR 27078 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... through a commitment to consultation with Indian Tribes and recognition of their right to self-governance.... National Environmental Policy Act This rule does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. A detailed statement under the National Environmental...

  18. 77 FR 74546 - Posting of Pamphlet Provided for in the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Act, Title D of Public Law 109-162, provided that the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation... such pamphlet be posted on the Web sites of the Department of State and all consular posts processing... posted on the Web site of the Bureau of Consular Affairs of the Department of State at:...

  19. Rules and Regulations for Implementing the Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg. Office for Aid to Nonpublic Education.

    The Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act was passed into law in June 1968. It authorizes the Superintendent of Public Instruction of that State to enter into contracts to purchase secular educational service from nonpublic schools in Pennsylvania. This guide contains (1) the law, (2) definitions of terms, (3) a statement…

  20. Pneumococcal galactose catabolism is controlled by multiple regulators acting on pyruvate formate lyase

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Firas A. Y.; Kahya, Hasan F. H.; Damianou, Andreas; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Andrew, Peter W.; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Catabolism of galactose by Streptococcus pneumoniae alters the microbe’s metabolism from homolactic to mixed acid fermentation, and this shift is linked to the microbe’s virulence. However, the genetic basis of this switch is unknown. Pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) is a crucial enzyme for mixed acid fermentation. Functional PFL requires the activities of two enzymes: pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme (coded by pflA) and pyruvate formate lyase (coded by pflB). To understand the genetic basis of mixed acid fermentation, transcriptional regulation of pflA and pflB was studied. By microarray analysis of ΔpflB, differential regulation of several transcriptional regulators were identified, and CcpA, and GlnR’s role in active PFL synthesis was studied in detail as these regulators directly interact with the putative promoters of both pflA and pflB, their mutation attenuated pneumococcal growth, and their expression was induced on host-derived sugars, indicating that these regulators have a role in sugar metabolism, and multiple regulators are involved in active PFL synthesis. We also found that the influence of each regulator on pflA and pflB expression was distinct in terms of activation and repression, and environmental condition. These results show that active PFL synthesis is finely tuned, and feed-back inhibition and activation are involved. PMID:28240278

  1. Identification of cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in the regulation of BIM Pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Juan, Wen Chun; Roca, Xavier; Ong, S Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant changes in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BCL-2-like 11 (BIM), can result in either impaired or excessive apoptosis, which can contribute to tumorigenesis and degenerative disorders, respectively. Altering BIM pre-mRNA splicing is an attractive approach to modulate apoptosis because BIM activity is partly determined by the alternative splicing of exons 3 or 4, whereby exon 3-containing transcripts are not apoptotic. Here we identified several cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in BIM alternative splicing, as a step to better understand the regulation of BIM expression. We analyzed a recently discovered 2,903-bp deletion polymorphism within BIM intron 2 that biased splicing towards exon 3, and which also impaired BIM-dependent apoptosis. We found that this region harbors multiple redundant cis-acting elements that repress exon 3 inclusion. Furthermore, we have isolated a 23-nt intronic splicing silencer at the 3' end of the deletion that is important for excluding exon 3. We also show that PTBP1 and hnRNP C repress exon 3 inclusion, and that downregulation of PTBP1 inhibited BIM-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, these findings start building our understanding of the cis-acting elements and splicing factors that regulate BIM alternative splicing, and also suggest potential approaches to alter BIM splicing for therapeutic purposes.

  2. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  3. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis. (1) Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence.

  4. Ethylene acts as a negative regulator of glucose induced lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plants, being sessile organisms, are more exposed to the hazards of constantly changing environmental conditions globally. During the lifetime of a plant, the root system encounters various challenges such as obstacles, pathogens, high salinity, water logging, nutrient scarcity etc. The developmental plasticity of the root system provides brilliant adaptability to plants to counter the changes exerted by both external as well as internal cues and achieve an optimized growth status. Phytohormones are one of the major intrinsic factors regulating all aspects of plant growth and development both independently as well as through complex signal integrations at multiple levels. We have previously shown that glucose (Glc) and brassinosteroid (BR) signalings interact extensively to regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis.1 Auxin efflux as well as influx and downstream signaling components are also involved in Glc-BR regulation of LR emergence. Here, we provide evidence for involvement of ethylene signaling machinery downstream to Glc and BR in regulation of LR emergence. PMID:26236960

  5. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic behavior of functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 with various organo-silanes.

    PubMed

    Cıtak, Alime; Erdem, Beyhan; Erdem, Sezer; Oksüzoğlu, Ramis Mustafa

    2012-03-01

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 has been synthesized and functionalized by one-step synthesis method to widen their various application possibilities. In this study, phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and trimethoxypropylsilane (TMPS) were used as silane precursors for the functionalization, and after treated with HCl solution, their catalytic activities were evaluated in the lactic acid-methanol esterification. The presence of anchoring of functional groups on SBA-15 was proved by XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area and pore size distributions. Good catalytic activity was observed especially for SBA-15-SO(3)H-MPTMS, and the catalytic activity order was determined as follows: SBA-15-SO(3)H-MPTMS>SBA-15-TMPS>SBA-15-PTMS, which is directly associated with the surface area, pore size and pore volume. As compared with homogeneous catalyst, SBA-15-SO(3)H-MPTMS heterogeneous catalyst shows remarkable performance, such as separation, recovery and reusability.

  6. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein acts to regulate the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers on rice DNA

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Changxun; Chen, Weisi; Li, Chengxun; Jian, Xin; Li, Yingzhe; Lin, Hongmei; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    UVB radiation causes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) to form on the DNA of living organisms. This study found that overexpression of the silicon absorbance gene Lsi1 reduced the accumulation of CPDs in rice, which profited from the reactivation by photolyase. The transcript abundance of deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase (Os10g0167600) was generally correlated with the silicon content of the rice, and the up-regulation of Os10g0167600 was found to be highest in the UVB-treated Lsi1-overexpressed (Lsi1-OX) rice. A trans-acting factor, methyl-CpG binding domain protein (OsMeCP), was found to interact with the cis-element of Os10g0167600. The nucleic location of OsMeCP effectively enabled the transcriptional regulation. Compared with the WT, the level of OsMeCP was lower in the Lsi1-OX rice but higher in the Lsi1-RNAi line. Rice cultured in a high silicate-concentration solution also exhibited less OsMeCP abundance. Overexpression of OsMeCP led to lower Os10g0167600 transcript levels and a higher CPD content than in the WT, but the reverse was true in the OsMeCP-RNAi line. These findings indicate that OsMeCP acts as a negative regulator of silicon, and can mediate the repression of the transcription from Os10g0167600, which inhibits the photoreactivation of the photolyase involved in the repair of CPDs. PMID:27694845

  7. Increasing the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble carbamazepine using immediate-release pellets supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhouhua; Chen, Bao; Quan, Guilan; Li, Feng; Wu, Qiaoli; Dian, Linghui; Dong, Yixuan; Li, Ge; Wu, Chuanbin

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods: The aim of this study was to develop an immediate-release pellet formulation with improved drug dissolution and adsorption. Carbamazepine, a poorly water-soluble drug, was adsorbed into mesoporous silica (SBA-15-CBZ) via a wetness impregnation method and then processed by extrusion/spheronization into pellets. Physicochemical characterization of the preparation was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, small-angle and wide-angle x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Flowability and wettability of the drug-loaded silica powder were evaluated by bulk and tapped density and by the angle of repose and contact angle, respectively. The drug-loaded silica powder was formulated into pellets to improve flowability. Results: With maximum drug loading in SBA-15 matrices determined to be 20% wt, in vitro release studies demonstrated that the carbamazepine dissolution rate was notably improved from both the SBA-15 powder and the corresponding pellets as compared with the bulk drug. Correspondingly, the oral bioavailability of SBA-15-CBZ pellets was increased considerably by 1.57-fold in dogs (P < 0.05) compared with fast-release commercial carbamazepine tablets. Conclusion: Immediate-release carbamazepine pellets prepared from drug-loaded silica provide a feasible approach for development of a rapidly acting oral formulation for this poorly water-soluble drug and with better absorption. PMID:23209366

  8. Disemployment effects caused by regulation of drilling fluids and produced waters as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Flaim, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report reviews and compares several studies of the effects on employment of regulating wastes from oil and natural gas exploration and extraction under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The waste management scenarios on which most of the studies were based were developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analyses show that as many as 500,000-700,000 jobs may be lost in the first year if RCRA Subtitle C rules are applied to drilling fluids and produced waters. As a results, unemployment in major oil-producing states could rise by as much as six percentage points. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian

  10. Nitric Oxide Acts as a Positive Regulator to Induce Metamorphosis of the Ascidian Herdmania momus

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian

  11. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  12. 32 CFR 644.511 - Certificate of competency by SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Certificate of competency by SBA. 644.511 Section 644.511 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  13. 32 CFR 644.511 - Certificate of competency by SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certificate of competency by SBA. 644.511 Section 644.511 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  14. 32 CFR 644.511 - Certificate of competency by SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Certificate of competency by SBA. 644.511 Section 644.511 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  15. 32 CFR 644.511 - Certificate of competency by SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certificate of competency by SBA. 644.511 Section 644.511 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  16. 32 CFR 644.511 - Certificate of competency by SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Certificate of competency by SBA. 644.511 Section 644.511 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  17. 13 CFR 101.101 - Who manages SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who manages SBA? 101.101 Section 101.101 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.101... to aid, counsel, assist, and protect the interests of the nation's small businesses. (3) Employs...

  18. SlgA, the homologue of the human schizophrenia associated PRODH gene, acts in clock neurons to regulate Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Vulsteke, Veerle; Buhl, Edgar; Hodge, James J L; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-03-22

    Mutations in proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) are linked to behavioral alterations in schizophrenia and as part of DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndromes, but the role of PRODH in their etiology remains unclear. We here establish a Drosophila model to study the role of PRODH in behavioral disorders. We determine the distribution of the Drosophila PRODH homolog slgA in the brain and show that knock-down and overexpression of human PRODH and slgA in the lateral neurons ventral (LNv) lead to altered aggressive behavior. SlgA acts in an isoform-specific manner and is regulated by casein kinase II (CkII). Our data suggest that these effects are, at least partially, due to effects on mitochondrial function. We thus show that precise regulation of proline metabolism is essential to drive normal behavior and we identify Drosophila aggression as a model behavior relevant for the study of mechanisms impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  20. 75 FR 19241 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Service lacks the authority to examine for compliance with the BSA. The definition of ``mutual fund'' at... funds within the general definition of ``financial institution'' in regulations implementing the Bank... information for transmittals of funds. Additionally, the final rule amends the definition of mutual fund...

  1. 76 FR 52295 - Amendment of Privacy Act Regulations, Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...; --Use the active voice to address readers directly; --Use clear language rather than jargon; --Be... relevance and necessity to accomplish a purpose of the agency will be clear. 4. From subsections (e)(4)(G... the criteria of section 3(b)(2) requiring that all regulations be written in clear language...

  2. 75 FR 66699 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... period for our proposed rule that would establish definitions for the terms ``common cultivar'' and... definitions for the terms ``common cultivar'' and ``common food crop.'' We proposed to establish...

  3. 78 FR 27308 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth In Lending Act (Regulation Z...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... implementing regulations by that date.\\2\\ To avoid uncertainty and potential disruption in the national... rules, as needed; (4) publication of readiness guides for the new rules; and (5) education of consumers... disruptions in the provision of credit insurance products to consumers while interpretive questions...

  4. 75 FR 50718 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... measured by excluding from the measurement certain attached structures. Currently, the regulations state that ``length means a straight line measurement of the overall length from the foremost part of the vessel to the aftmost part of the vessel, measured parallel to the center line. The measurement shall...

  5. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... hazardous only because they fail the test for the Toxicity Characteristic (Hazardous Waste Codes...

  6. 77 FR 76861 - Removal of Job Training Partnership Act Implementing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... accessible to the public. Therefore, the Department recommends that commenters remove personal information such as Social Security Numbers, personal addresses, telephone numbers, and email addresses included in....regulations.gov Web site. It is the responsibility of the commenter to safeguard their personal...

  7. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the regulation of the health insurance industry.

    PubMed

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive and multipronged reform of the US health care system. The legislation makes incremental changes to Medicare, Medicaid, and the market for employer-sponsored health insurance. However, it makes substantial changes to the market for individual and small-group health insurance. The purpose of this article is to introduce the key regulatory reforms in the market for individual and small-group health insurance and explain how these reforms tackle adverse selection and risk classification and improve access to health care for the hitherto uninsured or underinsured population.

  8. GIGANTEA acts in blue light signaling and has biochemically separable roles in circadian clock and flowering time regulation.

    PubMed

    Martin-Tryon, Ellen L; Kreps, Joel A; Harmer, Stacey L

    2007-01-01

    Circadian clocks are widespread in nature. In higher plants, they confer a selective advantage, providing information regarding not only time of day but also time of year. Forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have led to the identification of many clock components, but the functions of most of these genes remain obscure. To identify both new constituents of the circadian clock and new alleles of known clock-associated genes, we performed a mutant screen. Using a clock-regulated luciferase reporter, we isolated new alleles of ZEITLUPE, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, and GIGANTEA (GI). GI has previously been reported to function in red light signaling, central clock function, and flowering time regulation. Characterization of this and other GI alleles has helped us to further define GI function in the circadian system. We found that GI acts in photomorphogenic and circadian blue light signaling pathways and is differentially required for clock function in constant red versus blue light. Gene expression and epistasis analyses show that TIMING OF CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN1 (TOC1) expression is not solely dependent upon GI and that GI expression is only indirectly affected by TOC1, suggesting that GI acts both in series with and in parallel to TOC1 within the central circadian oscillator. Finally, we found that the GI-dependent promotion of CONSTANS expression and flowering is intact in a gi mutant with altered circadian regulation. Thus GI function in the regulation of a clock output can be biochemically separated from its role within the circadian clock.

