Science.gov

Sample records for act transportation study

  1. Energy Policy Act Transportation Rate Study: Final Report on Coal Transportation

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This is the final in a series of reports prepared for the U.S. Congress by the Secretary of Energy on coal distribution and transportation rates as mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates, of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486).

  2. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  3. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  4. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  5. Integrative application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. Initial act configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The performance and economic benefits of a constrained application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) are identified, and the approach to airplane design is established for subsequent steps leading to the development of a less constrained final ACT configuration. The active controls configurations are measured against a conventional baseline configuration, a state-of-the-art transport, to determine whether the performance and economic changes resulting from ACT merit proceeding with the project. The technology established by the conventional baseline configuration was held constant except for the addition of ACT. The wing, with the same planform, was moved forward on the initial ACT configuration to move the loading range aft relative to the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Wing trailing-edge surfaces and surface controls also were reconfigured for load alleviation and structural stabilization.

  6. Transportation Security Administration Authorization Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson-Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2009-04-30

    06/08/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  8. Integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. Initial ACT configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The initial ACT configuration design task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program is summarized. A constrained application of active controls technology (ACT) resulted in significant improvements over a conventional baseline configuration previously established. The configuration uses the same levels of technology, takeoff gross weight, payload, and design requirements/objectives as the baseline, except for flying qualities, flutter, and ACT. The baseline wing is moved forward 1.68 m. The configuration incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 45% reduction in horizontal tail size), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle of attack limiter, wing load alleviation, and flutter mode control. This resulted in a 930 kg reduction in airplane operating empty weight and a 3.6% improvement in cruise efficiency, yielding a 13% range increase. Adjusted to the 3590 km baseline mission range, this amounts to 6% block fuel reduction and a 15.7% higher incremental return on investment, using 1978 dollars and fuel cost.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  13. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  15. Transportation Reports Elimination Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Shuster, Bill [R-PA-9

    2013-12-02

    01/09/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Surface Transportation Board Reauthorization Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Rockefeller, John D., IV [D-WV

    2014-09-08

    12/12/2014 By Senator Rockefeller from Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation filed written report. Report No. 113-321. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Essential Transportation Worker Identification Credential Assessment Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Jackson Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2013-09-27

    07/29/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Protecting Taxpayers in Transportation Asset Transfers Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2011-06-16

    06/16/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3896-3897) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: current and advanced act control system definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability (2) angle of attack limiting (3) lateral/directional augmented stability (4) gust load alleviation (5) maneuver load control and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  20. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  1. Rail coal transportation under the Staggers Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stagger's Act of 1980 offered railroads the opportunity to accelerate growth along with the coal industry in efforts to increase market for both the product (coal) and the service provided. It provides for cost recovery indexing allowing railroads to stay abreast of inflation and flexibility in setting and changing rates. It also allows railroads to enter directly into contract agreements with shippers. Railroads have used extreme caution in implementing these liberties so that the coal industry would not be severely impacted by these changes. They could have raised rates by as much as 52.3% under the new guidelines, but only raised them by 31.6% in the Eastern market and by 21.3% for export coal. The president of CSX Railroads stresses the symbiotic relationship existing between railroads and the coal industry. He suggests that separate sectors of the coal industry stop pointing fingers at one another and join hands to solve coal's competitive problems in the overseas export market. He calls for the formation of a blue-ribbon panel representing all of the parties with a stake in coal to implement such a cooperative effort. (DMC)

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  3. Americans with Disabilities Act: Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities, Transportation Facilities, Transportation Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Washington, DC.

    Guidelines are presented regarding accessibility to buildings and facilities, transportation facilities, and transportation vehicles by individuals with disabilities, under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. These guidelines are to be applied during building design, construction, and alteration. Part 1 offers detailed facility…

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  5. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  6. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An active controls technology (ACT) system architecture was selected based on current technology system elements and optimal control theory was evaluated for use in analyzing and synthesizing ACT multiple control laws. The system selected employs three redundant computers to implement all of the ACT functions, four redundant smaller computers to implement the crucial pitch-augmented stability function, and a separate maintenance and display computer. The reliability objective of probability of crucial function failure of less than 1 x 10 to the -9th power per flight of 1 hr can be met with current technology system components, if the software is assumed fault free and coverage approaching 1.0 can be provided. The optimal control theory approach to ACT control law synthesis yielded comparable control law performance much more systematically and directly than the classical s-domain approach. The ACT control law performance, although somewhat degraded by the inclusion of representative nonlinearities, remained quite effective. Certain high-frequency gust-load alleviation functions may require increased surface rate capability.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  8. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  9. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport is reported. Supplementary technical data on the following topics are included: (1) 1990's avionics technology assessment; (2) function criticality assessment; (3) flight deck system for total control and functional features list; (4) criticality and reliability assessment of units; (5) crew procedural function task analysis; and (6) recommendations for simulation mechanization.

  10. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu; Sri Suresh Kumar Thiroveedhula

    2000-04-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with water under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic drilling fluids. Initial calibration tests have been conducted by using water. Currently, the base oil of the Petrobras synthetic drilling fluid is being tested. Foam flow experiments have been conducted. Currently, more experiments are being conducted while data are being analyzed to characterize the rheology of the foam. Cuttings transport experiments have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Preliminary results have shown that it may not be possible to avoid cuttings bed deposition under any practical combination of air and water flow rates. Foam stability analyses have been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. A software for controlling the data sampling and data storage during cuttings monitoring process have been developed.

  13. 78 FR 59751 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy cost of supporting Federal credit..., including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological...

  14. Cabrillo College Transportation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Terrence

    This report provides results of the survey and other sources of information which have been used to develop a transportation management plan at Cabrillo College (California). In 2000, Cabrillo College organized a Transportation Management Committee to review the existing transportation situation and develop and implement a plan with the goal of…

  15. 78 FR 76187 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...-day Federal Register notice was published on September 27, 2013, 2013 (78 FR 59751). Since the... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy cost of...

  16. Mercury orbiter transport study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Feingold, H.

    1977-01-01

    A data base and comparative performance analyses of alternative flight mode options for delivering a range of payload masses to Mercury orbit are provided. Launch opportunities over the period 1980-2000 are considered. Extensive data trades are developed for the ballistic flight mode option utilizing one or more swingbys of Venus. Advanced transport options studied include solar electric propulsion and solar sailing. Results show the significant performance tradeoffs among such key parameters as trip time, payload mass, propulsion system mass, orbit size, launch year sensitivity and relative cost-effectiveness. Handbook-type presentation formats, particularly in the case of ballistic mode data, provide planetary program planners with an easily used source of reference information essential in the preliminary steps of mission selection and planning.

  17. Transonic transport study: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Wilcox, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of advanced materials, increased aerodynamic and structural efficiencies, and cruise speed on advanced transport aircraft designed for cruise Mach numbers of .90, .98, and 1.15. A detailed weight statement was generated by an aircraft synthesis computer program called TRANSYN-TST; these weights were used to estimate the cost to develop and manufacture a fleet of aircraft of each configuration. The direct and indirect operating costs were estimated for each aircraft, and an average return on investment was calculated for various operating conditions. There was very little difference between the operating economics of the aircraft designed for Mach numbers .90 and .98. The Mach number 1.15 aircraft was economically marginal in comparison but showed significant improvements with the application of carbon/epoxy structural material. However, the Mach .90 and Mach .98 aircraft are the most economically attractive vehicles in the study.

  18. Payload transportation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A standard size set of shuttle payload transportation equipment was defined that will substantially reduce the cost of payload transportation and accommodate a wide range of payloads with minimum impact on payload design. The system was designed to accommodate payload shipments between the level 4 payload integration sites and the launch site during the calendar years 1979-1982. In addition to defining transportation multi-use mission support equipment (T-MMSE) the mode of travel, prime movers, and ancillary equipment required in the transportation process were also considered. Consistent with the STS goals of low cost and the use of standardized interfaces, the transportation system was designed to commercial grade standards and uses the payload flight mounting interfaces for transportation. The technical, cost, and programmatic data required to permit selection of a baseline system of MMSE for intersite movement of shuttle payloads were developed.

  19. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

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    ... Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316-3317). Docket: For... published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 82132, December 29, 2010, and 77 FR 42796, July 20, 2012... of Transportation; DOT/ALL-25; Department of Transportation Biographies System of Records...

  1. Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hunter, Duncan D. [R-CA-50

    2014-02-06

    04/02/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Howard Coble Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hunter, Duncan D. [R-CA-50

    2014-12-01

    12/04/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.2444, which became Public Law 113-281 on 12/18/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. LoBiondo, Frank A. [R-NJ-2

    2012-06-01

    06/07/2012 Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Discharged. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2838, which became Public Law 112-213 on 12/20/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. 75 FR 28042 - Privacy Act of 1974: System of Records; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Transportation Security Enforcement Record System (69 FR 71828, December 10, 2004.) TSA's mission is to protect... rule published on August 4, 2006 in 71 FR 44223. II. Privacy Act The Privacy Act embodies fair... records is also based on ``need to know.'' Electronic access is limited by computer security measures...

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  8. Computational Studies of Glutamate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Setiadi, Jeffry; Heinzelmann, Germano; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain whose binding to receptors on neurons excites them while excess glutamate are removed from synapses via transporter proteins. Determination of the crystal structures of bacterial aspartate transporters has paved the way for computational investigation of their function and dynamics at the molecular level. Here, we review molecular dynamics and free energy calculation methods used in these computational studies and discuss the recent applications to glutamate transporters. The focus of the review is on the insights gained on the transport mechanism through computational methods, which otherwise is not directly accessible by experimental probes. Recent efforts to model the mammalian glutamate and other amino acid transporters, whose crystal structures have not been solved yet, are included in the review. PMID:26569328

  9. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  10. Tether Transportation System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, M. E.; Lorenzini, E.; Vestal, L.

    1998-01-01

    The projected traffic to geostationary earth orbit (GEO) is expected to increase over the next few decades. At the same time, the cost of delivering payloads from the Earth's surface to low earth orbit (LEO) is projected to decrease, thanks in part to the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). A comparable reduction in the cost of delivering payloads from LEO to GEO is sought. The use of in-space tethers, eliminating the requirement for traditional chemical upper stages and thereby reducing the launch mass, has been identified as such an alternative. Spinning tethers are excellent kinetic energy storage devices for providing the large delta vee's required for LEO to GEO transfer. A single-stage system for transferring payloads from LEO to GEO was proposed some years ago. The study results presented here contain the first detailed analyses of this proposal, its extension to a two-stage system, and the likely implementation of the operational system.

  11. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  12. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Brown, D E; Rashotte, A M; Murphy, A S; Normanly, J; Tague, B W; Peer, W A; Taiz, L; Muday, G K

    2001-06-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport. PMID:11402184

  13. Overview of TFTR transport studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Arunasalam, V.; Beer, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Biglari, H.; Bitter, M.; Boivin, R.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chu, T.K.; Cohen, S.A.; Cowley, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.; Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Greene, G.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Hulse, R.A.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Kieras-Phillips, C.; Kilpatrick, S

    1991-10-01

    A review of TFTR plasma transport studies is presented. Parallel transport and the confinement of suprathermal ions are found to be relatively well described by theory. Cross-field transport of the thermal plasma, however, is anomalous with the momentum diffusivity being comparable to the ion thermal diffusivity and larger than the electron thermal diffusivity in neutral beam heated discharges. Perturbative experiments have studied non-linear dependencies in the transport coefficients and examined the role of possible non-local phenomena. The underlying turbulence has been studied using microwave scattering, beam emission spectroscopy and microwave reflectometry over a much broader range in k{perpendicular} than previously possible. Results indicate the existence of large-wavelength fluctuations correlated with enhanced transport. MHD instabilities set important operational constraints. However, by modifying the current profile using current ramp-down techniques, it has been possible to extend the operating regime to higher values of both {var epsilon}{beta}{sub p} and normalized {beta}{sub T}. In addition, the interaction of MHD fluctuations with fast ions, of potential relevance to {alpha}-particle confinement in D-T plasmas, has been investigated. The installation of carbon-carbon composite tiles and improvements in wall conditioning, in particular the use of Li pellet injection to reduce the carbon recycling, continue to be important in the improvement of plasma performance. 96 refs., 16 figs.

  14. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  15. 77 FR 70796 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... following Privacy Act system of records notice, DHS/TSA-017 Secure Flight Test Records (June 22, 2005, 70 FR.../Transportation Security Administration- 019, Secure Flight Records (November 9, 2007, 72 FR 63711) to cover the...)-017 Secure Flight Test Records (June 22, 2005, 70 FR 36320), from its inventory of record systems....

  16. 75 FR 7978 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-023 Workplace Violence... Security Administration-023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records and this proposed... a new system of records under the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a) titled, DHS/TSA-023 Workplace...

  17. 78 FR 55657 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...The Department of Homeland Security is giving concurrent notice of a newly established system of records pursuant to the Privacy Act of 1974 for the ``Department of Homeland Security/Transportation Security Administration-021, TSA Pre[check]TM; Application Program System of Records'' and this proposed rulemaking. In this proposed rulemaking, the Department proposes to exempt......

  18. 78 FR 43261 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ...The Department of Transportation (DOT) invites public comments on a request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve an Emergency Information Collection Request in accordance with the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 USC 3501 et seq). This request is being submitted to OMB via an Emergency Information Collection Request. On July 6, 2012,......

  19. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; Miles, Natasha; Nehrir, Amin; Obland, Michael; O'Dell, Chris; Sweeney, Colm; Yang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  20. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Davis, K.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, G.; Dobler, J. T.; Fried, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lin, B.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N. L.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; O'Dell, C.; Sweeney, C.; Yang, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital - 2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT - America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT - America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2 and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  1. Grapevine MATE-Type Proteins Act as Vacuolar H+-Dependent Acylated Anthocyanin Transporters1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Camila; Terrier, Nancy; Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Verriès, Clotilde; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Klein, Markus; Cheynier, Véronique; Ageorges, Agnès

    2009-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), anthocyanins are responsible for most of the red, blue, and purple pigmentation found in the skin of berries. In cells, anthocyanins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and accumulated into the vacuole. However, little is known about the transport of these compounds through the tonoplast. Recently, the sequencing of the grapevine genome allowed us to identify genes encoding proteins with high sequence similarity to the Multidrug And Toxic Extrusion (MATE) family. Among them, we selected two genes as anthocyanin transporter candidates and named them anthoMATE1 (AM1) and AM3. The expression of both genes was mainly fruit specific and concomitant with the accumulation of anthocyanin pigment. Subcellular localization assays in grapevine hairy roots stably transformed with AM1∷ or AM3∷green fluorescent protein fusion protein revealed that AM1 and AM3 are primarily localized to the tonoplast. Yeast vesicles expressing anthoMATEs transported acylated anthocyanins in the presence of MgATP. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that AM1 and AM3 proteins act in vitro as vacuolar H+-dependent acylated anthocyanin transporters. By contrast, under our experimental conditions, anthoMATEs could not transport malvidin 3-O-glucoside or cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that the acyl conjugation was essential for the uptake. Taken together, these results provide evidence that in vitro the two grapevine AM1 and AM3 proteins mediate specifically acylated anthocyanin transport. PMID:19297587

  2. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Concepts for possible future airplanes are studied that include all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multi-body airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short range feeder airplanes. Results indicate that each of these concepts has the potential for important performance and economic advantages, provided certain suggested research tasks are successfully accomplished. Indicated research areas include all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  3. 2012 Report on Section 25 of Act 58 of 2011: Driver Education 2011 Summer Study Report. Report/Recommendations to the House and Senate Committees on Education and Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oettinger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Section 25 of Act 58 of 2011 required the Department of Education (DOE) to "explore options for restructuring the delivery of driver education." The DOE convened a combination of partial and total stakeholder meetings. Included in this meetings were representatives of the DOE, Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), Vermont Superintendents Association…

  4. New Oil Pollution Act of 1990 will impact facilities, terminals, and transports in the oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The magnitude of the Exxon Valdez spill galvanized the opinion of both the public and Congress on the need for new oil spill legislation. Consequently, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 - a comprehensive prevention, response, liability, and compensation system for dealing with oil production - was passed by the 101st Congress. This book describes in detail the new law and the liabilities it imposes; the new financial responsibility requirements placed on oil-related facilities and vessels; oil spill prevention and response obligations; and the oil industry's activities to prevent and mitigate oil spills. Also discussed are the compliance problems faced by both fixed facilities and the transportation industry.

  5. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-03-01

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code`s credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code`s reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows{sup {trademark}} point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs.

  6. Acoustic Study of Acted Emotions in Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong

    An extensive set of carefully recorded utterances provided a speech database for investigating acoustic correlates among eight emotional states. Four professional actors and four professional actresses simulated the emotional states of joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, sadness, hate, fear, and depression. The values of 14 acoustic parameters were extracted from analyses of the simulated portrayals. Normalization of the parameters was made to reduce the talker-dependence. Correlates of emotion were investigated by means of principal components analysis. Sadness and depression were found to be "ambiguous" with respect to each other, but "unique" with respect to joy and anger in the principal components space. Joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, hate, and fear did not separate well in the space and so exhibited ambiguity with respect to one another. The different talkers expressed joy, anger, sadness, and depression more consistently than the other four emotions. The analysis results were compared with the results of a subjective study using the same speech database and considerable consistency between the two was found.

  7. Systems Studies of DDT Transport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, H. L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Major consequences of present and additional environmental quantities of DDT pesticide are predictable by mathematical models of transport, accumulation and concentration mechanisms in the Wisconsin regional ecosystem. High solubility and stability produce increased DDT concentrations at high organism trophic levels within world biosphere…

  8. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  9. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  10. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  11. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  12. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  13. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Several concepts for possible future airplanes, including all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multibody airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear-powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long-range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short-range feeder airplanes are described. Performance and economic advantages of each concept are indicated. Further research is recommended in the following areas: all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  14. The N-terminal basolateral targeting signal unlikely acts alone in the differential trafficking of membrane transporters in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shiu-Ming; Wang, Li-Yuan; Yu, Siyuan; Campbell, Christine E; Valiyaparambil, Sujith A; Rance, Mark; Blumenthal, Kenneth M

    2013-07-30

    We have shown previously, using confocal imaging and transport assays, that the N-terminus of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) can redirect apical SVCT1 to the basolateral membrane. Here, the SVCT model was used to further characterize the basolateral targeting peptide signal. Both the length (31 amino acids) and sequence accuracy of the N-terminus of SVCT2 were found to be important in basolateral targeting activity, suggesting a structural requirement. However, the N-terminal basolateral targeting sequence did not appear to act alone, based on analyses of heterologous chimeras. Although diverse N-terminal basolateral targeting signals from multipass membrane proteins can all redirect apical protein from the same gene family to the basolateral membrane, none of the N-terminal basolateral targeting signals can redirect the transmembrane and C-terminal regions from a different gene family. Instead, the presence of these heterologous N-terminal basolateral targeting signals affected the trafficking of otherwise apical protein, causing their accumulation in a stable tubulin-like non-actin structure. Nontargeting N-terminal sequences had no effect. Similar protein retention was observed previously and in this study when the C-terminus of apical or basolateral protein was mutated. These results suggest that the N- and C-termini interact, directly or indirectly, within each gene family for basolateral targeting. Circular dichroism and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analyses both found a lack of regular secondary structure in the conserved N-terminus of SVCT2, consistent with the presence of partner(s) in the targeting unit. Our finding, a departure from the prevailing single-peptide motif model, is consistent with the evolution of basolateral transporters from the corresponding apical genes. The interaction among the N-terminus, its partner(s), and the cellular basolateral targeting machinery needs to be further elucidated. PMID:23837633

  15. NMR studies of cation transport across membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shochet, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    /sup 23/Na NMR Studies of cation transport across membranes were conducted both on model and biological membranes. Two ionophores, the carrier monensin and the channel-former gramicidin, were chosen to induce cation transport in large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The distinction between the NMR signals arising from the two sides of the membrane was achieved by the addition of an anionic paramagnetic shift reagent to the outer solution. The kinetics of the cation transport across the membrane was observed simultaneously monitoring the changes in the /sup 23/Na NMR signals of both compartments. Two mathematical models were developed for the estimation of the transport parameters of the monensin- and gramicidin-induced cation transport. The models were able to fit the experimental data very well. A new method for the estimation of the volume trapped inside the vesicles was developed. The method uses the relative areas of the intra- and extravesicular NMR signals arising from a suspension of vesicles bathed in the same medium they contain, as a measure for the relative volumes of these compartments. Sodium transport across biological membranes was studied by /sup 23/ NMR, using suspensions of cultured nerve cells. The sodium influx through voltage-gated channels was studied using the channel modifier batrachotoxin in combination with scorpion toxin.

  16. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  17. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-10-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-10-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  20. Reauthorization of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, second session, April 2, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This Act authorizes the programs of the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) in the Department of Transportation; MTB, at the time, was requesting a doubling of its funds over the appropriated levels, which posed a problem with budget restraints. The committee was particularly concerned with examining the following materials-transportation programs: (1) training of personnel to respond to hazardous-materials accidents; (2) coordination of Federal efforts in regard to hazardous-materials emergency-response programs; (3) adequacy of emergency-communications systems that provide quick information to State and local authorities who are the first to reach the scene of a hazardous-materials accident; and (4) adequacy of the rules and enforcement programs of the Department of Transportation in the hazardous-materials transportation field. Witnesses included James B. King, Chairman, National Transportation Safety Board and two staff members; Howard Dugoff, Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration, DOT, accompanied by Lee Santman, Director, Materials Transportation Bureau; and Clifford Harvison, Chairman, Hazardous Materials Advisory Council, accompanied by George Wilson, Executive Director.

  1. TRANSPORT LOCOMOTIVE AND WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER ITS STANDARDS IDENTIFICATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    K.D. Draper

    2005-03-31

    To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems and components (SSCs) based on identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Basis for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005). Further, SSCs credited with performing safe functions are classified as ITS. In turn, performance confirmation for these SSCs is sought through the use of consensus code and standards. The purpose of this study is to identify applicable codes and standards for the waste package (WP) transporter and transport locomotive ITS SSCs. Further, this study will form the basis for selection and the extent of applicability of each code and standard. This study is based on the design development completed for License Application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and that final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, throughout this study alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed. Further, the results of this study will be subject to evaluation as part of a follow-on gap analysis study. Based on the results of this study the gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied a ''gap'' is highlighted. Thereafter, the study will identify supplemental requirements to augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, the gap analysis will identify non-standard areas of the design that will be subject to a Development Plan. Non-standard components and

  2. A vacuolar iron-transporter homologue acts as a detoxifier in Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    Slavic, Ksenija; Krishna, Sanjeev; Lahree, Aparajita; Bouyer, Guillaume; Hanson, Kirsten K.; Vera, Iset; Pittman, Jon K.; Staines, Henry M.; Mota, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient but is also highly toxic. In yeast and plant cells, a key detoxifying mechanism involves iron sequestration into intracellular storage compartments, mediated by members of the vacuolar iron-transporter (VIT) family of proteins. Here we study the VIT homologue from the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum (PfVIT) and Plasmodium berghei (PbVIT). PfVIT-mediated iron transport in a yeast heterologous expression system is saturable (Km∼14.7 μM), and selective for Fe2+ over other divalent cations. PbVIT-deficient P. berghei lines (Pbvit−) show a reduction in parasite load in both liver and blood stages of infection in mice. Moreover, Pbvit− parasites have higher levels of labile iron in blood stages and are more sensitive to increased iron levels in liver stages, when compared with wild-type parasites. Our data are consistent with Plasmodium VITs playing a major role in iron detoxification and, thus, normal development of malaria parasites in their mammalian host. PMID:26786069

  3. A vacuolar iron-transporter homologue acts as a detoxifier in Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Slavic, Ksenija; Krishna, Sanjeev; Lahree, Aparajita; Bouyer, Guillaume; Hanson, Kirsten K; Vera, Iset; Pittman, Jon K; Staines, Henry M; Mota, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient but is also highly toxic. In yeast and plant cells, a key detoxifying mechanism involves iron sequestration into intracellular storage compartments, mediated by members of the vacuolar iron-transporter (VIT) family of proteins. Here we study the VIT homologue from the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum (PfVIT) and Plasmodium berghei (PbVIT). PfVIT-mediated iron transport in a yeast heterologous expression system is saturable (Km ∼ 14.7 μM), and selective for Fe(2+) over other divalent cations. PbVIT-deficient P. berghei lines (Pbvit(-)) show a reduction in parasite load in both liver and blood stages of infection in mice. Moreover, Pbvit(-) parasites have higher levels of labile iron in blood stages and are more sensitive to increased iron levels in liver stages, when compared with wild-type parasites. Our data are consistent with Plasmodium VITs playing a major role in iron detoxification and, thus, normal development of malaria parasites in their mammalian host. PMID:26786069

  4. Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The overall objective of this Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) study is to identify candidate engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost. The specific objectives are as follows: (1) to identify and evaluate candidate LOX/HC engine configurations for the Advanced Space Transportation System for an early 1995 IOC and a late 2000 IOC; (2) to select one optimum engine for each time period; 3) to prepare a conceptual design for each configuration; (4) to develop a technology plan for the 2000 IOC engine; and, (5) to prepare preliminary programmatic planning and analysis for the 1995 IOC engine.

  5. Mars transportation system - Architecture trade study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Malloy, John D.

    1992-07-01

    An advanced Mars base resupply transportation system utilizing nuclear thermal rockets, a split/sprint architecture, and conjunction class trajectories for the manned flight segments was studied to determine the impact of engine characteristics other than specific impulse. High engine thrust-to-weight ratios were found to offer significant performance improvements and engine clustering and shielding strategies were found to interrelate to the engine thrust-to-weight ratio in a complex manner. Performance tradeoffs of alternate abort mode and engine disposal strategies were assessed. The significant benefits of the use of indigenous Martian materials to support the transportation system were quantified.

  6. Antidepressants targeting the serotonin reuptake transporter act via a competitive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Apparsundaram, Subbu; Stockdale, Daniel J; Henningsen, Robert A; Milla, Marcos E; Martin, Renee S

    2008-12-01

    Although several antidepressants (including fluoxetine, imipramine, citalopram, venlafaxine, and duloxetine) are known to inhibit the serotonin transporter (SERT), whether or not these molecules compete with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT) for binding to SERT has remained controversial. We have performed radioligand competition binding experiments and found that all data can be fitted via a simple competitive interaction model, using Cheng-Prusoff analysis (Biochem Pharmacol 22:3099-3108, 1973). Two different SERT-selective radioligands, [(3)H]N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenyl thio)-benzylamine (DASB) and [(3)H]S-citalopram, were used to probe competitive binding to recombinantly expressed human SERT or native SERT in rat cortical membranes. All the SERT inhibitors that we tested were able to inhibit [(3)H]DASB and [(3)H]S-citalopram binding in a concentration-dependent manner, with unity Hill coefficient. In accordance with the Cheng-Prusoff relationship for a competitive interaction, we observed that test compound concentrations associated with 50% maximal inhibition of radiotracer binding (IC(50)) increased linearly with increasing radioligand concentration for all ligands: 5-HT, S-citalopram, R-citalopram, paroxetine, clomipramine, fluvoxamine, imipramine venlafaxine, duloxetine, indatraline, cocaine, and 2-beta-carboxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane. The equilibrium dissociation constant of 5-HT and SERT inhibitors were also derived using Scatchard analysis of the data set, and they were found to be comparable with the data obtained using the Cheng-Prusoff relationship. Our studies establish a reference framework that will contribute to ongoing efforts to understand ligand binding modes at SERT by demonstrating that 5-HT and the SERT inhibitors tested bind to the serotonin transporter in a competitive manner. PMID:18801947

  7. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Final ACT configuration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Final ACT Configuration Evaluation Task of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology project within the energy efficient transport program is summarized. The Final ACT Configuration, through application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span, exhibits significant performance improvements over the conventional baseline configuration. At the design range for these configurations, 3590 km, the block fuel used is 10% less for the Final ACT Configuration, with significant reductions in fuel usage at all operational ranges. Results of this improved fuel usage and additional system and airframe costs and the complexity required to achieve it were analyzed to determine its economic effects. For a 926 km mission, the incremental return on investment is nearly 25% at 1980 fuel prices. For longer range missions or increased fuel prices, the return is greater. The technical risks encountered in the Final ACT Configuration design and the research and development effort required to reduce these risks to levels acceptable for commercial airplane design are identified.

  8. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste

  9. Manned transportation system study - Evaluation of candidate transportation architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Nicholas; Klemer, R.; Sooter, C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall evaluation process, the tool developed to perform the evaluation, and the evaluation results in determining the right approach to meet the nation's mannned transportation needs are presented. To address the various considerations, architecture sets consisting of the candidate transportation systems are constructed. As this methodology results in multiple architectures to examine, an architecture evaluation tool was developed to facilitate the evaluation of the architecture attribute values from the system values of the attributes.

  10. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work completed under the Human Transportation System Study. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems (e.g., Shuttle, Titan, etc. ) as well as proposed systems (e.g., PLS, Single-Stage-to-Orbit, etc.) to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  11. A study on forces acting on a flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuruskan, A.; Fenercioglu, I.; Cetiner, O.

    2013-04-01

    In order to study the forces acting on a flapping wing, an experimental investigation is performed in steady water flow. In this study, a SD7003 airfoil undergoes combined pitching and plunging motion which simulates the forward flight of small birds. The frequency of pitching motion is equal to the frequency of plunging motion and pitch leads the plunge by a phase angle of 90 degrees. The experiments are conducted at Reynolds numbers of 2500 ≤ Re ≤ 13700 and the vortex formation is recorded using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique. A prediction of thrust force and efficiency is calculated from the average wake deficit of DPIV data, the near-wake vorticity patterns and time dependent velocity vectors are determined to comment on the thrust and drag indication. Direct force measurements are attempted using a Force/Torque sensor which is capable of measuring forces and moments in three axial directions.

  12. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  13. Microstructure and Transport Studies of Functionalized Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Ron; Lewis, Darryl; Seifu, Dereje; Camacho, Jorge; Strongin, Myron; Zhang, Liyuan

    2011-03-01

    The microstructure and transport studies of fuctionalized graphene are reported. These studies reveal that the minimum conductivity is sample dependent and within the range (2-12) e 2 /h independent of gate voltage. The variation of the minimum conductivity is attributed to sample impurities, apparent in Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. The Raman peaks are in general consistent with graphene, but show shifts in the G and 2D peaks. These shifts are associated with strain and doping. The dependence of the current (I) on the bias voltage (VSD) is linear for most samples. The current dependence on gate voltage (Vg) curves show asymmetric behavior, showing the imbalance between the hole and electron carriers. A 16 A deposition of Fe leads to a significant modification in the transport properties due mostly the formation of iron oxide. The AFM clearly shows the formation of Fe clusters. DOE/NSF Faculty-Student Teams Program.

  14. 75 FR 8096 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-023...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office..., ``Department of Homeland Security/Transportation Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence Prevention... and maintain records on their Workplace Violence Prevention Program. Additionally, the Department...

  15. High-speed civil transport study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A system study of the potential for a high-speed commercial transport has addressed technological, economic, and environmental constraints. Market projections indicate a need for fleets of transports with supersonic or greater cruise speeds by the year 2000 to 2005. The associated design requirements called for a vehicle to carry 250 to 300 passengers over a range of 5,000 to 6,000 nautical miles. The study was initially unconstrained in terms of vehicle characteristic, such as cruise speed, propulsion systems, fuels, or structural materials. Analyses led to a focus on the most promising vehicle concepts. These were concepts that used a kerosene-type fuel and cruised at Mach numbers between 2.0 to 3.2. Further systems study identified the impact of environmental constraints (for community noise, sonic boom, and engine emissions) on economic attractiveness and technological needs. Results showed that current technology cannot produce a viable high-speed civil transport; significant advances are required to reduce takeoff gross weight and allow for both economic attractiveness and environmental accepatability. Specific technological requirements were identified to meet these needs.

  16. High-speed civil transport study. Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A system of study of the potential for a high speed commercial transport aircraft addressed technology, economic, and environmental constraints. Market projections indicated a need for fleets of transport with supersonic or greater cruise speeds by the years 2000 to 2005. The associated design requirements called for a vehicle to carry 250 to 300 passengers over a range of 5000 to 6000 nautical miles. The study was initially unconstrained in terms of vehicle characteristics, such as cruise speed, propulsion systems, fuels, or structural materials. Analyses led to a focus on the most promising vehicle concepts. These were concepts that used a kerosene type fuel and cruised at Mach numbers between 2.0 to 3.2. Further systems study identified the impact of environmental constraints (for community noise, sonic boom, and engine emissions) on economic attractiveness and technological needs. Results showed that current technology cannot produce a viable high speed civil transport. Significant advances are needed to take off gross weight and allow for both economic attractiveness and environment acceptability. Specific technological requirements were identified to meet these needs.

  17. Beaver Dam Effects on Gravel Transport Patterns - a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Swingle, K. W.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Beaver dams are numerous in mountain streams, but little is known about gravel transport in those streams. The dams may be fully functioning and retain all incoming sediment or partially permeable to sediment or be almost completely removed. Beaver dams in their various states of preservation can have a profound influence on stream morphology and bedload transport. During the spring of 2011, the authors made a time series study of bedload transport in a mountain stream dominated by beavers dams. Dams occurred with a frequency of one every 50 feet and showed a range of decay and fluvial influence. Gravel transport was sampled with bedload traps over a 2-month long snowmelt highflow season. The reach-average gradient was 0.03 and stream widths ranged from 3 to 8 m. The stream bed was incised 0.5 to 1.5 m deep into a floodplain and typically trapezoidal in its cross-sectional shape. Much of the floodplain consisted of filled-in beaver dams. Partially breached dams that were permeable to gravel transport acted as an obstacle, forcing the flow around sharp bends. Complex hydraulic conditions developed in the vicinity of the bends with backwater eddies upstream and downstream of the remnant dam. Wake eddies at the downstream side of dam remnants caused gravel deposits. The tortuous channel course around the bends caused strong secondary currents that forced gravel transport into a narrow pathway along one of the banks causing a strong lateral concentration of transport. The pathway had a bed of fine and medium gravel, while the remainder of the bed consisted mostly of coarse gravel and cobbles that became immobile shortly after peak flows. Tracer experiments indicated that most of the mobile gravel traveled along that bankward path, even though flow velocities and depths were considerably smaller than in the stream center. Over the highflow season, flows increased to about 160% of the 1.5 year recurrence interval (Q1.5) within about a week and then remained within the

  18. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-12-01

    National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  19. 75 FR 18860 - Privacy Act of 1974, Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Officer Record System (FDORS), previously published on August 18, 2003 (68 FR 49496). TSA's mission is to... reflected in the final rule published on June 25, 2004, 69 FR 35536. Consistent with the Privacy Act... Security Administration--013 Federal Flight Deck Officer Record System AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS....

  20. 75 FR 18863 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-006...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... records notice titled, DHS/TSA-006 Correspondence Matters Tracking System Records (CMTR) (68 FR 49496... the Federal Register on June 25, 2004 (69 FR 35536). Consistent with the Privacy Act, information... (69 FR 35536). However, TSA will consider individual requests to determine whether or not...

  1. Comparative effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics: issues and challenges from a pragmatic randomised study.

    PubMed

    Ostuzzi, G; Barbui, C

    2016-02-01

    Although long-acting antipsychotics are widely used in individuals with psychotic disorders, it is unclear which long-acting preparation should be considered as first-line treatment in clinical practice. In this commentary, the main strengths and weaknesses of a recently published pragmatic randomised study comparing long-acting paliperidone palmitate v. long-acting haloperidol decanoate are briefly analysed. PMID:26515607

  2. The ACT transport: Panacea for the 80's or designer's illusion (panel discussion)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A panel discussion was held which attempted to make an objective and pragmatic assessment of the standing of active control technology. The discussion focused on the standing of active control technology relative to civil air transport applications, the value as opposed to the cost of the projected benefits, the need for research, development, and demonstration, the role of government and industry in developing the technology, the major obstacles to its implementation, and the probable timing of the full utilization of active control technology in commercial transportation. An edited transcription of the prepared statements of the panel members and the subsequent open discussion between the panel and the audience is presented.

  3. Report to congress: Settlements with municipal waste generators and transporters since 1991 under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-12

    The report to Congress summarizes the status of completed settlements and ongoing negotiations with municipal generators and transporters of municipal solid waste and municipal sewage sludge under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 since 1991.

  4. Cargo transportation by airships: A systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Dalton, C.

    1976-01-01

    A systems engineering study of a lighter than air airship transportation system was conducted. The feasibility of the use of airships in hauling cargo was demonstrated. Social, legal, environmental and political factors were considered as well as the technical factors necessary to design an effective airship transportation system. In order to accomplish an effective airship transportation program two phases of implementation were recommended. Phase I would involve a fleet of rigid airships of 3.5 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying 25 tons of cargo internal to the helium-filled gas bag. The Phase I fleet would demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of modern-day airships while providing a training capability for the construction and operation of larger airships. The Phase II portion would be a fleet of rigid airships of 12 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying a cargo of 100 tons a distance of 2,000 miles at a cruising speed of 60 mph. An economic analysis is given for a variety of missions for both Phase I and Phase II airships.

  5. 77 FR 70792 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Administration-009 General Legal Records (August 18, 2003, 68 FR 49496), which was written to assist attorneys in... Security/ ALL-017 General Legal Records (November 23, 2011, 76 FR 72428) to cover its legal activities.../Transportation Security Administration (TSA)-009 General Legal Records (August 18, 2003, 68 FR 49496), which...

  6. 77 FR 70795 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Administration-012 Transportation Worker Identification Credentialing System (September 24, 2004, 69 FR 57348..., 2010, 75 FR 28046), which covers the Security Threat Assessment process associated with the... Credentialing (TWIC) System (September 24, 2004, 69 FR 57348), which was written to cover the Prototype Phase...

  7. 76 FR 42003 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register, 75 FR 7978, February 23, 2010, proposing to... published concurrently in the Federal Register, 75 FR 8096, February 23, 2010, and comments were invited on... of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence...

  8. 75 FR 28046 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Transportation Security Threat Assessment System of Records (70 FR 33383, November 8, 2005). TSA's mission is to... systems as reflected in the final rule published on June 25, 2004 in 69 FR 35536. The information is... Investigation--009 Fingerprint Identification Records System (72 FR 3410, January 1, 2007). ] Exemptions...

  9. 75 FR 43747 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... accessible transit vehicles,'' 32 Medical Engineering & Physics 230-236 (2010). T303.8.1 simplifies the...., buses characterized by an elevated passenger deck located over a baggage compartment). 56 FR 45530, September 6, 1991; 63 FR 51694, September 28, 1998. The Access Board's transportation vehicle guidelines...

  10. Vermont's Act 230 and Special Education Funding and Cost Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier.

    This report uses text, graphs, and tables to show how Vermont's Act 230 (1990) is being implemented to reform both regular and special education. The Act's goals focus on reducing dependence on categorical programs such as special education and increasing support available to students not eligible for special education through such strategies as…

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  12. Analytical and simulator study of advanced transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Rickard, W. W.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic methodology, based on the optimal-control pilot model, was demonstrated for assessing longitidunal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft in final approach. Calibration of the methodology is largely in terms of closed-loop performance requirements, rather than specific vehicle response characteristics, and is based on a combination of published criteria, pilot preferences, physical limitations, and engineering judgment. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling qualities problems, including the presence of flexible aircraft modes. The analytical procedure was used to obtain predictions of Cooper-Harper ratings, a solar quadratic performance index, and rms excursions of important system variables.

  13. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport.

  14. Rapid nongenomic actions of inhaled corticosteroids on long-acting β(2)-agonist transport in the airway.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Gabor; Mendes, Eliana S; Schmid, Nathalie; Schmid, Andreas; Conner, Gregory E; Fregien, Nevis L; Salathe, Matthias; Wanner, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Corticosteroids inhibit organic cation transporters (OCTs) that play an important role in drug absorption, tissue distribution and elimination. Corticosteroid sensitivity of bronchodilator trafficking in the airway tissue, however, is poorly understood. To assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on airway absorption and disposal mechanisms of long-acting β(2)-agonists, human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cell uptake of tritiated formoterol and salmeterol was measured in vitro. Corticosteroids caused a rapid, concentration-dependent inhibition of uptake of the cationic formoterol by airway smooth muscle cells, but not airway epithelial cells. Uptake of the non-charged lipophilic salmeterol was corticosteroid-insensitive in both cell types. In smooth muscle cells, inhaled corticosteroids inhibited formoterol uptake with a novel potency rank order: des-ciclesonide > budesonide > beclomethasone 17-monopropionate > beclomethasone dipropionate > ciclesonide > fluticasone. The inhibitory action was rapidly reversible, and was not enhanced by prolonged corticosteroid exposure or sensitive to a transcription inhibitor. Suppression of OCT3 expression using lentivirus-mediated production of shRNA reduced corticosteroid sensitivity of formoterol uptake by smooth muscle cells. Our data support a corticosteroid insensitive absorption and a corticosteroid-sensitive disposition mechanism for cationic long-acting β(2)-agonist bronchodilators in the airway. Potency rank order and other 'classical' features of anti-inflammatory effects do not apply to inhaled corticosteroids' rapid drug transport actions. PMID:21914487

  15. Transport and optical studies on individual nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qian

    Nanotechnology is considered a very important scientific discipline. It probably will offer tremendous growth opportunities to many industries. Numerous nanostructures showing interesting and practical properties have been synthesized. In order to fully understand and assemble these nanostructures into useful "nano-machines", investigations on individual nanostructures are needed. This thesis will present electron transport studies on individual organic molecules, a new method of fabricating asymmetric junctions to contact individual nanostructures, and synthesis, electrical and optical characterizations on single vanadium dioxide nanobeams. Chapter 1 serves as a brief introduction to the progress and challenges in nanotechnology. Chapter 2 first introduces single charge tunneling theory, and then discusses in detail the fabrication of single molecule transistors. Finally, this chapter presents a novel electrodeposition-based method to fabricate electrode pairs of dissimilar metals with a nanometer-sized gap between them. This electrodeposition-based method prevents cross-contamination of the different metals and enables simultaneous fabrication of multiple electrode pairs in a self-limiting manner. Chapter 3 presents electron transport studies on single molecule transistors based on individual ferrocene and nickelocene molecules. These devices show clean Coulomb blockade and energy quantization at liquid helium temperature. Low energy excited states are attributed to ring-torsion and center-of-mass vibrational modes of these molecules. Chapter 4 discusses electron transport properties of single molecule transistors based on individual [W6CCl18]n- molecules. Besides Coulomb blockade and energy quantization, these transistors demonstrate that tunneling electrons change the vibrational spectrum of [W 6CCl18]n- molecules and the vibrational modes in turn affect electron tunneling. Chapter 5 presents a vapor transport synthetic method of single crystalline vanadium

  16. Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Sound Attenuation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi N.; MacDonald, Rod; Faszer, Clifford

    2004-01-01

    The crawler transporter (CT) is the world's largest tracked vehicle known, weighing 6 million pounds with a length of 131 feet and a width of 113 feet. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has two CTs that were designed and built for the Apollo program in the 1960's, maintained and retrofitted for use in the Space Shuttle program. As a key element of the Space Shuttle ground systems, the crawler transports the entire 12-million-pound stack comprising the orbiter, the mobile launch platform (MLP), the external tank (ET), and the solid rocket boosters (SRB) from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to the launch pad. This rollout, constituting a 3.5-5.0-mile journey at a top speed of 0.9 miles-per-hour, requires over 8 hours to reach either Launch Complex 39A or B. This activity is only a prelude to the spectacle of sound and fury of the Space Shuttle launch to orbit in less than 10 minutes and traveling at orbital velocities of Mach 24. This paper summarizes preliminary results from the Crawler Transporter Sound Attenuation Study, encompassing test and engineering analysis of significant sound sources to measure and record full frequency spectrum and intensity of the various noise sources and to analyze the conditions of vibration. Additionally, data such as ventilation criteria, plus operational procedures were considered to provide a comprehensive noise suppression design for implementation. To date, sound attenuation study and results on Crawler 2 have shown significant noise reductions ranging from 5 to 24 dBA.

  17. Potential of public transit as a transportation control measure: Case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sillings, M.

    1998-07-01

    This report is the final product of the Clean Air Project of the National Association of Regional Councils/NARC. It documents a nationwide study of transit projects and programs initiated in the wake of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments/CAAA and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991/ISTEA. The study purpose was to assess the experience, limitations, and value of public transit as a potential transportation control measure/TCM, i.e., generates significant air quality benefits by eliminating or reducing emissions from motor vehicles. Four in-depth case studies and six additional projects featured as innovations in transportation are offered as examples investigating the potential of transit as a TCM. These case studies and innovations highlight the efforts of ten metropolitan areas and transit agencies which have succeed in developing and implementing innovative transit strategies.

  18. Pharmacokinetic Model of the Transport of Fast-Acting Insulin From the Subcutaneous and Intradermal Spaces to Blood.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dayu; Kulkarni, Sandip D; Chan, Alice; Keith, Stephen; Pettis, Ron; Kovatchev, Boris P; Farhi, Leon S; Breton, Marc D

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) models describing the transport of insulin from the injection site to blood assist clinical decision making and are part of in silico platforms for developing and testing of insulin delivery strategies for treatment of patients with diabetes. The ability of these models to accurately describe all facets of the in vivo insulin transport is therefore critical for their application. Here, we propose a new model of fast-acting insulin analogs transport from the subcutaneous and intradermal spaces to blood that can accommodate clinically observed biphasic appearance and delayed clearance of injected insulin, 2 phenomena that are not captured by existing PK models. To develop the model we compare 9 insulin transport PK models which describe hypothetical insulin delivery pathways potentially capable of approximating biphasic appearance of exogenous insulin. The models are tested with respect to their ability to describe clinical data from 10 healthy volunteers which received 1 subcutaneous and 2 intradermal insulin injections on 3 different occasions. The optimal model, selected based on information and posterior identifiability criteria, assumes that insulin is delivered at the administrative site and is then transported to the bloodstream via 2 independent routes (1) diffusion-like process to the blood and (2) combination of diffusion-like processes followed by an additional compartment before entering the blood. This optimal model accounts for biphasic appearance and delayed clearance of exogenous insulin. It agrees better with the clinical data as compared to commonly used models and is expected to improve the in silico development and testing of insulin treatment strategies, including artificial pancreas systems. PMID:25759184

  19. Pharmacokinetic Model of the Transport of Fast-Acting Insulin From the Subcutaneous and Intradermal Spaces to Blood

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Dayu; Kulkarni, Sandip D.; Chan, Alice; Keith, Stephen; Pettis, Ron; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Farhi, Leon S.; Breton, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) models describing the transport of insulin from the injection site to blood assist clinical decision making and are part of in silico platforms for developing and testing of insulin delivery strategies for treatment of patients with diabetes. The ability of these models to accurately describe all facets of the in vivo insulin transport is therefore critical for their application. Here, we propose a new model of fast-acting insulin analogs transport from the subcutaneous and intradermal spaces to blood that can accommodate clinically observed biphasic appearance and delayed clearance of injected insulin, 2 phenomena that are not captured by existing PK models. To develop the model we compare 9 insulin transport PK models which describe hypothetical insulin delivery pathways potentially capable of approximating biphasic appearance of exogenous insulin. The models are tested with respect to their ability to describe clinical data from 10 healthy volunteers which received 1 subcutaneous and 2 intradermal insulin injections on 3 different occasions. The optimal model, selected based on information and posterior identifiability criteria, assumes that insulin is delivered at the administrative site and is then transported to the bloodstream via 2 independent routes (1) diffusion-like process to the blood and (2) combination of diffusion-like processes followed by an additional compartment before entering the blood. This optimal model accounts for biphasic appearance and delayed clearance of exogenous insulin. It agrees better with the clinical data as compared to commonly used models and is expected to improve the in silico development and testing of insulin treatment strategies, including artificial pancreas systems. PMID:25759184

  20. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R

    2014-07-01

    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance. PMID:24300123

  1. ACT-CCREC Core Research Program: Study Questions and Design. ACT Working Paper Series. WP-2015-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruce, Ty M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a non-technical overview of the guiding research questions and research design for the ACT-led core research program conducted on behalf of the GEAR UP College and Career Readiness Evaluation Consortium (CCREC). The core research program is a longitudinal study of the effectiveness of 14 GEAR UP state grants on the academic…

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PM 2.5 FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD TO DIFFERENTIATE FINE AND COARSE MODE AEROSOL (A RESPONSE TO SECTION 6102(E) OF THE TRANSPORTATION EQUITY ACT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is submitted in response to Section 6102(e) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, which states:

    "The Administrator shall conduct a field study of the ability of the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method to differentiate those particles that ...

  3. Study of high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A systems study to identify the economic potential for a high-speed commercial transport (HSCT) has considered technology, market characteristics, airport infrastructure, and environmental issues. Market forecasts indicate a need for HSCT service in the 2000/2010 time frame conditioned on economic viability and environmental acceptability. Design requirements focused on a 300 passenger, 3 class service, and 6500 nautical mile range based on the accelerated growth of the Pacific region. Compatibility with existing airports was an assumed requirement. Mach numbers between 2 and 25 were examined in conjunction with the appropriate propulsion systems, fuels, structural materials, and thermal management systems. Aircraft productivity was a key parameter with aircraft worth, in comparison to aircraft price, being the airline-oriented figure of merit. Aircraft screening led to determination that Mach 3.2 (TSJF) would have superior characteristics to Mach 5.0 (LNG) and the recommendation that the next generation high-speed commercial transport aircraft use a kerosene fuel. The sensitivity of aircraft performance and economics to environmental constraints (e.g., sonic boom, engine emissions, and airport/community noise) was identified together with key technologies. In all, current technology is not adequate to produce viable HSCTs for the world marketplace. Technology advancements must be accomplished to meet environmental requirements (these requirements are as yet undetermined for sonic boom and engine emissions). High priority is assigned to aircraft gross weight reduction which benefits both economics and environmental aspects. Specific technology requirements are identified and national economic benefits are projected.

  4. National Transportation Study 1974. Manual 1: General Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This manual is the first of two to be developed by the Department of Transportation to assist in conducting the 1974 National Transportation Study. This second in the series of biennial studies has been designed to build upon the data base and organizational framework established for the 1972 National Transportation Study as well as to develop…

  5. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  6. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ACT OF 1963, A CASE STUDY IN LEGISLATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLIEVER, DOUGLAS E.

    THE SMITH-HUGHES ACT OF 1917, DEVELOPED FROM THE "REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON NATIONAL AID TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION," WAS THE BASIS FOR HR4955. THE BILL'S IMMEDIATE HISTORY BEGAN IN 1960 WITH THE ENTHUSIASM OF ADVOCATES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION FOR THE NOMINATION OF JOHN F. KENNEDY. THE AMERICAN VOCATIONAL ASSOCIATION (AVA) RECEIVED A PLEDGE OF…

  7. Tidewater metropolitan area transportation survey study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficht, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted in southeastern Virginia to identify public opinion regarding requirements for future public transportation are analyzed. The effects of age and income level on attitudes concerning city living and no importance of various characteristics described for urban transportation systems are identified.

  8. High-transonic-speed transport aircraft study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulfan, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    An initial design study of high-transonic-speed transport aircraft has been completed. Five different design concepts were developed. These included fixed swept wing, variable-sweep wing, delta wing, double-fuselage yawed-wing, and single-fuselage yawed-wing aircraft. The boomless supersonic design objectives of range = 5560 km (3000 nmi), payload = 18,143 kg (40,000 lb), Mach = 1.2, and FAR Part 36 aircraft noise levels were achieved by the single-fuselage yawed-wing configuration with a gross weight of 211,828 kg (467,000 lb). A noise level of 15 EPNdB below FAR Part 36 requirements was obtained with a gross weight increase to 226,796 kg (500,000 lb). The off-design subsonic range capability for this configuration exceeded the Mach 1.2 design range by more than 20%. Although wing aeroelastic divergence was a primary design consideration for the yawed-wing concepts, the graphite-epoxy wings of this study were designed by critical gust and maneuver loads rather than by divergence requirements. The transonic nacelle drag is shown to be very sensitive to the nacelle installation. A six-degree-of-freedom dynamic stability analysis indicated that the control coordination and stability augmentation system would require more development than for a symmetrical airplane but is entirely feasible. A three-plane development plan is recommended to establish the full potential of the yawed-wing concept.

  9. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  10. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  11. 23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, TEA-21 (Pub. L. 105-178), a State(s), MPO(s), or public...), and/or public transportation operator(s). The results or decisions of these transportation planning... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and associated implementing regulations (23...

  12. 23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, TEA-21 (Pub. L. 105-178), an MPO(s), State(s), or public...), and/or public transportation operator(s). The results or decisions of these transportation planning... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and associated implementing regulations (23...

  13. 23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, TEA-21 (Pub. L. 105-178), a State(s), MPO(s), or public...), and/or public transportation operator(s). The results or decisions of these transportation planning... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and associated implementing regulations (23...

  14. 23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, TEA-21 (Pub. L. 105-178), an MPO(s), State(s), or public...), and/or public transportation operator(s). The results or decisions of these transportation planning... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and associated implementing regulations (23...

  15. 23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, TEA-21 (Pub. L. 105-178), a State(s), MPO(s), or public...), and/or public transportation operator(s). The results or decisions of these transportation planning... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and associated implementing regulations (23...

  16. 23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, TEA-21 (Pub. L. 105-178), an MPO(s), State(s), or public...), and/or public transportation operator(s). The results or decisions of these transportation planning... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and associated implementing regulations (23...

  17. 23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, TEA-21 (Pub. L. 105-178), an MPO(s), State(s), or public...), and/or public transportation operator(s). The results or decisions of these transportation planning... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and associated implementing regulations (23...

  18. 23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, TEA-21 (Pub. L. 105-178), a State(s), MPO(s), or public...), and/or public transportation operator(s). The results or decisions of these transportation planning... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and associated implementing regulations (23...

  19. Across-Shelf Transport of Bivalve Larvae: Can the Interface between a Coastal Current and Inshore Waters Act as an Ecological Barrier to Larval Dispersal?

    PubMed Central

    Tilburg, Charles E.; McCartney, Michael A.; Yund, Philip O.

    2012-01-01

    Using an integrated physical and biological approach, we examined across-shelf advection and exchange and the associated transport of bivalve larvae in the presence of a strong coastal current separated from the coast by a stratified inshore environment. We tested the hypothesis that the interface of the coastal current and inshore waters can act as an ecological barrier to across-shelf transport of larvae but can be overcome by wind- or tidally-induced transport. Our study region in the Gulf of Maine encompasses a coastal current that diverges from the coast as it moves downshelf. The region inshore of this current is home to several species that exhibit limited recruitment in spite of extensive upshelf larval sources. Analysis of surface water temperatures and wind velocities revealed episodic decreases in temperature along the coast correlated with alongshelf (but not upwelling) winds, indicating wind-forced onshore movement of the cold coastal current. Such wind-driven onshore migrations are more common along the northern portion of the study region where the coastal current is near the coast, tidal currents are strong, and wind directions are more conducive to onshore migration, but rarer further south where the interface between inshore waters and the coastal current is further offshore and suitable wind events are less common. The distribution of bivalve larvae was consistent with the physical measurements. There was little across-shelf variation in larval abundance where the current abuts the coast, indicating strong across-shelf exchange of larvae, but strong across-shelf variation in larval density where the stratified inshore waters separate the current from the coast, indicating weak across-shelf transport of larvae. Our results suggest that the interface between the coastal current and inshore waters may constitute a major ecological barrier to larval dispersal in the southern part of the region that may only be overcome by rare, strong wind

  20. Highly reusable space transportation system study

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    To significantly increase demand for launch services by stimulating existing and planned markets as well as enabling new markets, the cost to orbit needs to be reduced a factor of ten below projected Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) goals. This will place the recurring operations cost around {dollar_sign}200 per payload pound to low earth orbit (LEO). Methods for reducing the cost include: increasing relative vehicle performance, increasing vehicle reusability, and decreasing recurring operations. A study was conducted for NASA in support of its Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) initiative to identify for further assessment and development, those launch strategies that hold the greatest potential with respect to meeting this goal. During this study a number of candidate strategies were evaluated associated with access to space. Both technical and cost trades were performed, and concluded that there are two airbreathing propulsion concepts utilizing launch assist that appear promising in achieving the HRST-cost goals. These concepts employ both turbine based combine cycle (TBCC) and rocket based combine cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. The launch assist selected uses electromagnetic propulsion and a guideway to provide both delta velocity and altitude. A first order investigation of system level requirements associated with HRST launch assist for a magnetically launched vehicle including guideway concept and requirements as well as magnetic levitation and propulsion concepts and requirements were also conducted. This study concluded that the HRST goals of total recurring operations cost of {dollar_sign}200 per payload pound to Low Earth Orbit based on a ten year operational period were feasible if the required technology was matured. The most promising concept to achieve these goals is based on a RBCC powered vehicle with electromagnetic launch assist. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Simulation study of proton transport in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Philip; Allahyarov, Elshad

    2008-03-01

    Coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations were used to study the morphological changes induced in a Nafion-like ionomer by the imposition of a strong electric field. We observe that proton transport through this polymer electrolyte membrane is accompanied by morphological changes that include the formation of structures aligned along the direction of the applied field. The polar head groups of the ionomer side chains assemble into clusters, which then form rod-like formations, and these cylindrical structures then assemble into a hexagonally ordered array aligned with the direction of current flow. For dry ionomers, at current densities in excess of 1 A/cm^2 these rod-like clusters undergo an inner micro-phase separation, in which distinct wire-like lines of sulfonate head groups are accompanied by similar wire-like alignments of bound protons. The clusters appear to be of two types. If there are two, four, or five lines of sulfonates then there is an equal number of lines of protons, but if there are three lines of sulfonates then they are accompanied by four lines of protons. Occasionally these lines of sulfonates and protons form a helical structure. Upon removal of the electric field, the hexagonal array of rod-like structures remains, but the microphase separation disappears below the threshold current of 1 A/cm^2.

  2. Molecular Transport Studies Through Unsupported Lipid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, William; Parekh, Sapun; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-03-01

    Dendrimers, spherical polymeric nanoparticles made from branched monomers around a central core, show great promise as drug delivery vehicles. Dendrimer size, core contents, and surface functionality can be synthetically tuned, providing unprecedented versatility. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been shown to enter cells; however, questions remain about their biophysical interactions with the cell membrane, specifically about the presence and size of transient pores. We monitor dendrimer-lipid bilayer interactions using unsupported black lipid membranes (BLMs) as model cell membranes. Custom bilayer slides contain two vertically stacked aqueous chambers separated by a 25 μm Teflon sheet with a 120 μm aperture where the bilayer is formed. We vary the composition of model membranes (cholesterol content and lipid phase) to create biomimetic systems and study the interaction of PAMAM G6 and G3 dendrimers with these bilayers. Dendrimers, dextran cargo, and bilayers are monitored and quantified using time-lapse fluorescence imaging. Electrical capacitance measurements are simultaneously recorded to determine if the membrane is porous, and the pore size is deduced by monitoring transport of fluorescent dextrans of increasing molecular weight. These experiments shed light on the importance of cholesterol content and lipid phase on the interaction of dendrimer nanoparticles with membranes.

  3. Abcb4 acts as multixenobiotic transporter and active barrier against chemical uptake in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In mammals, ABCB1 constitutes a cellular “first line of defense” against a wide array of chemicals and drugs conferring cellular multidrug or multixenobiotic resistance (MDR/MXR). We tested the hypothesis that an ABCB1 ortholog serves as protection for the sensitive developmental processes in zebrafish embryos against adverse compounds dissolved in the water. Results Indication for ABCB1-type efflux counteracting the accumulation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos comes from experiments with fluorescent and toxic transporter substrates and inhibitors. With inhibitors present, levels of fluorescent dyes in embryo tissue and sensitivity of embryos to toxic substrates were generally elevated. We verified two predicted sequences from zebrafish, previously annotated as abcb1, by cloning; our synteny analyses, however, identified them as abcb4 and abcb5, respectively. The abcb1 gene is absent in the zebrafish genome and we explored whether instead Abcb4 and/or Abcb5 show toxicant defense properties. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses showed the presence of transcripts of both genes throughout the first 48 hours of zebrafish development. Similar to transporter inhibitors, morpholino knock-down of Abcb4 increased accumulation of fluorescent substrates in embryo tissue and sensitivity of embryos toward toxic compounds. In contrast, morpholino knock-down of Abcb5 did not exert this effect. ATPase assays with recombinant protein obtained with the baculovirus expression system confirmed that dye and toxic compounds act as substrates of zebrafish Abcb4 and inhibitors block its function. The compounds tested comprised model substrates of human ABCB1, namely the fluorescent dyes rhodamine B and calcein-am and the toxic compounds vinblastine, vincristine and doxorubicin; cyclosporin A, PSC833, MK571 and verapamil were applied as inhibitors. Additionally, tests were performed with ecotoxicologically relevant compounds: phenanthrene (a

  4. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  5. Same sex acts involving older men. An ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Ramello, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277

  6. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model

    PubMed Central

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay ® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  7. Study of active cooling for supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential benefits of using the fuel heat sink of hydrogen fueled supersonic transports for cooling large portions of the aircraft wing and fuselage are examined. The heat transfer would be accomplished by using an intermediate fluid such as an ethylene glycol-water solution. Some of the advantages of the system are: (1) reduced costs by using aluminum in place of titanium, (2) reduced cabin heat loads, and (3) more favorable environmental conditions for the aircraft systems. A liquid hydrogen fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic transport aircraft design was used for the reference uncooled vehicle. The cooled aircraft designs were analyzed to determine their heat sink capability, the extent and location of feasible cooled surfaces, and the coolant passage size and spacing.

  8. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) contracted with IHS Global, Inc. (IHS) to analyze the relationship between the value of industrial output, physical output, and freight movement in the United States for use in updating analytic assumptions and modeling structure within the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) freight transportation module, including forecasting methodologies and processes to identify possible alternative approaches that would improve multi-modal freight flow and fuel consumption estimation.

  9. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S.

    2011-09-01

    the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Under Section 368, Congress divided the United States into two groups of states: the 11 contiguous western states and the remaining states. Direction for energy transportation corridor analysis and selection in the 11 western states was addressed in Section 368(a) of EPAct, while direction for energy transportation corridor analysis and selection in all other states was addressed under Section 368(b) of EPAct. It was clearly the priority of Congress to conduct corridor location studies and designation first on federal lands in the western states. Under Section 368(a), the Agencies produced a programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS), Designation of Energy Corridors on Federal Land in the 11 Western States (DOE and DOI 2008), that was used in part as the basis for designating more than 6,000 mi (9,656 km) of energy transportation corridors on federal land in 11 western states. Under Section 368(a) of EPAct, Congress clearly stated the Agencies needed to (1) designate energy transportation corridors on federal land, (2) conduct the necessary environmental review of the designated corridors, and (3) incorporate the designated corridors into the appropriate land use plans. Congressional direction under Section 368(b) of EPAct differs from that provided under Section 368(a). Specifically, Section 368(b) requires the secretaries of the Agencies, in consultation with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), affected utility industries, and other interested persons, to jointly: (1) Identify corridors for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines and electricity transmission and distribution facilities on federal land in states other than the 11 western states identified under Section 368(a) of EPAct, and (2) Schedule prompt action to identify, designate, and incorporate the corridors into the applicable land use plans. While Section 368(a) clearly directs designation as a necessary first step for energy transportation

  10. Integrated mass transportation system study/definition/implementation program definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, R. K.; Deptula, D. A.; Yorke, G. G.

    1975-01-01

    Specific actions needed to plan and effect transportation system improvements are identified within the constraints of limited financial, energy and land use resources, and diverse community requirements. A specific program is described which would develop the necessary generalized methodology for devising improved transportation systems and evaluate them against specific criteria for intermodal and intramodal optimization. A consistent, generalized method is provided for study and evaluation of transportation system improvements.

  11. A way through the dark and thorny thickets? The adjudication of "serious injury" under the narrative tests in the Transport Accident Act 1986 (Vic) and the Workplace Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2013 (Vic).

    PubMed

    Taliadoros, Jason

    2015-09-01

    The so-called "narrative" test provides the means by which injured persons who satisfy the statutory and common law definition of "serious injury" may bring proceedings for common law damages under s 93 of the Transport Accident Act 1986 (Vic) and s 134AB of the Accident Compensation Act 1985 (Vic) (or, for injuries after 1 July 2014, under ss 324-347 of the Workplace Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2013 (Vic)). These are among the most litigated provisions in Australia. This article outlines the legislative and political background to these provisions, the provisions themselves, and an account of the statutory and common law requirements needed to satisfy the provisions. PMID:26554209

  12. Methodological issues associated with studying an illegal act: assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Volker, Deborah L

    2004-01-01

    The experience of receiving patient requests for assistance in prematurely ending life can represent both an ethical and legal dilemma for nurses in the United States. Similarly, the study of nurses' involvement with such a sensitive topic also poses risks to the study participants, the researcher, and the nursing profession's covenant with society. The purpose of this article is to explore methodological issues and approaches associated with studying an ethically and legally sensitive issue, and to describe application of these approaches to a study of oncology nurses' experiences with receiving requests for assisted dying from terminally ill patients with cancer. PMID:15206683

  13. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  14. Deschutes estuary feasibility study: hydrodynamics and sediment transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Douglas A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Lesser, Giles; Stevens, Andrew W.

    2006-01-01

    - Provide the completed study to the CLAMP Steering Committee so that a recommendation about a long-term aquatic environment of the basin can be made. The hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling task developed a number of different model simulations using a process-based morphological model, Delft3D, to help address these goals. Modeling results provide a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior both prior to dam construction and after various post-dam removal scenarios. Quantitative data from the model is used in the companion biological assessment and engineering design components of the overall study. Overall, the modeling study found that after dam removal, tidal and estuarine processes are immediately restored, with marine water from Budd Inlet carried into North and Middle Basin on each rising tide and mud flats being exposed with each falling tide. Within the first year after dam removal, tidal processes, along with the occasional river floods, act to modify the estuary bed by redistributing sediment through erosion and deposition. The morphological response of the bed is rapid during the first couple of years, then slows as a dynamic equilibrium is reached within three to five years. By ten years after dam removal, the overall hydrodynamic and morphologic behavior of the estuary is similar to the pre-dam estuary, with the exception of South Basin, which has been permanently modified by human activities. In addition to a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior, process-based modeling provides the ability address specific questions to help to inform decision-making. Considering that predicting future conditions of a complex estuarine environment is wrought with uncertainties, quantitative results in this report are often expressed in terms of ranges of possible outcomes.

  15. Studies of thunderstorm transport processes with aircraft using tracer techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Detwiler, A.G.; Smith, P.L.; Stith, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Instrumented aircraft can provide in situ measurements of winds and turbulence useful for studying transport and dispersion in clouds. Using inert artificial gases as tracers, and fast response analyzers on aircraft, time-resolved observations of transport and dispersion have been obtained. Examples are shown of these types of observations in and around cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  16. High-speed civil transport study: Special factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental factors associated with high speed civil transports were conducted. Projected total engine emissions for year 2015 fleets of several subsonic/supersonic transport fleet scenarios, discussion of sonic boom reduction methods, discussion of community noise level requirements, fuels considerations, and air traffic control impact are presented.

  17. The Practical Aspects of the Visual Act in Studying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bernard N.

    This paper explores the role of vision in reading and studying. "How Vision Occurs" discusses the functions of rods, cones, the cerebral cortex, and the receptor senses. "The Optometrist and the Educator" views the role of the optometrist in relation to student learning. "Eye Anatomy Terms" defines the ciliary muscle, optic disc and nerve, macula…

  18. Balancing Act: Student Valuation and Cultural Studies Composition Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Eliot

    2011-01-01

    Composition scholars have contributed many theoretical analyses that WPAs and teachers might apply to first-year composition textbooks in order to make informed decisions about book adoption and implementation. As they offer critiques of the ideological effects of FYC books, many of these studies call composition textbooks "tools" without…

  19. Reducing the genetic redundancy of Arabidopsis PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 transporters to study phosphate uptake and signaling.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Amal; David, Pascale; Arrighi, Jean-François; Chiarenza, Serge; Thibaud, Marie-Christine; Nussaume, Laurent; Marin, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) absorbs inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the soil through an active transport process mediated by the nine members of the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1) family. These proteins share a high level of similarity (greater than 61%), with overlapping expression patterns. The resulting genetic and functional redundancy prevents the analysis of their specific roles. To overcome this difficulty, our approach combined several mutations with gene silencing to inactivate multiple members of the PHT1 family, including a cluster of genes localized on chromosome 5 (PHT1;1, PHT1;2, and PHT1;3). Physiological analyses of these lines established that these three genes, along with PHT1;4, are the main contributors to Pi uptake. Furthermore, PHT1;1 plays an important role in translocation from roots to leaves in high phosphate conditions. These genetic tools also revealed that some PHT1 transporters likely exhibit a dual affinity for phosphate, suggesting that their activity is posttranslationally controlled. These lines display significant phosphate deficiency-related phenotypes (e.g. biomass and yield) due to a massive (80%-96%) reduction in phosphate uptake activities. These defects limited the amount of internal Pi pool, inducing compensatory mechanisms triggered by the systemic Pi starvation response. Such reactions have been uncoupled from PHT1 activity, suggesting that systemic Pi sensing is most probably acting downstream of PHT1. PMID:25670816

  20. The ARIES Advanced And Conservative Tokamak (ACT) Power Plant Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.; Tillack, M. S.; Najmabadi, F.; Wang, X. R.; Navaei, D.; Toudeshki, H. H.; Koehly, C.; El-Guebaly, L.; Blanchard, J. P.; Martin, C. J.; Mynsburge, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Yoda, M.; Abdel-Khalik, S. I.; Hageman, M. D.; Mills, B. H.; Radar, J. D.; Sadowski, D. L.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.; Waganer, L. M.; Malang, S.; Rowcliffe, A. F.

    2014-03-05

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies in order to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding, and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared to older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium (SCLL) blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q95 of 4.5, a {beta}N{sup total} of 5.75, H{sub 98} of 1.65, n/nGr of 1.0, and peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m{sup 2}. The conservative configuration assumes a dual coolant lead lithium (DCLL) blanket concept with ferritic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma major radius is 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q95 of 8.0, a {beta}N{sup total} of 2.5, H{sub 98} of 1.25, n/n{sub Gr} of 1.3, and peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}. The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape-off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range of 10-15 MW/m{sup 2}. Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here.

  1. Use of cultured epithelia to study transport and its regulation.

    PubMed

    Handler, J S

    1983-09-01

    Epithelial cells from a variety of species and organs form polarized epithelia in culture. When epithelia are grown on a porous surface, such as a millipore filter, transport can be studied using adaptations of standard techniques. In the few years in which cultured epithelia have been studied by transport physiologists, most work has been focused on identification and description of the differentiated transport exhibited by cultured epithelia. Epithelia formed by a continuous line of cells derived from pig kidney (LLC-PK1) exhibit sodium-coupled glucose transport similar to that of the proximal tubule and have vasopressin-sensitive adenylate cyclase that has been studied in great detail. Also of interest are epithelia formed by continuous lines of cells derived from amphibian kidney (A6) and from amphibian urinary bladder (TBM). Each line forms epithelia that have high electrical resistance and amiloride-sensitive sodium transport. Transport is stimulated by aldosterone and by cAMP or hormones that raise cell cAMP levels. In LLC-PK1 and in A6 epithelia, transport and the response to hormones can be manipulated by manipulating the culture conditions. Cultured epithelia have also been used to explore the cell biology of epithelia. Most interesting in this regard are studies of the development and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. This approach should be especially valuable. PMID:6317789

  2. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  3. Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes

  4. Experimental setup for tungsten transport studies at the NSTX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C. H.; Mansfield, D. K.; Hartzfeld, K.; Lepson, J. K.

    2010-10-15

    Tungsten particles have been introduced into the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in Princeton with the purpose to investigate the effects of tungsten injection on subsequent plasma discharges. An experimental setup for the study of tungsten particle transport is described where the particles are introduced into the tokamak using a modified particle dropper, otherwise used for lithium-powder injection. An initial test employing a grazing-incidence extreme ultraviolet spectrometer demonstrates that the tungsten-transport setup could serve to infer particle transport from the edge to the hot central plasmas of NSTX.

  5. Rio Grande sediment study -- Supply and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, E.; Eidson, D.; Bourgeois, M.

    1995-12-31

    The 1992 New Mexico State Legislature directed the Interstate Stream Commission (ISC) to study the feasibility of clearing and deepening the channel of the Rio Grande between Albuquerque and Elephant Butte to improve water conveyance and water conservation. The ISC requested the US Army Corps of Engineers-Albuquerque District (COE) to undertake this study under the Planning Assistance to States Program. The study was divided into two phases. Phase 1 consisted of an analysis of the sediment contribution to the Rio grande from the tributaries and an evaluation of the existing US Geological Survey (USGS) sediment gage data. Phase 2 will be an analysis, through the use of an HEC-6, Scour and Deposition in Rivers and Reservoirs, computer model, to determine the long-term performance of any Rio Grande channel improvements. This narrative presents the Phase 1 methods and results.