  9. An extracytoplasmic function sigma factor acts as a general stress response regulator in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Sauviac, Laurent; Philippe, Heinui; Phok, Kounthéa; Bruand, Claude

    2007-06-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti genes transcriptionally up-regulated after heat stress, as well as upon entry into stationary phase, were identified by microarray analyses. Sixty stress response genes were thus found to be up-regulated under both conditions. One of them, rpoE2 (smc01506), encodes a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor. We showed that this sigma factor controls its own transcription and is activated by various stress conditions, including heat and salt, as well as entry into stationary phase after either carbon or nitrogen starvation. We also present evidence that the product of the gene cotranscribed with rpoE2 negatively regulates RpoE2 activity, and we therefore propose that it plays the function of anti-sigma factor. By combining transcriptomic, bioinformatic, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses, we identified 44 RpoE2-controlled genes and predicted the number of RpoE2 targets to be higher. Strikingly, more than one-third of the 60 stress response genes identified in this study are RpoE2 targets. Interestingly, two genes encoding proteins with known functions in stress responses, namely, katC and rpoH2, as well as a second ECF-encoding gene, rpoE5, were found to be RpoE2 regulated. Altogether, these data suggest that RpoE2 is a major global regulator of the general stress response in S. meliloti. Despite these observations, and although this sigma factor is well conserved among alphaproteobacteria, no in vitro nor in planta phenotypic difference from the wild-type strain could be detected for rpoE2 mutants. This therefore suggests that other important actors in the general stress response have still to be identified in S. meliloti.

  10. Regulating dangerous futures: the German Embryo Protection Act of 1990--legislation in risk society.

    PubMed

    Augst, C

    2000-06-01

    This article summarises the outcome of a research project which analyses the legislative debate about the German Embryonenschutzgesetz (Embryo Protection Act) in 1990. From 1988 to 1990 the German Parliament discussed legislation for the practice of assisted contraception and embryo research. The term 'risk' is central to the discourse. For Ulrich Beck (1986) this emphasis on risk is a sign of the reflexivity which contemporary western societies have reached. This article reads back into the risk discourse the values hidden in risk terminology: they are identified as fears about modernisation processes. The focus on risk in this article allows observation of late modernity's unease about its own potential and a growing ambiguity about modern ideas of progress and control (Bauman, 1991). This ambiguity also becomes apparent in the strategies of policing which the German legislature offers as solutions to the perceived risks: different legislative strategies are developed to tackle the contradictory risk scenarios. These different strategies of policing are understood as the construction of 'places of safety' in the face of identified dangers: the 'traditional family', the 'good doctor', 'professional' judgement. Defining those boundaries allows the German legislature to juggle contradictory agendas. This explains the inconsistent and fragmented nature of the Embryo Protection Act 1990.

  11. The multi zinc-finger protein Trps1 acts as a regulator of histone deacetylation during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Wuelling, Manuela; Pasdziernik, Markus; Moll, Carina N; Thiesen, Andrea M; Schneider, Sabine; Johannes, Christian; Vortkamp, Andrea

    2013-07-15

    TRPS1, the gene mutated in human "Tricho-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome," encodes a multi zinc-finger nuclear regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Here, we have identified a new function of Trps1 in controlling mitotic progression in chondrocytes. Loss of Trps1 in mice leads to an increased proportion of cells arrested in mitosis and, subsequently, to chromosome segregation defects. Searching for the molecular basis of the defect, we found that Trps1 acts as regulator of histone deacetylation. Trps1 interacts with two histone deacetylases, Hdac1 and Hdac4, thereby increasing their activity. Loss of Trps1 results in histone H3 hyperacetylation, which is maintained during mitosis. Consequently, chromatin condensation and binding of HP1 is impaired, and Trps1-deficient chondrocytes accumulate in prometaphase. Overexpression of Hdac4 rescues the mitotic defect of Trps1-deficient chondrocytes, identifying Trps1 as an important regulator of chromatin deacetylation during mitosis in chondrocytes. Our data provide the first evidence that the control of mitosis can be linked to the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by epigenetic consequences of altered Hdac activity.

  12. 13 CFR 124.205 - Can an applicant ask SBA to reconsider SBA's initial decision to decline its application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reconsider SBA's initial decision to decline its application? (a) An applicant may request the AA/BD to... pertinent to overcoming the reason(s) for the initial decline. (b) The AA/BD will issue a written decision within 45 days of the regional DPCE's receipt of the applicant's request. The AA/BD may either...

  13. 13 CFR 120.463 - Regulatory accounting-What are SBA's regulatory accounting requirements for SBA Supervised Lenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Supervised Lender must have its financial statements audited annually by a certified public accountant... to the fairness of the SBA Supervised Lender's financial statements and their compliance with GAAP...; and (2) If the discharge/change involved a dispute over the financial statements, a...

  14. An Arabidopsis F-box protein acts as a transcriptional co-factor to regulate floral development.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eunyoung; Tan, Queenie K-G; Hill, Theresa A; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-04-01

    Plants flower in response to both environmental and endogenous signals. The Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor is crucial in integrating these signals, and acts in part by activating the expression of multiple floral homeotic genes. LFY-dependent activation of the homeotic APETALA3 (AP3) gene requires the activity of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), an F-box component of an SCF ubiquitin ligase, yet how this regulation is effected has remained unclear. Here, we show that UFO physically interacts with LFY both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction is necessary to recruit UFO to the AP3 promoter. Furthermore, a transcriptional repressor domain fused to UFO reduces endogenous LFY activity in plants, supporting the idea that UFO acts as part of a transcriptional complex at the AP3 promoter. Moreover, chemical or genetic disruption of proteasome activity compromises LFY-dependent AP3 activation, indicating that protein degradation is required to promote LFY activity. These results define an unexpected role for an F-box protein in functioning as a DNA-associated transcriptional co-factor in regulating floral homeotic gene expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism for promoting flower development via protein degradation and concomitant activation of the LFY transcription factor. This mechanism may be widely conserved, as homologs of UFO and LFY have been identified in a wide array of plant species.

  15. Superoxide dismutase 1 acts as a nuclear transcription factor to regulate oxidative stress resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Chi Kwan; Liu, Yuan; Thomas, Janice; Zhang, Yanjie; Zheng, X. F. Steven

    2015-01-01

    Summary Superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) has been known for nearly half a century for catalysis of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Here we report a new Sod1 function in oxidative signaling: in response to elevated endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), Sod1 rapidly relocates into the nucleus, which is important for maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, H2O2 is sufficient to promote Sod1 nuclear localization, indicating that it is responding to general ROS rather than Sod1 substrate superoxide. ROS signaling is mediated by Mec1/ATM and its effector Dun1/Cds1 kinase, through Dun1 interaction with Sod1 and regulation of Sod1 by phosphorylation at S60, 99. In the nucleus, Sod1 binds to the promoters and regulates the expression of oxidative resistance and repair genes. Altogether, our study unravels an unorthodox function of Sod1 as a transcription factor and elucidates the regulatory mechanism for its localization. PMID:24647101

  16. Two Group A Streptococcal Peptide Pheromones Act through Opposing Rgg Regulators to Control Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jennifer C.; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C.; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  17. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer C; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  18. Phosphorylation acts positively and negatively to regulate MRTF-A subcellular localisation and activity

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotou, Richard; Miralles, Francesc; Pawlowski, Rafal; Diring, Jessica; Flynn, Helen R; Skehel, Mark; Treisman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) regulate cytoskeletal genes through their partner transcription factor SRF. The MRTFs bind G-actin, and signal-regulated changes in cellular G-actin concentration control their nuclear accumulation. The MRTFs also undergo Rho- and ERK-dependent phosphorylation, but the function of MRTF phosphorylation, and the elements and signals involved in MRTF-A nuclear export are largely unexplored. We show that Rho-dependent MRTF-A phosphorylation reflects relief from an inhibitory function of nuclear actin. We map multiple sites of serum-induced phosphorylation, most of which are S/T-P motifs and show that S/T-P phosphorylation is required for transcriptional activation. ERK-mediated S98 phosphorylation inhibits assembly of G-actin complexes on the MRTF-A regulatory RPEL domain, promoting nuclear import. In contrast, S33 phosphorylation potentiates the activity of an autonomous Crm1-dependent N-terminal NES, which cooperates with five other NES elements to exclude MRTF-A from the nucleus. Phosphorylation thus plays positive and negative roles in the regulation of MRTF-A. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15460.001 PMID:27304076

  19. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-16

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly.

  20. FOXL2 and BMP2 Act Cooperatively to Regulate Follistatin Gene Expression during Ovarian Development

    PubMed Central

    Kashimada, Kenichi; Pelosi, Emanuele; Chen, Huijun; Schlessinger, David; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Follistatin is a secreted glycoprotein required for female sex determination and early ovarian development, but the precise mechanisms regulating follistatin (Fst) gene expression are not known. Here, we investigate the roles of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and forkhead-domain transcription factor L2 (FOXL2) in the regulation of Fst expression in the developing mouse ovary. Bmp2 and Fst showed similar temporal profiles of mRNA expression, whereas FOXL2 protein and Fst mRNA were coexpressed in the same ovarian cells. In a cell culture model, both FOXL2 and BMP2 up-regulated Fst expression. In ex vivo mouse fetal gonad culture, exogenous BMP2 increased Fst expression, but this effect was counteracted by the BMP antagonist Noggin. Moreover, in Foxl2-null mice, Fst expression was reduced throughout fetal ovarian development, and Bmp2 expression was also reduced. Our data support a model in which FOXL2 and BMP2 cooperate to ensure correct expression of Fst in the developing ovary. Further, Wnt4-knockout mice showed reduced expression of Fst limited to early ovarian development, suggesting a role for WNT4 in the initiation, but not the maintenance, of Fst expression. PMID:21084449

  1. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation

    PubMed Central

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here, we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. Intriguingly, our genetic data suggest that SAS-7 is required for daughter centrioles to become competent for duplication, and for mother centrioles to maintain this competence. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20353.001 PMID:28092264

  2. Identification of cis- and trans-acting elements regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kresoja-Rakic, Jelena; Kapaklikaya, Esra; Ziltener, Gabriela; Dalcher, Damian; Santoro, Raffaella; Christensen, Brock C.; Johnson, Kevin C.; Schwaller, Beat; Weder, Walter; Stahel, Rolf A.; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Calretinin (CALB2) is a diagnostic marker for epithelioid mesothelioma. It is also a prognostic marker since patients with tumors expressing high calretinin levels have better overall survival. Silencing of calretinin decreases viability of epithelioid mesothelioma cells. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms regulating calretinin expression in mesothelioma. Analysis of calretinin transcript and protein suggested a control at the mRNA level. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and analysis of TCGA data indicated that promoter methylation is not likely to be involved. Therefore, we investigated CALB2 promoter by analyzing ~1kb of genomic sequence surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) + 1 using promoter reporter assay. Deletion analysis of CALB2 proximal promoter showed that sequence spanning the −161/+80bp region sustained transcriptional activity. Site-directed analysis identified important cis-regulatory elements within this −161/+80bp CALB2 promoter. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed binding of NRF-1 and E2F2 to the CALB2 promoter and siRNA knockdown of NRF-1 led to decreased expression of calretinin. Cell synchronization experiment showed that calretinin expression was cell cycle regulated with a peak of expression at G1/S phase. This study provides the first insight in the regulation of CALB2 expression in mesothelioma cells. PMID:26848772

  3. The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.

  4. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2014-08-15

    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet.

  5. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974; rules and regulations for administration and enforcement; claims procedure. Final regulation; delay of applicability date.

    PubMed

    2001-07-09

    This action delays for at least six months and not more than one year the applicability date for the regulation governing minimum requirements for benefit claims procedures of group health plans covered by Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act. As published on November 21, 2000, the benefit claims procedure would be applicable to claims filed on or after January 1, 2002. The current action amends the regulation so that it will apply to group health claims filed on or after the first day of the first plan year beginning on or after July 1, 2002, but in no event later than January 1, 2003. This action provides a limited additional period within which group health plan sponsors, administrators, and service providers can bring their claims processing systems into compliance with the new requirements. A postponement of the applicability date with respect to group health claims will allow a more orderly transition to the new standards and will avoid the confusion and additional expense that would be caused if certain pending Congressional bills are enacted before or soon after the original applicability date. This action does not apply to pension plans or plans providing disability or welfare benefits (other than group health). For these plans, the regulation will continue to be applicable to claims filed on or after January 1, 2002.