  6. A kinetic study of mercury(II) transport through a membrane assisted by new transport reagent

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A new organodithiophosphorus derivative, namely O-(1,3-Bispiperidino-2-propyl)-4-methoxy phenyldithiophosphonate, was synthesized and then the kinetic behavior of the transport process as a function of concentration, temperature, stirring rate and solvents was investigated. Results The compound 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopies. The transport of mercury(II) ion by a zwitterionic dithiophosphonate 1 in the liquid membrane was studied and the kinetic behavior of the transport process as a function of concentration, temperature, stirring rate and solvents was investigated. The compound 1 is expected to serve as a model liquid membrane transport with mercury(II) ions. Conclusion A kinetic study of mercury(II) transport through a membrane assisted by O-(1,3-Bispiperidino-2-propyl)-4-methoxy phenyldithiophosphonate was performed. It can be concluded that the compound 1 can be provided a general and straightforward route to remove toxic metals ions such as mercury(II) ion from water or other solution. PMID:21762513

  7. Expression of Neurotransmitter Transporters for Structural and Biochemical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Yael; Danieli, Tsafi; Kanner, Baruch I.; Schuldiner, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters play essential roles in the process of neurotransmission. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters mediate storage inside secretory vesicles in a process that involves the exchange of lumenal H+ for cytoplasmic transmitter. Retrieval of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft catalyzed by sodium-coupled transporters is critical for the termination of the synaptic actions of the released neurotransmitter. Our current understanding of the mechanism of these transporters is based on functional and biochemical characterization but is lacking high-resolution structural information. Very few structures of membrane transport systems from mammalian origin have been solved to atomic resolution, mainly because of the difficulty in obtaining large amounts of purified protein. Development of high yield heterologous expression systems suitable for mammalian neurotransmitter transporters is essential to enable the production of purified protein for structural studies. Such a system makes possible also the production of mutants that can be used in biochemical and biophysical studies. We describe here a screen for the expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in cell-free and baculovirus expression systems and discuss the expression of VMAT2 in other systems as well (bacterial, yeast and mammalian cell lines). After screening and optimization, we achieved high yield (2–2.5 mg/liter) expression of functional VMAT2 in insect cells. The system was also used for the expression of three additional plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters. All were functional and expressed to high levels. Our results demonstrate the advantages of the baculovirus expression system for the expression of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters in a functional state. PMID:20566324

  8. Experimental Study of Heat Transport in Fractured Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Nicola; Cherubini, Claudia; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicoletta M.; Redondo, Jose M.; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    Fractured rocks play an important role in transport of natural resources or contaminants transport through subsurface systems. In recent years, interest has grown in investigating heat transport by means of tracer tests, driven by the important current development of geothermal applications. In literature different methods are available for predicting thermal breakthrough in fractured reservoirs based on the information coming from tracer tests. Geothermal energy is one of the largest sources of renewable energies that are extracted from the earth. The growing interest in this new energy source has stimulated attempts to develop methods and technologies for extracting energy also from ground resource at low temperature. An example is the exploitation of low enthalpy geothermal energy that can be obtained at any place with the aid of ground-source heat pump system from the soil, rock and groundwater. In such geothermal systems the fluid movement and thermal behavior in the fractured porous media is very important and critical. Existing theory of fluid flow and heat transport through porous media is of limited usefulness when applied to fractured rocks. Many field and laboratory tracer tests in fractured media show that fracture -matrix exchange is more significant for heat than mass tracers, thus thermal breakthrough curves (BTCs) are strongly controlled by matrix thermal diffusivity. In this study the behaviour of heat transport in a fractured network at bench scale has been investigated. Heat tracer tests on an artificially created fractured rock sample have been carried out. The observed thermal BTCs obtained with six thermocouple probes located at different locations in the fractured medium have been modeled with the Explicit Network Model (ENM) based an adaptation of Tang's solution for solute transport in a semi-infinite single fracture embedded in a porous matrix. The ENM model is able to represent the behavior of observed heat transport except where the

  9. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Moore, T. J.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of gaseous contaminants through the working fluid to or from sensitive refractory alloys is theoretically possible during long time operation of Brayton and Stirling space power generation systems which use a gas as the working fluid. A test was designed which could give an answer to whether transport of contaminants through the working fluid was a potential major problem. The findings of that preliminary study are summarized.

  10. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  11. 77 FR 5850 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... evaluation study period. On July 21, 2011 (76 FR 43729-43731), the Department solicited comments concerning... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act... interest to use a random assignment impact methodology for the study. This methodology will provide...

  12. Screening study on high temperature energy transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of the study described in this document is to identify the options for transporting thermal energy over long distances. The study deals specifically and exclusively with high temperature (> 400/sup 0/C(752/sup 0/F)) energy for industrial use. Energy transport is seen as a potential solution to: high unit cost of small coal and nuclear steam generators, and opposition to siting of coal or nuclear plants near populated areas. The study is of a preliminary nature but covers many options including steam, molten salts, organics, and chemical heat pipes. The development status and potential problems of these and other energy transport methods are discussed. Energy transport concepts are compared on a fundamental level based on physical properties and also are subjected to an economic study. The economic study indicated that the chemical heat pipe, under a specific set of circumstances, appeared to be the least expensive for distances greater than about 32 km (20 miles). However, if the temperature of the energy was lowered, the heat transfer salt (sodium nitrate/nitrite) system would apparently be a better economic choice for less than about 80 km (50 miles). None of the options studied appear to be more attractive than small coal-fired boilers when the transport distance is over about 64 km (40 miles). Several recommendations are made for refining the analysis.

  13. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M.

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  14. Small transport aircraft technology propeller study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, B. M.; Magliozzi, B.; Rohrbach, C.

    1983-01-01

    A study to define potential benefits of advanced technology propeller for 1985-1990 STAT commuter airplanes was completed. Two baselines, a Convair, 30 passenger, 0.47 Mach number airplane and a Lockheed, 50 passenger, 0.70 Mach number airplane, were selected from NASA-Ames sponsored airframe contracts. Parametric performance, noise level, weight and cost trends for propellers with varying number of blades, activity factor, camber and diameter incorporating blade sweep, tip proplets, advanced composite materials, advanced airfoils, advanced prevision synchrophasing and counter-rotation are presented. The resulting DOC, fuel burned, empty weight and acquisition cost benefits are presented for resizings of the two baseline airplanes. Six-bladed propeller having advanced composite blades, advanced airfoils, tip proplets and advanced prevision synchrophasers provided the maximum DOC improvements for both airplanes. DOC and fuel burned were reduced by 8.3% and 17.0% respectively for the Convair airplane and by 24.9% and 41.2% respectively for the Lockheed airplane. The larger reductions arose from a baseline definition with very heavy fuselage acoustic treatment. An alternate baseline, with a cabin noise 13dB in excess of the objective, was also studied.

  15. Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

  16. Molecular dynamics studies on nanoscale gas transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barisik, Murat

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoscale gas flows are studied to reveal surface effects. A smart wall model that drastically reduces the memory requirements of MD simulations for gas flows is introduced. The smart wall molecular dynamics (SWMD) represents three-dimensional FCC walls using only 74 wall Molecules. This structure is kept in the memory and utilized for each gas molecule surface collision. Using SWMD, fluid behavior within nano-scale confinements is studied for argon in dilute gas, dense gas, and liquid states. Equilibrium MD method is employed to resolve the density and stress variations within the static fluid. Normal stress calculations are based on the Irving-Kirkwood method, which divides the stress tensor into its kinetic and virial parts. The kinetic component recovers pressure based on the ideal gas law. The particle-particle virial increases with increased density, while the surface-particle virial develops due to the surface force field effects. Normal stresses within nano-scale confinements show anisotropy induced primarily by the surface force-field and local variations in the fluid density near the surfaces. For dilute and dense gas cases, surface-force field that extends typically 1nm from each wall induces anisotropic normal stress. For liquid case, this effect is further amplified by the density fluctuations that extend beyond the three field penetration region. Outside the wall force-field penetration and density fluctuation regions the normal stress becomes isotropic and recovers the thermodynamic pressure, provided that sufficiently large force cut-off distances are utilized in the computations. Next, non-equilibrium SWMD is utilized to investigate the surface-gas interaction effects on nanoscale shear-driven gas flows in the transition and free molecular flow regimes. For the specified surface properties and gas-surface pair interactions, density and stress profiles exhibit a universal behavior inside the

  17. Study of space transportation for space solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Shoji; Aoki, Hiroshi; Okawa, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    Space solar power systems (SSPSs) have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electric power for use on the Earth. One of the hurdles to them is the transportation of SSPSs to the operational geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). The objectives of this study are to examine the transportation of SSPSs, and to give a reference transportation scenario. This study presumes that the SSPSs have a mass of 10,000 tons each and are constructed at a rate of one per year. Reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) are assumed for the transportation to low Earth orbit (LEO), and reusable orbit transfer vehicles (OTVs) propelled by a solar electric propulsion system for the transportation from LEO to GEO. The payload element delivered to LEO by each launch is individually transferred by each OTV transportation service to GEO, where the elements are assembled into a whole SSPS. The OTV round-trip time is assumed to be a year. With these operations and reasonable estimations for the OTV subsystems, the OTV payload ratio was obtained. This, with an SSPS element mass, gave the total mass that has to be launched by RLVs. The result indicated that about 300 times of launch are required per year.

  18. Update on Douglas' high-speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of high speed civil transport (HSCT) studies underway at Douglas Aircraft. A brief review is given of experience with design and development of advanced supersonic transport concepts and associated technology. A review is then presented of past NASA funded contract research studies focused on selection of appropriate concepts for high speed civil transport aircraft to be introduced in the year 2000 time frame for commercial service. Follow-on activities to those studies are then presented which were conducted under independent research studies as well as under further NASA funded efforts. Design Mach number selections and associated baseline design missions are then discussed along with forecasted passenger traffic and associated supersonic fleet sizes, and then proceeds into a discussion of individual issues related either to environmental acceptability or overall technology requirements in order to achieve the required economic viability of the program. A summary is given of current and future plans and activities.

  19. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Test act system validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective of the Test Active Control Technology (ACT) System laboratory tests was to verify and validate the system concept, hardware, and software. The initial lab tests were open loop hardware tests of the Test ACT System as designed and built. During the course of the testing, minor problems were uncovered and corrected. Major software tests were run. The initial software testing was also open loop. These tests examined pitch control laws, wing load alleviation, signal selection/fault detection (SSFD), and output management. The Test ACT System was modified to interface with the direct drive valve (DDV) modules. The initial testing identified problem areas with DDV nonlinearities, valve friction induced limit cycling, DDV control loop instability, and channel command mismatch. The other DDV issue investigated was the ability to detect and isolate failures. Some simple schemes for failure detection were tested but were not completely satisfactory. The Test ACT System architecture continues to appear promising for ACT/FBW applications in systems that must be immune to worst case generic digital faults, and be able to tolerate two sequential nongeneric faults with no reduction in performance. The challenge in such an implementation would be to keep the analog element sufficiently simple to achieve the necessary reliability.

  20. Surface Transportation Research and Development Act of 1997. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Mr. Sensenbrenner, from the Committee on Science, submitted this report together with additional views. The Committee on Science, to whom was referred the bill (H.R. 860) to authorize appropriations to the Department of Transportation for surface transportation research and development, and for other purposes, having considered the same, report favorably thereon with an amendment and recommend that the bill as amended do pass.

  1. An In-Depth Study of Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) Schools: 1974-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellisch, Jean B.; And Others

    The 1974-75 in-depth study was designed and conducted as an exploratory investigation of program and contextual factors related to achievement. The study was conducted in conjunction with the National Evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA). The analysis of school success was guided by a conceptual model that identified four key…

  2. Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economic Effects Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and summarizes the findings of three 1969 studies of the economic effects of these amendments. The studies found that economic growth continued through the third phase of the amendments, beginning February 1, 1969, despite increased wage and hours restrictions for recently…

  3. Transportation study for the Geysers Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Potential cumulative impacts on the transportation system are assessed and recommendations are made as to options for handling future transportation development. The area is served by state highways, county roads, and an internal network of private roads. Access into the area is limited, and the roads must handle a variety of traffic including an unusually high percentage of heavy trucks transporting construction equipment and materials, hazardous chemicals, and toxic wastes. In conducting the transportation study public documents on geothermal power plant developments were researched and field trips to inspect the transportation facilities were made. People who have a special interest in the transportation system were also interviewed. In addition, traffic, accident, and road data were analyzed. Traffic forecasts based on projected geothermal resource develpoment were made. All access roads are of substandard design and efficient in structural adequacy. With projected traffic at 40% above the current level for most of the next six years, it is expected that cumulative impacts will cause accelerated degradation of the existing roads.

  4. In vitro placental model optimization for nanoparticle transport studies

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Laura; Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Pojana, Giulio; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Saunders, Margaret; Rytting, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in biomedical nanotechnology raise hopes in patient populations but may also raise questions regarding biodistribution and biocompatibility, especially during pregnancy. Special consideration must be given to the placenta as a biological barrier because a pregnant woman’s exposure to nanoparticles could have significant effects on the fetus developing in the womb. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to optimize an in vitro model for characterizing the transport of nanoparticles across human placental trophoblast cells. Methods The growth of BeWo (clone b30) human placental choriocarcinoma cells for nanoparticle transport studies was characterized in terms of optimized Transwell® insert type and pore size, the investigation of barrier properties by transmission electron microscopy, tight junction staining, transepithelial electrical resistance, and fluorescein sodium transport. Following the determination of nontoxic concentrations of fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles, the cellular uptake and transport of 50 nm and 100 nm diameter particles was measured using the in vitro BeWo cell model. Results Particle size measurements, fluorescence readings, and confocal microscopy indicated both cellular uptake of the fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles and the transcellular transport of these particles from the apical (maternal) to the basolateral (fetal) compartment. Over the course of 24 hours, the apparent permeability across BeWo cells grown on polycarbonate membranes (3.0 μm pore size) was four times higher for the 50 nm particles compared with the 100 nm particles. Conclusion The BeWo cell line has been optimized and shown to be a valid in vitro model for studying the transplacental transport of nanoparticles. Fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticle transport was size-dependent, as smaller particles reached the basal (fetal) compartment at a higher rate. PMID:22334780

  5. A computational study of routing algorithms for realistic transportation networks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.V.; Nagel, K.

    1998-12-01

    The authors carry out an experimental analysis of a number of shortest path (routing) algorithms investigated in the context of the TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis and Simulation System) project. The main focus of the paper is to study how various heuristic and exact solutions, associated data structures affected the computational performance of the software developed especially for realistic transportation networks. For this purpose the authors have used Dallas Fort-Worth road network with very high degree of resolution. The following general results are obtained: (1) they discuss and experimentally analyze various one-one shortest path algorithms, which include classical exact algorithms studied in the literature as well as heuristic solutions that are designed to take into account the geometric structure of the input instances; (2) they describe a number of extensions to the basic shortest path algorithm. These extensions were primarily motivated by practical problems arising in TRANSIMS and ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) related technologies. Extensions discussed include--(i) time dependent networks, (ii) multi-modal networks, (iii) networks with public transportation and associated schedules. Computational results are provided to empirically compare the efficiency of various algorithms. The studies indicate that a modified Dijkstra`s algorithm is computationally fast and an excellent candidate for use in various transportation planning applications as well as ITS related technologies.

  6. Study on anisotropic quantum transport in graphene sheets by ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liqin; Sun, Young; Huang, Jiao; Chen, Xiaolong

    Quantum transport in graphene has attracted much attention due to its excellent thermal conductivity and high room-temperature electron mobility. Using the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer for studying weak localization (WL) and weak antilocalization (WAL) effects, except for having the obvious advantage of no need for electrical contacts, differs from the electric transport measurement technique also in the dominant signal from the surface of the layer not from the bulk substrate. Here we have studied an experimental anisotropic quantum transport performed on an assemblage of vertical aligned graphene sheets from 5 to 300 K by a Bruker X-band (9.3 GHz). An anisotropic quantum transport is observed between b with WL and c with WAL axes at 5 - 50 K. With increasing temperature, the transport mechanism is changed along b and c axes. We use WL theory to fit all the spectra and obtain the coherence length Lϕ, long range scattering length Llr, intervalley scattering length Li and analyze the data. Our results indicate that ESR is a robust platform to study the intrinsic physical properties of graphene.

  7. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on full-scale development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  8. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  9. The space transportation main engine phase A' study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Space Transportation Main Engine Phase A prime study was conducted over a 7 month period as an extension to the Phase A study. The Phase A prime program was designed to expand the study effort completed in Phase A, focusing on the baseline engine configuration selected. Analysis and trade studies were conducted to further optimize some of the major engine subsystems. These changes resulted in improvements to the baseline engine. Several options were evaluated for consideration by vehicle contractors.

  10. 77 FR 42797 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Transportation Office of the Secretary-DOT/OST-100...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...; Date of birth; Social Security Number; Telephone and cell phone numbers; Physical and mailing addresses.../OST-100 Investigative Record System AGENCY: Office of the DOT Chief Information Office, Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Notice of revised Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  11. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  12. Is Slow-Onset Long-Acting Monoamine Transport Blockade to Cocaine as Methadone is to Heroin? Implication for Anti-Addiction Medications

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiao-Qing; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Li, Xia; Spiller, Krista; Li, Jie; Chun, Lauren; Wu, Kuo-Ming; Froimowitz, Mark; Gardner, Eliot L

    2010-01-01

    The success of methadone in treating opiate addiction has suggested that long-acting agonist therapies may be similarly useful for treating cocaine addiction. Here, we examined this hypothesis, using the slow-onset long-acting monoamine reuptake inhibitor 31,345, a trans-aminotetralin analog, in a variety of addiction-related animal models, and compared it with methadone's effects on heroin's actions in the same animal models. Systemic administration of 31,345 produced long-lasting enhancement of electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR) and extracellular nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA). Pretreatment with 31,345 augmented cocaine-enhanced BSR, prolonged cocaine-enhanced NAc DA, and produced a long-term (24-48 h) reduction in cocaine self-administration rate without obvious extinction pattern, suggesting an additive effect of 31,345 with cocaine. In contrast, methadone pretreatment not only dose-dependently inhibited heroin self-administration with an extinction pattern but also dose-dependently inhibited heroin-enhanced BSR and NAc DA, suggesting functional antagonism by methadone of heroin's actions. In addition, 31,345 appears to possess significant abuse liability, as it produces dose-dependent enhancement of BSR and NAc DA, maintains a low rate of self-administration behavior, and dose-dependently reinstates drug-seeking behavior. In contrast, methadone only partially maintains self-administration with an extinction pattern, and fails to induce reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. These findings suggest that 31,345 is a cocaine-like slow-onset long-acting monoamine transporter inhibitor that may act as an agonist therapy for cocaine addiction. However, its pattern of action appears to be significantly different from that of methadone. Ideal agonist substitutes for cocaine should fully emulate methadone's actions, that is, functionally antagonizing cocaine's action while blocking monoamine transporters to augment synaptic DA. PMID:20827272

  13. Initial Studies of Core and Edge Transport of NSTX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    E.J. Synakowski; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; C.E. Bush; C. Bourdelle; D. Darrow; W. Dorland; A. Ejiri; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; S. Kubota; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; R.J. Maqueda; J.E. Menard; D. Mueller; A. Rosenberg; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; G. Taylor; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; W. Peebles; Y-K.M. Peng; A.L. Roquemore , C.H. Skinner; V.A. Soukhanovskii; and the NSTX Research Team

    2001-09-19

    Rapidly developing diagnostic, operational, and analysis capability is enabling the first detailed local physics studies to begin in high-beta plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These studies are motivated in part by energy confinement times in neutral-beam-heated discharges that are favorable with respect to predictions from the ITER-89P scaling expression. Analysis of heat fluxes based on profile measurements with neutral-beam injection (NBI) suggest that the ion thermal transport may be exceptionally low, and that electron thermal transport is the dominant loss channel. This analysis motivates studies of possible sources of ion heating not presently accounted for by classical collisional processes. Gyrokinetic microstability studies indicate that long wavelength turbulence with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') {approx} 0.1-1 may be suppressed in these plasmas, while modes with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') {approx} 50 may be robust. High-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating efficiently heats electrons on NSTX, and studies have begun using it to assess transport in the electron channel. Regarding edge transport, H-mode [high-confinement mode] transitions occur with either NBI or HHFW heating. The power required for low-confinement mode (L-mode) to H-mode transitions far exceeds that expected from empirical edge-localized-mode-free H-mode scaling laws derived from moderate aspect ratio devices. Finally, initial fluctuation measurements made with two techniques are permitting the first characterizations of edge turbulence.

  14. Population genetic study of the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1).

    PubMed

    Doucette-Stamm, L A; Blakely, D J; Tian, J; Mockus, S; Mao, J I

    1995-01-01

    The human dopamine transporter gene, DAT1, acts to transport released dopamine into presynaptic terminals of the brain. The possibility that the DAT1 gene plays a role in genetic diseases of the brain has led to studies of DAT1 in several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Previous sequence analysis of DAT1 revealed a 40-bp repeat in the 3' end of the gene. In order to identify all potential alleles for this VNTR marker a population database was established. One thousand seventy-four unrelated individuals were screened by PCR for the region containing the 40 bp repeat. Allele frequency differences were found between black Americans and Caucasians or Hispanics but no differences were observed between Caucasians and Hispanics. A previously unreported allele was detected in all three populations. Thus, we have shown that screening a large population identifies new alleles and generates more accurate allele frequencies. PMID:7557351

  15. Grid resolution study of ground water flow and transport.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kathleen M; Gable, Carl W; Zyvoloski, George A

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional grids representing a heterogeneous, ground water system are generated at 10 different resolutions in support of a site-scale flow and transport modeling effort. These grids represent hydrostratigraphy near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, consisting of 18 stratigraphic units with contrasting fluid flow and transport properties. The grid generation method allows the stratigraphy to be modeled by numerical grids of different resolution so that comparison studies can be performed to test for grid quality and determine the resolution required to resolve geologic structure and physical processes such as fluid flow and solute transport. The process of generating numerical grids with appropriate property distributions from geologic conceptual models is automated, thus making the entire process easy to implement with fewer user-induced errors. The series of grids of various resolutions are used to assess the level at which increasing resolution no longer influences the flow and solute transport results. Grid resolution is found to be a critical issue for ground water flow and solute transport. The resolution required in a particular instance is a function of the feature size of the model, the intrinsic properties of materials, the specific physics of the problem, and boundary conditions. The asymptotic nature of results related to flow and transport indicate that for a hydrologic model of the heterogeneous hydrostratigraphy under Yucca Mountain, a horizontal grid spacing of 600 m and vertical grid spacing of 40 m resolve the hydrostratigraphic model with sufficient precision to accurately model the hypothetical flow and solute transport to within 5% of the value that would be obtained with much higher resolution. PMID:15726930

  16. Copyright Guidance Through the Lens of the Teach Act: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamburg, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This research examines the copyright guidelines and policies from a purposeful sample of colleges and universities in the United States. It is a descriptive, qualitative study of 39 copyright and intellectual property policies and guidelines from these institutions. Compliance to the Teach Act of 2002 was the initial feature that this research…

  17. Study of the State Management of the Job Training Partnership Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Jose R.; And Others

    This document reports a study that investigated state management of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Title II-A programs and the Wagner-Peyser 10 percent set-aside for program years 1985 and 1986 to identify the most effective and efficient state JTPA management practices. Following an executive summary and introduction, section 1 contains…

  18. Exploring the Impact of the Clinger-Cohen Act on Information Technology Governance: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Passage of the Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1996 was in direct response to Congressional inquiry into the perceived lack of proper management and oversight of information technology (IT) in the federal agencies. This current qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 IT professionals to determine if the…

  19. A bill to require the Transportation Security Administration to comply with the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2011-12-14

    12/14/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S8604) (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3670, which became Public Law 112-171 on 8/16/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Addendum: Design definition document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Gas generator engine characteristics and results of engine configuration refinements are discussed. Updated component mechanical design, performance, and manufacturing information is provided. The results are also provided of ocean recovery studies and various engine integration tasks. The details are provided of the maintenance plan for the Space Transportation Booster Engine.

  1. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. TRACER STUDIES OF TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION IN CUMULI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results from a study of the transport and transformation of pollutants are reported. irborne measurements near Champaign, llinois and Milwaukee, Wisconsin were made during the summers of 1990 and 1992. easurements of the aerosol size distribution, wind, turbulence, cloud micr...

  3. Experimental Study on Sediment Transport in Meandering Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; He, L.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    To study sediment transport in spiral flow structures and the consequent bed deformation in curved channels, a series of experiments is carried out in two sine-generated laboratory channels, representing 'mildly' and 'highly'sinuous channels respectively. The velocities are measured using ADV. The bed is paved with 2mm uniform sand particles. Those particles are painted with various colors according to their original position. Amounts of particles transporting longitudinally and transversely in the curved channels are counted by using an image processing software. The topography is found mainly created by the gradient of the primary flow rather than the secondary currents.

  4. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Test act system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The engineering and fabrication of the test ACT system, produced in the third program element of the IAAC Project is documented. The system incorporates pitch-augmented stability and wing-load alleviation, plus full authority fly-by-wire control of the elevators. The pitch-augmented stability is designed to have reliability sufficient to allow flight with neutral or negative inherent longitudinal stability.

  5. Transport studies of radon in limestone underlying houses

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Saultz, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In hilly limestone terrains of the southern Appalachians, subterranean networks of solution cavities and fissures present circulatory systems facilitating convective and advective transport of radon-bearing gas. Evidence suggests that the primary driving forces for transport are aerostatic pressure differentials created by the difference between the underground and the outside air temperatures. Examples are presented of houses experiencing elevated indoor radon levels as a consequence of communicating with such subsurface transportation systems. The location of a house near the upper or lower end of a subterranean-circulatory system seems to produce amplification of indoor radon levels in winter or summer, respectively. The transport mechanism for radon-bearing air in karst and its impact on indoor radon need better understanding, both in regard to evaluating the geographical prevalence of the phenomenon and the induced spatial and temporal effects that are possible. This paper reports field studies made at houses in karst regions at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Huntsville, Alabama. A primary radon-transport mechanism is advocated of ascending or descending subsurface columns of air whose flows are largely driven by aerostatic pressure gradients created by the inground-outdoor air temperature differentials. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A Study of the Economic Benefit Potential of Intermodal Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Kawai, R. T.; Gregg, R. D.; McKinley, Robert E., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual study was conducted to determine the benefit potential of an Intermodal Transport in which quick change payload modules are used to reduce the cost of air travel by increasing daily utilization. Three basic concepts varying the degree of modularity were investigated for a 122,000 pounds payload 3,000 NM range regional wide body transport. The profit potential for operating as a passenger transport during the day and as a freighter at night was assessed. Assuming current levels of profitability, Intermodal operations could offer an operating cost reduction potential up to 20%. Enabling technology needs are identified as very quiet aircraft for expanded night operations, distributed load carrying quick disconnect latching, and configuration dependent safety issues. Recommendations are made to explore if additional benefits are possible from alternative mission and usage modules.

  7. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  9. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  10. Spin Labeling Studies of Transmembrane Signaling and Transport: Applications to Phototaxis, ABC Transporters and Symporters.

    PubMed

    Klare, Johann P; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins still represent a major challenge for structural biologists. This chapter will focus on the application of continuous wave and pulsed EPR spectroscopy on spin-labeled membrane proteins. Site-directed spin labeling EPR spectroscopy has evolved as a powerful tool to study the structure and dynamics of proteins, especially membrane proteins, as this method works largely independently of the size and complexity of the biological system under investigation. This chapter describes applications of this technique to three different systems: the archaeal photoreceptor/-transducer complex SRII/HtrII as an example for transmembrane signaling and two transport systems, the histidine ATP-binding cassette transporter HisQMP, and the sodium-proline symporter PutP. PMID:26477256

  11. Experimental Studies on Mass Transport of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental studies on mass transport of ternary compound, Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te by physical vapor transport (PVT) for source compositions up to X = 0.21 are presented. The effect of thermochemical (temperatures, vapor composition) and other factors (preparation of the source, crystal growth rate, temperature gradient) on composition and composition profiles of the grown crystals were investigated. A steep decrease in the mass flux with an increase in X(crystal) for X less than 0.1, and a difference in composition between the source and the deposited material have been observed. The composition profiles of the crystals were found to depend on the density and pretreatment of the source, and on the temperature gradient in the source zone. The homogeneity of the crystals improves at low undercoolings and/or when an appropriate excess of metal constituents is present in the vapor phase. The experimental results are in good agreement with our thermochemical model of this system.

  12. A Study on the Lack of Enforcement of Data Protection Acts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghardt, Thorben; Böhm, Klemens; Buchmann, Erik; Kühling, Jürgen; Sivridis, Anastasios

    Data privacy is a fundamental human right, not only according to the EU perspective. Each EU state implements sophisticated data protection acts. Nevertheless, there are frequent media reports on data privacy violations. The scientific and the political community assume that data protection acts suffer from a lack of enforcement. This paper is an interdisciplinary study that examines this hypothesis by means of empirical facts on juridical assessment criteria - and validates it. We have inspected 100 service providers, from social online platforms to web shops. Our study considers legal requirements of the privacy policy and how providers ask for consent and react to requests for information or deletion of personal data. Our study is based on articles of German law that have a counterpart in the EU Directive 95/46/EC. Thus, our study is relevant for all EU states and all countries with similar regulations.

  13. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    A study of quiet turbofan short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were to: (1) define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs associated with their development, (2) identify critical technology and technology related problems to be resolved in successful introduction of representative short haul aircraft, (3) determine relationships between quiet short takeoff aircraft and the economic and social viability of short haul, and (4) identify high payoff technology areas.

  14. Analysis of Productivity Improvement Act for Clinical Staff Working in the Health System: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vali, Leila; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Kiaei, Mohammad Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The productivity of healthcare staff is one of the main issues for health managers. This study explores the concept of executive regulation of Productivity Improvement Act of clinical staff in health. Methods: In this study phenomenological methodology has been employed. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group composed of 10 hospital experts and experts in human resources department working in headquarter of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and 16 nursing managers working in public and private hospitals of Mashhad using purposive sampling. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven step method. Results: The strengths of this Act included increasing spirit of hope in nurses, paying attention to quality of nursing care and decreasing problems related to the work plan development. Some of the weaknesses of Productivity Improvement Act included lack of required executive mechanisms, lack of considering nursing productivity indicator, increasing non-public hospitals problems, discrimination between employees, and removal of resting on night shifts. Suggestions were introduced to strengthen the Act such as increased organizational posts, use of a coefficient for wage in unusual work shifts and consideration of a performance indicator. Conclusion: The results may be used as a proper tool for long term management planning at organization level. Finally, if high quality care by health system staff is expected, in the first step, we should take care of them through proper policy making and focusing on occupational characteristics of the target group so that it does not result in discrimination among the staff. PMID:26383203

  15. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  16. H.R. 2400, Report number 105-467, Parts 1, 2 and 3: This act may be cited as the Building Efficient Surface Transportation and Equity Act of 1998, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, March 27, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This act is to authorize funds for Federal-aid highways, highway safety programs, and transit programs, and for other purposes. The topics of the act include Federal-aid highways, highway safety, federal transit administration programs, motor carrier safety, programmatic reforms and streamlining, transportation research, recreational boating safety program and railroads.

  17. Clinical trials transparency and the Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) act.

    PubMed

    Logvinov, Ilana

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trial research is the cornerstone for successful advancement of medicine that provides hope for millions of people in the future. Full transparency in clinical trials may allow independent investigators to evaluate study designs, perform additional analysis of data, and potentially eliminate duplicate studies. Current regulatory system and publishers rely on investigators and pharmaceutical industries for complete and accurate reporting of results from completed clinical trials. Legislation seems to be the only way to enforce mandatory disclosure of results. The Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) Act of 2012 was introduced to the legislators in the United States to promote greater transparency in research industry. Public safety and advancement of science are the driving forces for the proposed policy change. The TEST Act may benefit the society and researchers; however, there are major concerns with participants' privacy and intellectual property protection. PMID:24440100

  18. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  19. Transport studies in high-performance field reversed configuration plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Barnes, D. C.; Dettrick, S. A.; Trask, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Hubbard, K.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.; Zhai, K.; Tajima, T.

    2016-05-01

    A significant improvement of field reversed configuration (FRC) lifetime and plasma confinement times in the C-2 plasma, called High Performance FRC regime, has been observed with neutral beam injection (NBI), improved edge stability, and better wall conditioning [Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)]. A Quasi-1D (Q1D) fluid transport code has been developed and employed to carry out transport analysis of such C-2 plasma conditions. The Q1D code is coupled to a Monte-Carlo code to incorporate the effect of fast ions, due to NBI, on the background FRC plasma. Numerically, the Q1D transport behavior with enhanced transport coefficients (but with otherwise classical parametric dependencies) such as 5 times classical resistive diffusion, classical thermal ion conductivity, 20 times classical electron thermal conductivity, and classical fast ion behavior fit with the experimentally measured time evolution of the excluded flux radius, line-integrated density, and electron/ion temperature. The numerical study shows near sustainment of poloidal flux for nearly 1 ms in the presence of NBI.

  20. Atomic size effects studied by transport in single silicide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccoli, I.; Edler, F.; Pfnür, H.; Appelfeller, S.; Dähne, M.; Holtgrewe, K.; Sanna, S.; Schmidt, W. G.; Tegenkamp, C.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrathin metallic silicide nanowires with extremely high aspect ratios can be easily grown, e.g., by deposition of rare earth elements on semiconducting surfaces. These wires play a pivotal role in fundamental research and open intriguing perspectives for CMOS applications. However, the electronic properties of these one-dimensional systems are extremely sensitive to atomic-sized defects, which easily alter the transport characteristics. In this study, we characterized comprehensively TbSi2 wires grown on Si(100) and correlated details of the atomic structure with their electrical resistivities. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as all transport experiments were performed in situ using a four-tip STM system. The measurements are complemented by local spectroscopy and density functional theory revealing that the silicide wires are electronically decoupled from the Si template. On the basis of a quasiclassical transport model, the size effect found for the resistivity is quantitatively explained in terms of bulk and surface transport channels considering details of atomic-scale roughness. Regarding future applications the full wealth of these robust nanostructures will emerge only if wires with truly atomically sharp interfaces can be reliably grown.

  1. [Structural and Pharmacological Studies of an ABC Multidrug Transporter].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    A drug's effectiveness against a disease depends not only on its interaction with receptors but also its pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and extrusion; ADME). ATP binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporters are important proteins that influence the ADME properties of a drug, especially the ABC transporter subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1). Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of ABCB1 will contribute to our understanding of the molecular basis of ADME. Human ABCB1 is expressed in many organelles, and exports various substrates from cells using energy generated by its ATP hydrolase (ATPase) activity. The ATPase activity depends on the concentration of the transport substrates, and the characteristic behavior of the substrate-dependent ATPase activity can be related to the molecular mechanism of ABCB1. Recently, we have revealed the molecular mechanisms of a eukaryotic ABCB1 homolog, CmABCB1, based on structural and functional studies. In this review, I discuss the relationship between key structural features and the behavior of transport substrate-dependent ATPase activity of CmABCB1, including its role in determining the molecular basis of ADME. PMID:26831793

  2. Further studies of sodium transport in feline red cells.

    PubMed

    Sha'afi, R I; Pascoe, E

    1973-06-01

    The transport of radioactive sodium in high sodium cat red blood cells has been studied under various experimental conditions. It was found that iodoacetate (IAA) and iodoacetamide (IAM) inhibit Na influx by 50% whereas NaF has no effect. Reversible dyes, such as methylene blue (Mb), also inhibit this influx by 60%. Both IAA and Mb effects show a lag period of about 40 min. Cell starvation abolishes the volume-dependent Na influx which is generally observed in these cells. IAA reduces significantly the volume-dependent Na influx but does not inhibit it completely. 5 mM magnesium chloride produces a twofold increase in Na influx. On the other hand, MgCl(2) has no effect on Na transport in human red cells or on potassium or sulfate transport in cat red cells. The effect of MgCl(2) is quite rapid and does not interfere with the volume-dependent Na influx. This effect is abolished in starved cells. Reincubation of previously stored cells in buffered solutions containing glucose and MgCl(2) causes more than one order of magnitude increase in Na influx. These several observations are discussed in terms of the possibility of a link between Na transport and Na-Mg-activated ATPase. PMID:4733097

  3. Genetic linkage study of bipolar disorder and the serotonin transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsoe, J.R.; Morison, M.; Mroczkowski-Parker, Z.; Bergesch, P.; Rapaport, M.H.; Mirow, A.L.

    1996-04-09

    The serotonin transporter (HTT) is an important candidate gene for the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder. It is the site of action of many antidepressants, and plays a key role in the regulation of serotonin neurotransmission. Many studies of affectively ill patients have found abnormalities in serotonin metabolism, and dysregulation of the transporter itself. The human serotonin transporter has been recently cloned and mapped to chromosome 17. We have identified a PstI RFLP at the HTT locus, and here report our examination of this polymorphism for possible linkage to bipolar disorder. Eighteen families were examined from three populations: the Old Order Amish, Iceland, and the general North American population. In addition to HTT, three other microsatellite markers were examined, which span an interval known to contain HTT. Linkage analyses were conducted under both dominant and recessive models, as well as both narrow (bipolar only) and broad (bipolar + recurrent unipolar) diagnostic models. Linkage could be excluded to HTT under all models examined. Linkage to the interval spanned by the microsatellites was similarly excluded under the dominant models. In two individual families, maximum lod scores of 1.02 and 0.84 were obtained at D17S798 and HTT, respectively. However, these data overall do not support the presence of a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder near the serotonin transporter. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, George J.; Maggs, James E.

    2014-10-25

    The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.

  5. Nanoscale studies of thermal transport: R-matrix theory and thermal transport in strained graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.