  6. CBX7 and HMGA1b proteins act in opposite way on the regulation of the SPP1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sepe, Romina; Formisano, Umberto; Federico, Antonella; Forzati, Floriana; Bastos, André Uchimura; D'Angelo, Daniela; Cacciola, Nunzio Antonio; Fusco, Alfredo; Pallante, Pierlorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 member CBX7 as a tumor-suppressor gene whose expression progressively decreases in different human carcinomas in relation with tumor grade, malignant stage and poor prognosis. We have previously demonstrated that CBX7 is able to inhibit the expression of the SPP1 gene, encoding the chemokine osteopontin that is over-expressed in cancer and has a critical role in cancer progression. Here, we have analyzed the mechanism by which CBX7 regulates the SPP1 gene expression. We show that the SPP1 transcriptional regulation mechanism involves the CBX7-interacting protein HMGA1b, that acts as a positive regulator of the SPP1 gene. In fact, we demonstrate that, in contrast with the transcriptional activity of CBX7, HMGA1b is able to increase the SPP1 expression by inducing the activity of its promoter. Moreover, we show that CBX7 interferes with HMGA1b on the SPP1 promoter and counteracts the positive transcriptional activity of HMGA1b on the SPP1 expression. Furthermore, since we found that also the NF-κB complex resulted involved in the modulation of the SPP1 expression in thyroid cells, we suppose that CBX7/HMGA1b/NF-κB could take part in the same transcriptional mechanism that finally leads to the regulation of the SPP1 gene expression. Taken together, our data show the important role played by CBX7 in the negative regulation of the SPP1 gene expression, thus contributing to prevent the acquisition of a malignant phenotype. PMID:25595895

  7. Hmgn1 acts downstream of C/EBPβ to regulate the decidualization of uterine stromal cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Dang-Dang; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Guo, Chuan-Hui; Yue, Liang; Duan, Cui-Cui; Cao, Hang; Guo, Bin; Yue, Zhan-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Although Hmgn1 is involved in the regulation of gene expression and cellular differentiation, its physiological roles on the differentiation of uterine stromal cells during decidualization still remain unknown. Here we showed that Hmgn1 mRNA was highly expressed in the decidua on days 6-8 of pregnancy. Simultaneously, increased expression of Hmgn1 was also observed in the artificial and in vitro induced decidualization models. Hmgn1 induced the proliferation of uterine stromal cells and expression of Ccna1, Ccnb1, Ccnb2 and Cdk1 in the absence of estrogen and progesterone. Overexpression of Hmgn1 could enhance the expression of Prl8a2 and Prl3c1 which were 2 well-known differentiation markers for decidualization, whereas inhibition of Hmgn1 with specific siRNA could reduce their expression. Further studies found that Hmgn1 could mediate the effects of C/EBPβ on the expression of Prl8a2 and Prl3c1 during in vitro decidualization. In the uterine stromal cells, cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP could stimulate the expression of Hmgn1 via C/EBPβ. Moreover, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Hmgn1 could attenuate the effects of cAMP on the differentiation of uterine stromal cells. During in vitro decidualization, Hmgn1 might act downstream of C/EBPβ to regulate the expression of Cox-2, mPGES-1 and Vegf. Progesterone could up-regulate the expression of Hmgn1 in the ovariectomized mouse uterus, uterine epithelial cells and stromal cells. Knockdown of C/EBPβ with siRNA alleviated the up-regulation of progesterone on Hmgn1 expression. Collectively, Hmgn1 may play an important role during mouse decidualization.

  8. Common cis-acting region responsible for transcriptional regulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase by nickel, oxygen, and hydrogen.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H; Yu, C; Maier, R J

    1991-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum expresses hydrogenase in microaerophilic free-living conditions in the presence of nickel. Plasmid-borne hup-lacZ transcriptional fusion constructs were used to study the regulation of the hydrogenase gene. The hydrogenase gene was transcriptionally induced under microaerobic conditions (0.1 to 3.0% partial pressure O2). The hydrogenase gene was not transcribed or was poorly transcribed in strictly anaerobic conditions or conditions above 3.0% O2. Hydrogen gas at levels as low as 0.1% partial pressure induced hydrogenase transcription, and a high level of transcription was maintained up to at least 10% H2 concentration. No transcription was observed in the absence of H2. Hydrogenase was regulated by H2, O2, and Ni when the 5'-upstream sequence was pared down to include base number -168. However, when the upstream sequence was pared down to base number -118, the regulatory response to O2, H2, and Ni levels was negated. Thus, a common cis-acting regulatory region localized within 50 bp is critical for the regulation of hydrogenase by hydrogen, oxygen, and nickel. As a control, the B. japonicum hemA gene which codes for delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase was also fused to the promoterless lacZ gene, and its regulation was tested in the presence of various concentrations of O2 and H2. hemA-lacZ transcription was not dependent on levels of Ni, O2, or H2. Two different hup-lacZ fusions were tested in a Hup- background, strain JH47; these hup-lacZ constructs in JH47 demonstrated dependency on nickel, O2, and H2, indicating that the hydrogenase protein itself is not a sensor for regulation by O2, H2, or nickel. PMID:2061281

  9. Two-Step Regulation of a Meristematic Cell Population Acting in Shoot Branching in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Caihuan; Wang, Jin; Xu, Tengfei; Xu, Yan; Ohno, Carolyn; Sablowski, Robert; Heisler, Marcus G.; Theres, Klaus; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Shoot branching requires the establishment of new meristems harboring stem cells; this phenomenon raises questions about the precise regulation of meristematic fate. In seed plants, these new meristems initiate in leaf axils to enable lateral shoot branching. Using live-cell imaging of leaf axil cells, we show that the initiation of axillary meristems requires a meristematic cell population continuously expressing the meristem marker SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM). The maintenance of STM expression depends on the leaf axil auxin minimum. Ectopic expression of STM is insufficient to activate axillary buds formation from plants that have lost leaf axil STM expressing cells. This suggests that some cells undergo irreversible commitment to a developmental fate. In more mature leaves, REVOLUTA (REV) directly up-regulates STM expression in leaf axil meristematic cells, but not in differentiated cells, to establish axillary meristems. Cell type-specific binding of REV to the STM region correlates with epigenetic modifications. Our data favor a threshold model for axillary meristem initiation, in which low levels of STM maintain meristematic competence and high levels of STM lead to meristem initiation. PMID:27398935

  10. PP2A and GSK-3beta act antagonistically to regulate active zone development.

    PubMed

    Viquez, Natasha M; Füger, Petra; Valakh, Vera; Daniels, Richard W; Rasse, Tobias M; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2009-09-16

    The synapse is composed of an active zone apposed to a postsynaptic cluster of neurotransmitter receptors. Each Drosophila neuromuscular junction comprises hundreds of such individual release sites apposed to clusters of glutamate receptors. Here, we show that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is required for the development of structurally normal active zones opposite glutamate receptors. When PP2A is inhibited presynaptically, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot (Brp), an active zone protein required for normal transmitter release. These unapposed receptors are not due to presynaptic retraction of synaptic boutons, since other presynaptic components are still apposed to the entire postsynaptic specialization. Instead, these data suggest that Brp localization is regulated at the level of individual release sites. Live imaging of glutamate receptors demonstrates that this disruption to active zone development is accompanied by abnormal postsynaptic development, with decreased formation of glutamate receptor clusters. Remarkably, inhibition of the serine-threonine kinase GSK-3beta completely suppresses the active zone defect, as well as other synaptic morphology phenotypes associated with inhibition of PP2A. These data suggest that PP2A and GSK-3beta function antagonistically to control active zone development, providing a potential mechanism for regulating synaptic efficacy at a single release site.

  11. Ubiquitin-Fold Modifier 1 Acts as a Positive Regulator of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hee Min; Park, Jong Ho; Jeon, Young Joo; Chung, Chin Ha

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) is a steroid hormone-sensitive transcription factor that plays a critical role in development of breast cancer. The binding of estrogen to ERα triggers the recruitment of transcriptional co-activators as well as chromatin remodeling factors to estrogen-responsive elements (ERE) of ERα target genes. This process is tightly associated with post-translational modifications (PTMs) of ERα and its co-activators for promotion of transcriptional activation, which leads to proliferation of a large subset of breast tumor cells. These PTMs include phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, and conjugation by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins. Ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFM1), one of ubiquitin-like proteins, has recently been shown to be ligated to activating signal co-integrator 1 (ASC1), which acts as a transcriptional co-activator of nuclear receptors. Here, we discuss the mechanistic connection between ASC1 modification by UFM1 and ERα transactivation, and highlight how the interplay of these processes is involved in development of breast cancer. We also discuss potential use of UFM1-conjugating system as therapeutic targets against not only breast cancer but also other nuclear receptor-mediated cancers. PMID:25852645

  12. 28 CFR Appendix D to Subpart G of... - OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply to This Subpart (28 CFR 42.205 and 42.206) D..., App. D Appendix D to Subpart G of Part 42—OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and...

  13. 28 CFR Appendix D to Subpart G of... - OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply to This Subpart (28 CFR 42.205 and 42.206) D..., App. D Appendix D to Subpart G of Part 42—OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and...

  14. 28 CFR Appendix D to Subpart G of... - OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply to This Subpart (28 CFR 42.205 and 42.206) D..., App. D Appendix D to Subpart G of Part 42—OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and...

  15. 28 CFR Appendix D to Subpart G of... - OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply to This Subpart (28 CFR 42.205 and 42.206) D..., App. D Appendix D to Subpart G of Part 42—OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and...

  16. Humic acid acts as a natural antidote of graphene by regulating nanomaterial translocation and metabolic fluxes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangang; Mu, Li; Kang, Jia; Lu, Kaicheng; Zhou, Ruiren; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-06-17

    Graphene-related research has intensified rapidly in a wide range of disciplines, but few studies have examined ecosystem risks, particularly phytotoxicity. This study revealed that graphene significantly inhibits the number of wheat roots and the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, and altered the morphology of shoots. Humic acid (HA), a ubiquitous form of natural organic matter, significantly (P < 0.05) relieved this phytotoxicity and recovered the sharp morphology of shoot tips. Both graphene and graphene-HA were transferred from wheat roots to shoots and were found in the cytoplasms and chloroplasts. HA increased the disordered structure and surface negative charges, and reduced the aggregation of graphene. HA enhanced the storage of graphene in vacuoles, potentially indicating an effective detoxification path. The content of cadaverine, alkane, glyconic acid, and aconitic acid was up-regulated by graphene, greatly contributing to the observed phytotoxicity. Conversely, inositol, phenylalanine, phthalic acid, and octadecanoic acid were up-regulated by graphene-HA. The metabolic pathway analysis revealed that the direction of metabolic fluxes governed nanotoxicity. This work presents the innovative concept that HA acts as a natural antidote of graphene by regulating its translocation and metabolic fluxes in vivo. This knowledge is critical for avoiding the overestimation of nanomaterial risks and can be used to control nanomaterial contamination.

  17. Regulated expression of mammalian histone H4 genes in vivo requires a trans-acting transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, O; Heintz, N

    1985-01-01

    Mouse L cells containing integrated copies of a human histone H4 gene have been obtained by cotransfection with the herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene. Nuclease S1 assays of RNA from several independent cell lines show that the expression of the introduced H4 gene is regulated during the cell cycle. One of these cell lines (line 6-8) contains more than 60 human H4 gene copies per haploid genome and does not express the endogenous mouse histone H4 mRNA. In contrast, the expression of the mouse H2a and H3 mRNAs in this cell line is not perturbed. In cell revertants that have lost the majority of the human H4 gene copies, the expression of the mouse H4 mRNA is restored, demonstrating that the mouse genes remain functional although not expressed. The rate of transcription of the histone H4 genes in clone 6-8 is at least 10-fold greater than that of the parental cell line and it is regulated during traversal of the cell cycle. These results show that the expression of mammalian histone H4 genes involves both a trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factor and an H4-specific activity. We propose that cell cycle regulation of histone gene expression may be effected through subtype-specific transcriptional regulatory proteins. Images PMID:3862085

  18. Policy implications of genetic information on regulation under the Clean Air Act: the case of particulate matter and asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Kramer, C Bradley; Cullen, Alison C; Faustman, Elaine M

    2006-03-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) explicitly guarantees the protection of sensitive human subpopulations from adverse health effects associated with air pollution exposure. Identified subpopulations, such as asthmatics, may carry multiple genetic susceptibilities to disease onset and progression and thus qualify for special protection under the CAA. Scientific advances accelerated as a result of the groundbreaking Human Genome Project enable the quantification of genetic information that underlies such human variability in susceptibility and the cellular mechanisms of disease. In epidemiology and regulatory toxicology, genetic information can more clearly elucidate human susceptibility essential to risk assessment, such as in support of air quality regulation. In an effort to encourage the incorporation of genomic information in regulation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued an Interim Policy on Genomics. Additional research strategy and policy documents from the National Academy of Science, the U.S. EPA, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services further promote the expansion of asthma genetics research for human health risk assessment. Through a review of these government documents, we find opportunities for the inclusion of genetic information in the regulation of air pollutants. In addition, we identify sources of information in recent scientific research on asthma genetics relevant to regulatory standard setting. We conclude with recommendations on how to integrate these approaches for the improvement of regulatory health science and the prerequisites for inclusion of genetic information in decision making.

  19. Kinetic modelling of cytochrome c adsorption on SBA-15.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamauchi, Rie; Saito, Akira; Yamato, Yuta; Toma, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of mesoporous silicate (MPS) materials as an adsorbent for protein adsorption from the aqueous phase and the mechanism of the adsorption processes by comparative analyses of the applicability of five kinetic transfer models, pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second-order model, Elovich kinetic model, Bangham's equation model, and intraparticle diffusion model, were investigated. A mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and triblock copolymer as a template was stirred, hydrothermally treated to form the mesoporous SBA-15 structure, and heat-treated at 550°C to form the MPS material, SBA-15. The synthesized SBA-15 was immersed in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution containing cytochrome c for 2, 48, and 120 hours at 4°C. The TEM observations of proteins on/in mesoporous SBA-15 revealed the protein behaviors. The holes of the MPS materials were observed to overlap those of the stained proteins for the first 2 hours of immersion. The stained proteins were observed between primary particles and partly inside the mesoporous channels in the MPS material when it had been immersed for 48 hours. For MPS when it had been immersed for 120 hours, stained proteins were observed in almost all meso-scale channels of MPS. The time profiles for adsorption of proteins can be described well by Bangham's equation model and the intraparticle diffusion model. The Bangham's equation model is based on the assumption that pore diffusion was the only rate controlling step during adsorption, whose contribution to the overall mechanism of cytochrome c adsorption on SBA-15 should not be neglected. The kinetic curves obtained from the experiment for cytochrome c adsorption on SBA-15 could show the three steps: the initial rapid increase of the adsorbed amount of cytochrome c, the second gradual increase, and the final equilibrium stage. These three adsorption steps can be interpreted well by the multi-linearity of the intraparticle diffusion model

  20. Several posttranslational modifications act in concert to regulate gephyrin scaffolding and GABAergic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Himanish; Auguadri, Luca; Battaglia, Sereina; Simone Thirouin, Zahra; Zemoura, Khaled; Messner, Simon; Acuña, Mario A.; Wildner, Hendrik; Yévenes, Gonzalo E.; Dieter, Andrea; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; O. Hottiger, Michael; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.