    The rapid development of nanotechnology has enabled the fabrication of structures much smaller than the mean free path of electrons and phonons. In modern electronics, miniaturization is desired to increase the transistor density and the clock speed. Electronic transport on the nanoscale has been studied for over three decades and fascinating quantum effects have been observed. Phonon transport on this scale is of significant interest because of the increased power dissipation in nanoelectronics, which undermines the correct functionality of devices and limits their lifetime. Apart from the effort to minimize heat generation, an efficient heat management scheme is necessary. Historically, thermal transport in bulk materials was described by the Fourier's law, in which the thermal conductivity is an intrinsic property of the material. Later a more descriptive model, the Boltzmann approach for thermal transport, was developed and could explain the thermal conductivity down to a 100 nm length scale at high temperatures. At low temperatures and in structures smaller than roughly 100 nm, thermal transport is described by the fully quantum mechanical Landauer- Butticker formalism. In this context, accurate calculation of phonon transmission probabilities is very important. In this dissertation, I develop a continuum model to calculate phonon transmission probabilities between media, which have high contrast in the elastic properties. In this work, we include an interface transition layer between the two media and look for interface properties that improve thermal transport. Secondly, I develop a new theoretical tool based on the R-Matrix theory to calculate phonon transmission probabilities on the atomic scale. R-matrix theory is a well developed theoretical approach commonly used in nuclear and atomic physics to solve scattering problems. Recently, this approach has been successfully developed to calculate electronic scattering in mesoscopic quantum devices. The key

  6. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  7. Studying Lipid Metabolism and Transport During Zebrafish Development.

    PubMed

    Zeituni, Erin M; Farber, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish model facilitates the study of lipid metabolism and transport during development. Here, we outline methods to introduce traceable fluorescent or radiolabeled fatty acids into zebrafish embryos and larvae at various developmental stages. Labeled fatty acids can be injected into the large yolk cell prior to the development of digestive organs when the larvae is entirely dependent on the yolk for its nutrition (lecithotrophic state). Once zebrafish are able to consume exogenous food, labeled fatty acids can be incorporated into their food. Our group and others have demonstrated that the transport and processing of these injected or ingested fatty acid analogs can be followed through microscopy and/or biochemical analysis. These techniques can be easily combined with targeted antisense approaches, transgenics, or drug treatments (see Note 1 ), allowing studies of lipid cell biology and metabolism that are exceedingly difficult or impossible in mammals. PMID:27464812

  8. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  9. 78 FR 70954 - Transport Format for the Submission of Regulatory Study Data; Notice of Pilot Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Transport Format for the Submission of Regulatory Study Data...) transport format for the submission of regulatory study data. The current study data transport format supported by FDA is the SAS Transport (XPORT) version 5 file format. Although XPORT has been a...

  10. Aircraft systems design studies employing advanced transport technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, B.; Pearce, C.; Quartero, C.; Taylor, A.

    1972-01-01

    System and design integration studies are presented to define and assess the application of the advanced technology most likely to result in a superior next generation, high subsonic/sonic conventional takeoff and landing transport aircraft system. It is concluded that the new technologies can be directed toward the achievement of improved economy and performance. These benefits may be used to compensate for the penalties associated with reduced noise requirements anticipated to make future aircraft ecologically acceptable.

  11. Sum frequency generation studies of membrane transport phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.B.; Shreve, A.P.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to study the transport of protons and ions across biological membranes, one of the most fundamental processes in living organisms, critical for energy transduction in respiration and photosynthesis and for a wide variety of cellular signal transduction events. Membrane protein structure and function, in particular proton and ion pumping are poorly understood. The authors have developed sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy for the study of membrane phenomena, a nonlinear spectroscopic technique that is uniquely sensitive to interfaces and with demonstrated structural specificity. They have used SFG and conventional vibrational spectroscopic approaches to study proton transport processes in cytochrome c oxidase. A key finding has been the identification of vibrational modes associated with proton labile groups, including a glutamic acid near the redox active binuclear center and structural waters. These groups are sensitive to the ligation and redox states of the metal centers and hence are ideal candidates for coupling redox energy to proton transport processes.

  12. Multi-path transportation futures study: Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    This PowerPoint briefing provides documentation and details for Phase 1 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study, which compares alternative ways to make significant reductions in oil use and carbon emissions from U.S. light vehicles to 2050. Phase I, completed in 2006, was a scoping study, aimed at identifying key analytic issues and constructing a study design. The Phase 1 analysis included an evaluation of several pathways and scenarios; however, these analyses were limited in number and scope and were designed to be preliminary.

  13. Transport Theoretical Studies of Some Microscopic and Macroscopic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astwood, Alden Matthew

    This dissertation is a report on theoretical transport studies of two systems of vastly different sizes. The first topic is electronic motion in quantum wires. In recent years, it has become possible to fabricate wires that are so small that quantum effects become important. The conduction properties of these wires are quite different than those of macroscopic wires. In this dissertation, we seek to understand scattering effects in quantum wires in a simple way. Some of the existing formalisms for studying transport in quantum wires are reviewed, and one such formalism is applied to calculate conductance in some simple systems. The second topic concerns animals which move in groups, such as flocking birds or schooling fish. Exact analytic calculations of the transport properties of such systems are very difficult because a flock is a system that is far from equilibrium and consists of many interacting particles. We introduce two simplified models of flocking which are amenable to analytic study. The first model consists of a set of overdamped Brownian particles that interact via spring forces. The exact solution for the probability distribution is calculated, and equations of motion for continuous coarse-grained quantities, such as the density, are obtained from the full solution. The second model consists of particles which move in one dimension at constant speed, but which change their directions at random. The flipping rates are constructed in such a way that particles tend to align their directions with each other. The model is solved exactly for one and two particles, the first two moments are obtained, and equations of motion for continuous coarse-grained quantities are written. The model cannot be solved exactly for many particles, but the first and second moments are calculated. Finally, two additional topics are briefly discussed. The first is transport in disordered lattices, and the second is a static magnetic model of flocking.

  14. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  15. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  16. Transport studies of mesoscopic and magnetic topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, Abhinav

    integration of GdN with Bi2Se 3 thin films. Careful structural, magnetic and electrical characterization of the heterostructures is employed to confirm that the magnetic species is solely restricted to the surface, and that the ferromagnetic GdN layer to be insulating, ensuring current flow solely through the TI layer. We also devise a novel device geometry that enables direct comparison of the magneto-transport properties of TI films with and without proximate magnetism, all, in a single device. A comparative study of weak anti-localization suggested that the overlying GdN suppressed quantum interference in the top surface state. In our second generation heterostructure devices, GdN is interfaced with low-carrier density, gate-tunable thin films of (Bi,Sb)2Te3 grown on SrTiO 3 substrates. These devices enable us to map out the comparison of magneto-transport, as the chemical potential is tuned from the bulk conduction band into the bulk valence band. In a second approach to study the effects of magnetism on TI's, I shall present, in Chapter 5, our results from magnetic doping of (Bi,Sb) 2Te3 thin films with Cr -- a system that was recently demonstrated to be a Quantum Anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator. In a Cr-rich regime, a highly insulating, high Curie temperature ferromagnetic phase is achieved. However, a careful, iterative process of tuning the composition of this complex alloy enabled access to the QAHE regime, with the observation of near dissipation-less transport and perfect Hall quantization at zero external field. Furthermore, we demonstrate a field tilt driven crossover between a quantum anomalous Hall phase and a gapless, ferromagnetic TI phase. This crossover manifests itself in an electrically tunable, giant anisotropic magneto-resistance effect that we employ as a quantitative probe of edge transport in this system.

  17. Transport studies in topological insulator Bi2Te2Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Helin; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Tian, Jifa; Chen, Yong

    2013-03-01

    Recently, 3D topological insulators, featuring spin helical topological surface states (SS), have attracted strong attention in condensed matter physics. Although the SS have been directly revealed and intensively studied by surface sensitive measurements, such as ARPES and STM, transport measurements remain challenging due to coexistence of the surface and bulk conduction channels and the sensitivity of sample surfaces to ambient exposure. We have grown high quality Bi2Te2Se crystals by the Bridgeman method. Resistance showed an insulating behavior followed by saturation at low temperature, indicating surface conduction. Through magnetotransport measurements, we demonstrated high mobility SS on freshly cleaved crystals. The transport signatures of surface Dirac fermions were uncovered from 2D SdH oscillations and non-linear Hall effect. We have also compared transport properties of the samples before and after exposure to air. A giant cusp in magnetoresistance at zero B field was observed after exposure. Our studies may help understand the interplay between the surface and the bulk conduction channels and the degradation of SS due to environmental exposure. We will also present some experimental results of gate tuning and thermoelectric measurements on Bi2Te2Se. We acknowledge support from DARPA MESO program (Grant N66001-11-1-4107).

  18. Theoretical studies of the transport properties in compound semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    This final report is an overview of the work done on Cooperative Agreement NCC 3-55 with the Solid State Technology Branch of the NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Over the period of time that the agreement was in effect, the principal investigator and, in the last three years, the co-principal investigator worked on a significant number of projects and interacted with members of the Solid State Technology (SST) branch in a number of different ways. For the purpose of this report, these efforts will be divided into five categories: 1) work directly with experimental electrical transport studies conducted by members of the SST branch; 2) theoretical work on electrical transport in compound semiconductors; 3) electronic structure calculations which are relevant to the electrical transport in polytypes of SiC and SiC-AlN alloys; 4) the electronic structure calculations of polar interfaces; and 5) consultative and supportive activities related to experiments and other studies carried out by SST branch members. Work in these categories is briefly discussed.

  19. Theoretical studies of the transport properties in compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, Benjamin

    1994-06-01

    This final report is an overview of the work done on Cooperative Agreement NCC 3-55 with the Solid State Technology Branch of the NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Over the period of time that the agreement was in effect, the principal investigator and, in the last three years, the co-principal investigator worked on a significant number of projects and interacted with members of the Solid State Technology (SST) branch in a number of different ways. For the purpose of this report, these efforts will be divided into five categories: 1) work directly with experimental electrical transport studies conducted by members of the SST branch; 2) theoretical work on electrical transport in compound semiconductors; 3) electronic structure calculations which are relevant to the electrical transport in polytypes of SiC and SiC-AlN alloys; 4) the electronic structure calculations of polar interfaces; and 5) consultative and supportive activities related to experiments and other studies carried out by SST branch members. Work in these categories is briefly discussed.

  20. A Computer Study of Beam Transport by Solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chun Fai; Lee, Edward P.

    1997-11-01

    Beam transport by solenoids provides an alternative to the use of electrostatic quadrupole arrays that has been less studied for applications to heavy ion fusion drivers. A 1-d code (named SALT, for Solenoid Applications to Linac Transport) has been developed to simulate the axisymmetric beam dynamics through a sequence of solenoids. The beam is modeled as a set of ringlets, with radius and momentum traced in the axial coordinate. Solenoid fringe field aberrations, envelope matching, phase space evolution and emittance growth are studied using relativistically correct equations that include the electric and magnetic fields of the beam. Initial application is to the transport of a 2 MeV, 31.10 Ampere of K^+ beam through a channel of strength 6 Tesla. This implies a line charge density of 10 μC/m, a factor of 40 above the realistic limit for electrostatic quadrupoles. A second application is to the focusing of a 20 MeV, 4 kA electron beam down to its emittance limit.

  1. Studies of local electron heat transport on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E.D.; Chang, Z.Y.; Janos, A.; McGuire, K.M.; Scott, S.; Taylor, G.

    1993-08-16

    The anomalously fast relaxation of the perturbations to the electron temperature profile caused by a sawtooth crash has been studied extensively on TFTR. We will show that on a short timescale the heat pulse is not simply diffusive as has been generally assumed, but that modeling of the heat pulse requires a transient enhancement in {chi}{sub e} following the sawtooth crash. It will be shown that the time-dependent enhancement in {chi}{sub e} predicted by non-linear thermal transport models, i.e., incremental {chi} models or the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins transport model, is much smaller than that required to explain the anomalies in the heat pulse propagation.

  2. Creatine transporter deficiency: Novel mutations and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Ardon, O; Procter, M; Mao, R; Longo, N; Landau, Y E; Shilon-Hadass, A; Gabis, L V; Hoffmann, C; Tzadok, M; Heimer, G; Sada, S; Ben-Zeev, B; Anikster, Y

    2016-09-01

    X-linked cerebral creatine deficiency (MIM 300036) is caused by deficiency of the creatine transporter encoded by the SLC6A8 gene. Here we report three patients with this condition from Israel. These unrelated patients were evaluated for global developmental delays and language apraxia. Borderline microcephaly was noted in one of them. Diagnosis was prompted by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy which revealed normal white matter distribution, but absence of the creatine peak in all three patients. Biochemical testing indicated normal plasma levels of creatine and guanidinoacetate, but an increased urine creatine/creatinine ratio. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating absent ([14])C-creatine transport in fibroblasts. Molecular studies indicated that the first patient is hemizygous for a single nucleotide change substituting a single amino acid (c.619 C > T, p.R207W). Expression studies in HeLa cells confirmed the causative role of the R207W substitution. The second patient had a three base pair deletion in the SLC6A8 gene (c.1222_1224delTTC, p.F408del) as well as a single base change (c.1254 + 1G > A) at a splicing site in the intron-exon junction of exon 8, the latter occurring de novo. The third patient, had a three base pair deletion (c.1006_1008delAAC, p.N336del) previously reported in other patients with creatine transporter deficiency. These three patients are the first reported cases of creatine transporter deficiency in Israel. PMID:27408820

  3. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W.; Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  4. Integrated energy management study. Energy efficient transport program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Energy Management (IEM) Study investigated the practicality and feasibility of a closed-loop energy management system for transport aircraft. The study involved: (1) instrumentation and collection of in-flight data for a United Airlines 727-200 flying 80 revenue flights throughout the United Airlines network,(2) analysis of the in-flight data to select representative city pairs and establish operational procedures employed in flying a reference flight profile, (3) simulation of the reference profile in a fast-time model to verify the model and establish performance values against which to measure IEM benefits, (4) development of IEM algorithms, and (5) assessment of the IEM concept.

  5. Analogue Study of Actinide Transport at Sites in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, A P; Simmons, A M; Halsey, W G

    2003-02-12

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) are engaged in a three-year cooperative study to observe the behavior of actinides in the natural environment at selected disposal sites and/or contamination sites in Russia. The purpose is to develop experimental data and models for actinide speciation, mobilization and transport processes in support of geologic repository design, safety and performance analyses. Currently at the mid-point of the study, the accomplishments to date include: evaluation of existing data and data needs, site screening and selection, initial data acquisition, and development of preliminary conceptual models.

  6. Soil Production and Transport Perspectives on Critical Zone Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimsath, A. M.; Foster, M.; Whipple, K. X.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying soil production and transport rates and processes is a key aspect of most critical zone studies. Methodologies range from relatively straightforward, low cost studies like sediment traps and basin volume estimates to sophisticated and expensive studies using chemical and physical tracers and isotope geochemistry. Inherent in all methodologies are assumptions and simplifications that enable any measurement to be translated to a rate and interpreted in terms of process mechanics. For example, quantifying soil production using in situ cosmogenic nuclides measured in the parent material beneath an upland mobile regolith mantle depends on assuming a locally steady state soil thickness (i.e. neither thinning or thickening with time). Similarly, utilizing hillslope-scale sediment traps or landscape-scale basin analyses depends on assumptions of steady state processes and constraining the timescales represented by the captured sediment. As our analyses of landscapes have expanded into the details of how spatial and temporal gradients of all driving variables (lithology, climate, tectonics, distribution of biota, etc.) influence landscape evolution, our adherence to the assumptions and simplifications necessitated by our methods becomes questionable. Here we provide content analyses of recent and ongoing studies quantifying soil production and transport processes across a range of climatic, geologic and tectonic regimes. We code the studies for their inclusion and use of assumptions and simplifications necessary to ensure that the methodologies apply to their intended use. These analyses provide an important perspective on the use of quantitative methods and offer both a complimentary and cautionary views on critical zone studies in general.

  7. Transport Studies and Modeling in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Xu, Hui; Brawn, Shelly

    2014-07-30

    This project’s aim was to develop fuel cell components (i.e. membranes, gas-diffusion media (GDM), bipolar plates and flow fields) that possess specific properties (i.e. water transport and conductivity). A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to elucidate the effect of certain parameters on these specific properties. Ultimately, the model will be used to determine sensitivity of fuel cell performance to component properties to determine limiting components and to guide research. We have successfully reached our objectives and achieved most of the milestones of this project. We have designed and synthesized a variety of hydrocarbon block polymer membranes with lower equivalent weight, structure, chemistry, phase separation and process conditions. These membranes provide a broad selection with optimized water transport properties. We have also designed and constructed a variety of devices that are capable of accurately measuring the water transport properties (water uptake, water diffusivity and electro-osmatic drag) of these membranes. These transport properties are correlated to the membranes’ structures derived from X-ray and microscopy techniques to determine the structure-property relationship. We successfully integrated hydrocarbon membrane MEAs with a current distribution board (CBD) to study the impact of hydrocarbon membrane on water transport in fuel cells. We have designed and fabricated various GDM with varying substrate, diffusivity and micro-porous layers (MPL) and characterized their pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity. We have derived a universal chart (MacMullin number as function of wet proofing and porosity) that can be used to characterize various GDM. The abovementioned GDMs have been evaluated in operating fuel cells; their performance is correlated to various pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity of the GDM. Unfortunately, determining a universal relationship between the MacMullin number and these properties

  8. Speech Acts across Cultures: Challenges to Communication in a Second Language. Studies on Language Acquisition, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Neu, Joyce, Ed.

    Articles on speech acts and intercultural communication include: "Investigating the Production of Speech Act Sets" (Andrew Cohen); "Non-Native Refusals: A Methodological Perspective" (Noel Houck, Susan M. Gass); "Natural Speech Act Data versus Written Questionnaire Data: How Data Collection Method Affects Speech Act Performance" (Leslie M. Beebe,…

  9. Nitrogen transport and deposition during the Rocky Mountain Airborne Nitrogen and Sulfur (RoMANS) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, J. L.; Raja, S.; Taylor, C.; Carrico, C.; Schwandner, F.; Beem, K.; Lee, T.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; McMeeking, G.; Kreidenweis, S.; Hand, J.; Schichtel, B.; Malm, W.

    2007-12-01

    A number of deleterious effects have been noted due to increasing deposition of nitrogen compounds in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). The Rocky Mountain Airborne Nitrogen and Sulfur (RoMANS) study was conducted to improve our understanding of the sources and transport of airborne nitrogen and sulfur species within RMNP as well as their deposition pathways. Two field campaigns were conducted, in spring and summer 2006, to characterize pollutant transport and deposition during seasons with historically high nitrogen inputs. Several measurements sites were operated within the park, at locations west and east of the park boundaries, and at locations near the NE, NW, and SE boundaries of the state of Colorado. Measurements at several sites included 24-hour integrated gas concentrations (ammonia, nitric acid, sulfur dioxide), PM2.5 composition, and wet deposition. A core measurement site in the park included more detailed and higher time resolution chemical, optical, and particle size distribution measurements. An overview of study findings will be presented including the composition of collected PM2.5, concentrations of key trace gas species, and observations of wet and dry deposition composition and fluxes. Concentrations of N species in RMNP varied significantly with local and regional transport patterns. High concentrations of nitrate/nitric acid and ammonia/ammonium observed routinely on the eastern plains of Colorado reflect a mixture of urban and agricultural emissions. The highest concentrations of N species in RMNP were generally associated with upslope transport from the east. Nitrogen deposition in RMNP during the spring campaign was dominated by a single, upslope snowstorm. A combination of high pollutant concentrations and heavy precipitation during this upslope event acted to produce N deposition fluxes that far outweighed other spring precipitation events. During the summer study, by contrast, numerous events contributed more equally to total N wet

  10. Caught in the act: ATP hydrolysis of an ABC-multidrug transporter followed by real-time magic angle spinning NMR.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, Ute A; Haase, Winfried; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2008-10-15

    The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis transports cytotoxic molecules at the expense of ATP. Molecular and kinetic details of LmrA can be assessed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), if functional reconstitution at a high protein-lipid ratio can be achieved and the kinetic rate constants are small enough. In order to follow ATP hydrolysis directly by 31P-magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), we generated such conditions by reconstituting LmrA-dK388, a mutant with slower ATP turnover rate, at a protein-lipid ration of 1:150. By analysing time-resolved 31P spectra, protein activity has been directly assessed. These data demonstrate the general possibility to perform ssNMR studies on a fully active full length ABC transporter and also form the foundation for further kinetic studies on LmrA by NMR. PMID:18817774

  11. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Decision making in early transportation planning must be responsive to complex value systems representing various policies and objectives. The assessment of alternative transportation concepts during the early initial phases of the system life cycle, when supportive research and technology development activities are defined, requires estimates of transportation, environmental, and socio-economic impacts throughout the system life cycle, which is a period of some 40 or 50 years. A unified methodological framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is described and is extended to include the comparison of long term transportation trends arising from implementation of the various R & D programs. The attributes of existing and future transportation systems are reviewed in order to establish measures for comparison, define value functions, and attribute weightings needed for comparing alternative policy actions for furthering transportation goals. Comparison criteria definitions and an illustrative example are included.

  12. Rotational hydrodynamic diffusion system to study mass transport across boundaries.

    PubMed

    Mamidi, Sai Sree; Meas, Bo; Farhat, Tarek R

    2008-11-01

    The design and operation of a new mass transport technique is presented. Rotational hydrodynamic diffusion system (RHDS) is a method that can be adapted for analytical laboratory analysis as well as industrial-scale separation and purification. Although RHDS is not an electrochemical technique, its concept is derived from hydrodynamic rotating disk electrode voltammetry. A diffusion advantage gained using the RHDS is higher flux of probe molecules across the boundary (e.g., membrane or porous media) with increased rotation rate compared to the static two-half-cell (THC) method. The separation concept of RHDS differs from pressurized, agitated, electrodialysis, and reversed osmosis systems in design and theory. The detection mechanism of the RHDS opens the possibility to study mass transport properties of a large variety of molecules using different types of ultrathin membranes. Therefore, the RHDS is a potential alternative to classical mass transport detection methods such as THC, impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic and rotating disk electrode voltammetry. Theoretical analysis on the rotational hydrodynamic flux is derived and compared to experimental flux measured using HCl, KCl, KNO 3, Ni(NO 3) 2, LiCl, camphor sulfonic acid, and K 3Fe(CN) 6 ionic solutions. Values of effective diffusion coefficients of salts across Nucleopore membranes of thickness 6.0 and 10 mum with pore size 0.1 and 0.2 mum, respectively, are presented and discussed. PMID:18844370

  13. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost

  14. Transport and first-principles study of novel thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Hang

    Thermoelectric materials can recover waste industrial heat and convert it to electricity as well as provide efficient local cooling of electronic devices. The efficiency of such environmentally responsible and exceptionally reliable solid state energy conversion is determined by the dimensionless figure-of-merit ZT = alpha2 sigmaT/kappa, where alpha is the Seebeck coefficient, sigma is the electrical conductivity, kappa is the thermal conductivity, and T is the absolute temperature. The goal of the thesis is to (i) illustrate the physics to achieve high ZT of advanced thermoelectric materials and (ii) explore fundamental structure and transport properties in novel condensed matter systems, via an approach combining comprehensive experimental techniques and state-of-the-art first-principles simulation methods. Thermo-galvanomagnetic transport coefficients are derived from Onsager's reciprocal relations and evaluated via solving Boltzmann transport equation using Fermi-Dirac statistics, under the relaxation time approximation. Such understanding provides insights on enhancing ZT through two physically intuitive and very effective routes: (i) improving power factor PF = alpha2sigma; and (ii) reducing thermal conductivity kappa, as demonstrated in the cases of Mg2Si1-xSnx solid solution and Ge/Te double substituted skutterudites CoSb3(1-x)Ge1.5x Te1.5x, respectively. Motivated by recent theoretical predictions of enhanced thermoelectric performance in highly mismatched alloys, ZnTe:N molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) films deposited on GaAs (100) substrates are carefully examined, which leads to a surprising discovery of significant phonon-drag thermopower (reaching 1-2 mV/K-1) at ~13 K. Further systematic study in Bi2Te3 MBE thin films grown on sapphire (0001) and/or BaF2 (111) substrates, reveal that the peak of phonon drag can be tuned by the choice of substrates with different Debye temperatures. Moreover, the detailed transport and structure studies of Bi2-xTl xTe3

  15. Raman scattering studies and charge transport in polyfluorenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Mohammad Ali Iftekhar

    Organic semiconductors, such as short-chain oligomers and long-chain polymers, are now a core constituent in numerous organic and organic-inorganic hybrid technologies. Blue-emitting polyfluorenes (PFs) have emerged as especially attractive pi conjugated polymers (CP) due to their high luminescence efficiency and excellent electronic properties and thus great prospects for device applications. The performance of devices based on these polymers depends on side chain conformations, overall crystalline structure, and charge transport processes at the microscopic level. This project entails detailed Raman scattering studies and charge transport properties of two side chain substituted PFs: Poly(2,7-[9,9'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)] fluorene) (PF2/6) and Poly(9,9-(di-n,n-octyl) fluorene) (PF8). The structural properties of PFs are extremely sensitive to the choice of functionalizing side chains. PF8 adopts metastable structures that depend upon the thermal history and choice of solvents used in film forming conditions. Raman scattering techniques as a function of thermal cycling are used to monitor the changes in the backbone and side chain morphology of PF8. These studies establish a correlation between the conformational isomers and the side and main chain morphology. Theoretical modeling of the vibrational spectra of single chain oligomers in conjunction with the experimental results demonstrate the incompatibility of the beta phase, a low energy emitting chromophore, with the overall crystalline phase in PF8. Further, electroluminescence and photoluminescence measurements from PF-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are presented and discussed in terms of the crystalline phases and chain morphologies in the PFs. Charge carrier injection and transport properties of PF-based LEDs are presented using current-voltage (I--V) characteristic which is modeled by a space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) for discrete and continuous traps. PF2/6 with a high level of molecular disorder is

  16. Electron Transport and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Substituted Aryldimesityl Boranes: A DFT Study

    PubMed Central

    Pandith, Altaf Hussain; Islam, Nasarul

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical study was carried out on a series of aryldimesityl borane (DMB) derivatives using Density Functional theory. Optimized geometries and electronic parameters like electron affinity, reorganization energy, frontiers molecular contours, polarizability and hyperpolarizability have been calculated by employing B3PW91/6-311++G (d, p) level of theory. Our results show that the Hammett function and geometrical parameters correlates well with the reorganization energies and hyperpolarizability for the series of DMB derivatives studied in this work. The orbital energy study reveals that the electron releasing substituents increase the LUMO energies and electron withdrawing substituents decrease the LUMO energies, reflecting the electron transport character of aryldimesityl borane derivatives. From frontier molecular orbitals diagram it is evident that mesityl rings act as the donor, while the phenylene and Boron atom appear as acceptors in these systems. The calculated hyperpolarizability of secondary amine derivative of DMB is 40 times higher than DMB (1). The electronic excitation contributions to the hyperpolarizability studied by using TDDFT calculation shows that hyperpolarizability correlates well with dipole moment in ground and excited state and excitation energy in terms of the two-level model. Thus the results of these calculations can be helpful in designing the DMB derivatives for efficient electron transport and nonlinear optical material by appropriate substitution with electron releasing or withdrawing substituents on phenyl ring of DMB system. PMID:25479382

  17. Nitrogen transporter and assimilation genes exhibit developmental stage-selective expression in maize (Zea mays L.) associated with distinct cis-acting promoter motifs

    PubMed Central

    Liseron-Monfils, Christophe; Bi, Yong-Mei; Downs, Gregory S; Wu, Wenqing; Signorelli, Tara; Lu, Guangwen; Chen, Xi; Bondo, Eddie; Zhu, Tong; Lukens, Lewis N; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for maize (Zea mays L.), but there is limited understanding of the regulation of nitrogen-related genes during maize development. An Affymetrix 82K maize array was used to analyze the expression of ≤ 46 unique nitrogen uptake and assimilation probes in 50 maize tissues from seedling emergence to 31 d after pollination. Four nitrogen-related expression clusters were identified in roots and shoots corresponding to, or overlapping, juvenile, adult, and reproductive phases of development. Quantitative real time PCR data was consistent with the existence of these distinct expression clusters. Promoters corresponding to each cluster were screened for over-represented cis-acting elements. The 8-bp distal motif of the Arabidopsis 43-bp nitrogen response element (NRE) was over-represented in nitrogen-related maize gene promoters. This conserved motif, referred to here as NRE43-d8, was previously shown to be critical for nitrate-activated transcription of nitrate reductase (NIA1) and nitrite reductase (NIR1) by the NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6 (NLP6) in Arabidopsis. Here, NRE43-d8 was over-represented in the promoters of maize nitrate and ammonium transporter genes, specifically those that showed peak expression during early-stage vegetative development. This result predicts an expansion of the NRE-NLP6 regulon and suggests that it may have a developmental component in maize. We also report leaf expression of putative orthologs of nitrite transporters (NiTR1), a transporter not previously reported in maize. We conclude by discussing how each of the four transcriptional modules may be responsible for the different nitrogen uptake and assimilation requirements of leaves and roots at different stages of maize development. PMID:24270626

  18. A study of altitude-constrained supersonic cruise transport concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, David C.; Martin, Glenn L.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of restricting maximum cruise altitude on the mission performance of two supersonic transport concepts across a selection of cruise Mach numbers is studied. Results indicate that a trapezoidal wing concept can be competitive with an arrow wing depending on the altitude and Mach number constraints imposed. The higher wing loading of trapezoidal wing configurations gives them an appreciably lower average cruise altitude than the lower wing loading of the arrow wing configurations, and this advantage increases as the maximum allowable cruise altitude is reduced.

  19. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. In these studies, the total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.

  20. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  1. Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1 extension: Transportation systems reference data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Transportation mass requirements are developed for various mission and transportation modes based on vehicle systems sized to fit the exact needs of each mission. The parametric data used to derive the mass requirements for each mission and transportation mode are presented to enable accommodation of possible changes in mode options or payload definitions. The vehicle sizing and functional requirements used to derive the parametric data are described.

  2. Theoretical study on transport properties of topological states of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan

    In condensed matter physics, states of matter are usually classified by symmetry. Topological states of matter describe new quantum states of matter that cannot adiabatically connect to conventional states of matter even though they share the same symmetry. Thus, the discovery of topological states of matter has opened a new research era and attracted intensive research interests in recent years. This dissertation is devoted to the theoretical and numerical study of transport properties of topological states of matter, mainly focusing on two topological systems, time reversal invariant topological insulator nano-structures and the quantum anomalous Hall insulators. The first system studied in this dissertation is time reversal invariant topological insulator, which is an insulating material behaving as an insulator in its interior but with conducting channels on its surface. The conducting surface states of a topological insulator are known as "helical states" due to the spin texture in the momentum space and protected by time reversal symmetry. Helical surface states have been observed in surface sensitive experiments, such as angular-resolved photon emission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. However, signatures of topological surface states in transport measurements are complicated by the dominating conduction from bulk channels and strong disorder effect. Therefore, in this dissertation, we numerically study transport in disordered topological insulator nano-structures, e.g. nanowires and nanotubes, which possess a larger surfaceto-volume ratio compared to bulk systems. For a topological insulator nanowire, it is found that a gapless mode with linear dispersion, which is refered to as a topological state in the main text, arises when a half-integer magnetic flux quantum is inserted along the nanowire. We find that topological states possess a longer localization length than other non-topological states. Thus, for a long nanowire or nanotube, a

  3. Affordable Care Act Impact on Community Health Center Staffing and Enrollment: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sophie C; Frogner, Bianca K; Saganic, Laura M; Cole, Allison M; Rosenblatt, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Over 500 000 Washingtonians gained health insurance under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). As more patients gain insurance, community health centers (CHCs) expect to see an increase in demand for their services. This article studies the CHCs in Washington State to examine how the increase in patients has been impacting their workload and staffing. We found a reported mean increase of 11.7% and 5.4% in new Medicaid and Exchange patients, respectively. Half of the CHCs experienced large or dramatic workload impact from the ACA. Our findings suggest that CHCs need further workforce support to meet the expanding patient demand. PMID:27576050

  4. The use of scans for impact studies of transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Witte, M.C.

    1988-06-24

    This paper presents the results of an impact study using the computer program SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System), which was developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) for structural analysis of transportation packages of radioactive materials. The program operates on IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. It has capabilities for other analysis such as heat transfer, pressure and thermal stress analysis. However, this study uses only the impact analysis capability, which includes a quasi-static and a dynamic analysis option. It is shown that the program produces reasonable results for a wide range of impact conditions. The results are in agreement with existing information on impact analysis and phenomenon. In view of its simplicity in modelling and convenience in usage, the SCANS program can be effectively used for confirmatory analysis, preliminary design study, and quick assessment of the need for detailed impact analysis. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Proceedings of the Seventeenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 17) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX) is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investors from domestic and international organizations. NAPEX 17 was held on 15 June 1993. The meeting was organized into two technical sessions. The first session was dedicated to slant path propagation studies and experiments. The second session focused on propagation studies for mobile and personal communications. Preceding NAPEX 17, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop was held on 14 June 1993 to review ACTS propagation activities with emphasis on ACTS experiments status and data collection, processing, and exchange.

  6. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Kamela O.; Law, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM) was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters. PMID:27025617

  7. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Kamela O; Law, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM) was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters. PMID:27025617

  8. Current problems in the study of colloidal transport in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, E. V.; Devin, B. A.

    2007-04-01

    A review of recent literature on the transport of organic and mineral colloids in soils demonstrated the role of such factors as the extrema of water flow velocities, the anisotropy of physical properties, and the presence of preferential water flows in macropores and fissures. In unsaturated soils, the concentration of colloids at the gas-water interphace and the amphiphilicity of their surface are of great importance. The transfer of “living collids” (bacteria and viruses) is mainly due to the convection mechanism; however, of great importance are the entrapping of microorganisms in fine pores, their adsorption (adhesion), their concentration on the gas-water interphace, their sedimentation, and the affecting chemical factors, such as the ionic strength and the pH of the solution. The effect of biological factors is related to the size of cells, chemotaxic mobility, and the growth and reproduction of the microbial biomass. The focal points of recent studies on colloid transport are considered: the study of mechanisms of colloid mobilization under different conditions, the improvement of methods for the direct observation of colloid migration (micromodels, computer tomography, etc.), and the possibility of quantitative description of the entrapping of colloidal particles in soil pores.

  9. Oxygen transport in ceria: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergei, Simak

    2012-02-01

    Ceria (CeO2) is an important material for environmentally benign applications, ranging from solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to oxygen storage [1-2]. The key characteristic needed to be improved is the mobility of oxygen ions. Optimization of ionic transport in ceria has been the topic of many studies. In particular, it has been discovered how the ionic conductivity in ceria might be improved by choosing the proper kind and concentration of dopants [3]. In this presentation we will approach the problem from a different direction by adjusting structural parameters of ceria via the change of external conditions. A systematic first-principles study of the energy landscape and kinetics of reduced ceria as a function of external parameters reveals a physically transparent way to improve oxygen transport in ceria. [4pt] [1] N. Skorodumova, S. Simak, B. Lundqvist, I. Abrikosov, and B. Johansson, Physical Review Letters 89, 14 (2002). [0pt] [2] A. Trovarelli, in Catalysis by Ceria and related materials (Imperial College Press, London, 2002). [0pt] [3] D. A. Andersson, S. I. Simak, N. V. Skorodumova, I. A.Abrikosov, and B. Johansson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, 3518 (2006).

  10. The 1989 high-speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The results of the Douglas Aircraft Company system studies related to high speed civil transports (HSCT) are discussed. The studies were conducted to assess the environmental compatibility of a high speed civil transport at a design Mach number of 3.2. Sonic boom minimization, external noise, and engine emissions were assessed together with the effect of the laminar flow control (LFC) technology on vehicle gross weight. The general results indicated that a sonic boom loudness level of 90-PLdB at Mach 3.2 may not be achievable for a practical design; the high flow engine cycle concept shows promise of achieving the sideline FAR Part 36 noise limit, but may not achieve the aircraft range design goal of 6,500 nautical miles; the rich burn/quick quench (RB/QQ) combustor concept shows promise for achieving low EINO sub x levels when combined with a premixed pilot stage/advanced technology, high power stage duct burner in the Pratt and Whitney variable steam control engine (VSCE); and full chord wing LFC has significant performance and economic advantages relative to the turbulent wing baseline.

  11. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, {sup 85}Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas {sup 137}Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less {sup 137}Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 {mu}m and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10{sup -3} m/s were calculated from the core measurements.

  12. Experimental Study of Water Transport through Hydrophilic Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Xie, Quan; Li, Yinxiao; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate one of the fundamental aspects of Nanofluidics, which is the experimental study of water transport through nanoscale hydrophilic conduits. A new method based on spontaneous filling and a novel hybrid nanochannel design is developed to measure the pure mass flow resistance of single nanofluidic channels/tubes. This method does not require any pressure and flow sensors and also does not rely on any theoretical estimations, holding the potential to be standards for nanofluidic flow characterization. We have used this method to measure the pure mass flow resistance of single 2-D hydrophilic silica nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm. Our experimental results quantify the increased mass flow resistance as a function of nanochannel height, showing a 45% increase for a 7nm channel compared with classical hydrodynamics, and suggest that the increased resistance is possibly due to formation of a 7-angstrom-thick stagnant hydration layer on the hydrophilic surfaces. It has been further shown that this method can reliably measure a wide range of pure mass flow resistances of nanoscale conduits, and thus is promising for advancing studies of liquid transport in hydrophobic graphene nanochannels, CNTs, as well as nanoporous media. The work is supported by the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund (ACS PRF # 54118-DNI7) and the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).