    2016-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate the majority of fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain via synergistic association with the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin and its interaction partners. However, unlike their counterparts at glutamatergic synapses, gephyrin and its binding partners lack canonical protein interaction motifs; hence, the molecular basis for gephyrin scaffolding has remained unclear. In this study, we identify and characterize two new posttranslational modifications of gephyrin, SUMOylation and acetylation. We demonstrate that crosstalk between SUMOylation, acetylation and phosphorylation pathways regulates gephyrin scaffolding. Pharmacological intervention of SUMO pathway or transgenic expression of SUMOylation-deficient gephyrin variants rescued gephyrin clustering in CA1 or neocortical neurons of Gabra2-null mice, which otherwise lack gephyrin clusters, indicating that gephyrin SUMO modification is an essential determinant for scaffolding at GABAergic synapses. Together, our results demonstrate that concerted modifications on a protein scaffold by evolutionarily conserved yet functionally diverse signalling pathways facilitate GABAergic transmission. PMID:27819299

  1. Methamphetamine acts on subpopulations of neurons regulating sexual behavior in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Frohmader, Karla S.; Wiskerke, Joost; Wise, Roy A.; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is a highly addictive stimulant. Meth abuse is commonly associated with the practice of sexual risk behavior and increased prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Meth users report heightened sexual desire, arousal, and sexual pleasure. The biological basis for this drug-sex nexus is unknown. The current study demonstrates that Meth administration in male rats activates neurons in brain regions of the mesolimbic system that are involved in the regulation of sexual behavior. Specifically, Meth and mating co-activate cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, basolateral amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings illustrate that in contrast to current belief drugs of abuse can activate the same cells as a natural reinforcer, i.e. sexual behavior, and in turn may influence compulsive seeking of this natural reward. PMID:20045448

  2. Gene regulation by the act of long non-coding RNA transcription

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are proposed to be the largest transcript class in the mouse and human transcriptomes. Two important questions are whether all lncRNAs are functional and how they could exert a function. Several lncRNAs have been shown to function through their product, but this is not the only possible mode of action. In this review we focus on a role for the process of lncRNA transcription, independent of the lncRNA product, in regulating protein-coding-gene activity in cis. We discuss examples where lncRNA transcription leads to gene silencing or activation, and describe strategies to determine if the lncRNA product or its transcription causes the regulatory effect. PMID:23721193

  3. Modified SBA-15 as the carrier for metoprolol and papaverine: Adsorption and release study

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, MichaL; Laniecki, Marek

    2011-07-15

    A series of modified SBA-15 materials were applied in drug delivery systems. The internal surface of siliceous hexagonal structure of SBA-15 was modified with different amount of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and oxidized in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The sulfonated material was loaded with metoprolol tartrate or papaverine hydrochloride. Both drugs indicated strong chemical interaction with modified mesoporous surface. The characteristic of the obtained materials was performed with XRD and DRUV-vis spectrometry, themogravimetry and nitrogen adsorption (BET) measurements. The obtained results show that modification of the mesoporous materials leads towards significant decrease of the drug delivery rate. - Graphical abstract: XRD and DSC of the -SO{sub 3}H modified SBA-15 loaded with metoprolol. Highlights: > Modification of SBA-15 internal channels with SO{sub 3}H groups. > Adsorption of metoprolol and papaverine on modified SBA-15. > Uniform and homogeneous distribution of the drugs inside the mesoporous structure of SBA-15. > Release of the supported drugs.

  4. Cis-Acting Polymorphisms Affect Complex Traits through Modifications of MicroRNA Regulation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hartsperger, Mara L.; Pfeufer, Arne; Stümpflen, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become an effective tool to map genes and regions contributing to multifactorial human diseases and traits. A comparably small number of variants identified by GWAS are known to have a direct effect on protein structure whereas the majority of variants is thought to exert their moderate influences on the phenotype through regulatory changes in mRNA expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as powerful posttranscriptional regulators of mRNAs. Binding to their target sites, which are mostly located within the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mRNA transcripts, they modulate mRNA expression and stability. Until today almost all human mRNA transcripts are known to harbor at least one miRNA target site with an average of over 20 miRNA target sites per transcript. Among 5,101 GWAS-identified sentinel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that correspond to 18,884 SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the sentinels () we identified a significant overrepresentation of SNPs that affect the 3′-UTR of genes (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 2.12–2.57, ). This effect was even stronger considering all SNPs in one LD bin a single signal (OR = 4.27, 95% CI = 3.84–4.74, ). Based on crosslinking immunoprecipitation data we identified four mechanisms affecting miRNA regulation by 3′-UTR mutations: (i) deletion or (ii) creation of miRNA recognition elements within validated RNA-induced silencing complex binding sites, (iii) alteration of 3′-UTR splicing leading to a loss of binding sites, and (iv) change of binding affinity due to modifications of 3′-UTR folding. We annotated 53 SNPs of a total of 288 trait-associated 3′-UTR SNPs as mediating at least one of these mechanisms. Using a qualitative systems biology approach, we demonstrate how our findings can be used to support biological interpretation of GWAS results as well as to provide new experimentally testable hypotheses. PMID:22606281

  5. A wheat homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 acts in the regulation of germination.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shingo; Abe, Fumitaka; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Nakazono, Kou; Tagiri, Akemi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Utsugi, Shigeko; Ogawa, Taiichi; Handa, Hirokazu; Ishida, Hiroki; Mori, Masahiko; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Miura, Hideho

    2011-09-01

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive mechanism and an important agronomic trait. Temperature during seed development strongly affects seed dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum) with lower temperatures producing higher levels of seed dormancy. To identify genes important for seed dormancy, we used a wheat microarray to analyze gene expression in embryos from mature seeds grown at lower and higher temperatures. We found that a wheat homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT) was upregulated after physiological maturity in dormant seeds grown at the lower temperature. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that MFT was exclusively expressed in the scutellum and coleorhiza. Mapping analysis showed that MFT on chromosome 3A (MFT-3A) colocalized with the seed dormancy quantitative trait locus (QTL) QPhs.ocs-3A.1. MFT-3A expression levels in a dormant cultivar used for the detection of the QTL were higher after physiological maturity; this increased expression correlated with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region. In a complementation analysis, high levels of MFT expression were correlated with a low germination index in T1 seeds. Furthermore, precocious germination of isolated immature embryos was suppressed by transient introduction of MFT driven by the maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. Taken together, these results suggest that MFT plays an important role in the regulation of germination in wheat.

  6. Vinculin acts as a sensor in lipid regulation of adhesion-site turnover.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Indra; Stradal, Theresia E B; Holt, Mark R; Entschladen, Frank; Jockusch, Brigitte M; Ziegler, Wolfgang H

    2005-04-01

    The dynamics of cell adhesion sites control cell morphology and motility. Adhesion-site turnover is thought to depend on the local availability of the acidic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). PIP(2) can bind to many cell adhesion proteins such as vinculin and talin, but the consequences of this interaction are poorly understood. To study the significance of phospholipid binding to vinculin for adhesion-site turnover and cell motility, we constructed a mutant, vinculin-LD, deficient in acidic phospholipid binding yet with functional actin-binding sites. When expressed in cells, vinculin-LD was readily recruited to adhesion sites, as judged by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, but cell spreading and migration were strongly impaired, and PIP(2)-dependent disassembly of adhesions was suppressed. Thus, PIP(2) binding is not essential for vinculin activation and recruitment, as previously suggested. Instead, we propose that PIP(2) levels can regulate the uncoupling of adhesion sites from the actin cytoskeleton, with vinculin functioning as a sensor.

  7. Synemin acts as a regulator of signalling molecules during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenlin; Parlakian, Ara; Coletti, Dario; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Hourdé, Christophe; Joanne, Pierre; Gao-Li, Jacqueline; Blanc, Jocelyne; Ferry, Arnaud; Paulin, Denise; Xue, Zhigang; Agbulut, Onnik

    2014-11-01

    Synemin, a type IV intermediate filament (IF) protein, forms a bridge between IFs and cellular membranes. As an A-kinase-anchoring protein, it also provides temporal and spatial targeting of protein kinase A (PKA). However, little is known about its functional roles in either process. To better understand its functions in muscle tissue, we generated synemin-deficient (Synm(-) (/-)) mice. Synm(-) (/-) mice displayed normal development and fertility but showed a mild degeneration and regeneration phenotype in myofibres and defects in sarcolemma membranes. Following mechanical overload, Synm(-) (/-) mice muscles showed a higher hypertrophic capacity with increased maximal force and fatigue resistance compared with control mice. At the molecular level, increased remodelling capacity was accompanied by decreased myostatin (also known as GDF8) and atrogin (also known as FBXO32) expression, and increased follistatin expression. Furthermore, the activity of muscle-mass control molecules (the PKA RIIα subunit, p70S6K and CREB1) was increased in mutant mice. Finally, analysis of muscle satellite cell behaviour suggested that the absence of synemin could affect the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of these cells. Taken together, our results show that synemin is necessary to maintain membrane integrity and regulates signalling molecules during muscle hypertrophy.

  8. Two small GTPases act in concert with the bactofilin cytoskeleton to regulate dynamic bacterial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Bulyha, Iryna; Lindow, Steffi; Lin, Lin; Bolte, Kathrin; Wuichet, Kristin; Kahnt, Jörg; van der Does, Chris; Thanbichler, Martin; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2013-04-29

    Cell polarity is essential for many bacterial activities, but the mechanisms responsible for its establishment are poorly understood. In Myxococcus xanthus, the type IV pili (T4P) motor ATPases PilB and PilT localize to opposite cell poles and switch poles during cellular reversals. We demonstrate that polar localization of PilB and PilT depends on the small GTPase SofG and BacP, a bactofilin cytoskeletal protein. Polymeric BacP localizes in both subpolar regions. SofG interacts directly with polymeric BacP and associates with one of these patches, forming a cluster that shuttles to the pole to establish localization of PilB and PilT at the same pole. Next, the small GTPase MglA sorts PilB and PilT to opposite poles to establish their correct polarity. During reversals, the Frz chemosensory system induces the inversion of PilB and PilT polarity. Thus, three hierarchically organized systems function in a cascade to regulate dynamic bacterial cell polarity.

  9. cis- and trans-acting elements of the estrogen-regulated vitellogenin gene B1 of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Wahli, W; Martinez, E; Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R

    1989-01-01

    Vitellogenin genes are expressed under strict estrogen control in the liver of female oviparous vertebrates. Gene transfer experiments using estrogen-responsive cells have shown that the 13 bp perfect palindromic element GGTCACTGTGACC found upstream of the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin gene A2 promoter mediates hormonal stimulation and thus, was called the estrogen-responsive element (ERE). In the Xenopus vitellogenin genes B1 and B2 there are two closely adjacent EREs with one or more base substitutions when compared to the consensus ERE GGTCANNNTGACC. On their own, these degenerated elements have only a low or no regulatory capacity at all but act together synergistically to form an estrogen-responsive unit (ERU) with the same strength as the perfect palindromic 13 bp element. Analysis of estrogen receptor binding to the gene B1 ERU revealed a cooperative interaction of receptor dimers to the two adjacent imperfect EREs which most likely explains the synergistic stimulation observed in vivo. Furthermore, a promoter activator element located between positions --113 and --42 of the gene B1 and functional in the human MCF-7 and the Xenopus B3.2 cells has been identified and shown to be involved in the high level of induced transcription activity when the ERE is placed at a distance from the promoter. Finally, a hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to characterize two additional novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter. One of them, a negative regulatory element (NRE), is responsible for repression of promoter activity in the absence of hormone. The second is related to the NF-I binding site and is required, together with the ERE, to mediate hormonal induction. Moreover, we detected three trans-acting activities in Xenopus liver nuclear extracts that interact with these regions and demonstrated that they participate in the regulation of the expression of the vitellogenin

  10. Selective functionalization of the mesopores of SBA-15

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Jonathan D.; Seki, Tomohiro; Goldston, Jennifer F.; Pruski, Marek; Crudden, Cathleen M.

    2014-10-23

    In this study, a method has been developed that permits the highly selective functionalization of the interior and exterior surfaces of the ubiquitous mesoporous material, SBA-15. The key step is reloading the as-synthesized material with structure-directing agent, Pluronic® P123, prior to selective functionalization of the external surface with a silylating agent. This new approach represents a significant improvement over literature procedures. Results from physisorption analyses as well as solid-state NMR permit a detailed, quantitative assessment of functionalized SBA-15. This work also provides insight into the stability of the silyl layer during extraction procedures – an issue often neglected in other studies but of significant importance as decomposition of this layer could result in the introduction of new silanols and reduce the effectiveness of any selective grafting procedure.

  11. Selective functionalization of the mesopores of SBA-15

    DOE PAGES

    Webb, Jonathan D.; Seki, Tomohiro; Goldston, Jennifer F.; ...

    2014-10-23

    In this study, a method has been developed that permits the highly selective functionalization of the interior and exterior surfaces of the ubiquitous mesoporous material, SBA-15. The key step is reloading the as-synthesized material with structure-directing agent, Pluronic® P123, prior to selective functionalization of the external surface with a silylating agent. This new approach represents a significant improvement over literature procedures. Results from physisorption analyses as well as solid-state NMR permit a detailed, quantitative assessment of functionalized SBA-15. This work also provides insight into the stability of the silyl layer during extraction procedures – an issue often neglected in othermore » studies but of significant importance as decomposition of this layer could result in the introduction of new silanols and reduce the effectiveness of any selective grafting procedure.« less

  12. Immunomodulatory drugs act as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases and induce PU.1 up-regulation in myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Endo, Shinya; Amano, Masayuki; Nishimura, Nao; Ueno, Niina; Ueno, Shikiko; Yuki, Hiromichi; Fujiwara, Shiho; Wada, Naoko; Hirata, Shinya; Hata, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Okuno, Yutaka

    2016-01-08

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide are efficacious in the treatment of multiple myeloma and significantly prolong their survival. However, the mechanisms of such effects of IMiDs have not been fully elucidated. Recently, cereblon has been identified as a target binding protein of thalidomide. Lenalidomide-resistant myeloma cell lines often lose the expression of cereblon, suggesting that IMiDs act as an anti-myeloma agent through interacting with cereblon. Cereblon binds to damaged DNA-binding protein and functions as a ubiquitin ligase, inducing degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 that are essential transcription factors for B and T cell development. Degradation of both IKZF1 and IKZF3 reportedly suppresses myeloma cell growth. Here, we found that IMiDs act as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DMNTs). We previously reported that PU.1, which is an ETS family transcription factor and essential for myeloid and lymphoid development, functions as a tumor suppressor in myeloma cells. PU.1 induces growth arrest and apoptosis of myeloma cell lines. In this study, we found that low-dose lenalidomide and pomalidomide up-regulate PU.1 expression through inducing demethylation of the PU.1 promoter. In addition, IMiDs inhibited DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b activities in vitro. Furthermore, lenalidomide and pomalidomide decreased the methylation status of the whole genome in myeloma cells. Collectively, IMiDs exert demethylation activity through inhibiting DNMT1, 3a, and 3b, and up-regulating PU.1 expression, which may be one of the mechanisms of the anti-myeloma activity of IMiDs.

  13. The Exosome and Trans-Acting Small Interfering RNAs Regulate Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis during Arabidopsis Inflorescence Stem Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Patricia; Zhao, Lifang; Eveleigh, Nathan; Yu, Yu; Chen, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    The primary aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a cuticle, a protective layer composed of the cutin polyester matrix and cuticular waxes. Previously, we discovered a unique mechanism of regulating cuticular wax biosynthesis during Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stem elongation that involves ECERIFERUM7 (CER7), a core subunit of the exosome. Because loss-of-function mutations in CER7 result in reduced expression of the wax biosynthetic gene CER3, we proposed that CER7 is involved in degrading a messenger RNA encoding a CER3 repressor. To identify this putative repressor, we performed a cer7 suppressor screen that resulted in the isolation of the posttranscriptional gene-silencing components RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE1 and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3, indicating that small RNAs regulate CER3 expression. To establish the identity of the effector RNA species and determine whether these RNAs control CER3 transcript levels directly, we cloned additional genes identified in our suppressor screen and performed next-generation sequencing of small RNA populations that differentially accumulate in the cer7 mutant in comparison with the wild type. Our results demonstrate that the trans-acting small interfering RNA class of small RNAs are the effector molecules involved in direct silencing of CER3 and that the expression of five additional genes (EARLY RESPONSE TO DEHYDRATION14, AUXIN RESISTANT1, a translation initiation factor SUI1 family protein, and two genes of unknown function) is controlled by both CER7 and trans-acting small interfering RNAs. PMID:25502190

  14. Regulations implementing the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as amended. Employment Standards Administration, Labor. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-12-20

    On January 22, 1997, the Department issued a proposed rule to amend the regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act. 62 FR 3338-3435 (Jan. 22, 1997). When the comment period closed on August 21, 1997, the Department had received written submissions from almost 200 interested persons, including coal miners, coal mine operators, insurers, physicians, and attorneys. The Department also held hearings in Charleston, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. at which over 50 people testified. The Department carefully reviewed the testimony and the comments and, on October 8, 1999, issued a second notice of proposed rulemaking. 64 FR 54966-55072 (Oct. 8, 1999). In its second notice, the Department proposed changing several of the most important provisions in its initial proposal. The Department also explained its decision not to alter the original proposal with respect to other key regulations based on the comments received to date. Finally, the Department prepared an initial regulatory flexibility analysis. In order to ensure that small businesses that could be affected by the Department's proposal received appropriate notice of the Department's proposed changes, the Department mailed a copy of the second notice of proposed rulemaking to all coal mine operators contained in the databases maintained by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. The Department initially allowed interested parties until December 7, 1999 to file comments to its second proposal, but extended that period until January 6, 2000. The Department received 37 written submissions before the close of the comment period, from groups representing both coal miners and coal mine operators. The Department also received comments from individual miners, various coal mining and insurance companies, as well as from claims processing organizations, attorneys, and various professional organizations. The Department has carefully reviewed all of the comments, and is issuing its final rule. The rule contains a

  15. SBA1 Encodes a Yeast Hsp90 Cochaperone That Is Homologous to Vertebrate p23 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yifang; Fliss, Albert E.; Rao, Jie; Caplan, Avrom J.

    1998-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SBA1 gene was cloned by PCR amplification from yeast genomic DNA following its identification as encoding an ortholog of human p23, an Hsp90 cochaperone. The SBA1 gene product is constitutively expressed and nonessential, although a disruption mutant grew more slowly than the wild type at both 18 and 37°C. A double deletion of SBA1 and STI1, encoding an Hsp90 cochaperone, displayed synthetic growth defects. Affinity isolation of histidine-tagged Sba1p (Sba1His6) after expression in yeast led to coisolation of Hsp90 and the cyclophilin homolog Cpr6. Using an in vitro assembly assay, purified Sba1His6 bound to Hsp90 only in the presence of adenosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) or adenyl-imidodiphosphate. Furthermore, interaction between purified Sba1His6 and Hsp90 in yeast extracts was inhibited by the benzoquinoid ansamycins geldanamycin and macbecin. The in vitro assay was also used to identify residues in Hsp90 that are important for complex formation with Sba1His6, and residues in both the N-terminal nucleotide binding domain and C-terminal half were characterized. In vivo analysis of known Hsp90 substrate proteins revealed that Sba1 loss of function had only a mild effect on the activity of the tyrosine kinase v-Src and steroid hormone receptors. PMID:9632755

  16. 13 CFR 107.1520 - How a Licensee computes and allocates Prioritized Payments to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1520 How a Licensee computes and allocates...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1520 - How a Licensee computes and allocates Prioritized Payments to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1520 How a Licensee computes and allocates...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1520 - How a Licensee computes and allocates Prioritized Payments to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1520 How a Licensee computes and allocates...

  19. 13 CFR 107.1520 - How a Licensee computes and allocates Prioritized Payments to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1520 How a Licensee computes and allocates...

  20. 13 CFR 112.12 - Effect on other regulations; forms and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964... effectuating this part. (c) Supervision and coordination. The Administrator may from time to time assign...

  1. 13 CFR 112.12 - Effect on other regulations; forms and instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964... effectuating this part. (c) Supervision and coordination. The Administrator may from time to time assign...

  2. SHP-2 acts via ROCK to regulate the cardiac actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Yvette; Tandon, Panna; Paden, Erika; Duddy, Jennifer; Taylor, Joan M; Conlon, Frank L

    2012-03-01

    Noonan syndrome is one of the most common causes of human congenital heart disease and is frequently associated with missense mutations in the protein phosphatase SHP-2. Interestingly, patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and LEOPARD syndrome frequently carry a second, somatically introduced subset of missense mutations in SHP-2. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which SHP-2 regulates heart development and, thus, understand how Noonan-associated mutations affect cardiogenesis, we introduced SHP-2 encoding the most prevalent Noonan syndrome and JMML mutations into Xenopus embryos. Resulting embryos show a direct relationship between a Noonan SHP-2 mutation and its ability to cause cardiac defects in Xenopus; embryos expressing Noonan SHP-2 mutations exhibit morphologically abnormal hearts, whereas those expressing an SHP-2 JMML-associated mutation do not. Our studies indicate that the cardiac defects associated with the introduction of the Noonan-associated SHP-2 mutations are coupled with a delay or arrest of the cardiac cell cycle in M-phase and a failure of cardiomyocyte progenitors to incorporate into the developing heart. We show that these defects are a result of an underlying malformation in the formation and polarity of cardiac actin fibers and F-actin deposition. We show that these defects can be rescued in culture and in embryos through the inhibition of the Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK), thus demonstrating a direct relationship between SHP-2(N308D) and ROCK activation in the developing heart.

  3. 76 FR 12395 - Small Business Jobs Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Small Business Jobs Act Implementation AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) announces it is holding...

  4. Transcription factor FBI-1 acts as a dual regulator in adipogenesis by coordinated regulation of cyclin-A and E2F-4.

    PubMed

    Laudes, Matthias; Bilkovski, Roman; Oberhauser, Frank; Droste, Andrea; Gomolka, Matthias; Leeser, Uschi; Udelhoven, Michael; Krone, Wilhelm

    2008-05-01

    Generation of new adipocytes plays a major role in the development of obesity. We previously have shown that transcriptional repressor factor that binds to IST (FBI)-1 exerts a dual effect in the process of adipogenesis by inhibiting proliferation and promoting differentiation of preadipocytes. The aim of the present study was to identify FBI-1 regulated molecular effectors that could account for these effects. Overexpressing FBI-1 in preadipocytes resulted in reduced expression of the cell cycle regulator cyclin A, which may explain FBI-1 induced inhibition of proliferation. Interestingly, FBI-1 repressed cyclin A promoter activity through an indirect mechanisms that did not involve direct binding of FBI-1 to the promoter sequence, but rather FBI-1 inhibition of transcriptional activator Sp1 binding to a regulatory element at -452 to -443. We also show that FBI-1 promotes terminal preadipocyte differentiation through a mechanism involving decreased levels of expression of the PPARgamma inhibitor E2F-4. FBI-1 significantly reduced E2F-4 promoter activity. Contrary to cyclin A, we found FBI-1-induced repression of E2F-4 is mediated by a direct mechanism via a FBI-1 regulatory element at -11 to -5. As function of transcriptional repressors normally depends on the presence of regulatory co-factors we also performed expression profiling of potential FBI-1 co-repressors throughout adipogenesis. In these experiments Sin3A and histon deacetylase (HDAC)-1 showed a similar expression pattern compared to FBI-1. Strikingly, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that FBI-1 binds Sin3A and HDAC-1 to form a repressor complex. Furthermore, by mutational analysis the amino terminal Poxvirus (POZ) domain of FBI-1 was found to be important for Sin3A and HDAC-1 binding. Taken together, FBI-1 is the first transcriptional repressor shown to act as a dual regulator in adipogenesis exerting repressor activities on target genes by both, direct and indirect mechanisms.

  5. ABORTED MICROSPORES Acts as a Master Regulator of Pollen Wall Formation in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Ding, Zhiwen; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Shi, Jianxin; Liang, Wanqi; Yuan, Zheng; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Schreiber, Lukas; Wilson, Zoe A.; Zhang, Dabing

    2014-01-01

    Mature pollen is covered by durable cell walls, principally composed of sporopollenin, an evolutionary conserved, highly resilient, but not fully characterized, biopolymer of aliphatic and aromatic components. Here, we report that ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS) acts as a master regulator coordinating pollen wall development and sporopollenin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-wide coexpression analysis revealed 98 candidate genes with specific expression in the anther and 70 that showed reduced expression in ams. Among these 70 members, we showed that AMS can directly regulate 23 genes implicated in callose dissociation, fatty acids elongation, formation of phenolic compounds, and lipidic transport putatively involved in sporopollenin precursor synthesis. Consistently, ams mutants showed defective microspore release, a lack of sporopollenin deposition, and a dramatic reduction in total phenolic compounds and cutin monomers. The functional importance of the AMS pathway was further demonstrated by the observation of impaired pollen wall architecture in plant lines with reduced expression of several AMS targets: the abundant pollen coat protein extracellular lipases (EXL5 and EXL6), and CYP98A8 and CYP98A9, which are enzymes required for the production of phenolic precursors. These findings demonstrate the central role of AMS in coordinating sporopollenin biosynthesis and the secretion of materials for pollen wall patterning. PMID:24781116

  6. CK2 acts as a potent negative regulator of receptor-mediated insulin release in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Mario; Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Barella, Luiz F.; Sakamoto, Wataru; Zhu, Lu; Cui, Yinghong; Lu, Huiyan; Rebholz, Heike; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Doliba, Nicolai M.; Butcher, Adrian J.; Tobin, Andrew B.; Wess, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate virtually all physiological functions including the release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. β-Cell M3 muscarinic receptors (M3Rs) are known to play an essential role in facilitating insulin release and maintaining proper whole-body glucose homeostasis. As is the case with other GPCRs, M3R activity is regulated by phosphorylation by various kinases, including GPCR kinases and casein kinase 2 (CK2). At present, it remains unknown which of these various kinases are physiologically relevant for the regulation of β-cell activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that inhibition of CK2 in pancreatic β-cells, knockdown of CK2α expression, or genetic deletion of CK2α in β-cells of mutant mice selectively augmented M3R-stimulated insulin release in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies showed that this effect was associated with an M3R-mediated increase in intracellular calcium levels. Treatment of mouse pancreatic islets with CX4945, a highly selective CK2 inhibitor, greatly reduced agonist-induced phosphorylation of β-cell M3Rs, indicative of CK2-mediated M3R phosphorylation. We also showed that inhibition of CK2 greatly enhanced M3R-stimulated insulin secretion in human islets. Finally, CX4945 treatment protected mice against diet-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in an M3R-dependent fashion. Our data demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the physiological relevance of CK2 phosphorylation of a GPCR and suggest the novel concept that kinases acting on β-cell GPCRs may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26598688

  7. 13 CFR 121.1008 - What occurs after SBA receives a size protest or request for a formal size determination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Chief, Office of Technology. If the protest involves the size status of a concern that SBA has certified... of privacy or confidentiality, because SBA will not disclose information obtained in the course of...

  8. 13 CFR 108.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) §...

  9. 13 CFR 108.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) §...

  10. 13 CFR 108.1640 - SBA access to records of the CRA, Brokers, Dealers and Pool or Trust assemblers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Sba Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) §...

  11. 13 CFR 108.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A...

  12. 13 CFR 108.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A...

  13. 13 CFR 108.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a NMVC Company-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A...

  14. 75 FR 69151 - Small Business Jobs Act: 504 Loan Program Debt Refinancing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Jobs Act: 504 Loan Program Debt Refinancing AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time and agenda for a meeting regarding the Small Business Jobs... Business Jobs Act (Pub. L. 111-240). The purpose of the meeting is for the SBA Office of...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1570 - Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA. 107.1570 Section 107.1570 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for...

  16. 13 CFR 120.542 - Payment by SBA of legal fees and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... will not pay. (1) SBA will not pay legal fees or other costs that a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator... law. (ii) In connection with actions of a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator's outside counsel for... actions which solely benefit a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator and which do not benefit SBA,...