  13. A coupled field study of subsurface fracture flow and colloid transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiang-Yu; Weisbrod, Noam; Zhao, Pei; Reid, Brian J.

    2015-05-01

    Field studies of subsurface transport of colloids, which may act as carriers of contaminants, are still rare. This is particularly true for heterogeneous and fractured matrices. To address this knowledge gap, a 30-m long monitoring trench was constructed at the lower end of sloping farmland in central Sichuan, southwest China. During the summer of 2013, high resolution dynamic and temporal fracture flow discharging from the interface between fractured mudrock and impermeable sandstone was obtained at intervals of 5 min (for fast rising stages), 30-60 min (for slow falling stages) or 15 min (at all other times). This discharge was analyzed to elucidate fracture flow and colloid transport in response to rainfall events. Colloid concentrations were observed to increase quickly once rainfall started (∼15-90 min) and reached peak values of up to 188 mg/L. Interestingly, maximum colloid concentration occurred prior to the arrival of flow discharge peak (i.e. maximum colloid concentration was observed before saturation of the soil layer). Rainfall intensity (rather than its duration) was noted to be the main factor controlling colloid response and transport. Dissolved organic carbon concentration and δ18O dynamics in combination with soil water potential were used to apportion water sources of fracture flow at different stages. These approaches suggested the main source of the colloids discharged to be associated with the flushing of colloids from the soil mesopores and macropores. Beyond the scientific interest of colloid mobilization and transport at the field scale, these results have important implications for a region of about 160,000 km2 in southwest China that featured similar hydrogeologic settings as the experimental site. In this agriculture-dominated area, application of pesticides and fertilizers to farmland is prevalent. These results highlight the need to avoid such applications immediately before rainfall events in order to reduce rapid migration to

  14. Receptor and transporter imaging studies in schizophrenia, depression, bulimia and Tourette's disorder--implications for psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Tauscher, Johannes; Willeit, Matthäus; Stamenkovic, Mara; Neumeister, Alexander; Küfferle, Bernd; Barnas, Christian; Stastny, Jürgen; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Pezawas, Lukas; de Zwaan, Martina; Quiner, Sylvia; Pirker, Walter; Asenbaum, Susanne; Podreka, Ivo; Brücke, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved over the past 15 years in uncovering the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. To determine patterns of brain dysfunction and to uncover the mechanism of action of centrally active compounds we used single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) as well as positron emission tomography (PET) in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bulimia and Tourette's disorder. Striatal D2 and 5-HT1A receptors were studied in schizophrenia and 5-HT transporters (5-HTT) in depression and bulimia. Patients were either drug-naïve or drug free, or we studied the influence of specifically acting compounds on receptor/transporter occupancy. We could demonstrate that atypical antipsychotics have a dose-dependent (with the exception of clozapine and quetiapine) lower striatal D2 receptor occupancy rate compared with typical neuroleptics, paralleling the more favourable extrapyramidal side effects of atypical antipsychotics. However, no association between striatal D2 receptor occupancy rates and antipsychotic efficacy has been found. The measurement of 5-HT1A receptors in drug-naïve schizophrenic patients using the in vivo PET methodology revealed an increase of cortical 5-HT1A receptor binding potential in schizophrenia. beta-CIT as a ligand for measurement of 5-HT transporter densities (5-HTT) revealed lower rates in depression compared to age- and sex-matching healthy controls, a measurement that has also been obtained for bulimia. We also documented seasonal variations in brain serotonergic function by our finding of reduced brain 5-HTT availability in winter (compared to summer) in healthy controls. Furthermore, displaceable [123I] beta-CIT binding in the area corresponding to the left striatum (representing predominantly the density of dopamine transporters) was significantly reduced in SAD patients compared to healthy controls. In depression as well as in bulimia, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

  15. The 1990 high-speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This summary report contains the results of the Douglas Aircraft Company system studies related to High-Speed Civil Transports (HSCT's). The tasks were performed under an 18-month extension of NASA Langley Research Center Contract NAS1-18378. The system studies were conducted to assess the emission impact of HSCT's at design Mach numbers ranging from 1.6 to 3.2. The tasks specifically addressed an HSCT market and economic assessment, development of supersonic route networks, and an atmospheric emissions scenario. The general results indicated: (1) market projections predict sufficient passenger traffic for the 2000 to 2025 time period to support a fleet of economically viable and environmentally compatible HSCT's; (2) the HSCT route structure to minimize supersonic overland traffic can be increased by innovative routing to avoid land masses; and (3) the atmospheric emission impact on ozone would be significantly lower for Mach 1.6 operations than for Mach 3.2 operations.

  16. Follow-On Technology Requirement Study for Advanced Subsonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendus, Bruce E.; Stark, Donald F.; Holler, Richard P.; Funkhouser, Merle E.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to define and assess the critical or enabling technologies required for a year 2005 entry into service (EIS) engine for subsonic commercial aircraft, with NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport goals used as benchmarks. The year 2005 EIS advanced technology engine is an Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) engine. Performance analysis showed that the ADP design offered many advantages compared to a baseline turbofan engine. An airplane/ engine simulation study using a long range quad aircraft quantified the effects of the ADP engine on the economics of typical airline operation. Results of the economic analysis show the ADP propulsion system provides a 6% reduction in direct operating cost plus interest, with half the reduction resulting from reduced fuel consumption. Critical and enabling technologies for the year 2005 EIS ADP were identified and prioritized.

  17. Spatially resolved study of primary electron transport in magnetic cusps

    SciTech Connect

    Hubble, Aimee A.; Foster, John E.

    2012-01-15

    Spatially resolved primary electron current density profiles were measured using a planar Langmuir probe in the region above a magnetic cusp in a small ion thruster discharge chamber. The probe current maps obtained were used to study the electron collection mechanics in the cusp region in the limit of zero gas flow and no plasma production, and they allowed for the visualization of primary electron transport through the cusp. Attenuation coefficients and loss widths were calculated as a function of probe distance above the anode at various operating conditions. Finally, the collection mechanics between two magnetic cusps were studied and compared. It was found that primary electron collection was dominated by the upstream magnet ring.

  18. Experimental study of a generic high-speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Pamela S.; Campbell, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study of generic high-speed civil transport was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The data base was obtained for the purpose of assessing the accuracy of various levels of computational analysis. Two models differing only in wingtip geometry were tested with and without flow-through nacelles. The baseline model has a curved or crescent wingtip shape, while the second model has a more conventional straight wingtip shape. The study was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.19. Force data were obtained on both the straight wingtip model and the curved wingtip model. Only the curved wingtip model was instrumented for measuring pressures. Selected longitudinal, lateral, and directional data are presented for both models. Selected pressure distributions for the curved wingtip model are also presented.

  19. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  20. Studies of Transport Properties of Fractures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen R. Brown

    2006-06-30

    We proposed to study several key factors controlling the character and evolution of fracture system permeability and transport processes. We suggest that due to surface roughness and the consequent channeling in single fractures and in fracture intersections, the tendency of a fracture system to plug up, remain permeable, or for permeability to increase due to chemical dissolution/precipitation conditions will depend strongly on the instantaneous flow channel geometry. This geometry will change as chemical interaction occurs, thus changing the permeability through time. To test this hypothesis and advance further understanding toward a predictive capability, we endeavored to physically model and analyze several configurations of flow and transport of inert and chemically active fluids through channels in single fractures and through fracture intersections. This was an integrated program utilizing quantitative observations of fractures and veins in drill core, quantitative and visual observations of flow and chemical dissolution and precipitation within replicas of real rough-walled fractures and fracture intersections, and numerical modeling via lattice Boltzmann methods.

  1. An Analytical Study for Subsonic Oblique Wing Transport Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, E. S.; Honrath, J.; Tomlin, K. H.; Swift, G.; Shumpert, P.; Warnock, W.

    1976-01-01

    The oblique wing concept has been investigated for subsonic transport application for a cruise Mach number of 0.95. Three different mission applications were considered and the concept analyzed against the selected mission requirements. Configuration studies determined the best area of applicability to be a commercial passenger transport mission. The critical parameter for the oblique wing concept was found to be aspect ratio which was limited to a value of 6.0 due to aeroelastic divergence. Comparison of the concept final configuration was made with fixed winged configurations designed to cruise at Mach 0.85 and 0.95. The crossover Mach number for the oblique wing concept was found to be Mach 0.91 for takeoff gross weight and direct operating cost. Benefits include reduced takeoff distance, installed thrust and mission block fuel and improved community noise characteristics. The variable geometry feature enables the final configuration to increase range by 10% at Mach 0.712 and to increase endurance by as much as 44%.

  2. Numerical study on inter-tidal transports in coastal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xinyan; Jiang, Wensheng; Zhang, Ping; Feng, Shizuo

    2016-06-01

    Inter-tidal (subtidal) transport processes in coastal sea depend on the residual motion, turbulent dispersion and relevant sources/sinks. In Feng et al. (2008), an updated Lagrangian inter-tidal transport equation, as well as new concept of Lagrangian inter-tidal concentration (LIC), has been proposed for a general nonlinear shallow water system. In the present study, the LIC is numerically applied for the first time to passive tracers in idealized settings and salinity in the Bohai Sea, China. Circulation and tracer motion in the three idealized model seas with different topography or coastline, termed as `flat-bottom', `stairs' and `cape' case, respectively, are simulated. The dependence of the LIC on initial tidal phase suggests that the nonlinearities in the stairs and cape cases are stronger than that in the flat-bottom case. Therefore, the `flat-bottom' case still meets the convectively weakly nonlinear condition. For the Bohai Sea, the simulation results show that most parts of it still meet the weakly nonlinear condition. However, the dependence of the LIS (Lagrangian inter-tidal salinity) on initial tidal phase is significant around the southern headland of the Liaodong Peninsula and near the mouth of the Yellow River. The nonlinearity in the former region is mainly related to the complicated coastlines, and that in the latter region is due to the presence of the estuarine salinity front.

  3. [Fructose transporter in yeasts].

    PubMed

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Dobrowolski, Adam; Robak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Study of hexoses transporter started with discovery of galactose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose, fructose and mannose assimilation is assumed by numerous proteins encoded by different genes. To date over 20 hexoses transporters, belonging to Sugar Porter family and to Major Facilitator Superfamily, were known. Genome sequence analysis of Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, S. cerevisaie and Debaryomyces hansenii reveled potential presence of 17-48 sugar porter proteins. Glucose transporters in S. cerevisiae have been already characterized. In this paper, hexoses transporters, responsible for assimilation of fructose by cells, are presented and compared. Fructose specific transporter are described for yeasts: Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces bailli, K. lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus, S. cerevisiae winemaking strain and for fungus Botritys cinerea and human (Glut5p). Among six yeasts transporters, five are fructose specific, acting by facilitated diffusion or proton symport. Yeasts monosaccharides transporter studies allow understanding of sugars uptake and metabolism important aspects, even in higher eukaryotes cells. PMID:25033548

  4. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Wing planform study and final configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the Wing Planform Study Task and Final Configuration Selection of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program. Application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span resulted in significant improvements over the Conventional Baseline Configuration (Baseline) and the Initial ACT Configuration previously established. The configurations use the same levels of technology (except for ACT), takeoff gross weight, and payload as the Baseline. The Final ACT Configuration (Model 768-107) incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 45% reduction in horizontal tail sizes), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle-of-attack limiter, and wing-load alleviation. Flutter-mode control was not beneficial for this configuration. This resulted in an 890 kg (1960 lb) reduction in airplane takeoff gross weight and a 9.8% improvement in cruise lift/drag. At the Baseline mission range (3590 km) (1938 nmi), this amounts to 10% block fuel reduction. Good takeoff performance at high-altitude airports on a hot day was also achieved. Results of this task strongly indicate that the IAAC Project should proceed with the Final ACT evaluation and begin the required control system development and testing.

  5. Geostatistical and Stochastic Study of Flow and Transport in the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ming; Pan, Feng; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Jianting

    2007-08-14

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s long-term, permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste. The potential repository would be located in Yucca Mountain’s unsaturated zone (UZ), which acts as a critical natural barrier delaying arrival of radionuclides to the water table. Since radionuclide transport in groundwater can pose serious threats to human health and the environment, it is important to understand how much and how fast water and radionuclides travel through the UZ to groundwater. The UZ system consists of multiple hydrogeologic units whose hydraulic and geochemical properties exhibit systematic and random spatial variation, or heterogeneity, at multiple scales. Predictions of radionuclide transport under such complicated conditions are uncertain, and the uncertainty complicates decision making and risk analysis. This project aims at using geostatistical and stochastic methods to assess uncertainty of unsaturated flow and radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. Focus of this study is parameter uncertainty of hydraulic and transport properties of the UZ. The parametric uncertainty arises since limited parameter measurements are unable to deterministically describe spatial variability of the parameters. In this project, matrix porosity, permeability and sorption coefficient of the reactive tracer (neptunium) of the UZ are treated as random variables. Corresponding propagation of parametric uncertainty is quantitatively measured using mean, variance, 5th and 95th percentiles of simulated state variables (e.g., saturation, capillary pressure, percolation flux, and travel time). These statistics are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method, in which a three-dimensional flow and transport model implemented using the TOUGH2 code is executed with multiple parameter realizations of the random model parameters. The project specifically studies uncertainty of unsaturated

  6. Multiple Application Propfan Study (MAPS): Advanced tactical transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, F. C.; Liebeck, R. H.; Mitchell, G. H.; Mooiweer, A.; Platte, M. M.; Toogood, T. L.; Wright, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain potential benefits of a propfan propulsion system application to a blended wing/body military tactical transport. Based on a design cruise Mach no. of 0.75 for the design mission, the results indicate a significant advantage in various figures of merit for the propfan over those of a comparable technology turbofan. Although the propfan has a 1.6 percent greater takeoff gross weight, its life cycle cost is 5.3 percent smaller, partly because of a 27 percent smaller specific fuel consumption. When employed on alternate missions, the propfan configuration offers significantly improved flexibility and capability: an increase in sea level penetration distance of more than 100 percent, or in time-on-station of 24 percent, or in deployment payload of 38 percent.

  7. High Pressure Transport Studies of NdIn3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Kenneth; Graf, David; Ebihara, Takao

    2015-03-01

    NdIn3 is a cubic antiferromagnetic metal that orders with a Neel temperature of 5.9 K and belongs to a family of rare earth intermetallic compounds RIn3 that have a cubic AuCu3-type crystal structure. At 0.5 K and the magnetic field applied in 100 direction, NdIn3 exhibits metamagnetic transitions at 7.8 T and 8.9 T before entering a field induced paramagnetic state at 11.1 T. We report high pressure transport studies of single crystal NdIn3 and the effect that pressure has on the Neel temperature, critical field, and metamagnetic transitions observed in the magnetoresistance. Comparisons to the behavior of the pressure induced superconductor CeIn3 will be discussed.

  8. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study. Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Phil Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    Presentation reporting Phase 1 results, 3/9/2007. Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance — and uncertainty — of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). The Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of “what if” questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  9. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, H. C.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of an effective short range, high density computer transportation system for intraurban systems is presented. The seven county Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area, was chosen as the scenario for the analysis. The study consisted of an analysis and forecast of the Detroit market through 1985, a parametric analysis of appropriate short haul aircraft concepts and associated ground systems, and a preliminary overall economic analysis of a simplified total system designed to evaluate the candidate vehicles and select the most promising VTOL and STOL aircraft. Data are also included on the impact of advanced technology on the system, the sensitivity of mission performance to changes in aircraft characteristics and system operations, and identification of key problem areas that may be improved by additional research. The approach, logic, and computer models used are adaptable to other intraurban or interurban areas.

  10. Parametric study of transport aircraft systems cost and weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Trapp, D. L.; Kimoto, B. W.; Marsh, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a NASA study to develop production cost estimating relationships (CERs) and weight estimating relationships (WERs) for commercial and military transport aircraft at the system level are presented. The systems considered correspond to the standard weight groups defined in Military Standard 1374 and are listed. These systems make up a complete aircraft exclusive of engines. The CER for each system (or CERs in several cases) utilize weight as the key parameter. Weights may be determined from detailed weight statements, if available, or by using the WERs developed, which are based on technical and performance characteristics generally available during preliminary design. The CERs that were developed provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the production cost of an aircraft. Likewise, the WERs provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the weight of aircraft based on conceptual design information.

  11. Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Nicholas G.; Minnich, Austin J.

    2016-01-01

    Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials.

  12. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  13. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D L

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  14. Mathematical modeling of normal pharyngeal bolus transport: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, M W; Rosendall, B; Finlayson, B A

    1998-07-01

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a common clinical symptom associated with many diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular diseases, and cancer. Its complications include choking, aspiration, malnutrition, cachexia, and dehydration. The goal in dysphagia management is to provide adequate nutrition and hydration while minimizing the risk of choking and aspiration. It is important to advance the individual toward oral feeding in a timely manner to enhance the recovery of swallowing function and preserve the quality of life. Current clinical assessments of dysphagia are limited in providing adequate guidelines for oral feeding. Mathematical modeling of the fluid dynamics of pharyngeal bolus transport provides a unique opportunity for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of swallowing. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a special case of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In CFD, the flow of a fluid in a space is modeled by covering the space with a grid and predicting how the fluid moves from grid point to grid point. FEA is capable of solving problems with complex geometries and free surfaces. A preliminary pharyngeal model has been constructed using FEA. This model incorporates literature-reported, normal, anatomical data with time-dependent pharyngeal/upper esophageal sphincter (UES) wall motion obtained from videofluorography (VFG). This time-dependent wall motion can be implemented as a moving boundary condition in the model. Clinical kinematic data can be digitized from VFG studies to construct and test the mathematical model. The preliminary model demonstrates the feasibility of modeling pharyngeal bolus transport, which, to our knowledge, has not been attempted before. This model also addresses the need and the potential for CFD in understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Improvements of the model are underway. Combining the model with individualized clinical data should potentially

  15. Spectroscopic studies of impurity densities and impurity transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behringer, K.

    1992-06-01

    Spectrometers and spectra, mainly from JET, are discussed with respect to diagnostic potential and calibration problems. Spatial scan facilities or multichord diagnostics are essential for transport investigations, and several possibilities are shown. The interpretation of spectral line radiation usually requires the availability of impurity transport codes, which calculate the ionization balance in the presence of transport, the line emissivities and the total impurity radiation. Some atomic physics prerequisites of such codes are discussed. Theoretical and experimental approaches to the transport problem are investigated using ASDEX and JET results for anomalous transport. The occasional observation of neoclassical accumulation, for example after pellet injection, is presented and respective modeling is described. Some H mode transport phenomena are mentioned.

  16. Accessible Transportation for All Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2014-09-18

    09/18/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5790-5792) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Transportation Security Administration Authorization Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-3

    2010-06-24

    07/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Transportation Security Acquisition Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Ayotte, Kelly [R-NH

    2013-12-20

    11/17/2014 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 599. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2719, which became Public Law 113-245 on 12/18/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities; Play Areas; Final Rule. Federal Register, Part IV: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, 36 CFR Part 1191.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board has issued guidelines to serve as the basis for enforceable standards to be adopted by the Department of Justice for new construction and alterations of play areas covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. The guidelines include scoping and technical provisions for ground level…

  20. Remote sensing applications for transportation and traffic engineering studies: A review of the literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epps, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current references were surveyed for the application of remote sensing to traffic and transportation studies. The major problems are presented that concern traffic engineers and transportation managers, and the literature references that discuss remote sensing applications are summarized.

  1. Reducing the Genetic Redundancy of Arabidopsis PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 Transporters to Study Phosphate Uptake and Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Amal; David, Pascale; Arrighi, Jean-François; Chiarenza, Serge; Thibaud, Marie-Christine; Nussaume, Laurent; Marin, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) absorbs inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the soil through an active transport process mediated by the nine members of the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1) family. These proteins share a high level of similarity (greater than 61%), with overlapping expression patterns. The resulting genetic and functional redundancy prevents the analysis of their specific roles. To overcome this difficulty, our approach combined several mutations with gene silencing to inactivate multiple members of the PHT1 family, including a cluster of genes localized on chromosome 5 (PHT1;1, PHT1;2, and PHT1;3). Physiological analyses of these lines established that these three genes, along with PHT1;4, are the main contributors to Pi uptake. Furthermore, PHT1;1 plays an important role in translocation from roots to leaves in high phosphate conditions. These genetic tools also revealed that some PHT1 transporters likely exhibit a dual affinity for phosphate, suggesting that their activity is posttranslationally controlled. These lines display significant phosphate deficiency-related phenotypes (e.g. biomass and yield) due to a massive (80%–96%) reduction in phosphate uptake activities. These defects limited the amount of internal Pi pool, inducing compensatory mechanisms triggered by the systemic Pi starvation response. Such reactions have been uncoupled from PHT1 activity, suggesting that systemic Pi sensing is most probably acting downstream of PHT1. PMID:25670816

  2. Standard and long-acting depot neuroleptics in chronic schizophrenics: an 18-month open multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Fermanian, J; Ginestet, D; Goujet, M A; Péron-Magnan, P

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this 18-month open study was to compare standard neuroleptics and long-acting depot neuroleptics following the current psychiatric practice in order to determine the best therapy. Thirty French psychiatrists from 15 different wards participated in this experiment. One hundred eighty-one chronic schizophrenic patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the following three treatments: standard neuroleptics, pipotiazine palmitate, or fluphenazine decanoate. Criteria used for evaluation were an overall clinical evaluation by a psychiatrist, a Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and a Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation. No significant difference (P greater than .05) was observed between the three groups in drug effectiveness or tolerance. PMID:28102

  3. Manned Mars System Study (MMSS): Mars transportation and facility study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to design and analyze systems for conducting human missions to Mars and the moon, with special emphasis on the transportation and facility infrastructure. This study was conducted by Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, with an important teaming role by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This work included the studies and separate reports of the FY-1988 and 1989 case studies as well as special analyses and parametric studies.

  4. Manned Mars System Study (MMSS): Mars transportation and facility study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to design and analyze systems for conducting human missions to Mars and the moon, with special emphasis on the transportation and facility infrastructure. This study was conducted by Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, with an important teaming role by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This work included the studies and separate reports of the FY-1988 and 1989 case studies as well as special analyses and parametric studies.

  5. Proceedings of the Fourteenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 14) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX), supported by the NASA Propagation Program, is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investigators from domestic and international organizations. NAPEX XIV was held on May 11, 1990, at the Balcones Research Centers, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. The meeting was organized into two technical sessions: Satellite (ACTS) and the Olympus Spacecraft, while the second focused on the fixed and mobile satellite propagation studies and experiments. Following NAPEX XIV, the ACTS Miniworkshop was held at the Hotel Driskill, Austin, Texas, on May 12, 1990, to review ACTS propagation activities since the First ACTS Propagation Studies Workshop was held in Santa Monica, California, on November 28 and 29, 1989.

  6. Proceedings of the Fifteenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 15) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX), supported by the NASA Propagation Program, is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investigators from domestic and international organizations. The meeting was organized into three technical sessions. The first session was dedicated to Olympus and ACTS studies and experiments, the second session was focused on the propagation studies and measurements, and the third session covered computer-based propagation model development. In total, sixteen technical papers and some informal contributions were presented. Following NAPEX 15, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) miniworkshop was held on 29 Jun. 1991, to review ACTS propagation activities, with emphasis on ACTS hardware development and experiment planning. Five papers were presented.

  7. Laboratory studies of aeolian sediment transport processes on planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Keld R.; Valance, Alexandre; Merrison, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    We review selected experimental saltation studies performed in laboratory wind tunnels and collision experiments performed in (splash-) laboratory facilities that allow detailed observations between impinging particles on a stationary bed. We also discuss progress in understanding aeolian transport in nonterrestrial environments. Saltation studies in terrestrial wind tunnels can be divided into two groups. The first group comprises studies using a short test bed, typically 1-4 m long, and focuses on the transitional behavior near the upwind roughness discontinuity where saltation starts. The other group focuses on studies using long test beds - typically 6 m or more - where the saturated saltation takes place under equilibrium conditions between wind flow and the underlying rough bed. Splash studies using upscaled model experiments allow collision simulations with large spherical particles to be recorded with a high speed video camera. The findings indicate that the number of ejected particles per impact scales linearly with the impact velocity of the saltating particles. Studies of saturated saltation in several facilities using predominantly Particle Tracking Velocimetry or Laser Doppler Velocimetry indicate that the velocity of the (few) particles having high trajectories increases with increasing friction velocity. However, the speed of the majority of particles that do not reach much higher than Bagnold's focal point is virtually independent of Shields parameter - at least for low or intermediate u*-values. In this case mass flux depends on friction velocity squared and not cubed as originally suggested by Bagnold. Over short beds particle velocity shows stronger dependence on friction velocity and profiles of particle velocity deviate from those obtained over long beds. Measurements using horizontally segmented traps give average saltation jump-lengths near 60-70 mm and appear to be only weakly dependent on friction velocity, which is in agreement with some

  8. Digging for Treasure - Unique Fate and Transport Study

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; M. K. Adler-Flitton; G. A. Beitel

    2003-02-01

    In 1970, scientists at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now called the National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST), implemented the most ambitious and comprehensive long-term corrosion behavior test for stainless steels in soil environments. This study had historic significance since the NBS 1957 landmark corrosion textbook compiled by Romanoff did not include stainless steels, and this 1970 research set forth to complete the missing body of knowledge. To conduct the test, NIST scientists buried 6,324 coupons from stainless steel types, specialty alloys, composite configurations, multiple material forms, and treatment conditions at six distinctive soil-type sites throughout the country. Between 1971 and 1980, four sets of coupons were removed from the six sites to establish 1-year, 2-year, 4-year, and 8- year corrosion rates data sets for different soil environments. The fifth and last set of coupons (approximately 200 at each site) remains undisturbed after 32-years, providing a virtual buried treasure of material and subsurface scientific data. These buried coupons and the surrounding soils represent an analog to the condition of buried waste and containers. Heretofore, the samples were simply pulled from the soil, measured for mass loss and the corrosion rate determined while the subsurface/fate and transport information was not considered nor gathered. Funded through an Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) proposal, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel-BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), is chartered to restart this corrosion test and concurrently capture the available subsurface/fate and transport information. Since the work of retrieving the buried metal coupons is still in the planning stage, this paper outlines the interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers and defines the benefits of this research to long-term stewardship, subsurface science, and

  9. Digging for Treasure - Unique Fate and Transport Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Adler-Flitton, M.K.; Beitel, G.A.

    2003-02-24

    In 1970, scientists at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now called the National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST), implemented the most ambitious and comprehensive long-term corrosion behavior test for stainless steels in soil environments. This study had historic significance since the NBS 1957 landmark corrosion textbook compiled by Romanoff did not include stainless steels, and this 1970 research set forth to complete the missing body of knowledge. To conduct the test, NIST scientists buried 6,324 coupons from stainless steel types, specialty alloys, composite configurations, multiple material forms, and treatment conditions at six distinctive soil-type sites throughout the country. Between 1971 and 1980, four sets of coupons were removed from six sites to establish 1-year, 2-year, 4-year, and 8-year corrosion rates data sets for different soil environments. The fifth and last set of coupons (approximately 200 at each site) remains undisturbed after 32-years, providing a virtual buried treasure of material and subsurface scientific data. These buried coupons and the surrounding soils represent an analog to the condition of buried waste and containers. Heretofore, the samples were simply pulled from the soil, measured for mass loss and the corrosion rate determined while the subsurface/fate and transport information was not considered nor gathered. Funded through an Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) proposal, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel-BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), is chartered to restart this corrosion test and concurrently capture the available subsurface/fate and transport information. Since the work of retrieving the buried metal coupons is still in the planning stage, this paper outlines the interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers and defines the benefits of this research to long-term stewardship, subsurface science, and

  10. Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh

    2016-04-01

    Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and

  11. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-12-31

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He{sup 2{plus}} and Fe{sup 24{plus}} transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He{sup 2{plus}} studies. By examining the electron and He{sup 2{plus}} responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed.

  12. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  13. Tanker navigation safety standards: Tanker navigation safety research baseline: A study required by section 4111(b)(9) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 directed the Secretary of Transportation to review and incorporate the results of past studies, including studies by the Coast Guard and Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). This literature search and review focuses on materials pertinent to determining or evaluating current and/or `best` practices, and not on the adequacy of current statutes or regulations. In addition, it is not the intention of the report to assess best practices (e.g., suggest the appropriate crew sizes or what navigation equipment should be required on tankers), but to establish the baseline for future study of best practices. The report does not provide answers to new analytical quations, but presents the status of research so that questions addressed previoulsy will not be duplicated by future studies.

  14. Cosmic ray heliospheric transport study with neutron monitor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Ygbuhay, R. C.; Modzelewska, R.; Dorman, L. I.; Alania, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    Determining transport coefficients for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) propagation in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) poses a fundamental challenge in modeling cosmic ray modulation processes. GCR scattering in the solar wind involves wave-particle interaction, the waves being Alfven waves which propagate along the ambient field (B). Empirical values at 1 AU are determined for the components of the diffusion tensor for GCR propagation in the heliosphere using neutron monitor (NM) data. At high rigidities, particle density gradients and mean free paths at 1 AU in B can only be computed from the solar diurnal anisotropy (SDA) represented by a vector A (components Ar, Aϕ, and Aθ) in a heliospherical polar coordinate system. Long-term changes in SDA components of NMs (with long track record and the median rigidity of response Rm ~ 20 GV) are used to compute yearly values of the transport coefficients for 1963-2013. We confirm the previously reported result that the product of the parallel (to B) mean free path (λ||) and radial density gradient (Gr) computed from NM data exhibits a weak Schwabe cycle (11y) but strong Hale magnetic cycle (22y) dependence. Its value is most depressed in solar activity minima for positive (p) polarity intervals (solar magnetic field in the Northern Hemisphere points outward from the Sun) when GCRs drift from the polar regions toward the helioequatorial plane and out along the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), setting up a symmetric gradient Gθs pointing away from HCS. Gr drives all SDA components and λ|| Gr contributes to the diffusive component (Ad) of the ecliptic plane anisotropy (A). GCR transport is commonly discussed in terms of an isotropic hard sphere scattering (also known as billiard-ball scattering) in the solar wind plasma. We use it with a flat HCS model and the Ahluwalia-Dorman master equations to compute the coefficients α (=λ⊥/λ∥) and ωτ (a measure of turbulence in the solar wind) and transport

  15. Proceedings of the Twentieth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX XX) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nassar (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) Meeting and associated Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop convene yearly to discuss studies supported by the NASA Propagation Program. Representatives from the satellite communications (satcom)industry, academia, and government with an interest in space-ground radio wave propagation have peer discussion of work in progress, disseminate propagation results, and interact with the satcom industry. NAPEX XX, in Fairbanks, Alaska, June 4-5, 1996, had three sessions: (1) "ACTS Propagation Study: Background, Objectives, and Outcomes," covered results from thirteen station-years of Ka-band experiments; (2) "Propagation Studies for Mobile and Personal Satellite Applications," provided the latest developments in measurement, modeling, and dissemination of propagation phenomena of interest to the mobile, personal, and aeronautical satcom industry; and (3)"Propagation Research Topics," covered a range of topics including space/ground optical propagation experiments, propagation databases, the NASA Propagation Web Site, and revision plans for the NASA propagation effects handbooks. The ACTS Miniworkshop, June 6, 1996, covered ACTS status, engineering support for ACTS propagation terminals, and the ACTS Propagation Data Center. A plenary session made specific recommendations for the future direction of the program.

  16. The 1990 high-speed civil transport studies. Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the results of the Douglas Aircraft Company system studies related to High-Speed Civil Transports (HSCT's). The tasks were performed under an 18-month extension of NASA Langley Research Center Contract NAS1-18378. The system studies were conducted to assess the emission impact of HSCT's at design Mach numbers ranging from 1.6 to 3.2. In particular, engine cycles were assessed regarding community noise and atmospheric emissions impact, and a HSCT route structure was developed. The general results indicated the following: (1) in the Mach number range 1.6 to 2.5, the development of polymer composite and discontinuous reinforced alumnium materials is essential to ensure a minimum operational weight; (2) the HSCT route structure to minimize supersonic overland can be increased by innovative routing to avoid land masses; (3) at least two engine concepts show promise in achieving sideline stage 3 noise limits; (4) two promising low-NO(x) combustor concepts were identified; (5) the atmospheric emission impact on ozone could be significantly lower for Mach 1.6 operations than for Mach 3.2 operations; and (6) sonic boom minimization concepts are maturing at an encouraging rate.

  17. Study on transport of assembled interferometer to Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanford, Ephraim; Guillon, Michel; Knepper, Kristina; Olson, Valerie; Roche, Daniel; Swain, Mark; Little, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    In realizing the scientific potential of locating an astronomical interferometer at one of the Antarctic domes, it will be necessary to retire risks and reduce costs. One way of doing this is to build the interferometer away from Antarctica, test the instrument, and then transport the system as modules to the final location. This novel approach can only be undertaken after it has been shown that such a system will survive the trip without damage, and that calibration of the system will be possible at a very low cost. The authors undertook such a study, measuring the shocks likely to be encountered during shipment, and then establishing that in all but one case, the shocks can be reduced by commercially available vibration isolators to <5g. The one shock not reducible to <5g occurred when the instrument was transferred from an icebreaker to the ice, and will require more careful handling by the shippers. The team also developed and modeled configurations for the delay lines and optics tables to reduce shipment risk while providing a backbone for the delay lines. The study supports the feasibility of a "preassembled" Antarctic interferometer.

  18. A field study on downwind odor transport from swine facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents field data to illustrate the characteristics of downwind odor dispersion. A total of eight swine facilities were studied in this project and power functions were found to be an appropriate description of the pattern of downwind odor transport for both swine buildings and manure storage lagoons and tanks. The coefficients of correlation for the power regressions ranged from 0.75-0.87. It was found that swine buildings have the potential of generating more odor than manure storage facilities such as lagoons and tanks and thus could be the major odor sources causing downwind odor nuisance. Therefore, to maintain the building clean should be highly recommended as swine producers' best management practice. For earthen basins, the odor strength was reduced by 80% at about 250-meter distance from the source. While for the swine building, a 50% of reduction in odor strength was observed at the same distance. The study did not show any advantages of using lagoons over concrete (or steel) manure tanks in terms of reducing downwind odor concentrations. Land application of manure did not cause persistent downwind odor problems. PMID:10736772

  19. Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which mission fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. The results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  20. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chouffani, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  1. The 1989 high-speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented for the Douglas Aircraft Company system studies related to high speed civil transports (HSCTs). The system studies were conducted to assess the environmental compatibility of a HSCT at a design Mach number of 3.2. Sonic boom minimization, exterior noise, and engine emissions were assessed together with the effect of a laminar flow control (LFC) technology on vehicle gross weight. The general results indicated that (1) achievement of a 90 PLdB sonic boom loudness level goal at Mach 3.2 may not be practical; (2) the high flow engine cycle concept shows promise of achieving the side line FAR Part 36 noise limit but may not achieve the aircraft range design goal of 6,500 nautical miles; (3) the rich burn/quick quench (RB/QQ) combustor concept shows promise for achieving low EINO(sub x) levels when combined with a premixed pilot stage/advanced technology high power stage duct burner in the P and W variable stream control engine (VSCE); and (4) full chord wing LFC has significant performance and economic advantages relative to the turbulent wing baseline.

  2. Transport and spectroscopic studies of liquid and polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopege, Dharshani Nimali

    Liquid and polymer electrolytes are interesting and important materials to study as they are used in Li rechargeable batteries and other electrochemical devices. It is essential to investigate the fundamental properties of electrolytes such as ionic conductivity, diffusion, and ionic association to enhance battery performance in different battery markets. This dissertation mainly focuses on the temperature-dependent charge and mass transport processes and ionic association of different electrolyte systems. Impedance spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to measure the ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficients of ketone and acetate based liquid electrolytes. In this study, charge and mass transport in non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have been viewed from an entirely different perspective by introducing the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Here, the conductivity and diffusion coefficient are written as an Arrhenius-like expression with a temperature-dependent static dielectric constant dependence in the exponential prefactor. The compensated Arrhenius formalism reported in this dissertation very accurately describes temperature-dependent conductivity data for acetate and ketone-based electrolytes as well as temperature-dependent diffusion data of pure solvents. We found that calculated average activation energies of ketone-based electrolytes are close to each other for both conductivity and diffusion data (in the range 24-26 kJ/mol). Also, this study shows that average activation energies of acetate-based electrolytes are higher than those for the ketone systems (in the range 33-37 kJ/mol). Further, we observed higher dielectric constants and ionic conductivities for both dilute and concentrated ketone solutions with temperature. Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared and Raman) was used to probe intermolecular interactions in both polymer and liquid electrolytes, particularly those which contain lithium

  3. Electronic Transport Study of Connected Artificial Kagome Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rench, D. W.; Le, B. L.; Lammert, P. E.; Misra, R.; Crespi, V. H.; Samarth, N.; Schiffer, P.