  17. 13 CFR 120.1500 - Types of enforcement actions-SBA Lenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (e) Enforcement actions specific to CDCs. In addition to those enforcement actions listed in... CDCs: (1) Require the CDC to transfer part or all of its existing 504 loan portfolio and/or part or all of its pending 504 loan applications to SBA, another CDC, or any other entity designated by SBA....

  18. 13 CFR 120.1500 - Types of enforcement actions-SBA Lenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (e) Enforcement actions specific to CDCs. In addition to those enforcement actions listed in... CDCs: (1) Require the CDC to transfer part or all of its existing 504 loan portfolio and/or part or all of its pending 504 loan applications to SBA, another CDC, or any other entity designated by SBA....

  19. 13 CFR 120.542 - Payment by SBA of legal fees and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... will not pay. (1) SBA will not pay legal fees or other costs that a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator... law. (ii) In connection with actions of a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator's outside counsel for... actions which solely benefit a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator and which do not benefit SBA,...

  20. 13 CFR 120.542 - Payment by SBA of legal fees and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will not pay. (1) SBA will not pay legal fees or other costs that a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator... law. (ii) In connection with actions of a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator's outside counsel for... actions which solely benefit a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator and which do not benefit SBA,...

  1. 13 CFR 120.542 - Payment by SBA of legal fees and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... will not pay. (1) SBA will not pay legal fees or other costs that a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator... law. (ii) In connection with actions of a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator's outside counsel for... actions which solely benefit a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator and which do not benefit SBA,...

  2. 13 CFR 120.542 - Payment by SBA of legal fees and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... will not pay. (1) SBA will not pay legal fees or other costs that a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator... law. (ii) In connection with actions of a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator's outside counsel for... actions which solely benefit a Lender or Authorized CDC Liquidator and which do not benefit SBA,...

  3. Adsorptive removal of anionic dyes by modified nanoporous silica SBA-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbia, Mansoor; Hariri, Saba Asl; Ashrafizadeh, S. N.

    2010-03-01

    Batch sorption experiments were carried out to remove dyes, methyl orange (MO), orange G (OG) and brilliant red X-3B (X-3B), from their aqueous solutions using a mesoporous silica SBA-3 as an adsorbent. The effect of surfactant template in SBA-3 on the removal of OG, MO and X-3B was investigated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of contact time, initial concentration, pH, and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption performance. The adsorption results of anionic dyes on the uncalcined SBA-3 (noted as SBA-3) were compared with those of the calcined SBA-3 (noted as C-SBA-3). The uncalcined SBA-3 adsorbent has a large adsorption capacity and a strong affinity for the anionic dyes. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were employed to model the experimental results, from which the Freundlich isotherm exhibited the most appropriate to predict the same. Freundlich isotherm exhibited the most appropriate to predict the experimental results. The kinetic data were also analyzed through pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model well depicted the kinetics of dyes adsorption on mesoporous SBA-3.

  4. 13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Distributions to private investors and SBA. 107.1560 Section 107.1560 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... private investors and SBA. You must make Distributions under this § 107.1560 if you have outstanding... Distribution: (1) All Distributions to private investors reduce Retained Earnings Available for...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Distributions to private investors and SBA. 107.1560 Section 107.1560 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... private investors and SBA. You must make Distributions under this § 107.1560 if you have outstanding... Distribution: (1) All Distributions to private investors reduce Retained Earnings Available for...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Distributions to private investors and SBA. 107.1560 Section 107.1560 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... private investors and SBA. You must make Distributions under this § 107.1560 if you have outstanding... Distribution: (1) All Distributions to private investors reduce Retained Earnings Available for...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Distributions to private investors and SBA. 107.1560 Section 107.1560 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... private investors and SBA. You must make Distributions under this § 107.1560 if you have outstanding... Distribution: (1) All Distributions to private investors reduce Retained Earnings Available for...

  8. 13 CFR 108.1140 - NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810. 108.1140 Section 108.1140 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  9. 13 CFR 108.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates. 108.1600 Section 108.1600 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  10. 13 CFR 108.1140 - NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810. 108.1140 Section 108.1140 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  11. 13 CFR 108.1230 - Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage... documentation: (1) A statement certifying that there has been no material adverse change in your financial... preliminary unaudited annual financial statement on SBA Form 468 (Short Form). (3) A statement certifying...

  12. 13 CFR 108.1600 - SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA authority to issue and guarantee Trust Certificates. 108.1600 Section 108.1600 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  13. 13 CFR 108.1230 - Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage... documentation: (1) A statement certifying that there has been no material adverse change in your financial... preliminary unaudited annual financial statement on SBA Form 468 (Short Form). (3) A statement certifying...

  14. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  15. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  16. 75 FR 13329 - Implications of Financial Accounting System (FAS) 166 on SBA Guaranteed Loan Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Implications of Financial Accounting System (FAS) 166 on SBA Guaranteed Loan Programs AGENCY... Administration (SBA) is soliciting information and views from the public on: (1) The effect that the accounting changes mandated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in Financial Accounting Standard...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1180 - Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Special Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1180 Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs. (a) Distribution requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding Leverage, you...

  19. 13 CFR 108.1140 - NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 108.1140 NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810. If you issue Leverage, you automatically agree to the terms and conditions in § 108.1810...

  20. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  1. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  2. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  3. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 107.1710 Section 107.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 107.1710 Section 107.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  6. 13 CFR 108.1140 - NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 108.1140 NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810. If you issue Leverage, you automatically agree to the terms and conditions in § 108.1810...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 107.1710 Section 107.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  8. 13 CFR 108.1140 - NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 108.1140 NMVC Company's acceptance of SBA remedies under § 108.1810. If you issue Leverage, you automatically agree to the terms and conditions in § 108.1810...

  9. 13 CFR 107.1180 - Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Special Rules for Leverage Issued by An Early Stage Sbic § 107.1180 Required distributions to SBA by Early Stage SBICs. (a) Distribution requirement. If you are an Early Stage SBIC with outstanding Leverage, you...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 107.1710 Section 107.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  14. 13 CFR 108.1230 - Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment. 108.1230 Section 108.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Nmvc Company § 108.1230 Draw-downs by NMVC...

  15. 13 CFR 108.1230 - Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment. 108.1230 Section 108.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Nmvc Company § 108.1230 Draw-downs by NMVC...

  16. 13 CFR 108.1230 - Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Draw-downs by NMVC Company under SBA's Leverage commitment. 108.1230 Section 108.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Nmvc Company § 108.1230 Draw-downs by NMVC...

  17. 13 CFR 107.140 - SBA approval of initial Management Expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... initial Management Expenses. If you plan to obtain Leverage, you must have your Management Expenses approved by SBA at the time of licensing. (See § 107.520 for the definition of Management Expenses.) ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA approval of initial...

  18. 13 CFR 125.27 - How will SBA process an SDVO protest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... already been made available. (d) Time period for determination. SBA will determine the SDVO SBC status of... SBC contract award. If a contract has already been awarded, and SBA sustains the protest, then the contracting officer cannot count the award as an award to an SDVO SBC and the concern cannot submit...

  19. 13 CFR 126.501 - What are a qualified HUBZone SBC's ongoing obligations to SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are a qualified HUBZone SBC's... ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Maintaining HUBZone Status § 126.501 What are a qualified HUBZone SBC's ongoing obligations to SBA? A qualified HUBZone SBC must immediately notify SBA of any material change that...

  20. 13 CFR 107.650 - Requirement to report portfolio valuations to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to report portfolio valuations to SBA. 107.650 Section 107.650 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL... Reporting Requirements for Licensees § 107.650 Requirement to report portfolio valuations to SBA. You...

  1. 13 CFR 108.640 - Requirement to file portfolio financing reports (SBA Form 1031).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to file portfolio... portfolio financing reports (SBA Form 1031). For each Financing you make (excluding guarantees), you must submit a Portfolio Financing Report on SBA Form 1031 within 30 days of the closing date....

  2. 13 CFR 101.401 - What programs and activities of SBA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What programs and activities of SBA are subject to this subpart? 101.401 Section 101.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Intergovernmental Partnership § 101.401 What programs and activities of SBA...

  3. 13 CFR 101.106 - Does Federal law apply to SBA programs and activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does Federal law apply to SBA programs and activities? 101.106 Section 101.106 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.106 Does Federal law apply to SBA programs and activities? (a)...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1910 - Non-waiver of SBA's rights or terms of Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-waiver of SBA's rights or terms of Leverage security. 107.1910 Section 107.1910 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Miscellaneous § 107.1910 Non-waiver of SBA's rights or...

  5. Silylated Co/SBA-15 catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Lihong; Jia Litao; Li Debao; Hou Bo; Wang Jungang; Sun Yuhan

    2011-03-15

    A series of silylated Co/SBA-15 catalysts were prepared via the reaction of surface Si-OH of SBA-15 with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) under anhydrous, vapor-phase conditions, and then characterized by FT-IR, N{sub 2} physisorption, TG, XRD, and TPR-MS. The results showed that organic modification led to a silylated SBA-15 surface composed of stable hydrophobic Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} species even after calcinations and H{sub 2} reduction at 673 K. Furthermore, the hydrophobic surface strongly influenced both metal dispersion and reducibility. Compared with non-silylated Co/SBA, Co/S-SBA (impregnation after silylation) showed a high activity, due to the better cobalt reducibility on the hydrophobic support. However, S-Co/SBA (silylation after impregnation) had the lowest FT activity among all the catalysts, due to the lower cobalt reducibility along with the steric hindrance of grafted -Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} for the re-adsorption of {alpha}-olefins. -- Graphical abstract: The silylation of an SBA-15 before cobalt impregnation enhanced the reducibility of cobalt oxides on an SBA-15-supported cobalt catalyst and consequently increased the catalytic activity for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Display Omitted

  6. 13 CFR 108.660 - Other items required to be filed by NMVC Company with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other items required to be filed by NMVC Company with SBA. 108.660 Section 108.660 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... financial operations or those of any Portfolio Concern. (b) Documents filed with SEC. You must give SBA...

  7. 13 CFR 127.402 - How will SBA conduct an examination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required to submit signed copies of SBA Form 413, Personal Financial Statement, the three most recent... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How will SBA conduct an examination? 127.402 Section 127.402 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  8. Regulation D Study Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Pittenger, Robert [R-NC-9

    2013-10-03

    12/03/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase regulates its own synthesis by acting as a chaperone to stabilize GlnR-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Susan H; Wray, Lewis V

    2008-01-22

    The Bacillus subtilis GlnR repressor controls gene expression in response to nitrogen availability. Because all GlnR-regulated genes are expressed constitutively in mutants lacking glutamine synthetase (GS), GS is required for repression by GlnR. Feedback-inhibited GS (FBI-GS) was shown to activate GlnR DNA binding with an in vitro electophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The activation of GlnR DNA binding by GS in these experiments depended on the feedback inhibitor glutamine and did not occur with mutant GS proteins defective in regulating GlnR activity in vivo. Although stable GS-GlnR-DNA ternary complexes were not observed in the EMSA experiments, cross-linking experiments showed that a protein-protein interaction occurs between GlnR and FBI-GS. This interaction was reduced in the absence of the feedback inhibitor glutamine and with mutant GS proteins. Because FBI-GS significantly reduced the dissociation rate of the GlnR-DNA complexes, the stability of these complexes is enhanced by FBI-GS. These results argue that FBI-GS acts as a chaperone that activates GlnR DNA binding through a transient protein-protein interaction that stabilizes GlnR-DNA complexes. GS was shown to control the activity of the B. subtilis nitrogen transcription factor TnrA by forming a stable complex between FBI-GS and TnrA that inhibits TnrA DNA binding. Thus, B. subtilis GS is an enzyme with dual catalytic and regulatory functions that uses distinct mechanisms to control the activity of two different transcription factors.

  10. SMG-1 and mTORC1 act antagonistically to regulate response to injury and growth in planarians.

    PubMed

    González-Estévez, Cristina; Felix, Daniel A; Smith, Matthew D; Paps, Jordi; Morley, Simon J; James, Victoria; Sharp, Tyson V; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Planarian flatworms are able to both regenerate their whole bodies and continuously adapt their size to nutrient status. Tight control of stem cell proliferation and differentiation during these processes is the key feature of planarian biology. Here we show that the planarian homolog of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family member SMG-1 and mTOR complex 1 components are required for this tight control. Loss of smg-1 results in a hyper-responsiveness to injury and growth and the formation of regenerative blastemas that remain undifferentiated and that lead to lethal ectopic outgrowths. Invasive stem cell hyper-proliferation, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and differentiation defects are hallmarks of this uncontrolled growth. These data imply a previously unappreciated and novel physiological function for this PIKK family member. In contrast we found that planarian members of the mTOR complex 1, tor and raptor, are required for the initial response to injury and blastema formation. Double smg-1 RNAi experiments with tor or raptor show that abnormal growth requires mTOR signalling. We also found that the macrolide rapamycin, a natural compound inhibitor of mTORC1, is able to increase the survival rate of smg-1 RNAi animals by decreasing cell proliferation. Our findings support a model where Smg-1 acts as a novel regulator of both the response to injury and growth control mechanisms. Our data suggest the possibility that this may be by suppressing mTOR signalling. Characterisation of both the planarian mTORC1 signalling components and another PIKK family member as key regulators of regeneration and growth will influence future work on regeneration, growth control, and the development of anti-cancer therapies that target mTOR signalling.

  11. SMG-1 and mTORC1 Act Antagonistically to Regulate Response to Injury and Growth in Planarians

    PubMed Central

    González-Estévez, Cristina; Felix, Daniel A.; Smith, Matthew D.; Paps, Jordi; Morley, Simon J.; James, Victoria; Sharp, Tyson V.; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Planarian flatworms are able to both regenerate their whole bodies and continuously adapt their size to nutrient status. Tight control of stem cell proliferation and differentiation during these processes is the key feature of planarian biology. Here we show that the planarian homolog of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family member SMG-1 and mTOR complex 1 components are required for this tight control. Loss of smg-1 results in a hyper-responsiveness to injury and growth and the formation of regenerative blastemas that remain undifferentiated and that lead to lethal ectopic outgrowths. Invasive stem cell hyper-proliferation, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and differentiation defects are hallmarks of this uncontrolled growth. These data imply a previously unappreciated and novel physiological function for this PIKK family member. In contrast we found that planarian members of the mTOR complex 1, tor and raptor, are required for the initial response to injury and blastema formation. Double smg-1 RNAi experiments with tor or raptor show that abnormal growth requires mTOR signalling. We also found that the macrolide rapamycin, a natural compound inhibitor of mTORC1, is able to increase the survival rate of smg-1 RNAi animals by decreasing cell proliferation. Our findings support a model where Smg-1 acts as a novel regulator of both the response to injury and growth control mechanisms. Our data suggest the possibility that this may be by suppressing mTOR signalling. Characterisation of both the planarian mTORC1 signalling components and another PIKK family member as key regulators of regeneration and growth will influence future work on regeneration, growth control, and the development of anti-cancer therapies that target mTOR signalling. PMID:22479207

  12. Aromatic-Hydroxyl Interaction of a Lignin Model Compound on SBA-15, Present at Pyrolysis Temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Kandziolka, III, Michael V.; Kidder, Michelle; Gill, Lance W.; ...

    2014-07-14

    An aromatic alpha-aryl ether compound (a benzyl phenyl ether analogue) was covalently grafted to mesoporous silica SBA-15, to create BPEa-SBA-15. The BPEa-SBA-15 was subjected to successive heating cycles up to 600 °C, with in situ monitoring by DRIFTS. It was found that the toluene moiety coordinates to SBA-15 surface silanol hydroxyl groups via an aromatic–hydroxyl interaction. This interaction is evidenced by a red-shift of the aromatic C–H stretches, as well as a red-shift and broadening of the surface hydroxyl O–H stretches, which are features characteristic of a hydrogen bond. These features remain present during heating until ~400 °C whereupon themore » ether linkage of BPEa-SBA-15 is cleaved, accompanied by loss of the toluene moiety.« less

  13. Aromatic-Hydroxyl Interaction of a Lignin Model Compound on SBA-15, Present at Pyrolysis Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kandziolka, III, Michael V.; Kidder, Michelle; Gill, Lance W.; Wu, Zili; Savara, Aditya Ashi

    2014-07-14

    An aromatic alpha-aryl ether compound (a benzyl phenyl ether analogue) was covalently grafted to mesoporous silica SBA-15, to create BPEa-SBA-15. The BPEa-SBA-15 was subjected to successive heating cycles up to 600 °C, with in situ monitoring by DRIFTS. It was found that the toluene moiety coordinates to SBA-15 surface silanol hydroxyl groups via an aromatic–hydroxyl interaction. This interaction is evidenced by a red-shift of the aromatic C–H stretches, as well as a red-shift and broadening of the surface hydroxyl O–H stretches, which are features characteristic of a hydrogen bond. These features remain present during heating until ~400 °C whereupon the ether linkage of BPEa-SBA-15 is cleaved, accompanied by loss of the toluene moiety.

  14. Negative regulation of transcription in vitro by a glucocorticoid response element is mediated by a trans-acting factor.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, S J; Ostrowski, M C

    1988-01-01

    In vitro experiments with cell extracts prepared from a mouse mammary epithelial cell line demonstrated that a cis-acting glucocorticoid response element (GRE) of the mouse mammary tumor virus represses transcription from its homologous promoter. Competition transcription experiments, in which a molar excess of a restriction fragment that contains the GRE is added to the cell-free assay, revealed that a nuclear factor mediates in trans the negative regulation of mammary tumor virus transcription in vitro. Gel retention assays indicated that a factor in the extracts specifically recognizes the GRE. One unusual result of the gel retention studies was that heating the GRE probe to 65 degrees C before addition to a binding assay increases the formation of the specific protein-DNA complex 20-fold. Exonuclease III footprinting demonstrated that the sequences recognized by the factor are identical for either untreated or heat-treated probe. The footprinting also demonstrated that this factor recognizes sequences that are distinct from those recognized by the glucocorticoid receptor. A synthetic oligonucleotide based on the sequences identified by the footprinting experiments repressed the activity of a heterologous enhancer-promoter in vivo, as assayed by transient expression assays. We propose that this negative transcription element may control the basal level of expression of some glucocorticoid-modulated genes and may explain the insensitivity of certain tumor cells to steroid hormone action. Images PMID:2851730

  15. Price effect of land-use regulation: an event study of the California Coastal Zone Conservation Act

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The passage of the California Coastal Zone Conservation Act (Proposition 20), created regional Coastal Commissions that had veto power over building permits on the coast. The anticipation of restriction in coastal housing construction and the actual regulation by one regional commission, the South Coast Regional Commission, in Los Angeles County, is hypothesized to have impacted the prices of existing single-family houses. An event study methodology is used to construct and test hypotheses of the Commission's price impact. A positive impact on house prices is hypothesized form a combination of the supply restriction and amenity provision activities of the Commission. A negative impact on house price is hypothesized for those houses having the greatest potential for development, whose development was anticipated to have been restricted by the Commission. Results confirm the combined supply/amenity hypothesis and indicate a 6 1/2% price increase associated with the Commission, beginning with the passage of Proposition 20. The development-potential hypothesis was rejected and an alternative hypothesis of a positive impact on high development potential properties accepted. However, it is noted that a sharp decline in the price of high development potential properties occurred during the public debate over proposition 20, which is interpreted as confirmation, within a short-time frame, of the development potential hypothesis.

  16. miR-203 Acts as a Tumor Suppressor Gene in Osteosarcoma by Regulating RAB22A

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dawei; Liu, Guangpeng; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of 19–25 nt, play an important roles in the pathological processes of tumorigenesis. The object of this study was to study the expression and function of miR-203 and to found its target gene in osteosarcoma. In our study, we found the expression level of miR-203 was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues. In addition, overexpression of miR-203 inhibited the osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration and inhibited Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial reversion Transition (MErT). Moreover, we identified RAB22A as a direct target of miR-203 and RAB22A overexpression blocks the roles of miR-203 in osteosarcoma cell. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RAB22A expression was upregulated in human osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues. Take together, our results demonstrated that miR-203 act as a tumor suppressor miRNA through regulating RAB22A expression and suggested its involvement in osteosarcoma progression and carcinogenesis. PMID:26382657

  17. Impacts & Compliance Implementation Plans & Required Deviations for Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Regulation of Double Shell Tanks (DST)

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    2000-08-22

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held meetings regarding the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) contain waste which will become subject to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor (TFC) to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. Two components of the PCB management plans are this assessment of the operational impacts of TSCA regulation and the identifications of deviations from TSCA that are required to accommodate tank farm unique limitations. This plan provides ORP and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) with an outline of TSCA PCB requirements and their applicability to tank farm activities, and recommends a compliance/implementation approach. Where strict compliance is not possible, the need for deviations from TSCA PCB requirements is identified. The purpose of assembling this information is to enhance the understanding of PCB management requirements, identify operational impacts and select impact mitigation strategies. This information should be useful in developing formal agreements with EPA where required.

  18. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... under the Export Grape and Plum Act. The proposed action would change the minimum bunch weight...: This proposed rule is issued under authority of the Export Grape and Plum Act, as amended (7 U.S.C....

  19. Phenylboronic acid functionalized SBA-15 for sugar capture.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Shantz, Daniel F

    2011-12-06

    The synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that selectively capture sugars from model biomass hydrolysis mixtures are reported. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (PBA) groups that can reversibly form cyclic esters with 1,2-diols, and 1,3-diols including sugars are attached to mesoporous SBA-15 via different synthetic protocols. In the first route, a coupling agent is used to link PBA and SBA-15, while in the second route poly(acrylic acid) brushes are first grafted from the surface of SBA-15 by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization and PBA is then immobilized. The changes in pore structure, porosity, and pore size due to the loading of organic content are measured by powder X-ray diffraction and nitrogen porosimetry. The increase in organic content after each synthesis step is monitored by thermal gravimetric analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis are used to characterize the chemical compositions of the hybrid materials synthesized. D-(+)-Glucose and D-(+)-xylose, being the most commonly present sugars in biomass, are chosen to evaluate the sugar adsorption capacity of the hybrid materials. It is found that the sugar adsorption capacity is determined by the loading of boronic acid groups on the hybrid materials, and the hybrid material synthesized via route two is much better than that through route one for sugar adsorption. Mathematical modeling of the adsorption data indicates that the Langmuir model best describes the sugar adsorption behavior of the hybrid material synthesized through route one, while the Freundlich model fits the data most satisfactorily for the hybrid material prepared via route two. The adsorption kinetics, reusability, and selectivity toward some typical chemicals in cellulose acidic hydrolysis mixtures are also investigated.

  20. Federal Register Notice: State Authorization To Regulate the Hazardous Components of Radioactive Mixed Wastes Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is today publishing a notice that in order to obtain and maintain authorization to administer and enforce a hazardous waste program pursuant to Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), States must have authority to regulate the hazardous components of 'radioactive mixed wastes.

  1. 28 CFR Appendix D to Subpart G of... - OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, as Amended, Which Apply to This Subpart (28 CFR 42.205 and 42.206) D Appendix D to Subpart G of Part 42 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL..., App. D Appendix D to Subpart G of Part 42—OJARS' Regulations Under the Omnibus Crime Control and...

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymers based on SBA-15 for selective solid-phase extraction of baicalein from plasma samples.

    PubMed

    He, Hongliang; Gu, Xiaoli; Shi, Liying; Hong, Junli; Zhang, Hongjuan; Gao, Yankun; Du, Shuhu; Chen, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective molecularly imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (SBA-15@MIP) for baicalein (BAI) extraction was synthesized using a surface molecular imprinting technique on the SBA-15 supporter. Computational simulation was used to predict the optimal functional monomer for the rational design of SBA-15@MIP. Meanwhile, high adsorption capacity was obtained when a suitable yield of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) layer was grafted onto the surface of SBA-15. Characterization and performance tests of the obtained polymer revealed that SBA-15@MIP possessed a highly ordered mesoporous structure, reached saturated adsorption within 60 min, and exhibited higher sorption capacity to the target molecule BAI compared with non-imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (SBA-15@NIP) and SBA-15. Finally, SBA-15@MIP was successfully applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) for the determination of trace BAI in plasma samples. Mean recoveries of BAI through the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) sorbent, non-imprinted solid-phase extraction (NISPE) sorbent, and SBA-15 solid-phase extraction (SBA-15-SPE) sorbent were 94.4, 22.7, and 10.7 %, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 2.9, 2.6, and 3.6 %, respectively. These results reveal that SBA-15@MIP as a SPE sorbent has good applicability to selectively separate and enrich trace BAI from complex samples.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of aminopropyl-functionalized manganese-loaded SBA-15 for copper removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Lei, Di; Zheng, Qianwen; Wang, Yili; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-02-01

    A novel material, aminopropyl-functionalized manganese-loaded SBA-15 (NH2-Mn-SBA-15), was synthesized by bonding 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) onto manganese-loaded SBA-15 (Mn-SBA-15) and used as a Cu2+ adsorbent in aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the NH2-Mn-SBA-15. The ordered mesoporous structure of SBA-15 was remained after modification. The manganese oxides were mainly loaded on the internal surface of the pore channels while the aminopropyl groups were mainly anchored on the external surface of SBA-15. The adsorption of Cu2+ on NH2-Mn-SBA-15 was fitted well by the Langmuir equation and the maximum adsorption capacity of NH2-Mn-SBA-15 for Cu2+ was over two times higher than that of Mn-SBA-15 under the same conditions. The Elovich equation gave a good fit for the adsorption process of Cu2+ by NH2-Mn-SBA-15 and Mn-SBA-15. Both the loaded manganese oxides and the anchored aminopropyl groups were found to contribute to the uptake of Cu2+. The NH2-Mn-SBA-15 showed high selectivity for copper ions. Consecutive adsorption-desorption experiments showed that the NH2-Mn-SBA-15 could be regenerated by acid treatment without altering its properties.

  4. Structure and Hydrogen Adsorption Properties of SBA-15 Doped with Pd Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hwa; Park, Taehee; Yi, Whikun; Kim, Jaeyong

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen adsorption properties of Pd-doped Santa Barbara amorphous No. 15 (Pd-SBA-15) were investigated and the results were compared with pure SBA-15 ones in terms of change of its structure and Pd concentration. Pd-SBA-15 samples were prepared by a hydrothermal reaction, using mixture of PEO20PPO70PEO20 (P123) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). For the doping of Pd on SBA-15, PdC2 solution was added into the mixture of P123 and TEOS, and the solution was annealed at 80 degrees C for 2 hours under 800 Torr of hydrogen atmosphere. According to the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope data, Pd-doped SBA-15 samples form a hexagonal array of mesoporous structure with 20-30 nm size of Pd particles. Values of specific surface area decreased from 630 to 414 m2/g as increasing the Pd doping level due to the increasing of the volume density. In fact, the volume density increased from 0.103 to 0.276 g/cc as increasing the mass ratio of PdCl2 to TEOS from 0 to 0.5. For the Pd-doped SBA-15, the amount of adsorbed hydrogen significantly increased from 0.49 to 0.99 wt% as increasing the Pd doping level from 0 to 0.5 demonstrating that Pd doping is an effect method for SBA-1 5 as a potential use of hydrogen storage application.