    2014-03-01

    We present experimental and computational results of magnetotransport in connected ferromagnetic nanowire arrays (connected artificial spin ice). We probed the artificial kagome spin ice lattice using AC transport techniques as a function of applied magnetic field strength and angle and compared these results to calculated transport properties based on OOMMF computational modeling. We find that many of the transport properties observed experimentally can be described in a simple manner using the Anistropic Magnetoresistance (AMR) model for individual nanowires and then calculating the net resistance using classical circuit analogues. Supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under grant number DE-SC0005313.

  4. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  5. Whirl Flutter Studies for a SSTOL Transport Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Hoffman, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    A proposed new class of aircraft - the Advanced Theater Transport (ATT) will combine strategic range and high payload with 'Super-STOL' (short take-off and landing) capability. It is also proposed to modify a YC-15 into a technology demonstrator with a 20-deg tilt wing; four, eight-bladed propellers; cross-shafted gearboxes and V-22 engines. These constitute a unique combination of design features that potentially affect performance, loads and whirl-mode stability (whirl flutter). NASA Ames Research Center is working with Boeing and Hamilton Sundstrand on technology challenges presented by the concept; the purpose of NASA involvement is to establish requirements for the demonstrator and for early design guidance, with emphasis on whirl flutter. CAMRAD II is being used to study the effects of various design features on whirl flutter, with special attention to areas where such features differ from existing aircraft, notably tiltrotors. Although the stability margins appear to be more than adequate, the concept requires significantly different analytical methods, principally including far more blade modes, than typically used for tiltrotors.

  6. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  7. Electron and spin transport studies of gated lateral organic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alborghetti, S.; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, P.

    2012-12-01

    In view of the many, often contradictory, reports of magneto-resistance (MR) in spin valve stacks containing a layer of organic semiconductor, mostly of the small molecule variety, we have investigated interdigitated lateral structures with an organic layer deposited in the narrow gap between two ferromagnetic electrodes, which are well-suited for studying charge and spin transport in novel (high resistivity) semiconducting materials. For the channel material we used three different organic semiconductors, the small molecule tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3), single crystals of pentacene, and the conductive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The channel length was 80 nm. Temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics reveal that in all instances the current is limited by field-assisted thermionic injection over an energy barrier at the metal/organic interface. No measurable magneto-resistance was observed down to 7 K. The interface energy barrier, together with the vastly different electronic structure of metals and organics close to the Fermi level, preclude spin injection. Nonetheless, unlike the case of inorganic semiconductors, the insertion of an artificial tunnel barrier at the contact did not improve spin injection. Gate-dependent measurements exhibited short-channel effects and transistor operation with on/off ratios of 103, but no magneto-resistance. We suggest the observations are a consequence of the formation of bipolaron-states at increasing carrier concentration.

  8. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-04-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  9. Severe Weather Case Studies from the USArray Transportable Array Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytell, J. E.; Vernon, F. L.; Busby, R. W.; Eakins, J. A.; Hedlin, M. A.; Muschinski, A.; Walker, K. T.; Woodward, R.

    2011-12-01

    Earthscope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) network serves as a real-time monitoring and recording platform for both seismic and weather phenomena. To date, most of the approximately 500 TA stations have been retrofitted with VTI SCP1000 MEMS barometric pressure gauges capable of recording data at 1 sample per second (sps). Additionally, over 100 of the TA stations have also been retrofitted with Setra 278 barometric gauges and NCPA infrasound sensors capable of recording data at 1 and 40 sps. While individual seismic events have been successfully researched via the TA network, observations of powerful weather events by the TA network have yet to be embraced by the scientific community. This presentation will focus on case studies involving severe weather passage across portions of the TA network throughout 2011 in order to highlight its viability as a platform for real-time weather monitoring and research. Examples of gust front passages and pressure couplets from severe thunderstorms will be presented, as will observations of the devastating tornado that passed through Joplin, Missouri on May 22nd with an enhanced Fujita (EF) strength of EF5. These data will demonstrate the overall viability of the TA network for monitoring severe weather events in real-time.

  10. A database of selected transport coefficients for combustion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1993-08-01

    COYOTE and similar combustion programs based on the multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations require the mixture viscosity, thermal conductivity, and species transport coefficients as input. This report documents a significant improvement to the calculation of these molecular transport coefficients in COYOTE and provides a self-contained and easy-to-use source of such data in a format suitable for use by such programs. We present the data for various species in two forms. The first is a simple functional fit to the transport coefficients. The second is the use of tabulated Lennard-Jones parameters in simple theoretical expressions for the gas-phase transport coefficients. Tables are given for a number of chemical species.

  11. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems. Volume 4: Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, H. C.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An appendix of the supporting data leading to conclusions and recommendations for an effective intraurban transportation system from volumes 1, 2, and 3 is presented. The data are given in tables and graphs.

  12. Moisture Transport in Silica Gel Particle Beds: I. Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Mills, A. F.

    1986-08-01

    Diffusion mechanisms of moisture within silica gel particles are investigated. It is found that for microporous silica gel surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism of moisture transport, while for macroporous silica gel both Knudsen and surface diffusion are important.

  13. Studies in the demand for short haul air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Gosling, G.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    Demand is analyzed in a short haul air transportation corridor. Emphasis is placed on traveler selection from available routes. Model formulations, estimation techniques, and traffic data handling are included.

  14. Do Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience Affect Speech Act Production? Analysis of Appropriateness, Accuracy, and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the effect of general proficiency and study-abroad experience in production of speech acts among learners of L2 English. Participants were 25 native speakers of English and 64 Japanese college students of English divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 22) had lower proficiency and no study-abroad experience.…

  15. Chicken lutropin acts like follitropin in rat ovarian follitropin receptor: an isoelectric focusing study.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, A; Hattori, M; Fukuhara, Y; Kawashima, M; Wakabayashi, K; Kamiyoshi, M

    1998-07-01

    This study investigates whether chicken lutropin (LH) specifically binds to rat ovarian follitropin (FSH) receptor and exerts FSH-like bioactivity. Glycoprotein fraction, prepared from the chicken anterior pituitary gland, was fractionated using isoelectric focusing within a pH range of 3.5-11. Analysis of the focused fractions, by a radioreceptor assay (RRA) specific for FSH in rats using rat ovarian homogenate as receptor source, and 125I-labeled rat FSH as radioligand, detected a large component having an isoelectric point of 10.25. This focusing profile obtained by RRA was quite similar to that obtained by a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for chicken LH, but clearly different from that obtained by a specific RIA for chicken FSH, indicating this RRA specifically recognizes chicken LH. Chicken LH fraction prepared from the electrofocused material was used for further studies. The chicken LH preparation was three times more potent than rat FSH in the RRA in displacing the radioligand bound to rat ovarian receptor, while chicken LH facilitated an 8-fold less production of estradiol in dispersed rat granulosa cells than rat FSH. These results suggest that chicken LH acts like rat FSH in rat ovarian FSH receptor, but receptor-binding activity is much higher than biological activity. PMID:9827020

  16. Parameter-Study Of The Thermal Yarkovsky Effect Acting On Neas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Prialnik, D.; Rosenberg, E.; Brosch, N.

    2010-10-01

    We study the relevant parameters for the thermal Yarkovsky effect acting on Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), specifically the rotation period and rotation axis. The study uses a quasi 3-D thermal model to derive the temperature map over the surface of the asteroid, and the thermal thrust is calculated. The model (Prialnik et al. 2004, Rosenberg and Prialnik 2006), uses an implicit scheme to numerically solve the equations that describe the asteroid and its thermal evolution. The results show how the thermal thrust is stronger for fast-rotating asteroids, as heat is emitted from their surface on the evening side, increasing the tangential component of the thermal thrust. Moreover, we show the differences in the thermal thrust between asteroids with different perihelion distances, and how this can explain the observed distribution of asteroids in the inner Solar System on the spin-perihelion plane. Our results suggest that many asteroids within the inner Solar System may have retrograde spins. Acknowledgements: D. Polishook is grateful for an Ilan Ramon doctoral scholarship from the Israeli Ministry of Science.

  17. Studies on performance with aspirin and paracetamol and with the centrally acting analgesics meptazinol and pentazocine.

    PubMed

    Bradley, C M; Nicholson, A N

    1987-01-01

    Effects of aspirin (325 and 650 mg) and paracetamol (500 and 1000 mg), and of the centrally acting analgesics meptazinol (100 and 200 mg) and pentazocine (25 and 50 mg) on visuo-motor coordination and dynamic visual acuity, together with critical flicker fusion, digit symbol substitution, complex reaction time and subjective assessments of mood, were studied from 0.75-2.0 h after ingestion by seven healthy female adults. The study was double-blind and placebo controlled, and triprolidine (10 mg) was used as the active control. No effects of meptazinol and paracetamol on performance were observed. Pentazocine (25 mg) impaired performance on digit symbol substitution (p less than 0.05) and aspirin (650 mg) appeared to have shortened complex reaction time (p less than 0.05). Meptazinol (100 mg) increased the component of mood assessments related to wakefulness (p less than 0.05). Impaired performance with pentazocine may involve opioid receptor activity, while the apparent alerting effect of meptazinol may relate to its cholinergic activity. The possible effect of aspirin on reaction time needs to be confirmed. PMID:3582476

  18. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, D. E.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation of three aircraft concepts, deflected slipstream STOL, helicopter VTOL, and fixed wing STOL, is presented. An attempt was made to determine the best concept for the intraurban transportation system. Desirability of the concept was based on ease of maintenance, development timing, reliability, operating costs, and the noise produced. Indications are that the deflected slipstream STOL is best suited for intraurban transportation. Tables and graphs are included.

  19. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Wing planform study and final configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Wing Planform Study and Final Configuration Selection Task of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program is documented. Application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span resulted in significant improvements over the Conventional Baseline Configuration (Baseline) and the Initial ACT Configuration previously established. The configurations use the same levels of technology, takeoff gross weight, and payload as the Baseline. The Final ACT Configuration (Model 768-107) incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 44% reduction in horizontal tail size), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle-of-attack limiter, and wing-load alleviation. Flutter-mode control was not beneficial for this configuration. This resulted in an 890 kg (1960 lb) reduction in airplane takeoff gross weight and a 9.8% improvement in cruise lift/drag. At the Baseline mission range (3589 km 1938 nmi), this amounts to 10% block-fuel reduction. Results of this task strongly indicate that the IAAC Project should proceed with the Final ACT evaluation, and begin the required control system development and test.

  20. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  1. Helium, Iron and Electron Particle Transport and Energy Transport Studies on the TFTR Tokamak

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Synakowski, E. J.; Efthimion, P. C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B. C.; Tang, W. M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Johnson, D .W.; Mansfield, D. K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M. C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kissick, M. W. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Results from helium, iron, and electron transport on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal transport analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the electron channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the electron heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to electron heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal transport is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.

  2. Helium, iron and electron particle transport and energy transport studies on the TFTR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Redi, M.H.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Kissick, M.W.

    1993-03-01

    Results from helium, iron, and electron transport on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal transport analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the electron channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the electron heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to electron heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal transport is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.

  3. GUIDANCE ON FEASIBILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA (COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION AND LIABILITY ACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guidance document is intended to provide a more detailed structure for identifying, evaluating, and selecting remedial action alternatives under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300)....

  4. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

  5. Use of heme reporters for studies of cytochrome biosynthesis and heme transport.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, B S; Gabbert, K K; Kranz, R G

    1996-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli containing mutations in the cydDC genes are defective for synthesis of the heme proteins cytochrome bd and c-type cytochromes. The cydDC genes encode a putative heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette transporter that has been proposed to act as an exporter of heme to the periplasm. To more fully understand the role of this transporter (and other factors) in heme protein biosynthesis, we developed plasmids that produce various heme proteins (e.g., cytochrome b5, cytochrome b562, and hemoglobin) in the periplasm of E. coli. By using these reporters, it was shown that the steady-state levels of polypeptides of heme proteins known to be stable without heme (e.g., cytochrome b5 and hemoglobin apoprotein) are significantly reduced in a cydC mutant. Exogenous addition of hemin to the cydC mutant still resulted in < 10% of wild-type steady-state levels of apohemoglobin in the periplasm. Since the results of heme reporter studies are not consistent with lower heme availability (i.e., heme export) in a cydC mutant, we analyzed other properties of the periplasm in cydC mutants and compared them with those of the periplasm in cydAB (encoding cytochrome bd) mutants and wild-type cells. Our results led us to favor a hypothesis whereby cydDC mutants are defective in the reduction environment within the periplasmic space. Such an imbalance could lead to defects in the synthesis of heme-liganded proteins. The heme reporters were also used to analyze strains of E. coli with a defect in genes encoding homologs of a different ABC transporter (helABC). The helABC genes have previously been shown to be required for the assembly of c-type cytochromes in Rhodobacter capsulatus (R. G. Kranz, J. Bacteriol. 171:456-464, 1989; D. L. Beckman, D. R. Trawick, and R. G. Kranz, Genes Dev. 6:268-283, 1992). This locus was shown to be essential in E. coli for endogenous cytochrome c biogenesis but not cytochrome b562 synthesis. Consistent with these and previous results, it

  6. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Muller, Erik

    2015-01-05

    The development of the Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) has produced significant results under our previous HEP funded efforts both on the fabrication of working devices and the understanding of the underlying physics governing its performance. The results presented here substantiate the use of diamond as both a secondary electron amplifier for high-brightness, high-average-current electron sources and as a photon and particle detector in harsh radiation environments. Very high average current densities (>10A/cm2) have been transported through diamond material. The transport has been measured as a function of incident photon energy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. Measurements of the charge transport for photon energies near the carbon K-edge (290 eV for sp3 bonded carbon) have provided insight into carrier loss due to diffusion; modeling of this aspect of charge transport is underway. The response of diamond to nanosecond x-ray pulses has been measured; in this regime the charge transport is as expected. Electron emission from hydrogenated diamond has been measured using both electron and x-ray generated carriers; a gain of 178 has been observed for electron-generated carriers. The energy spectrum of the emitted electrons has been measured, providing insight into the electron affinity and ultimately the thermal emittance. The origin of charge trapping in diamond has been investigated for both bulk and surface trapping

  7. Economic deregulation and transport safety: a synthesis of evidence from evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of evidence from studies that have evaluated the impacts of economic deregulation on transport safety. Most of these studies refer to aviation or road transport. Very few studies deal with deregulation of rail transport. There are no studies of maritime transport, which has never been regulated the same way as other modes of transport. The review includes studies that have attempted to quantify the impacts of transport deregulation on transport safety. Each study contains one or more estimates of the effect on transport safety of deregulation. Summary estimates of effect have been derived from the individual estimates of effect by means of meta-analysis. Airline deregulation, which has only been evaluated in the United States, does not appear to influence the safety of air travel. Deregulation of road transport has been evaluated in several countries. The summary estimate of effect indicates that no statistically significant changes in road safety have occurred as a result of deregulation. Deregulation of rail transport has only been evaluated in Great Britain and the United States. The experience so far suggests that deregulation of railways is associated with improved rail safety. This association does, however, not necessarily imply a causal relationship. PMID:16427020

  8. Study of light transport inside scintillation crystals for PET detectors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Downie, Evan; Farrell, Thomas; Peng, Hao

    2013-04-01

    Scintillation crystal design is a critical component in positron emission tomography system development, which impacts a number of performance parameters including energy resolution, time resolution and spatial resolution. Our work aims to develop a generalized simulation tool to model the light transport inside scintillation crystals with good accuracy, taking into account surface treatments, reflectors, temporal dependence of scintillation decay, and comprehensive experimental validations. The simulation has been validated against both direct analytical calculation and experimental measurements. In this work, the studies were performed for a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal of 3×3×20 mm(3) dimension coupled to a Hamamatsu silicon photomultiplier, with respect to light output, rise-time slope, energy resolution and time resolution. Four crystal surface treatment and reflector configurations were investigated: GroundMetal, GroundPaint, PolishMetal and PolishPaint. The experiments were performed to validate the Monte Carlo simulation results. The results indicate that the best time resolution (0.96±0.05 ns) and good energy resolution (10.6±0.4%) could be produced by using a polished surface with specular reflector, while the configuration of a polished surface with diffusive reflector produces the best energy resolution (10.2±0.9%). The results indicate that a polished surface with diffusive reflector achieves the best energy resolution (10.2±0.9%) for 511 keV high energy photons, and a polished surface with specular reflector achieves the best time resolution (0.96±0.05 ns) measured against a Hamamatsu fast photomultiplier tube. The ground surface treatment is not recommended for its inferior performance in terms of energy and time resolution. Possible explanations and future improvements to be made to the developed simulation tool are discussed. PMID:23470488

  9. Study of light transport inside scintillation crystals for PET detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Downie, Evan; Farrell, Thomas; Peng, Hao

    2013-04-01

    Scintillation crystal design is a critical component in positron emission tomography system development, which impacts a number of performance parameters including energy resolution, time resolution and spatial resolution. Our work aims to develop a generalized simulation tool to model the light transport inside scintillation crystals with good accuracy, taking into account surface treatments, reflectors, temporal dependence of scintillation decay, and comprehensive experimental validations. The simulation has been validated against both direct analytical calculation and experimental measurements. In this work, the studies were performed for a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal of 3×3×20 mm3 dimension coupled to a Hamamatsu silicon photomultiplier, with respect to light output, rise-time slope, energy resolution and time resolution. Four crystal surface treatment and reflector configurations were investigated: GroundMetal, GroundPaint, PolishMetal and PolishPaint. The experiments were performed to validate the Monte Carlo simulation results. The results indicate that the best time resolution (0.96±0.05 ns) and good energy resolution (10.6±0.4%) could be produced by using a polished surface with specular reflector, while the configuration of a polished surface with diffusive reflector produces the best energy resolution (10.2±0.9%). The results indicate that a polished surface with diffusive reflector achieves the best energy resolution (10.2±0.9%) for 511 keV high energy photons, and a polished surface with specular reflector achieves the best time resolution (0.96±0.05 ns) measured against a Hamamatsu fast photomultiplier tube. The ground surface treatment is not recommended for its inferior performance in terms of energy and time resolution. Possible explanations and future improvements to be made to the developed simulation tool are discussed.

  10. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  11. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  12. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  13. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  14. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  15. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  16. A Study of the Predictability of Praxis I Examination Scores from ACT Scores and Teacher Education Program Prerequisite Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between student enrollment in certain college courses and Praxis I scores. Specifically, the study examined the predictive nature of the relationships between students' grades in college algebra, their freshman English course of choice, their ACT scores, and their Praxis I scores. The subjects…

  17. Validity Decay in STEM and Non-STEM Fields of Study. ACT Working Paper Series. WP-2014-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrick, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if validity coefficients for ACT scores and high school grade point average (HSGPA) decayed or held stable over eight semesters of undergraduate study in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields at civilian four-year institutions, and whether the decay patterns differed from those…

  18. Black Metropolis and Mental Life: Beyond the "Burden of "Acting White"" Toward a Third Wave of Critical Racial Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akom, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Signithia Fordham and John Ogbu's classic research on the "burden of "acting White"" to develop a long overdue dialogue between Africana studies and critical white studies. It highlights the dialectical nature of Fordham and Ogbu's philosophy of race and critical race theory by locating the origins of the "burden of…

  19. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Moore, Thomas J.; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary tests were conducted to determine if interstitial element transport through a circulating helium working fluid was a potential problem in Brayton and Stirling space power systems. Test specimens exposed to a thermal gradient for up to 3000-hr included Nb-1%Zr, a Sm-Co alloy (referred to as SmCo in this paper), Hiperco 50 steel, and alumina to simulate various engine components of the Brayton and Stirling systems. Results indicate that helium transport of interstitial contaminants can be minimized over a 7-yr life with a monometallic Nb-1%Zr design. Exposure with other materials indicated a potential for interstitial contaminant transport. Determination of contamination kinetics and the effects on structural integrity will require additional testing.

  20. Test particle study of ion transport in drift type turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.

    2013-12-15

    Ion transport regimes in drift type turbulence are determined in the frame of a realistic model for the turbulence spectrum based on numerical simulations. The model includes the drift of the potential with the effective diamagnetic velocity, turbulence anisotropy, and dominant waves. The effects of the zonal flow modes are also analyzed. A semi-analytical method that is able to describe trajectory stochastic trapping or eddying is used for obtaining the transport coefficients as function of the parameters of the turbulence. Analytical approximations of the transport coefficients are derived from the results. They show the transition from Bohm to gyro-Bohm scaling as plasma size increases in very good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  1. The manned transportation system study - Defining human pathways into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Nick; Geyer, Mark S.; Gaunce, Michael T.; Anson, H. W.; Bienhoff, D. G.; Carey, D. A.; Emmett, B. R.; Mccandless, B.; Wetzel, E. D.

    1992-01-01

    Substantiating data developed by a NASA-industry team (NIT) for subsequent NASA decisions on the 'right' set of manned transportation elements needed for human access to space are discussed. Attention is given to the framework for detailed definition of these manned transportation elements. Identifying and defining architecture evaluation criteria, i.e., attributes, specified the amount and type of data needed for each concept under consideration. Several architectures, each beginning with today's transportation systems, were defined using representative systems to explore future options and address specific questions currently being debated. The present solutions emphasize affordability, safety, routineness, and reliability. Key issues associated with current business practices were challenged and the impact associated with these practices quantified.

  2. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: FY 2002 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2003-01-02

    This work reported here is part of the U. S. Department of Energy’s Science and Technology Initiative to develop improved conceptual models of flow and transport in the vadose zone, particularly for the Hanford Site, Washington. The National Academy of Sciences has identified significant knowledge gaps in conceptual model development as one reason for discovery of subsurface contamination in unexpected places. Inadequate conceptualizations limits, not only the understanding of long-term fate and transport, but also the selection and design of remediation technologies. Current conceptual models are limited partly because they do not account for the random heterogeneity that occurs under the extremes of very nonlinear flow behavior typical of the Hanford vadose zone. A major improvement in conceptual modeling of the Hanford vadose zone includes a better understanding and description of soil anisotropy, a property that appears to control much of the subsurface flow and transport in layered sediments at the Hanford Site.

  3. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the Option I period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company - Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) provided support to both the Planetary Surface Systems (PSS) Office at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center and to the Flight and Ground Systems Projects Office (Payload Projects Management) at the Kennedy Space Center. The primary objective of the Option I phase of the study was to assist the above NASA centers in developing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts. MDSSC-KSC conducted three analyses which provided launch and landing detail to the proposed exploration concepts. One analysis, the Lunar Ejecta Assessment, was conducted to determine the effects of launch and landing a vehicle in a dusty environment. A second analysis, the Thermal/Micrometeoroid Protection Trade Study, was refined to determine the impacts that Reference Architecture Option 5A would have on thermal/micrometeoroid protection approaches. The third analysis, the Centaur Prelaunch Procedure Analysis, used a Centaur prelaunch test and checkout flow to identify key considerations that would be important if a Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) was to use an expander cycle liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. Several 'quick look' assessments were also conducted. One quick look assessment, the Storable Propellant Quick Look Assessment, was conducted to identify design considerations that should be made if storable propellants were to be used instead of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The LEV Servicer Maintenance Analysis provided an early look at the effort required to maintain an LEV Servicer on the lunar surface. Also, support was provided to the PSS Logistics Manager to develop initial LEV Servicer cost inputs. Consideration was given to the advanced development that must be provided to accomplish a lunar and/or Mars mission. MDSS-KSC also provided support to both MASE

  4. Experimental constraints on transport from dimensionless parameter scaling studies

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Baker, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    The scalings of heat transport with safety factor (q), normalized collisionality (v), plasma beta ({beta}), and relative gyroradius ({rho}*) have been measured on the DIII-D tokamak. The measured {rho}* {beta} and v scalings of heat transport indicate that E x B transport from drive wave turbulence is a plausible basis for anomalous transport. For high confinement (H) mode plasmas where the safety factor was varied at fixed magnetic shear, the effective (or one-fluid) thermal diffusivity was found to scale like {chi}{sub eff} {proportional_to} q{sup 2.3{+-}0.64}, with the ion and electron fluids having the same q scaling to within the experimental errors except near the plasma edge. The scaling of the thermal confinement time with safety factor was in good agreement with this local transport dependence, {tau}{sub th} {proportional_to} q{sup {minus}2.42{+-}0.31}; however, when the magnetic shear was allowed to vary to keep q{sub 0} fixed during the (edge) safety factor scan, a weaker global dependence was observed, {tau}{sub th} {proportional_to} q{sub 95}{sup {minus}1.43{+-}0.23}. This weaker dependence was mainly due to the change in the local value of q between the two types of scans. The combined {rho}*, {beta}, v and q scalings of heat transport for H-mode plasmas on DIII-D reproduce the empirical confinement scaling using physical (dimensionless) parameters with the exception of weaker power degradation.

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P.; Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C; Lyon, W.

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ``functionally equivalent.`` The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers` specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times.

  6. Outer Belt Radial Transport Signatures in Drift Phase Structure - Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. P., III; Kwan, B. P.; Skov, T. M.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Roeder, J. L.; Green, J. C.; Fennell, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    During geomagnetic storms, the Earth's outer radiation belt experiences enhanced radial transport. Different modes of radial transport have different temporal signatures in the particle phase-space density on timescales shorter than a drift period. We use such drift phase structure in time series particle flux observations to identify transport signatures of impulsive and oscillatory drift resonant transport. We perform multiple case studies of geomagnetic storms using particle flux taken near geostationary orbit. We estimate the radial diffusion coefficients from the drift phase structures. We show how these radial diffusion coefficients derived from particle data compare to transport coefficients deduced from wave observations.

  7. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He[sup 2[plus

  8. Outer Belt Radial Transport Signatures in Drift Phase Structure - Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Green, Janet; Fennell, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Roeder, James; Kwan, Betty; Mulligan Skov, Tamitha

    2016-07-01

    During geomagnetic storms, the Earth's outer radiation belt experiences enhanced radial transport. Different modes of radial transport have different temporal signatures in the particle phase-space density on timescales shorter than a drift period. We use such drift phase structure in time series particle flux observations to identify transport signatures of impulsive and oscillatory drift resonant transport. We perform multiple case studies of geomagnetic storms using particle flux taken near geostationary orbit. We estimate the radial diffusion coefficients from the drift phase structures. We show how these radial diffusion coefficients derived from particle data compare to transport coefficients deduced from wave observations.

  9. A case study of chlorine transport and fate following a large accidental release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Robert L.; Hunter, Charles H.; Werth, David W.; Whiteside, Morgana T.; Chen, Kuo-Fu; Mazzola, Carl A.

    2012-12-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.Previous studies of large chlorine releases have concluded that depletion of the resulting vapor cloud through physical and chemical reactions with sunlight, atmospheric constituents, and local surfaces can significantly reduce the areal extent over which the vapor poses a toxicological hazard. For Graniteville, modeling results were the most consistent with available data on human health effects, animal and fish mortality, and vegetation damage when an effective deposition velocity in the lower end of a range of values commonly cited in other studies (1 cm s-1) was applied. This relatively small deposition is attributed to a lack of sunlight, a limited uptake in vegetation due to rapid stomatal damage, and the limited presence of nearby man-made structures. Explicit simulations of chlorine deposition into adjacent surface waters were based on a modified Henry's Law approach and resulted in the transfer of an estimated 21 kg of chlorine into these waters.

  10. Site study plan for Transportation, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This site study plan describes transportation field studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. The studies are needed to identify and assess potential project impacts to transportation infrastructure and systems in the project vicinity and along potential transportation routes to the site across the State of Texas. The studies are also needed to locate and design project transportation facilities, and to evaluate and design impact mitigation. After identifying the transportation information requirements needed to comply with Federal, State, and local regulations and repository program requirements, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs for the characterization of site vicinity rail corridors and highway corridors, characterization of alternative statewide transportation routes, monitoring of site characterization effects on transportation, characterization of aircraft overflight patterns and hazardous material transportation patterns, and assessment of emergency response preparedness along alternative statewide transportation routes. 34 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Functional studies of Drosophila zinc transporters reveal the mechanism for dietary zinc absorption and regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc is key to the function of many proteins, but the process of dietary zinc absorption is not well clarified. Current knowledge about dietary zinc absorption is fragmented, and mostly derives from incomplete mammalian studies. To gain a comprehensive picture of this process, we systematically characterized all zinc transporters (that is, the Zip and ZnT family members) for their possible roles in dietary zinc absorption in a genetically amenable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Results A set of plasma membrane-resident zinc transporters was identified to be responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte and the subsequent exit of zinc to the circulation. dZip1 and dZip2, two functionally overlapping zinc importers, are responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte. Exit of zinc to the circulation is mediated through another two functionally overlapping zinc exporters, dZnT1, and its homolog CG5130 (dZnT77C). Somewhat surprisingly, it appears that the array of intracellular ZnT proteins, including the Golgi-resident dZnT7, is not directly involved in dietary zinc absorption. By modulating zinc status in different parts of the body, we found that regulation of dietary zinc absorption, in contrast to that of iron, is unresponsive to bodily needs or zinc status outside the gut. The zinc transporters that are involved in dietary zinc absorption, including the importers dZip1 and dZip2, and the exporter dZnT1, are respectively regulated at the RNA and protein levels by zinc in the enterocyte. Conclusions Our study using the model organism Drosophila thus starts to reveal a comprehensive sketch of dietary zinc absorption and its regulatory control, a process that is still incompletely understood in mammalian organisms. The knowledge gained will act as a reference for future mammalian studies, and also enable an appreciation of this important process from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:24063361

  12. NMR studies on Na+ transport in Synechococcus PCC 6311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitschmann, W. H.; Packer, L.

    1992-01-01

    The freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6311 is able to adapt to grow after sudden exposure to salt (NaCl) stress. We have investigated the mechanism of Na+ transport in these cells during adaptation to high salinity. Na+ influx under dark aerobic conditions occurred independently of delta pH or delta psi across the cytoplasmic membrane, ATPase activity, and respiratory electron transport. These findings are consistent with the existence of Na+/monovalent anion cotransport or simultaneous Na+/H+ +anion/OH- exchange. Na+ influx was dependent on Cl-, Br-, NO3-, or NO2-. No Na+ uptake occurred after addition of NaI, NaHCO3, or Na2SO4. Na+ extrusion was absolutely dependent on delta pH and on an ATPase activity and/or on respiratory electron transport. This indicates that Na+ extrusion via Na+/H+ exchange is driven by primary H+ pumps in the cytoplasmic membrane. Cells grown for 4 days in 0.5 m NaCl medium, "salt-grown cells," differ from control cells by a lower maximum velocity of Na+ influx and by lower steady-state ratios of [Na+]in/[Na+]out. These results indicate that cells grown in high-salt medium increase their capacity to extrude Na+. During salt adaptation Na+ extrusion driven by respiratory electron transport increased from about 15 to 50%.

  13. HYDRODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT MODELING STUDY IN A HIGHLY STRATIFIED ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the preliminary results of hydrodynamic and salinity predictions and the implications to an ongoing contaminated sediment transport and fate modeling effort in the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW), Seattle, Washington. The LDW is highly strati-fied when freshwate...

  14. Housing and Transportation Study: Full-Time Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Lawrence M.; Noble, Sidney

    This questionnaire survey shows the many influences on selection of housing and transportation by employees of a Cleveland junior college district (Cuyahoga Community College). It is felt the data would be pertinent to personnel recruitment, housing policies for faculty and staff, private housing developments, dissemination of housing information…

  15. Brownian dynamics study of ion transport in the vestibule of membrane channels.

    PubMed

    Li, S C; Hoyles, M; Kuyucak, S; Chung, S H

    1998-01-01

    Brownian dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the transport of ions in a vestibular geometry, which offers a more realistic shape for membrane channels than cylindrical tubes. Specifically, we consider a torus-shaped channel, for which the analytical solution of Poisson's equation is possible. The system is composed of the toroidal channel, with length and radius of the constricted region of 80 A and 4 A, respectively, and two reservoirs containing 50 sodium ions and 50 chloride ions. The positions of each of these ions executing Brownian motion under the influence of a stochastic force and a systematic electric force are determined at discrete time steps of 50 fs for up to 2.5 ns. All of the systematic forces acting on an ion due to the other ions, an external electric field, fixed charges in the channel protein, and the image charges induced at the water-protein boundary are explicitly included in the calculations. We find that the repulsive dielectric force arising from the induced surface charges plays a dominant role in channel dynamics. It expels an ion from the vestibule when it is deliberately put in it. Even in the presence of an applied electric potential of 100 mV, an ion cannot overcome this repulsive force and permeate the channel. Only when dipoles of a favorable orientation are placed along the sides of the transmembrane segment can an ion traverse the channel under the influence of a membrane potential. When the strength of the dipoles is further increased, an ion becomes detained in a potential well, and the driving force provided by the applied field is not sufficient to drive the ion out of the well. The trajectory of an ion navigating across the channel mostly remains close to the central axis of the pore lumen. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the transport of ions across the membrane. PMID:9449307

  16. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The report concludes that, to effectively deal with our national energy problems, gas rate structures should be designed to reflect the costs which the nation avoids if gas is efficiently used and substituted for oil. Current pipeline and distribution company rate structures generally do not meet this test. Although gas is a substitute for oil in many applications, and conserved gas can reduce oil imports, gas rate structures often fail to convey to consumers the fact that, from a national perspective, gas is as valuable as oil. The provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) take a strong first step in correcting these problems. But, as clearly recognized in both NGPA and PURPA, these provisions need to be supplemented by updating pipeline and distribution company rate designs to address the problems of the 1980's - rather than the problems of the 1950's. In this regard, NGPA mandates incremental pricing, which raises the average price of gas to certain industrial users only. The Department of Energy (DOE) study suggests an alternate approach: pipeline and distribution rate structures that reflect in their tailblocks, for all customer classes, the economic costs of gas usage. Such rates would convey to all users the costs incurred by the nation as a consequence of their decisions to use or conserve gas. Such rate structures should promote the three purposes of PURPA - end-use conservation, efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates - to a greater extent than do traditional accounting cost rate designs, which reflect decisions made in the distant past.

  17. In Vitro Studies Indicate Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Acts as Lipid Sink in Verapamil Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kryshtal, Dmytro O; Dawling, Sheila; Seger, Donna; Knollmann, Bjorn C

    2016-06-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE), a component of parenteral nutrition, consists of a fat emulsion of soy bean oil, egg phospholipids, and glycerin. Case reports suggest that ILE may reverse hypotension caused by acute poisoning with lipophilic drugs such as verapamil, but the mechanism remains unclear. The methods used are the following: (1) measurement of ILE concentration in serum samples from a patient with verapamil poisoning treated with ILE, (2) measurement of free verapamil concentrations in human serum mixed in vitro with increasing concentrations of ILE, and (3) measurement of murine ventricular cardiomyocyte L-type Ca(2+) currents, intracellular Ca(2+), and contractility in response to verapamil and/or ILE. Maximum patient serum ILE concentration after infusion of 1 L ILE over 1 h was approximately 1.6 vol%. In vitro GC/MS verapamil assays showed that addition of ILE (0.03-5.0 vol%) dose-dependently decreased the free verapamil concentration in human serum. In voltage-clamped myocytes, adding ILE to Tyrode's solution containing 5 μM verapamil recovered L-type Ca(2+) currents (ICa). Recovery was concentration dependent, with significant ICa recovery at ILE concentrations as low as 0.03 vol%. ILE had no effect on ICa in the absence of verapamil. In field-stimulated intact ventricular myocytes exposed to verapamil, adding ILE (0.5 %) resulted in a rapid and nearly complete recovery of myocyte contractility and intracellular Ca(2+). Our in vitro studies indicate that ILE acts as a lipid sink that rapidly reverses impaired cardiomyocyte contractility in the continued presence of verapamil. PMID:26553277

  18. Pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Geng, Peiwu; Luo, Xinhua; Zhou, Genzhi; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Shuanghu; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Ding, Ting

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that macitentan was metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 3A4, and ACT-132577, its pharmacologically active metabolite, is fivefold less potent at blocking ET receptors than macitentan. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of diazepam as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 546.9→200.6 for ACT-132577, and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 10-4000 ng/mL for ACT-132577 in rat plasma. Mean recovery of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 82.6% to 90.6%, matrix effect of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 101.4% to 115.2%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 96.1% to 103.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 after oral and intravenous administration of macitentan. PMID:26770447

  19. Remarks of the President on Nationwide Radio and Television; Message to the Congress; Fact Sheet: Message on Busing; Student Transportation Moratorium Act of 1972; Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard M.

    Two proposed legislative measures are discussed in this document. The first is "The Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1972). This would (1) require that no state or locality could deny equal educational opportunity to any person on account of race, color, or national origin; (2) establish criteria for determining what constitutes a denial of…

  20. Realization of a Brownian engine to study transport phenomena: a semiclassical approach.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2010-06-01

    Brownian particles moving in a periodic potential with or without external load are often used as good theoretical models for the phenomenological studies of microscopic heat engines. The model that we propose here, assumes the particle to be moving in a nonequilibrium medium and we have obtained the exact expression for the stationary current density. We have restricted our consideration to the overdamped motion of the Brownian particle. We present here a self-consistent theory based on the system-reservoir coupling model, within a microscopic approach, of fluctuation induced transport in the semiclassical limit for a general system coupled with two heat baths kept at different temperatures. This essentially puts forth an approach to semiclassical state-dependent diffusion. We also explore the possibility of observing a current when the temperature of the two baths are different, and also envisage that our system may act as a Carnot engine even when the bath temperatures are the same. The condition for such a construction has been elucidated. PMID:20866383

  1. Medical Educators' Social Acts of Explaining Passing Underperformance in Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.; Lewis, Natalie J.; Cleland, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Passing underperformance in students is ubiquitous across health and social care educators and is intimately related to the subsequent welfare of patients: underperforming students may become underperforming practitioners. This paper aims to examine how medical educators construct passing underperformance through an analysis of their social act of…

  2. 76 FR 43729 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...The Department of Labor (DOL or the Department) is prepared to conduct an evaluation to provide rigorous, nationally representative estimates of the net impacts of intensive services and training provided under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs. The Department has determined that it is in the public interest to use a random assignment impact methodology......

  3. Spectroscopic study of hydroxyproline transport in rat kidney mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Atlante, A; Passarella, S; Quagliariello, E

    1994-07-15

    Hydroxyproline uptake by rat kidney mitochondria is here first shown by monitoring the reduction of the intramitochondrial pyridine nucleotides which occurs as a result of metabolism of imported hydroxyproline via hydroxyproline oxidase and 3-hydroxy-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. Widely used criteria for demonstrating the occurrence of carrier-mediated transport were applied to this process. Hydroxyproline uptake shows saturation features (Km and Vmax values, measured at 20 degrees C and at pH 7.20, were found to be about 1.4 mM and 5 nmoles/min x mg mitochondrial protein, respectively) and proves to be inhibited by the impermeable compound phenylsuccinate, but insensitive to externally added methylglutamate. Difference found in the Km and Vmax values, a different inhibitor sensitivity and the failure of hydroxyproline to cause efflux of glutamate from the mitochondria show that hydroxyproline enters mitochondria by means of a translocator different from those which transport proline. PMID:8037764

  4. Study of internal transport barrier triggering mechanism in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, J.Q.; Mou, Z.Z.; Long, Y.X.; Mahajan, S.M.

    2004-12-01

    Sheared flow layers driven by magnetic energy, released in tearing-reconnection processes inherent in dissipative magnetohydrodynamics, are proposed as a triggering mechanism for the creation of the internal transport barrier (ITB) in tokamak plasmas. The double tearing mode, mediated by anomalous electron viscosity in configurations with a nonmonotonic safety factor, is investigated as an example. Particular emphasis is placed on the formation of sheared poloidal flow layers in the vicinity of the magnetic islands. A quasilinear simulation demonstrates that the sheared flows induced by the mode have desirable characteristics (lying just outside the magnetic islands), and sufficient levels required for ITB formation. A possible explanation is also proffered for the experimental observation that the transport barriers are preferentially formed in the proximity of low-order rational surfaces.

  5. Membrane vesicles: A simplified system for studying auxin transport

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin responsible for regulation of growth, is transported polarly in plants. Several different models have been suggested to account for IAA transport by cells and its accumulation by membrane vesicles. One model sees diffusion of IAA driven by a pH gradient. The anion of a lipophilic weak acid like IAA or butyrate accumulates in an alkaline compartment in accord with the size of the pH gradient The accumulation of IAA may be diminished by the permeability of its lipophilic anion. This anion leak may be blocked by NPA. With anion efflux blocked, a gradient of two pH units would support an IAA accumulation of less than 50-fold at equilibrium (2) Another model sees diffusion of IAA in parallel with a saturable symport (IAA[sup [minus

  6. Study of inadvertent speed increases in transport operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Henry A

    1953-01-01

    Some factors relating to inadvertent speed and Mach number increases in transport operation are discussed with the object of indicating the manner in which they might vary with different qualities of the airplane and the minimum margins required to guard against reaching unsafe values. The speed increments and the margins required under several assumed conditions are investigated. The results indicate that, on a percentage basis, smaller margins should be required of high-speed airplanes than of low-speed airplanes to prevent overspeeding in inadvertent maneuvers. The possibility of exceeding placard speed in prolonged descents is illustrated by computations for typical transport airplanes. Equations are suggested that allow estimates to be made of the necessary speed margins.

  7. Reactive transport studies at the Raymond Field Site

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, B.; Karasaki, K.; Solbau, R.; Cohen, A.

    1995-12-01

    To ensure the safety of a nuclear waste repository, an understanding of the transport of radionuclides from the repository nearfield to the biosphere is necessary. At the Raymond Field Site, in Raymond, California, tracer tests are being conducted to test characterization methods for fractured media and to evaluate the equipment and tracers that will be used for Yucca Mountain`s fracture characterization. Recent tracer tests at Raymond have used reactive cations to demonstrate transport with sorption. A convective-dispersive model was used to simulate a two-well recirculating test with reasonable results. However, when the same model was used to simulate a radially convergent tracer test, the model poorly predicted the actual test data.

  8. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2013-03-31

    As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading electron gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the electron emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge transport modeling, and spatial uniformity.

  9. Mission modeling for the Manned Transportation System study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunce, Michael T.; Emmet, Brian R.

    1992-03-01

    To determine the requirements and potential options for the next Manned Transportation System, a 'needs' analysis was performed. The analysis identified the number, mass, type, and destination of manned and unmanned payloads to space. The needs model is based on the NASA Mixed Fleet Manifest and a version of the FY90 Civil Needs Data Base with Space Station Restructure modifications and a 'strawman' DOD mission model.

  10. Study of the Implementation of the Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act. Research and Evaluation Report Series 91-G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.

    The design and operations of the Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance (EDWAA) Act program in its implementation year were examined through case studies conducted in 15 states and 30 substate areas. During 6- to 8-day visits to each state, field researchers conducted discussions with state and substate respondents. States almost…

  11. Systemic Reform in Six Rural Districts: A Case Study of First Reactions to the Kentucky Education Reform Act of 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Pamelia; Kannapel, Patricia

    The Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) of 1990 was adopted after the Kentucky Supreme Court declared the state's system of schools unconstitutional. The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of information about KERA and to describe community attitudes toward KERA in rural Kentucky school districts during the first few months the law…

  12. Words from the Heart Speak to the Heart: A Study of Deep Acting, Faking, and Hiding among Child Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond T.; Brotheridge, Celeste M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand, from the child care worker's perspective, how work experience, display rules, and affectivity are related to emotional labor. It also examines the utility of separating surface acting into its two components: the hiding and faking of emotions. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on…

  13. EVALUATION OF THE RCRA (RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT) EXTRACTION PROCEDURE - LYSIMETER STUDIES WITH MUNICIPAL/INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was initiated to determine the accuracy with which the Extraction Procedures (EP), employed in the regulations promulgated under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (40 CFR 26.124), simulates the leaching an industrial waste would undergo when codis...

  14. A comparative study of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable therapy in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Li, Huafang; Rui, Qing; Ning, Xiaoping; Xu, Haiyan; Gu, Niufan

    2011-06-01

    This open-label, rater-blinded, parallel-group study was designed to evaluate noninferiority of paliperidone palmitate (PP), a once-monthly injectable atypical antipsychotic, to once-biweekly risperidone long-acting injectable (RIS-LAI) in adult Chinese patients with acute schizophrenia. Eligible Chinese adults (N=452) with schizophrenia were randomized (1:1) to either PP (N=229; deltoid injections on day 1 [150 mg eq.] and day 8 [100 mg eq.]; then once-monthly deltoid or gluteal injections, flexibly dosed [50, 100, or 150 mg eq.]), or RIS-LAI (N=223; once-biweekly gluteal injections, flexibly dosed [25, 37.5 or 50 mg]). RIS-LAI-treated patients received oral risperidone supplementation (1-6 mg/day) at initiation and with RIS-LAI dose increases. Mean (SD) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at baseline was 83.2 (12.44). Mean (SD) change from baseline to endpoint in PANSS total scores (primary efficacy measure) was: -23.6 (16.28) for PP group and -26.9 (15.43) for RIS-LAI group. PP was noninferior to RIS-LAI (least squares mean difference [95% CI]: -2.3 [-5.20; 0.63]; predetermined non-inferiority margin: -5.5). Mean (SD) change from baseline to endpoint in Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale score was: -1.5 (1.24; PP group), -1.7 (1.16; RIS-LAI group) and in Personal and Social Performance Scale scores was: 16.8 (14.76; PP group), 18.6 (13.92; RIS-LAI group). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar between the two groups (73% [PP]; 75% [RIS-LAI]). The most common TEAEs were akathisia, tremor, and insomnia. The study demonstrated the noninferiority of PP (50-150 mg eq., flexibly dosed, without oral paliperidone supplementation) to risperidone-LAI (25-50 mg, flexibly dosed, with oral risperidone supplementation) for the treatment of acute schizophrenia in adult Chinese patients. PP injections were generally tolerable, and no new safety signals were detected in this population. PMID:21315787

  15. Bioequivalence Study of Two Long-Acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline Following Intramuscular Administration in Bovines

    PubMed Central

    Mestorino, Nora; Marchetti, María Laura; Lucas, Mariana Florencia; Modamio, Pilar; Zeinsteger, Pedro; Fernández Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio; Mariño, Eduardo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two commercial long-acting formulations based on oxytetracycline (OTC) hydrochloride between the reference formulation (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) and a test formulation (Cyamicin LA, Fort Dodge Saude Animal). Both formulations were administered in a single intramuscular route at a dose of 20 mg OTC/kg of body weight in clinically healthy bovines. The study was carried out according to a one-period parallel design. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/mL with an accuracy of 101.67% with a coefficient of variation of 13.15%. Analysis of variance and 90% confidence interval tests were used to compare the bioavailability parameters (maximum plasma concentration, Cmax, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity, AUC0–∞) of both products. In the case of the time to maximum concentration (Tmax), non-parametric tests based on Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were preferred. The comparison of the mean AUC0–∞ values did not reveal any significant differences (311.40 ± 93.05 μg h/mL and 287.71 ± 45.31 μg h/mL, respectively). The results were similar for the Tmax (3.58 ± 0.90 h versus 3.42 ± 0.51 h). However, when comparing the mean Cmax some significant differences were found (8.73 ± 3.66 μg/mL and 10.43 ± 3.84 μg/mL, respectively). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of AUC0–∞ and Tmax values for the reference and test product are within the interval 80–125%, but the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax falls outside the proposed interval. It was concluded that Cmax of test product are not within the 20% of those of the reference, thus suggesting that test OTC is not bioequivalent to the reference formulation. PMID:27446938

  16. The impact of the Sarbanes Oxley Act on auditing fees: An empirical study of the oil and gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezelle, Ralph Wayne, Jr.

    2011-12-01

    This study examines auditing of energy firms prior and post Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. The research explores factors impacting the asset adjusted audit fee of oil and gas companies and specifically examines the effect of the Sarbanes Oxley Act. This research analyzes multiple year audit fees of the firms engaged in the oil and gas industry. Pooled samples were created to improve statistical power with sample sizes sufficient to test for medium and large effect size. The Sarbanes Oxley Act significantly increases a firm's asset adjusted audit fees. Additional findings are that part of the variance in audit fees was attributable to the market value of the enterprise, the number of subsidiaries, the receivables and inventory, debt ratio, non-profitability, and receipt of a going concern report.

  17. Numerical Study of Fractional Ensemble Average Transport Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Park, Y.; Gyeong, C. B.; Lee, O.

    2014-12-01

    In this presentation, a newly developed theory is applied to the case of stationary and non-stationary stochastic advective flow field, and a numerical solution method is presented for the resulting fractional Fokker-Planck equation (fFPE), which describes the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of contaminant concentration. The derived fFPE is evaluated for three different form: 1) purely advective form, 2) second-order moment form and 3) second-order cumulant form. The Monte Carlo analysis of the fractional governing equation is then performed in a stochastic flow field, generated by a fractional Brownian motion for the stationary and non-stationary stochastic advection, in order to provide a benchmark for the results obtained from the fFPEs. When compared to the Monte Carlo simulation based PDFs and their ensemble average, the second-order cumulant form gives a good fit in terms of the shape and mode of the PDF of the contaminant concentration. Therefore, it is quite promising that the non-Fickian transport behavior can be modeled by the derived fractional ensemble average transport equations either by means of the long memory in the underlying stochastic flow, or by means of the time-space non-stationarity of the underlying stochastic flow, or by means of the time and space fractional derivatives of the transport equations. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non-point source pollution control research group"

  18. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, John C.; Edwards, W. Scott; Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J.; West, Lori D.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  19. Electronic and transport properties of the Mn-doped topological insulator Bi2Te3 : A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carva, K.; Kudrnovský, J.; Máca, F.; Drchal, V.; Turek, I.; Baláž, P.; Tkáč, V.; Holý, V.; Sechovský, V.; Honolka, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a first-principles study of the electronic, magnetic, and transport properties of the topological insulator Bi2Te3 doped with Mn atoms in substitutional (MnBi) and interstitial van der Waals gap positions (Mni), which act as acceptors and donors, respectively. The effect of native BiTe- and TeBi-antisite defects and their influence on calculated electronic transport properties is also investigated. We have studied four models representing typical cases, namely, (i) Bi2Te3 with and without native defects, (ii) MnBi defects with and without native defects, (iii) the same, but for Mni defects, and (iv) the combined presence of MnBi and Mni. It has been found that lattice relaxations around MnBi defects play an important role for both magnetic and transport properties. The resistivity is strongly influenced by the amount of carriers, their type, and by the relative positions of the Mn-impurity energy levels and the Fermi energy. Our results suggest strategies to tune bulk resistivities and also clarify the location of Mn atoms in samples. Calculations indicate that at least two of the considered defects have to be present simultaneously in order to explain the experimental observations, and the role of interstitials may be more important than expected.

  20. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 5: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The economic aspects of the STOL aircraft for short-haul air transportation are discussed. The study emphasized the potential market, the preferred operational concepts, the design characteristics, and the economic viability. Three central issues governing economic viability are as follows: (1) operator economics given the market, (2) the required transportation facilities, and (3) the external economic effects of a set of regional STOL transportation systems.

  1. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  2. Experimental study of the principles governing tokamak transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.; Gruber, O.; Lackner, K.; Murmann, H. D.; Speth, E.; Becker, G.; Bosch, H. S.; Brocken, H.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.; Eberhagen, A.; Elsner, A.; Erckmann, V.; Fussmann, G.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Gierke, G. V.; Glock, E.; Grieger, G.; Grigull, P.; Haas, G.; Hacker, H.; Hartfuss, H. J.; Jäckel, H.; Jaenicke, R.; Janeschitz, G.; Junker, J.; Karger, F.; Kasparek, W.; Keilhacker, M.; Kick, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, M.; Lenoci, M.; Lisitano, G.; Maassberg, M.; Mahn, C.; Marlier, S.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Müller, E. R.; Müller, .; Müller, G.; Niedermeyer, H.; Ohlendorf, W.; Poschenrieder, W.; Rapp, H.; Rau, F.; Renner, H.; Riedler, H.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Schüller, P. G.; Schwörer, K.; Siller, G.; Söldner, F.; Steuer, K.-H.; Thumm, M.; Tutter, M.; Vollmer, O.; Weller, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Wobig, H.; Würsching, E.; Zippe, M.

    1986-05-01

    Both in ohmically and beam-heated L-mode discharges of ASDEX, the electron-temperature (Te) profile shape can be varied over a wide range by the choice of the safety factor qa. The power-deposition profile, on the contrary, has no effect on the Te-profile shape. In current-free WVII-A stellarator plasmas, no such invariance property is found. An independent constraint seems to fix the current distribution j(r) of the tokamak, which defines the conditions of electron heat transport.

  3. Study of the transport parameters of cloud lightning plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Z. S.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, N.

    2010-11-15

    Three spectra of cloud lightning have been acquired in Tibet (China) using a slitless grating spectrograph. The electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity of the cloud lightning, for the first time, are calculated by applying the transport theory of air plasma. In addition, we investigate the change behaviors of parameters (the temperature, the electron density, the electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity) in one of the cloud lightning channels. The result shows that these parameters decrease slightly along developing direction of the cloud lightning channel. Moreover, they represent similar sudden change behavior in tortuous positions and the branch of the cloud lightning channel.

  4. Study of methane fuel for subsonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, L. K.; Davis, G. W.; Versaw, E. F.; Cunnington, G. R., Jr.; Daniels, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The cost and performance were defined for commercial transport using liquid methane including its fuel system and the ground facility complex required for the processing and storage of methane. A cost and performance comparison was made with Jet A and hydrogen powered aircraft of the same payload and range capability. Extensive design work was done on cryogenic fuel tanks, insulation systems as well as the fuel system itself. Three candidate fuel tank locations were evaluated, i.e., fuselage tanks, wing tanks or external pylon tanks.

  5. Study of electronic transport properties of doped 8AGNR

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Uma Shankar; Srivastava, Anurag; Verma, U. P.

    2014-04-24

    The electronic and transport properties of 8-armchair graphene nanoribbon (8AGNR) with defect at different sites are investigated by performing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The calculated results show that the 8AGNR are semiconductor. The introduction of 3d transition metals, creates the nondegenerate states in the conduction band, makes 8AGNR metallic. The computed transmission spectrum confirms that AGNR are semiconducting in nature and their band gap remain unchanged and localized states appear when there is vacancy in their structures, and the conductance decreases due to defects compared with the pristine nanoribbon.

  6. Proceedings of the Eighteenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 18) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX), supported by the NASA Propagation Program, is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investigators from domestic and international organizations. Participants included representatives from Canada, the Netherlands, England, and the United States, including researchers from universities, government agencies, and private industry. The meeting was organized into two technical sessions. The first session was dedicated to slant path propagation studies and experiments. The second session focused on propagation studies for mobile, personal, and sound broadcast systems. In total, 14 technical papers and some informal contributions were presented. Preceding NAPEX_17, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop was held to review ACTS propagation activities.

  7. Radiation inactivation studies of renal brush border water and urea transport

    SciTech Connect

    Verkman, A.S.; Dix, J.A.; Seifter, J.L.; Skorecki, K.L.; Jung, C.Y.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1985-12-01

    Radiation inactivation was used to determine the nature and molecular weight of water and urea transport pathways in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from rabbit renal cortex. BBMV were frozen to -50 degrees C, irradiated with 1.5 MeV electrons, thawed, and assayed for transport or enzyme activity. The freezing process had no effect on enzyme or transport kinetics. BBMV alkaline phosphatase activity gave linear ln(activity) vs. radiation dose plots with a target size of 68 +/- 3 kDa, similar to previously reported values. Water and solute transport were measured using the stopped-flow light-scattering technique. The rates of acetamide and osmotic water transport did not depend on radiation dose (0-7 Mrad), suggesting that transport of these substances does not require a protein carrier. In contrast, urea and thiourea transport gave linear ln(activity) vs. dose curves with a target size of 125-150 kDa; 400 mM urea inhibited thiourea flux by -50% at 0 and 4.7 Mrad, showing that radiation does not affect inhibitor binding to surviving transporters. These studies suggest that BBMV urea transport requires a membrane protein, whereas osmotic water transport does not.

  8. Mound-ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.

  9. SLC1 Glutamate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Grewer, Christof; Gameiro, Armanda; Rauen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane transporters for the neurotransmitter glutamate belong to the solute carrier 1 (SLC1) family. They are secondary active transporters, taking up glutamate into the cell against a substantial concentration gradient. The driving force for concentrative uptake is provided by the cotransport of Na+ ions and the countertransport of one K+ in a step independent of the glutamate translocation step. Due to eletrogenicity of transport, the transmembrane potential can also act as a driving force. Glutamate transporters are expressed in many tissues, but are of particular importance in the brain, where they contribute to the termination of excitatory neurotransmission. Glutamate transporters can also run in reverse, resulting in glutamate release from cells. Due to these important physiological functions, glutamate transporter expression and, therefore, the transport rate, are tightly regulated. This review summarizes recent literature on the functional and biophysical properties, structure-function relationships, regulation, physiological significance, and pharmacology of glutamate transporters. Particular emphasis is on the insight from rapid kinetic and electrophysiological studies, transcriptional regulation of transporter expression, and reverse transport and its importance for pathophysiological glutamate release under ischemic conditions. PMID:24240778

  10. The Bunny: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, David; Gallagher, Patrick; Grannan, William; Martin, Jennifer; Mastej, Nicole; Wujek, Brett

    1993-01-01

    The Bunny is a single-engine, 100 passenger commercial transport designed to serve the high density short-to-medium range markets in AEROWORLD. The aircraft's design range is 10,000 feet at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. The aircraft features a low wing which incorporates polyhedral for roll control. Yaw and pitch control are accomplished by a rudder and elevator, respectively. Propulsion is provided by a nose-mounted Astro 15 electric motor powered by thirteen 1.2 V, 1000 mah batteries with a Zinger 12-6 propeller. The aircraft is structurally designed with a safety factor of 1.5 and is constructed primarily of balsa, bass, and birch wood. Passenger seating is arranged on two levels, with three-abreast on the lower level and two-abreast on the upper level. The factors which had the most significant influence on the final design were the direct operating cost and the take-off distance. The primary strength of The Bunny is its ability to compete economically with the HB-40. At full capacity and mid-range fuel costs, the cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSK) of this aircraft is 25% less than the HB-40. Another principal strength is its ability to operate in all airports in AEROWORLD. Also, The Bunny's two-piece removable wing is an advantage from a transportability standpoint.

  11. Crystallographic study of FABP5 as an intracellular endocannabinoid transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Sanson, Benoît; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Liqun; Kaczocha, Martin; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale; Li, Huilin

    2014-02-01

    FABP5 was recently found to intracellularly transport endocannabinoid signaling lipids. The structures of FABP5 complexed with two endocannabinoids and an inhibitor were solved. Human FABP5 was found to dimerize via a domain-swapping mechanism. This work will help in the development of inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels. In addition to binding intracellular fatty acids, fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) have recently been reported to also transport the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid derivatives that function as neurotransmitters and mediate a diverse set of physiological and psychological processes. To understand how the endocannabinoids bind to FABPs, the crystal structures of FABP5 in complex with AEA, 2-AG and the inhibitor BMS-309403 were determined. These ligands are shown to interact primarily with the substrate-binding pocket via hydrophobic interactions as well as a common hydrogen bond to the Tyr131 residue. This work advances our understanding of FABP5–endocannabinoid interactions and may be useful for future efforts in the development of small-molecule inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels.

  12. Beam-transport study of an isocentric rotating ion gantry with minimum number of quadrupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Márius; Griesmayer, Erich; Seemann, Rolf

    2005-06-01

    A beam-transport study of an isocentric gantry for ion therapy is presented. The gantry is designed with the number of quadrupoles down to the theoretical minimum, which is the feature published for the first time in this paper. This feature has been achieved without compromising the ion-optical functions of the beam-transport system that is capable of handling non-symmetric beams (beams with different emittances in vertical and horizontal plane), pencil-beam scanning, double-achromatic optics and beam-size control. Ion-optical properties of the beam-transport system are described, discussed and illustrated by computer simulations performed by the TRANSPORT-code.

  13. Ka-band propagation studies using the ACTS propagation terminal and the CSU-CHILL multiparameter, Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, J.; Turk, J.; Bringi, V. N.

    1995-01-01

    An increase in the demand for satellite communications has led to an overcrowding of the current spectrums being used - mainly at C and Ku bands. To alleviate this overcrowding, new technology is being developed to open up the Ka-band for communications use. One of the first experimental communications satellites using this technology is NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). In Sept. 1993, ACTS was deployed into a geostationary orbit near 100 deg W longitude. The ACTS system employs two Ka-band beacons for propagation experiments, one at 20.185 GHz and another at 27.505 GHz. Attenuation due to rain and tropospheric scintillations will adversely affect new technologies proposed for this spectrum. Therefore, before being used commercially, propagation effects at Ka-band must be studied. Colorado State University is one of eight sites across the United States and Canada conducting propagations studies; each site is equipped with the ACTS propagation terminal (APT). With each site located in a different climatic zone, the main objective of the propagation experiment is to obtain monthly and yearly attenuation statistics. Each site also has secondary objectives that are site dependent. At CSU, the CSU-CHILL radar facility is being used to obtain polarimetric radar data along the ACTS propagation path. During the expected two to four year period of the project, it is hoped to study several significant weather events. The S-band radar will be used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates and to initialize propagation models that have been developed, to help classify propagation events measured by the APT. Preliminary attenuation estimates for two attenuation events will be shown here - a bright band case that occurred on 13 May 1994 and a convective case that occurred on 20 Jun. 1994. The computations used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates from S-band radar data are detailed. Results from the two events are shown.

  14. A Qualitative Study of Transportation Challenges Among Intracerebral Hemorrhage Survivors and Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Ing, Marissa M; Vento, Megan A; Nakagawa, Kazuma

    2014-01-01

    Post-discharge barriers of hemorrhagic stroke survivors in Hawai‘i have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify common driving and transportation barriers among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and their caregivers in the Honolulu community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ICH patients (n = 10) and caregivers (n = 11) regarding their driving and transportation barriers. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. Participants reported that they needed transportation to attend to their recovery and remain safe. Informal transportation was desired, yet not always available to patients. A local paratransit service for people with disabilities was the most common form of alternative transportation used by patients; however, they reported difficulty obtaining this method of transportation. Participants with no other option used costly, private transportation. Most ICH survivors expressed great challenges with the available transportation services that are essential to their reintegration into the community after hospitalization. Greater effort to provide transportation options and eligibility information to the ICH patients and their caregivers may be needed to improve their post-discharge care. PMID:25414805

  15. Predicting the Use of Public Transportation: A Case Study from Putrajaya, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Mohd Akhir, Norliza; Mat Yazid, Muhamad Razuhanafi; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq

    2014-01-01

    Putrajaya is a new federal administrative capital of Malaysia which has been set to achieve a 70% share of all travels by public transport in the city area. However, the current modal split between the public transport and private transport is 15 : 85. In order to understand travelers' willingness to use the public transport, a conceptual model has been developed to determine the factors that affect them to use the public transport instead of travelling in their own cars. Various variables such as service quality, environmental impact, attitude, and behavior intention were analyzed and tested using structural equation model (SEM). Results indicate that the service quality and attitude are found to have positive effects on the behavioral intention of taking the public transport. Other than this, this study also shows that the service quality and environmental impact have some positive influences on the attitude to using the public transport. However, environmental impact has no significant, positive, and direct effect on behavioral intention. The results of this study demonstrate that the model that was developed is useful in predicting the public transport and it could provide a more complete understanding of behavioral intention towards public transport use. PMID:25110744

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs First-Generation Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injectables in Schizophrenia: Results From a Nationwide, Retrospective Inception Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jensen, Signe O. W.; Friis, Rasmus B.; Valentin, Jan B.; Correll, Christoph U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare in a generalizable sample/setting objective outcomes in patients receiving first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (FGA-LAIs) or risperidone-LAI (RIS-LAI). Methods: Nationwide, retrospective inception cohort study of adults with International Classification of Diseases-10 schizophrenia using Danish registers from 1995 to 2009 comparing outcomes between clinician’s/patient’s choice treatment with FGA-LAIs or RIS-LAI. Primary outcome was time to psychiatric hospitalization using Cox-regression adjusting for relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes included time to all-cause discontinuation and psychiatric hospitalization in patients without LAI possession gap >28 days, and number of bed-days after psychiatric hospitalization. Results: Among 4532 patients followed for 2700 patient-years, 2078 received RIS-LAI and 2454 received FGA-LAIs (zuclopenthixol decanoate = 52.2%, perphenazine decanoate = 37.2%, haloperidol decanoate = 5.0%, flupenthixol decanoate = 4.4%, fluphenazine decanoate = 1.3%). RIS-LAI was similar to FGA-LAIs regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 246.2±323.7 days vs FGA-LAIs = 276.6±383.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87–1.03, P = 0.199) and time to all-cause discontinuation (RIS-LAI = 245.8±324.0 days vs FGA-LAIs = 287.0±390.9 days; HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86–1.02, P = 0.116). Similarly, in patients without LAI discontinuation, RIS-LAI and FGA-LAIs did not differ regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 175.0±268.1 days vs FGA-LAIs = 210.7±325.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86–1.04, P = 0.254). Finally, duration of hospitalization was also similar (incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.78–1.19, P = 0.744). Results were unchanged when analyzing only patients treated after introduction of RIS-LAI. Conclusions: In this nationwide cohort study, RIS-LAI was not superior to FGA-LAIs regarding time to psychiatric hospitalization, all-cause discontinuation, and duration of

  17. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37{degrees}C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by (14C)CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  18. Case Study of the Use of the Transportation Algorithm for School Districting Under Federal Integration Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, R. Dale

    1975-01-01

    The problem of complying with federal integration guidelines can be stated as a transportation problem with suitable alterations. This case study demonstrates application of the transportation procedure to school districting under integration guidelines. Data for the analysis were drawn from high school enrollment figures and census data for…

  19. Study of short haul high-density V/STOL transportation systems. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Essential supporting data to the short haul transportation study are presented. The specific appendices are arena characteristics, aerospace transportation analysis computer program, economics, model calibration, STOLport siting and services path selection, STOL schedule definition, tabulated California corridor results, and tabulated Midwest arena results.

  20. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  1. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  2. Study of transport through an electro responsive polymer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D.; Datta, A.; Contractor, A. Q.

    2015-02-01

    Conducting polymers have been used widely for development of several electronic, sensing devices because of its electro active nature. In the present work porous polycarbonate (PC) support was coated with a thin gold layer. An electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) film was deposited on gold coated PC and characterisation was done by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For measuring the concentration of potassium ion (K+) inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used. Potassium ion transport across PANI membrane at various potential showed the gradual opening of the coiled PANI. In this work an effort has been given to picture the situation in the membrane electrolyte junction on application of potential.

  3. Economic study of multipurpose advanced high-speed transport configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A nondimensional economic examination of a parametrically-derived set of supersonic transport aircraft was conducted. The measure of economic value was surcharged relative to subsonic airplane tourist-class yield. Ten airplanes were defined according to size, payload, and speed. The price, range capability, fuel burned, and block time were determined for each configuration, then operating costs and surcharges were calculated. The parameter with the most noticeable influence on nominal surcharge was found to be real (constant dollars) fuel price increase. A change in SST design Mach number from 2.4 to Mach 2.7 showed a very small surcharge advantage (on the order of 1 percent for the faster aircraft). Configuration design compromises required for an airplane to operate overland at supersonic speeds without causing sonic boom annoyance result in severe performance penalties and require high (more than 100 percent) surcharges.

  4. Thermal-transport Studies of Quantum Spin Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Minoru

    2011-03-01

    Quantum spins, coupling antiferromagnetically on a 2D triangular lattice, cannot simultaneously satisfy all interactions. This frustrated situation is expected to give rise to mysterious fluid-like states of spins without long- range order, so called quantum spin liquid (QSL). The ground state of QSL and its exotic phenomena, such as fractionalized excitation with an artificial gauge field, have been extensively discussed for decades, yet to be identified by lack of any real materials. This is why the recent discoveries of materials possessing an ideal 2D triangular lattice have spurred a great deal of interest. To understand the nature of QSL, knowledge of the low-lying excitation, particularly the presence/absence of an excitation gap, is of primary importance. We employ thermal transport measurements on newly discovered QSL candidates, κ -(BEDT-TTF)2 Cu 2 (CN)3 and EtMe 3 Sb[Pd(dmit)2 ]2 , and report that the two organic insulators possess different QSLs characterized by different elementary excitations. In κ -(BEDT-TTF)2 Cu 2 (CN)3, heat transport is thermally activated in low temperatures, suggesting presence of a spin gap in this QSL. In stark contrast, in EtMe 3 Sb[Pd(dmit)2 ]2, a sizable temperature-linear term of thermal conductivity is clearly resolved in the zero-temperature limit, showing gapless excitation with long mean free path (~ 1 ,000 lattice distances), analogous to excitations near the Fermi surface in normal metals. These results are consistent with theoretical suggestions including 2D gapless spinons with a Fermi surface. This work was done in collaboration with N. Nakata, Y. Senshu, M. Nagata, Y. Kasahara, S. Fujimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, T. Sasaki, N. Yoneyama, N. Kobayashi, H. M. Yamamoto and R. Kato.

  5. Nanoscale Phonon Transport as Probed with a Microfabricated Phonon Spectrometer for the Study of Nanoscale Energy Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Richard; Otelaja, Obafemi; Hertzberg, Jared; Aksit, Mahmut; Stewart, Derek

    2013-03-01

    Phonons are the dominant heat carriers in dielectrics and a clear understanding of their behavior at the nanoscale is important for the development of efficient thermoelectric devices. In this work we show how acoustic phonon transport can be directly probed by the generation and detection of non-equilibrium phonons in microscale and nanoscale structures. Our technique employs a scalable method of fabricating phonon generators and detectors by forming Al-AlxOy-Al superconducting tunnel junctions on the sidewalls of a silicon mesa etched with KOH and an operating temperature of 0.3K. In the line-of-sight path along the width of these mesas, phonons with frequency ~100 GHz can propagate ballistically The phonons radiate into the mesa and are observed by the detector after passing through the mesa. We fabricated silicon nanosheets of width 100 to 300 nm along the ballistic path and observe surface scattering effects on phonon transmission when the characteristic length scale of a material is less than the phonon mean free path. We compare our results to the Casimir-Ziman theory. Our methods can be adapted for studying phonon transport in other nanostructures and will improve the understanding of phonon contribution to thermal transport. The work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Agreement No. DMR-1149036.

  6. Scene disposition and mode of transport following rural trauma: a prospective cohort study comparing patient costs.

    PubMed

    Cummings, G; O'Keefe, G

    2000-04-01

    This prospective cohort study was performed from 1994 to 1996 to compare the impact of scene disposition on prehospital and hospital costs incurred by rural trauma patients transported to a trauma center by helicopter or ground ambulance. The study included all rural adult injury victims who arrived at the tertiary trauma center by ambulance within 24 h of injury. Inclusion criteria consisted of inpatient admission or death in the emergency department, and any traumatic injury except burns. Data collected included mortality, mode of transport, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and costs from impact to discharge or death. Of 105 study patients, 52 initially went to a rural hospital, while 53 went directly to the trauma center. There was no significant difference in survival in the two groups. The ISS was significantly higher for patients taken directly to the trauma center from the scene. The ISS of trauma patients transported from the rural hospital was highest for patients sent by ground transport. The prehospital transport costs were significantly more for patients transported to a rural hospital first. The costs incurred at the trauma center were highest for those patients transported directly from the scene. Many severely injured patients were initially transported to a rural hospital rather than directly to the trauma center. At both the scene and rural hospital, consistent use of triage criteria appeared to be lacking in determining the severity of injury, appropriate destination, and mode of transport for trauma patients. Since no significant difference in prehospital helicopter and ground transport costs was demonstrated, the decision on mode of transport should be in the best interest of patient care. PMID:10729675

  7. 49 CFR 826.2 - When the Act applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When the Act applies. 826.2 Section 826.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD... applies. The Act applies to any adversary adjudication identified in § 826.3 as covered under the Act....

  8. Transport and recombination channels in undoped microcrystalline silicon studied by ESR and EDMR

    SciTech Connect

    Will, D.; Lerner, C.; Fuhs, W.; Lips, K.

    1997-07-01

    The authors present a detailed study of ESR and spin-dependent transport (EDMR) on {micro}c-Si. They identify to different types of defects at g = 2.0055({+-}3) and g = 2.0044({+-}5) and study their influence on transport and recombination by stepwise annealing the samples. They find that transport is not controlled by defects if N{sub D} < 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}. For N{sub D} > 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3} a dramatic decrease of the conductivity is found and they identify a hopping contribution in transport. To explain their ESR and EDMR results they propose a simple model where most defects are distributed at the surface of the columns and transport is along percolation paths. They also observe minor metastable changes of the defect density which are assigned to adsorption of atmospheric oxygen.

  9. A numerical study of the pseudotime transformation for drawdown in the infinite-acting period

    SciTech Connect

    Yue-lu, Y.; Finjord, J.

    1989-06-01

    Drawdown with a constant-surface-conditions gas rate into a single well, starting at homogeneous pressure conditions in a cylindrical gas reservoir, is simulated numerically. For radii much larger than the wellbore radius, the pseudopressure solution in the infinite-acting period can be plotted uniquely as a function of a Boltzmann variable s=r/sup 2//sub D//4t/sub rhoD/, where r/sub D/ and t/sub rhoD/ are dimensionless radius and pseudotime. The nonlinear correction terms in the pseudotime diffusion equation, far from being negligible for drawdown, can become dominant in the infinite-acting period. This confirms an analytical result obtained previously. The correction terms are shown by simulation to be functions of s only for radii much larger than the wellbore radius. Plotted vs. In s, the pseudopressure shows an approximately linear behavior with a slope slightly larger than the usual constant-diffusivity slope. This was predicted by an explicit analytical solution.