  5. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidine (HAP) and Sulfamoylbenzamide (SBA) Inhibit Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Different Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zheng; Hu, Taishan; Zhou, Xue; Wildum, Steffen; Garcia-Alcalde, Fernando; Xu, Zhiheng; Wu, Daitze; Mao, Yi; Tian, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yuan; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Zhisen; Tang, Guozhi; Najera, Isabel; Yang, Guang; Shen, Hong C.; Young, John A. T.; Qin, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Heteroaryldihydropyrimidine (HAP) and sulfamoylbenzamide (SBA) are promising non-nucleos(t)ide HBV replication inhibitors. HAPs are known to promote core protein mis-assembly, but the molecular mechanism of abnormal assembly is still elusive. Likewise, the assembly status of core protein induced by SBA remains unknown. Here we show that SBA, unlike HAP, does not promote core protein mis-assembly. Interestingly, two reference compounds HAP_R01 and SBA_R01 bind to the same pocket at the dimer-dimer interface in the crystal structures of core protein Y132A hexamer. The striking difference lies in a unique hydrophobic subpocket that is occupied by the thiazole group of HAP_R01, but is unperturbed by SBA_R01. Photoaffinity labeling confirms the HAP_R01 binding pose at the dimer-dimer interface on capsid and suggests a new mechanism of HAP-induced mis-assembly. Based on the common features in crystal structures we predict that T33 mutations generate similar susceptibility changes to both compounds. In contrast, mutations at positions in close contact with HAP-specific groups (P25A, P25S, or V124F) only reduce susceptibility to HAP_R01, but not to SBA_R01. Thus, HAP and SBA are likely to have distinctive resistance profiles. Notably, P25S and V124F substitutions exist in low-abundance quasispecies in treatment-naïve patients, suggesting potential clinical relevance. PMID:28205569

  6. Fine CuO anisotropic nanoparticles supported on mesoporous SBA-15 for selective hydrogenation of nitroaromatics.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Shweta; Mutreja, Vishal; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2016-01-01

    SBA-15 modified with APTMS (3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane) having pore diameter (∼8 nm) has been synthesized and impregnated with 1-10 wt.% Cu using Cu(NO3)2 as a metal source followed by calcination at 350 °C. As-prepared CuO/ap-SBA-15 powder showed changes in the color from white for bare SBA-15 to light green due to formation of anisotropic CuO nanoparticles that exhibited a characteristic plasmon absorption band at 359 and 747 nm. TEM studies showed a change in the morphology of CuO NPs as a function of increased Cu loading. Moreover, well dispersed CuO nanospheres (∼5-6 nm) and nanorods (aspect ratio ∼11-20 nm) having monoclinic crystal phase were observed within the mesoporous channels of SBA-15. Elemental mapping studies confirmed uniform distribution of CuO nanoparticles on the surface of SBA-15. An increase in surface area was also observed from 694 m(2) g(-1) for SBA-15 to 762 m(2) g(-1) for 10 wt.% Cu loading probably due to the deposition of excess of CuO nanoparticles on the outer siliceous surface. The catalytic activity also increased with Cu loading and 10 wt.% CuO/ap-SBA-15 catalyst displayed the highest catalytic activity for the reduction of m-chloronitrobenzene and m-nitrotoluene with 83% and 100% selectivity for m-chloroaniline and m-aminotoluene respectively.

  7. Bismuth-embedded SBA-15 mesoporous silica for radioactive iodine capture and stable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Cho, Yong-Jun; Shin, Jin Myeong; Yim, Man-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Efficient capture and stable storage of the long-lived iodine-129 (129I), released as off-gas from nuclear fuel reprocessing, have been of significant concern in the waste management field. In this study, bismuth-embedded SBA-15 mesoporous silica was firstly applied for iodine capture and storage. SBA-15 was functionalized with thiol (-SH) groups, followed by bismuth adsorption with Bi-S bonding, which was thermally treated to form Bi2S3 within SBA-15. The bismuth-embedded SBA-15s demonstrated high iodine loading capacities (up to 540 mg-I/g-sorbent), which benefitted from high surface area and porosity of SBA-15 as well as the formation of thermodynamically stable BiI3 compound. Iodine physisorption was effectively suppressed due to the large pores present in SBA-15, resulting in chemisorption as a main mechanism for iodine confinement. Furthermore, a chemically durable iodine-bearing material was made with a facile post-sorption process, during which the iodine-incorporated phase was changed from BiI3 to chemically durable Bi5O7I. Thus, our results showed that both efficient capture and stabilization of 129I would be possible with the bismuth-embedded SBA-15, in contrast to other sorbents mainly focused on iodine capture.

  8. In vitro controlled release of antihypertensive drugs intercalated into unmodified SBA-15 and MgO modified SBA-15 matrices.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Iuliana Florentina; Ignat, Maria; Popovici, Roxana Florentina; Timpu, Daniel; Popovici, Eveline

    2012-10-15

    The use of nanotechnology in medicine and more specifically in drug delivery systems is set to spread rapidly. In order to broaden the range of matrices and implicitly to develop the class of drug delivery systems based on diffusion mechanism, in this study the starting materials, SBA-15 powder matrices, were engineered by MgO modification for antihypertensive drugs intercalation. Captopril and aliskiren were used as drug models. All powders, unmodified and MgO-modified silica matrices, and their corresponding drug-loaded samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption and desorption, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The studied drug carriers were tested in the controlled drug release process and the influence of the silica pore morphology and geometry on drug release profiles was extensively studied. In order to analyze the data obtained from the in vitro release studies and to evaluate the kinetic release mechanism, the Korsmeyer and Peppas equation was used. The obtained drug delivery system based on MgO-SBA-15 matrix exhibits exciting structural features and is therefore promising for its use as antihypertensive drug delivery system, having potential therapeutic benefits resulting in safe and effective management of captopril and aliskiren adsorption and in vitro release.

  9. CO2 adsorption on Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15) and amine-modified Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15) with and without controlled microporosity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xinlong; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yan, Zifeng

    2013-01-15

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 samples with and without controlled framework microporosity were prepared and used directly or impregnated with polymer amine as adsorbent for CO(2). These samples were evaluated for their ability to adsorb CO(2) by obtaining their equilibrium adsorption isotherms using volumetric adsorption at three different temperatures of 273 K, 278 K and 283 K. The data obtained were analyzed using Freundlich adsorption isotherm model while the isosteric heats of adsorption were estimated by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Under comparable conditions, the adsorption performance of silica SBA-15 was found to be strongly dependent upon the framework microporosity. However, the microporosity contribution to CO(2) adsorption in amine-modified SBA-15 was not obvious as amine blocked micropores and dominated CO(2) adsorption. The SBA-15 sample with higher microporosity displayed higher CO(2) uptake and the CO(2) uptake by amine-modified SBA-15 samples correlated with their total surface areas, as expected. These findings revealed the importance of surface area in designing an adsorbent for CO(2.).

  10. TiO{sub 2} supported on rod-like mesoporous silica SBA-15: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanjuan; Li, Nan; Tu, Jinchun; Li, Xiaotian; Wang, Beibei; Chi, Yue; Liu, Darui; Yang, Dianfan

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rod-like SBA-15 and normal SBA-15 were used to prepare TiO{sub 2}/SBA-15 composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}/SBA-15 composites were studied as catalysts for methyl orange photodegradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}/Rod-SBA-15 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than TiO{sub 2}/Nor-SBA-15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The higher catalytic activity was a result of the controlled morphology of SBA-15. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been successfully incorporated in the pores of mesoporous silica SBA-15 with different morphologies by a wet impregnation method. The composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2}-sorption and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) was used to study their photocatalytic property. It is indicated that the morphology of SBA-15 had a great influence on the photocatalytic activity of the composites. When TiO{sub 2}/SBA-15 composite was prepared by loading TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on uniform rod-like SBA-15 of 1 {mu}m length, it showed higher photocatalytic degradation rate than that on less regular but much larger SBA-15 support. This difference was rationalized in terms of the homogeneously distributed and shorter channels of rod-like SBA-15, which favored mass transport and improved the efficient utilization of the pore surface.

  11. Porosity and Surface Properites of SBA-15 with Grafted PNIPAAM: A Water Sorption Calorimetry Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 was modified in a three-step process to obtain a material with poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAM) grafted onto the inner pore surface. Water sorption calorimetry was implemented to characterize the materials obtained after each step regarding the porosity and surface properties. The modification process was carried out by (i) increasing the number of surface silanol groups, (ii) grafting 1-(trichlorosilyl)-2-(m-/p-(chloromethylphenyl) ethane, acting as an anchor for (iii) the polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide. Water sorption isotherms and the enthalpy of hydration are presented. Pore size distributions were calculated on the basis of the water sorption isotherms by applying the BJH model. Complementary measurements with nitrogen sorption and small-angle X-ray diffraction are presented. The increase in the number of surface silanol groups occurs mainly in the intrawall pores, the anchor is mainly located in the intrawall pores, and the intrawall pore volume is absent after the surface grafting of PNIPAAM. Hence, PNIPAAM seals off the intrawall pores. Water sorption isotherms directly detect the presence of intrawall porosity. Pore size distributions can be calculated from the isotherms. Furthermore, the technique provides information regarding the hydration capability (i.e., wettability of different chemical surfaces) and thermodynamic information. PMID:21928772

  12. Transcription Factors SOD7/NGAL2 and DPA4/NGAL3 Act Redundantly to Regulate Seed Size by Directly Repressing KLU Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yueying; Du, Liang; Xu, Ran; Cui, Rongfeng; Hao, Jianjun; Sun, Caixia; Li, Yunhai

    2015-01-01

    Although seed size is one of the most important agronomic traits in plants, the genetic and molecular mechanisms that set the final size of seeds are largely unknown. We previously identified the ubiquitin receptor DA1 as a negative regulator of seed size, and the Arabidopsis thaliana da1-1 mutant produces larger seeds than the wild type. Here, we describe a B3 domain transcriptional repressor NGATHA-like protein (NGAL2), encoded by the suppressor of da1-1 (SOD7), which acts maternally to regulate seed size by restricting cell proliferation in the integuments of ovules and developing seeds. Overexpression of SOD7 significantly decreases seed size of wild-type plants, while the simultaneous disruption of SOD7 and its closest homolog DEVELOPMENT-RELATED PcG TARGET IN THE APEX4 (DPA4/NGAL3) increases seed size. Genetic analyses indicate that SOD7 and DPA4 act in a common pathway with the seed size regulator KLU to regulate seed growth, but do so independently of DA1. Further results show that SOD7 directly binds to the promoter of KLUH (KLU) in vitro and in vivo and represses the expression of KLU. Therefore, our findings reveal the genetic and molecular mechanisms of SOD7, DPA4, and KLU in seed size regulation and suggest that they are promising targets for seed size improvement in crops. PMID:25783029

  13. Federal regulation comes to private health care financing: the group health insurance provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996.

    PubMed

    Rovner, J A

    1998-01-01

    Attorney Rovner presents a very detailed accounting of the impacts of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act as it relates to group health insurance including provisions that concern pre-existing conditions, special enrollment rights, premium discrimination, maternity lengths of stay, parity for mental health benefits and small groups coverage. The article concludes with a discussion of the federalism question as it relates to regulation of private market health financing.

  14. Guidance for applicants for state wellhead protection program assistance funds under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Appendix C. Wellhead Protection Program-applicable regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    Appendix C is a companion document to the Guidance for Applicants for State Wellhead Protection Assistance Funds Under the Safe Drinking Water Act to explain EPA regulations applicable to the Wellhead Protection Program (WHP) and the assistance application form needed to request a program grant. These two documents are used to develop approvable assistance applications and to administer properly the funds awarded under the WHP program.

  15. 13 CFR 120.715 - Does SBA guarantee any loans an Intermediary obtains from another source?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nonprofit entities (or an alliance of such entities) to no more than 10 Intermediaries in urban areas and 10 Intermediaries in Rural Areas (as defined in § 120.10). (b) Any loan guaranteed by SBA under this section...

  16. 13 CFR 108.660 - Other items required to be filed by NMVC Company with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... financial operations or those of any Portfolio Concern. (b) Documents filed with SEC. You must give SBA a... all reporting requirements set forth in Circular A-110 of the Office of Management and Budget and...

  17. Mg-MOF-74@SBA-15 hybrids: Synthesis, characterization, and adsorption properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Anindita; Maji, Tapas Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Nanocrystals of Mg-MOF-74 have been immobilized into the mesopores of SBA-15 rods to fabricate Mg-MOF-74@SBA-15 hybrid materials. To furnish such composites, a relatively simple synthetic strategy has been adopted by direct dispersion of the metal-organic framework (MOF) precursors in SBA-15 matrix to prepare the hybrid materials in situ. The hybrid materials have been characterized using powder X-ray diffraction and several spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, which suggest growth of the MOF nanocrystals inside the SBA-15 mesopores and the composites exhibit characteristics of both the components. N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 77 K reveal that the composites contain additional mesopores, compared to only micropores of pristine MOF nanocrystals. In addition to such combination of both micro and mesoporosity, the composites also demonstrate significant CO{sub 2} adsorption at room temperature.

  18. Novel functionalized mesopore of SBA-15 as prospective sorbent for praseodymium and lutetium.

    PubMed

    Mallah, M H; Ghannadi Maragheh, M; Badiei, A; Habibzadeh Sbo, R

    In the present work, results of γ-irradiation on normal and functionalized SBA-15 by aurintricarboxylic acid have been reported. Characterization of normal and functionalized SBA-15 particles before and after γ-irradiation was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared technique. Aurintricarboxylic acid ligand connected to SBA-15 was also analyzed using UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The modified sorbent was then used as a new sorbent for separation of trace amounts of praseodymium and lutetium ions from nuclear waste waters in batch techniques. Based on the results of distribution coefficients determination, and investigation of sorption process in various conditions, the parameters were optimized for separation lanthanides. It can be concluded that the functionalized SBA-15 is a promising sorbent for praseodymium and lutetium cations.

  19. 13 CFR 101.105 - Who may use SBA's official seal and for what purpose?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certificates and medals; (3) SBA awards for career service; (4) Security credentials and employee... writing to the Administrator. The decision whether to grant permission will be made in writing on a...

  20. 13 CFR 101.105 - Who may use SBA's official seal and for what purpose?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certificates and medals; (3) SBA awards for career service; (4) Security credentials and employee... writing to the Administrator. The decision whether to grant permission will be made in writing on a...