  10. Manned Mars System Study (MMSS): Mars transportation and facility infrastructure study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Manned Mars System Study (MMSS) was conducted for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) over the 35 month period between May 15, 1987 and April 30, 1990. During the course of the study, the NASA Office of Exploration (OEXP; Code Z) was created and MSFC was subsequently designated the Transportation Integration Agent (TIA) for support of the OEXP Mission Analysis and Systems Engineering (MASE) team. As a result of this action, modifications to the contract redirected the efforts to be consistent with NASA's overall objectives, including lunar transportation system design. A large number of written submittals were required in order to provide TIA support to MASE. A list summarizing the documents which have been prepared and delivered by Martin Marietta under this contract during the course of this work is presented. In nearly all cases, full sets of view-graphs were also provided to the MSFC COTR, and in several cases magnetic media were provided as well. To incorporate all of these materials (more than 2,000 pages) into the present report would obviously produce an extremely unwieldy and confusing document. Therefore, a summary of key findings are presented in this final report, supplemented by other material produced under this contract but not already available in the widespread literature.

  11. Manned Mars System Study (MMSS): Mars transportation and facility infrastructure study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The Manned Mars System Study (MMSS) was conducted for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) over the 35 month period between May 15, 1987 and April 30, 1990. During the course of the study, the NASA Office of Exploration (OEXP; Code Z) was created and MSFC was subsequently designated the Transportation Integration Agent (TIA) for support of the OEXP Mission Analysis and Systems Engineering (MASE) team. As a result of this action, modifications to the contract redirected the efforts to be consistent with NASA's overall objectives, including lunar transportation system design. A large number of written submittals were required in order to provide TIA support to MASE. A list summarizing the documents which have been prepared and delivered by Martin Marietta under this contract during the course of this work is presented. In nearly all cases, full sets of view-graphs were also provided to the MSFC COTR, and in several cases magnetic media were provided as well. To incorporate all of these materials (more than 2,000 pages) into the present report would obviously produce an extremely unwieldy and confusing document. Therefore, a summary of key findings are presented in this final report, supplemented by other material produced under this contract but not already available in the widespread literature.

  12. Bicycle Helmet Promotion Act. Report of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on S. 3096. 102d Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    Senate Bill 3096 (S. 3096), the Bicycle Helmet Promotion Act, provides incentive grants to state and local governments that seek to promote the use of bicycle helmets by children under the age of 16. Between 1984 and 1988, a total of 4,815 Americans died and 2,830,475 suffered injuries requiring hospitalization as a result of accidents that…

  13. Children's Protection from Violent Programming Act. Report of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on S. 363. Senate, 105th Congress, 1st Session, Calendar No. 182.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    Senate Bill 363 is designed to protect American children from the harm caused by viewing violence on television. The bill amends the Communications Act of 1934 to require that violent video programming be limited to broadcast after the hours when children are reasonably likely to comprise a substantial portion of the audience, unless it is…

  14. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  15. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  16. The Gold Rush: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Amanda; Degiorgio, Chris; Galka, Edmund; Stumm, Albert; Valenta, Lisa; Winter, Tom

    1993-01-01

    The remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) GoldRush was designed to complete the mission of transporting passengers in AeroWorld at a lower cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSPK) than the competition, the HB-40. There were two major factors which were constant considerations in the design process. The cost of manufacturing was the most important. In light of this, the designs were kept as simple as possible while considering trade-offs in performance. For example, the wing was not tapered so that several ribs could be cut at one time. Also of major importance was the takeoff distance. In order to serve all the cities in AeroWorld it was necessary to maintain a takeoff distance requirement of 24 feet. The takeoff distance proved to be the number one force in driving the design process. The Astro 25 engine and 13 inch propellor, a large wing area, and the high lift Wortmann airfoil were all chosen in order to satisfy this objective.

  17. The endoscopic study of human middle ear mucociliary transport.

    PubMed

    Ilomäki, Jaana H; Karhuketo, T; Vasama, J P; Kääriäinen, J; Rautiainen, M

    2016-07-01

    The mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important defence mechanism of the middle ear. The mucociliary transport (MCT) is a part of MCC. We measured the duration of MCT and visualised its routes in middle ears of 31 patients (mean age 45 years; range 7-61 years; SD 11.6) with intact tympanic membrane, with ventilated middle ears and without a history of prolonged otitis media. The transition time of indigo carmine dye from the promontory mucosa to the middle ear orifice of the Eustachian tube (ET) was observed with a rigid 30°, 1.7-mm-diameter tympanoscope. The dye took an average of 7 min (range 4.5-15 min; SD 3.4; median 4.5) to reach the ET orifice in 25 (81 %) patients. Three main ciliary pathways were detected: (1) below and parallel to the tensor tympani muscle; (2) downwards, anterior to the round window, and then ascending to the ET; and (3) straight across the promontory. PMID:26223351

  18. Design study of shaft face seal with self-acting lift augmentation. 4: Force balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Zuk, J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A method for predicting the operating film thickness of self-acting seals is described. The analysis considers a 16.76-cm mean diameter seal that is typical of large gas turbines for aircraft. Four design points were selected to cover a wide range of operation for advanced engines. This operating range covered sliding speeds of 61 to 153 m/sec, sealed pressures of 45 to 217 N/sq cm abs, and gas temperatures of 311 to 977 K. The force balance analysis revealed that the seal operated without contact over the operating range with gas film thicknesses ranging between 0.00046 to 0.00119 cm, and with gas leakage rates between 0.01 to 0.39 scmm.

  19. Speaker-sensitive emotion recognition via ranking: Studies on acted and spontaneous speech☆

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Houwei; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a ranking approach for emotion recognition which naturally incorporates information about the general expressivity of speakers. We demonstrate that our approach leads to substantial gains in accuracy compared to conventional approaches. We train ranking SVMs for individual emotions, treating the data from each speaker as a separate query, and combine the predictions from all rankers to perform multi-class prediction. The ranking method provides two natural benefits. It captures speaker specific information even in speaker-independent training/testing conditions. It also incorporates the intuition that each utterance can express a mix of possible emotion and that considering the degree to which each emotion is expressed can be productively exploited to identify the dominant emotion. We compare the performance of the rankers and their combination to standard SVM classification approaches on two publicly available datasets of acted emotional speech, Berlin and LDC, as well as on spontaneous emotional data from the FAU Aibo dataset. On acted data, ranking approaches exhibit significantly better performance compared to SVM classification both in distinguishing a specific emotion from all others and in multi-class prediction. On the spontaneous data, which contains mostly neutral utterances with a relatively small portion of less intense emotional utterances, ranking-based classifiers again achieve much higher precision in identifying emotional utterances than conventional SVM classifiers. In addition, we discuss the complementarity of conventional SVM and ranking-based classifiers. On all three datasets we find dramatically higher accuracy for the test items on whose prediction the two methods agree compared to the accuracy of individual methods. Furthermore on the spontaneous data the ranking and standard classification are complementary and we obtain marked improvement when we combine the two classifiers by late-stage fusion. PMID:25422534

  20. Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stollar, Dewey H.

    The purpose of this NEFP satellite study is to provide an overview of pupil transportation. The first phase of the study discusses the early legal and financial bases for student transportation, the second the current status of student transportation, and the third the future status of student transportation needs and financing for 1980.…

  1. CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. I. THE CONSTANT COOLING TIME CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Scott; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: tomsc@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: aaron.boley@gmail.com

    2012-02-10

    We conduct a convergence study of a protostellar disk, subject to a constant global cooling time and susceptible to gravitational instabilities (GIs), at a time when heating and cooling are roughly balanced. Our goal is to determine the gravitational torques produced by GIs, the level to which transport can be represented by a simple {alpha}-disk formulation, and to examine fragmentation criteria. Four simulations are conducted, identical except for the number of azimuthal computational grid points used. A Fourier decomposition of non-axisymmetric density structures in cos (m{phi}), sin (m{phi}) is performed to evaluate the amplitudes A{sub m} of these structures. The A{sub m} , gravitational torques, and the effective Shakura and Sunyaev {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses are determined for each resolution. We find nonzero A{sub m} for all m-values and that A{sub m} summed over all m is essentially independent of resolution. Because the number of measurable m-values is limited to half the number of azimuthal grid points, higher-resolution simulations have a larger fraction of their total amplitude in higher-order structures. These structures act more locally than lower-order structures. Therefore, as the resolution increases the total gravitational stress decreases as well, leading higher-resolution simulations to experience weaker average gravitational torques than lower-resolution simulations. The effective {alpha} also depends upon the magnitude of the stresses, thus {alpha}{sub eff} also decreases with increasing resolution. Our converged {alpha}{sub eff} is consistent with predictions from an analytic local theory for thin disks by Gammie, but only over many dynamic times when averaged over a substantial volume of the disk.

  2. Study on temperature-dependent carrier transport for bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Weilong; Qi, Mei; Li, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yixuan; Ren, Zhaoyu

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the temperature-dependent carrier transport property of the bilayer graphene, graphene films were synthesized on Cu foils by a home-built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with C2H2. Samples regularity, transmittance (T) and layer number were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, transmittance spectra and Raman spectra. Van Der Pauw method was used for resistivity measurements and Hall measurements at different temperatures. The results indicated that the sheet resistance (Rs), carrier density (n), and mobility (μ) were 1096.20 Ω/sq, 0.75×1012 cm-2, and 7579.66 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, respectively. When the temperature increased from 0 °C to 240 °C, carrier density (n) increased from 0.66×1012 cm-2 to 1.55×1012 cm-2, sheet resistance (Rs) decreased from 1215.55 Ω/sq to 560.77 Ω/sq, and mobility (μ) oscillated around a constant value 7773.99 cm2 V-1 s-1. The decrease of the sheet resistance (Rs) indicated that the conductive capability of the bilayer graphene film increased with the temperature. The significant cause of the increase of carrier density (n) was the thermal activation of carriers from defects and unconscious doping states. Because the main influence on the carrier mobility (μ) was the lattice defect scattering and a small amount of impurity scattering, the carrier mobility (μ) was temperature-independent for the bilayer graphene.

  3. Coal slurry pipelines. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation and Commerce of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress. [Coal Pipeline Act of 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Witnesses at an August 28, 1980 hearing on the proposed Coal Pipeline Act of 1980 (HR 6879) focused on the controversial issues of depleted ground water, contamination from waste water, and the competitive fairness to the regulated railroads and other transportation modes. The text of HR 6879 is followed by ten statements and additional materials submitted by representatives of the railroads, pipeline companies, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and other agencies. Water rights cause special concerns for an already water-scarce area. Of equal importance is the need to keep the nation's rail industry viable in order to transport food and other commodities. Proponents of the pipeline, including government agencies, urged passage or eminent-domain rights, and encourage strong competition for the railroads. The EPA considers the use of recycled municipal waste water and saline water a valid solution to the water supply problem. (DCK)

  4. A Basic Study on Countermeasure Against Aerodynamic Force Acting on Train Running Inside Tunnel Using Air Blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji

    A basic study of flow controls using air blowing was conducted to reduce unsteady aerodynamic force acting on trains running in tunnels. An air blowing device is installed around a model car in a wind tunnel. Steady and periodic blowings are examined utilizing electromagnetic valves. Pressure fluctuations are measured and the aerodynamic force acting on the car is estimated. The results are as follows: a) The air blowing allows reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. b) It is effective to blow air horizontally at the lower side of the car facing the tunnel wall. c) The reduction rate of the unsteady aerodynamic force relates to the rate of momentum of the blowing to that of the uniform flow. d) The periodic blowing with the same frequency as the unsteady aerodynamic force reduces the aerodynamic force in a manner similar to the steady blowing.

  5. Craniofacial reconstruction by transport distraction osteogenesis: corticotomy versus osteotomy--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Franz-Josef; Mueller, Michal; Rahmstorf, Meike; Swennen, Gwen; Dempf, Rupert; Schierle, Hannes

    2004-07-01

    Transport osteogenesis is a modified technique of callus distraction appropriate for the reconstruction of extended osseous defects of long or flat bones. The aim of this study was to determine the regenerative potential of this technique related to the degree of mobilization of the transport segment. In 10 adult sheep, critically sized defects of the calvaria were treated by gradual movement of a transport segment consisting of calvarial bone. The transport segments were either corticotomized (n = 5) or osteotomized (n = 5). The latency period was 5 days; the rate of distraction was 1 mm/d, extended for approximately 40 days. The consolidation period was 28 days. Specimens were investigated by conventional radiography, computed tomography scans, immunofluorescence, and histological examination. In both groups, transport osteogenesis resulted in a complete closure of the defect. The volume and thickness of newly formed bone at the defect site did not differ significantly between the groups, nor did the extent of vascularization. Bone formation and remodeling occurred during the entire period of distraction and consolidation. Osteotomized transport segments became smaller during distraction, whereas the volume of corticotomized segments remained relatively constant. In conclusion, transport osteogenesis resulted in reliable closure of extended skull defects in adult organisms; corticotomy and osteotomy of the transport segment led to a similar extent of bone formation. PMID:15213530

  6. Utility of small-animal positron emission tomographic imaging of rats for preclinical development of drugs acting on the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Takeaki; Maeda, Jun; Okauchi, Takashi; Maeda, Jun-Ichi; Morio, Yasunori; Kuwahara, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Masayuki; Goto, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2009-09-01

    Visualization of neurotransmission components in living small animals using positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential of contributing to the preclinical development of neuroactive drugs, although it is yet to be examined whether quantitative animal PET data on candidate compounds can be extrapolated to humans. Here, we investigated the comparability of the occupancies of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) by therapeutic agents in rat PET studies with our predetermined data from ex- vivo animal experiments and clinical PET scans. Rats were treated with varying doses of fluvoxamine and a newly developed compound, (2S)-1-[4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) piperidin-1-yl]-3-[2-(5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)benzo[b]furan-4-yloxy]propan-2-ol monohydrochloride (Wf-516), and underwent PET scans with [11C]3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile ([11C]DASB), a selective radioligand for in-vivo quantification of 5-HTT. PET images indicated a reduction of [11C]DASB binding to 5-HTT as a function of the doses and/or plasma concentrations of fluvoxamine and Wf-516. The doses of these drugs at half-maximal effect (15.2 mg/kg and 3.1 mg/kg, respectively), determined that using binding potentials for [11C]DASB, were comparable to those estimated by our previous ex-vivo measurements in rats (4.5 mg/kg and 1.1 mg/kg, respectively), as there was only a 3-fold difference between these results. Moreover, the plasma concentration of fluvoxamine needed for 50% occupancy of central 5-HTT (6.1 ng/ml) was almost equivalent to the value determined in human PET studies (4.6 ng/ml). These findings support the view that the conjunctive use of small-animal PET and [11C]DASB facilitates a quantitative comparison of in-development drugs targeting 5-HTT with established inhibitors and a predictive estimation of their plasma concentrations exerting therapeutic effects in humans. PMID:19236731

  7. MnTE-2-PyP5+ acts as a pro-oxidant to inhibit electron transport chain proteins, modulate bioenergetics and enhance the response to chemotherapy in lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Melba C.; Briehl, Margaret M.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Tome, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    The manganese porphyrin, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP5+), acts as a pro-oxidant in the presence of intracellular H2O2. Mitochondria are the most prominent source of intracellular ROS and important regulators of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Due to the increased oxidants near and within the mitochondria, we hypothesized that the mitochondria are a target of the pro-oxidative activity of MnTE-2-PyP5+ and that we could exploit this effect to enhance the chemotherapeutic response in lymphoma. In this study, we demonstrate that MnTE-2-PyP5+ modulates the mitochondrial redox environment and sensitizes lymphoma cells to anti-lymphoma chemotherapeutics. MnTE-2-PyP5+ increased dexamethasone-induced mitochondrial ROS and oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione pool in lymphoma cells. The combination treatment induced glutathionylation of Complexes I, III and IV in the electron transport chain, and decreased the activity of Complexes I and III, but not the activity of Complex IV. Treatment with the porphyrin and dexamethasone also decreased cellular ATP levels. Rho(0) malignant T-cells with impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain function were less sensitive to the combination treatment than wild-type cells. These findings suggest that mitochondria are important for the porphyrin’s ability to enhance cell death. MnTE-2-PyP5+ also augmented the effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), an antiglycolytic agent. In combination with 2DG, MnTE-2-PyP5+ increased protein glutathionylation, decreased ATP levels more than 2DG treatment alone and enhanced 2DG-induced cell death in primary B-ALL cells. MnTE-2-PyP5+ did not enhance dexamethasone- or 2DG-induced cell death in normal cells. Our findings suggest that MnTE-2-PyP5+ has potential as an adjuvant for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. PMID:25725417

  8. Interregional transport: case studies of measurements versus model predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, L.M.; Crawford, T.L.

    1982-06-01

    Airborne measurements of gaseous and particulate sulfur and nitrogen pollutants were made in southwestern Kentucky on the afternoon of October 21, 1979. Back-trajectory analysis indicates that the sampled air parcel moved over northern Florida, Alabama, and western Tennessee during the two days prior to sampling. Before moving over Florida, the air parcel was over the Atlantic Ocean for at least five days. Analytical long-range transport (LRT) model predictions based on anthropogenic emissions account for only about 75% of the airborne measured concentrations of 14.7 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ for SO/sub 2/ and 4.8 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ for SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. The remaining 25% is thought to be due to biogenic sulfur emissions from the extensive wetland areas along the Gulf Coast. Forward-trajectory analysis indicates that the air parcel moved to the Adirondack Mountains of New York State 24 hours after sampling. Model predictions indicate that SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ mean layer concentrations at the Adirondacks were 24 and 16 ..mu..g m/sup -3/, respectively. Almost half of this sulfur was estimated to come from emissions in the heavily industrialized region along the Ohio River Valley. Further comparisons used a measurement data base obtained in southeastern Canada and the state of Arkansas during August 1976. An air parcel was tracked for seven days as it entered the north central United States, stagnated over the lower midwest, and then moved to eastern Canada. Model predictions were in substantial agreement with regional SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations measured at a number of ground-level sites. Average SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentratons measured in central Arkansas on August 10, 1976 were 20 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ vs. a modeled value of 19 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. Average SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentratons measured in Nova Scotia four days later were 22 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ vs. a modeled estimate of 24 ..mu..g m/sup -3/.

  9. Space transportation nodes assumptions and requirements: Lunar base systems study task 2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Taher Ali; Simonds, Charles H.; Stump, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Transportation Nodes Assumptions and Requirements task was performed as part of the Advanced Space Transportation Support Contract, a NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) study intended to provide planning for a Lunar Base near the year 2000. The original task statement has been revised to satisfy the following queries: (1) What vehicles are to be processed at the transportation node; (2) What is the flow of activities involved in a vehicle passing through the node; and (3) What node support resources are necessary to support a lunar scenario traffic model composed of a mix of vehicles in an active flight schedule. The Lunar Base Systems Study is concentrating on the initial years of the Phase 2 Lunar Base Scenario. The study will develop the first five years of that phase in order to define the transportation and surface systems (including mass, volumes, power requirements, and designs).

  10. Review of Transporter-Related Postmarketing Requirement or Postmarketing Commitment Studies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Sun, Bo; Agarwal, Sheetal; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this report are to summarize the content and status of transporter-related postmarketing requirement (PMR)/postmarketing commitment (PMC) studies in new drug applications (NDAs) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and to discuss the reasons for requesting such studies and the impact of PMR/PMC study results on labeling to guide the optimal use of the drugs. Multiple data sources were searched to collect information on transporter-related PMR/PMC studies between January 1999 and May 2015. A total of 40 transporter-related PMR/PMC study requests were issued for 35 NDAs. Among these PMR/PMC studies, 27 requested studies related to P-glycoprotein. As of May 31, 2015, 34 transporter-related PMR/PMC studies (85%) are considered "fulfilled" (per the FDA's PMR/PMC website), and 22 (65%) resulted in labeling updates. The majority of the PMR/PMC studies are for drugs in the therapeutic areas of anti-infectives, oncology, and neurology. The results from PMR/PMC studies are important for dosing optimization and are often included in the updated labeling. Because a significant lag time is anticipated between drug approval and PMR/PMC fulfillment, NDA applicants are encouraged to include transporter-related assessments in clinical drug development programs for drug products. PMID:27385175

  11. Understanding and informing policy implementation: a case study of the domestic violence provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P

    2006-06-01

    The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we designed a case study and collected data from in-depth, key informant interviews, court observations, and relevant documents. We present findings from this study and recommend how to increase the likelihood that policies designed to separate batterers and guns are implemented in a way that will result in greater protections for victims of domestic violence. PMID:16679500

  12. Study Abroad and Interlanguage Pragmatic Development in Request and Apology Speech Acts among Iranian Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorshidi, Hassan Rasouli

    2013-01-01

    This research study empirically investigated the impact of study abroad context on L2 learners' pragmatic development compared with study at home group in Iran. For the study abroad group the participants were selected from the Iranian students who registered in a six-month program in language institutes in India (Mysore) and for the study at home…

  13. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  14. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  15. Thienorphine is a potent long-acting partial opioid agonist: a comparative study with buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gang; Yue, Yong-Juan; Cui, Meng-Xun; Gong, Ze-Hui

    2006-07-01

    A strategy in the development of new treatment for opioid addiction is to find partial opioid agonists with properties of long duration of action and high oral bioavailability. In a search for such compounds, thienorphine, a novel analog of buprenorphine, was synthesized. Here, we reported that, like buprenorphine, thienorphine bound potently and nonselectively to mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors stably expressed in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells and behaved as a partial agonist at mu-opioid receptor. However, some differences were observed between the pharmacological profiles of thienorphine and buprenorphine. In vitro, thienorphine was more potent than buprenorphine in inhibiting [3H]diprenorphine and stimulating guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding to rat mu-opioid receptor stably expressed in CHO cells. In vivo, thienorphine exhibited a less potent but more efficacious antinociceptive effect with an ED50 value of 0.25 mg/kg s.c. and more potent antimorphine effect with an ED50 value of 0.64 mg/kg intragastric, compared with buprenorphine. Additionally, the bioavailability of thienorphine was greatly higher than that of buprenorphine after oral administration. Moreover, compared with buprenorphine, thienorphine showed a similar long-lasting antinociceptive effect but a much longer antagonism of morphine-induced lethality (more than 15 days). These results indicate that thienorphine is a potent, long-acting partial opioid agonist with high oral bioavailability and may have possible application in treating addiction. PMID:16569757

  16. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  17. Factors influencing mode of transport in older adolescents: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since a decline in activity levels occurs in adolescence, active transport could be important to increase daily physical activity in older adolescents (17–18 years). To promote active transport, it is necessary to be aware of the barriers and facilitators of this type of transport, but also of other transport modes. This study sought to uncover the factors influencing the choice of transport mode for short distance travel to various destinations in older adolescents using focus groups. Methods Thirty-two focus group volunteers (mean age of 17 ± 1.2 years) were recruited from the two final years of the secondary school in Antwerp (Belgium). Five focus groups were conducted (five to eight participants/group). Content analysis was performed using NVivo 9 software (QSR International). Grounded theory was used to derive categories and subcategories. Results Data were categorized in three main themes with several subcategories: personal factors (high autonomy, low costs and health), social factors (good social support) and physical environmental factors (short travel time, good access to transport modes and to facilities, good weather, an adapted built environment, perceived safety and ecology). Conclusions For older adolescents, the interplay between short travel time, high autonomy, good social support, low costs, good access to transport modes and facilities, and good weather was important for choosing active transport over other transport forms for travelling short distances to various destinations. Other well-known factors such as safety, ecology and health seemed not to have a big influence on their transport mode choice. PMID:23574974

  18. Trade study: Liquid hydrogen transportation - Kennedy Space Center. [cost and operational effectivenss of shipping methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cryogenic transportation methods for providing liquid hydrogen requirements are examined in support of shuttle transportation system launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the time frames 1982-1991 in terms of cost and operational effectiveness. Transportation methods considered included sixteen different options employing mobile semi-trailer tankers, railcars, barges and combinations of each method. The study concludes that the most effective method of delivering liquid hydrogen from the vendor production facility in New Orleans to Kennedy Space Center includes maximum utilization of existing mobile tankers and railcars supplemented by maximum capacity mobile tankers procured incrementally in accordance with shuttle launch rates actually achieved.

  19. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 4: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 4 of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) is presented. This volume is divided into the following sections: (1) transportation systems elements; (2) transportation systems requirements; (3) heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV); (4) LEO-GEO transportation; (5) on-orbit mobility systems; (6) personnel transfer systems; and (7) cost and programmatics. Three appendixes are also provided and they include: horizontal takeoff (single stage to orbit technical summary); HLLV reference vehicle trajectory and trade study data; and electric orbital transfer vehicle sizing.

  20. GEM detectors for WEST and potential application for heavy impurity transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon, D.; Jardin, A.; Coston, C.; Faisse, F.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Wojenski, A.

    2016-08-01

    In tokamaks equipped with metallic walls and in particular tungsten, the interplay between particle transport and MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) activity might lead to impurities accumulation and finally to sudden plasma termination called disruption. Studying such transport phenomena is thus essential if stationary discharges are to be achieved. On WEST a new SXR diagnostic is developed in collaboration with IPPLM (Poland) and the Warsaw University of Technology, based on a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector. Potential application of the WEST GEM detectors for tomographic reconstruction and subsequent transport analysis is presented.

  1. Propulsion Study for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Staton, D. V.; Stolp, P. C.; Huelster, D. S.; Zolezzi, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    Propulsion requirements were determined for 0.5 and 0.7 Mach aircraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted on both these aircraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size and direct operating cost (DOC). Candidate technology elements and design features were identified and parametric studies conducted to select the STAT advanced engine cycle. Trade off studies were conducted to determine those advanced technologies and design features that would offer a reduction in DOC for operation of the STAT engines. These features were incorporated in the two STAT engines. A benefit assessment was conducted comparing the STAT engines to current technology engines of the same power and to 1985 derivatives of the current technology engines. Research and development programs were recommended as part of an overall technology development plan to ensure that full commercial development of the STAT engines could be initiated in 1988.

  2. Simulator study of flight characteristics of several large, dissimilar, cargo transport airplanes during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Deal, P. L.; Neely, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom, ground based simulator study is conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of four dissimilar cargo transport airplanes. These characteristics are compared with those of a large, present-day (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The four very large transport concepts evaluated consist of single-fuselage, twin-fuselage, triple-fuselage, and span-loader configurations. The primary piloting task is the approach and landing operation. The results of his study indicate that all four concepts evaluated have unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral directional low speed flight characteristics and that considerable stability and control augmentation would be required to improve these characteristics (handling qualities) to a satisfactory level. Through the use of rate command/attitude hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn-coordination features, the handling qualities of all four large transports simulated are improved appreciably.

  3. Studies abound on how far north Ixodes scapularis ticks are transported by birds.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D

    2016-03-01

    Several studies report migratory songbirds transporting ticks northward during spring migration in Canada. The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, has been documented on Neotropical songbirds as far as Slave Lake, Alberta during northbound spring migration. In addition, Ixodes ticks have been collected from passerine migrants as far north as Watson Lake, Yukon (north of 60th latitude). The presence of Amblyomma ticks parasitizing long-distance migrants, which are moving from wintering grounds in the Neotropics to breeding grounds in Canada, confirms Neotropical songbirds transport ixodid ticks into Canada. Our avian, tick-host studies document 22 species of ticks on wild birds in Canada, and the majority of these species are not indigenous in Canada. Some of these songbird-transported ticks originate from as far south as Brazil. Clearly, passerine migrants transport ticks long distances into Canada during northward spring migration. The importation of ticks into Canada by migratory songbirds is no longer a "hypothesis," it is a fact. PMID:26739029

  4. Studies of HZE particle interactions and transport for space radiation protection purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Wong, Mervyn

    1987-01-01

    The main emphasis is on developing general methods for accurately predicting high-energy heavy ion (HZE) particle interactions and transport for use by researchers in mission planning studies, in evaluating astronaut self-shielding factors, and in spacecraft shield design and optimization studies. The two research tasks are: (1) to develop computationally fast and accurate solutions to the Boltzmann (transport) equation; and (2) to develop accurate HZE interaction models, from fundamental physical considerations, for use as inputs into these transport codes. Accurate solutions to the HZE transport problem have been formulated through a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. In addition, theoretical models for the input interaction parameters are under development: stopping powers, nuclear absorption cross sections, and fragmentation parameters.

  5. Pyschosocial factors associated with children's cycling for transport: A cross-sectional moderation study.

    PubMed

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Carver, Alison; Mertens, Lieze; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-05-01

    Promoting children's cycling for transport is a useful strategy to increase their physical activity levels. No studies have examined to which extent children's psychosocial characteristics play a role in their transportation cycling. Furthermore, insights into the association between children's independent mobility (IM) and transportation cycling is lacking in Europe. This study examined (1) the association of children's psychosocial characteristics with transportation cycling and its moderating effect of child's gender, parents' educational attainment and IM, and (2) the association between children's IM and transportation cycling. Children (n=1232, aged 10-12yrs) completed an online questionnaire at school assessing their psychosocial characteristics related with transportation cycling. Parents reported child's usual transportation cycling and the distance their child is allowed to cycle unsupervised (IM). Hurdle models were used to estimate associations between independent variables and odds of being a cyclist and with minutes of transportation cycling among those cycling. Data were collected during November-December 2014 across Flanders, Belgium. Children's perceived parental modeling, parental norm, peers' co-participation, self-efficacy and IM were positively related to the odds of being a cyclist, perceived benefits were negatively associated. Parental modeling, siblings' modeling, self-efficacy and parental norm were more strongly related to the odds of being a cyclist among children with a low IM. Friends' modeling was significantly related with odds of being a cyclist among boys. IM and parental norm (only among boys) were positively related to the time spent cycling. Targeting children, their friends and parents seems therefore most appropriate when aiming to increase children's transportation cycling. PMID:26968778

  6. A randomised controlled trial of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for psychosis: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis has been a prominent intervention in the psychological treatment of psychosis. It is, however, a challenging therapy to deliver and, in the context of increasingly rigorous trials, recent reviews have tempered initial enthusiasm about its effectiveness in improving clinical outcomes. Acceptance and commitment therapy shows promise as a briefer, more easily implemented therapy but has not yet been rigorously evaluated in the context of psychosis. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate whether Acceptance and Commitment Therapy could reduce the distress and disability associated with psychotic symptoms in a sample of community-residing patients with chronic medication-resistant symptoms. Methods/Design This is a single (rater)-blind multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with an active comparison condition, Befriending. Eligible participants have current residual hallucinations or delusions with associated distress or disability which have been present continuously over the past six months despite therapeutic doses of antipsychotic medication. Following baseline assessment, participants are randomly allocated to treatment condition with blinded, post-treatment assessments conducted at the end of treatment and at 6 months follow-up. The primary outcome is overall mental state as measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Secondary outcomes include preoccupation, conviction, distress and disruption to life associated with symptoms as measured by the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales, as well as social functioning and service utilisation. The main analyses will be by intention-to-treat using mixed-model repeated measures with non-parametric methods employed if required. The model of change underpinning ACT will be tested using mediation analyses. Discussion This protocol describes the first randomised controlled trial of Acceptance and commitment therapy in

  7. Medical educators' social acts of explaining passing underperformance in students: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Monrouxe, Lynn V; Rees, Charlotte E; Lewis, Natalie J; Cleland, Jennifer A

    2011-05-01

    Passing underperformance in students is ubiquitous across health and social care educators and is intimately related to the subsequent welfare of patients: underperforming students may become underperforming practitioners. This paper aims to examine how medical educators construct passing underperformance through an analysis of their social act of explaining such behaviours in peer-group settings. Ten focus groups were conducted with 70 medical educators across two UK schools with different curricular/assessment styles (England, Scotland). A qualitative content analysis of how educators explained their behaviours of passing underperformance was undertaken using the psychological concepts of proximality and distalness according to: (1) Malle's F.Ex. coding framework for behavioural explanations, and (2) participants' use of pronouns. 149 explanations of passing underperformance were identified: 72 for participants' own behaviour, 77 for others' behaviour. When explaining their own behaviour, participants used the proximal pronoun I 37% (n = 27) of the time and the distancing pronouns we/you 51% (n = 37) of the time. More Causal History of Reasons (38%; n = 27) and Enabling Factors (29%; n = 21) than Reasons (33%; n = 24) were cited. A similar pattern was found for explaining others' behaviour. Thus, medical educators used linguistic form, explanation mode and informational content within peer-group discussions to distance themselves from intentionality for their action of passing underperformance and highlighted desirable characteristics of themselves and medical educators in general. Faculty development programmes should develop assessors' awareness of how implicit factors within their talk can legitimise a culture of passing underperformance and explore the steps for cultural change. PMID:21063770

  8. Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model system to study neurotransmitter transporters

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ciara A.; Krantz, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The model genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, uses many of the same neurotransmitters as mammals and very similar mechanisms of neurotransmitter storage, release and recycling. This system offers a variety of powerful molecular-genetic methods for the study of transporters, many of which would be difficult in mammalian models. We review here progress made using Drosophila to understand the function and regulation of neurotransmitter transporters and discuss future directions for its use. PMID:24704795

  9. STRAFI-NMR studies of water transport in soil.

    PubMed

    Preston, A R; Bird, N R; Kinchesh, P; Randall, E W; Whalley, W R

    2001-01-01

    1-D STRAFI (STRAy FIeld) imaging is used to study water distribution in a sandy loam. The matric potential of the soil can be varied during acquisition of 1-D profiles. Results at a range of potentials are presented showing both the equilibrium distribution and the evolution of the profile following an abrupt change in matric potential. The air breakthrough point and variations in draining behaviour due to differences in soil compaction are identified. PMID:11445357

  10. Transport and photochemical modeling. Studies of atmospheric species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natarajan, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program of research studies related to the photochemistry, radiative transfer, and dynamics of the stratosphere is described. Investigations were conducted in two broad areas: (1) studies of the stratospheric processes and their response to external perturbations, and (2) analysis of satellite measurements in conjunction with theoretical models. Contemporary one dimensional photochemical, radiative-convective model was used to assess the impact of perturbations such as solar flux variability, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, chlorofluoromethanes and other greenhouse gases. Data from satellite experiments such as LIMS and SBUV, were used along with theoretical models to develop a climatology of trace species in the stratosphere. The consistency of contemporary ozone photochemistry was examined in the light of LIMS data. Research work also includes analysis of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide distributions from different satellite experiments, investigation of the wintertime latitudinal gradients in NO2, estimation of the stratospheric odd nitrogen level and its variability, and studies related to the changes in ozone in the Antarctic, and mid latitude Southern Hemisphere.

  11. Transport and photochemical modeling. Studies of atmospheric species

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, M.

    1987-03-01

    A program of research studies related to the photochemistry, radiative transfer, and dynamics of the stratosphere is described. Investigations were conducted in two broad areas: (1) studies of the stratospheric processes and their response to external perturbations, and (2) analysis of satellite measurements in conjunction with theoretical models. Contemporary one dimensional photochemical, radiative-convective model was used to assess the impact of perturbations such as solar flux variability, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, chlorofluoromethanes and other greenhouse gases. Data from satellite experiments such as LIMS and SBUV, were used along with theoretical models to develop a climatology of trace species in the stratosphere. The consistency of contemporary ozone photochemistry was examined in the light of LIMS data. Research work also includes analysis of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide distributions from different satellite experiments, investigation of the wintertime latitudinal gradients in NO/sub 2/, estimation of the stratospheric odd nitrogen level and its variability, and studies related to the changes in ozone in the Antarctic, and midlatitude Southern Hemisphere.

  12. Aspiring to Acts of Conceptualization: A Study of Creative Cognition in Theatre Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how cognitive theories apply to the way theatre directors conceptualize a play. This mixed methodology study involved both quantitative and qualitative research to assess creativity in 13 undergraduate theatre directors-in-training and several professional theatre directors. Research from the study of…

  13. Simulating photon-transport in uniform media using the radiative transport equation: a study using the Neumann-series approach

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Masumura, Takahiro; Clarkson, Eric; Maslov, Alexey V.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the implementation, validation, and performance of a Neumann-series approach for simulating light propagation at optical wavelengths in uniform media using the radiative transport equation (RTE). The RTE is solved for an anisotropic-scattering medium in a spherical harmonic basis for a diffuse-optical-imaging setup. The main objectives of this paper are threefold: to present the theory behind the Neumann-series form for the RTE, to design and develop the mathematical methods and the software to implement the Neumann series for a diffuse-optical-imaging setup, and, finally, to perform an exhaustive study of the accuracy, practical limitations, and computational efficiency of the Neumann-series method. Through our results, we demonstrate that the Neumann-series approach can be used to model light propagation in uniform media with small geometries at optical wavelengths. PMID:23201893

  14. Direct high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cation transport in vivo. Na/sup +/ transport in yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Balschi, J.A.; Cirillo, V.P.; Springer, C.S. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    A new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for monitoring transmembrane metal cation transport is reported. It is illustrated with a study of Na/sup +/ efflux from Na/sup +/-rich yeast cells. The technique involves the use of an anionic paramagnetic shift reagent, present only outside the cells, to induce a splitting of the sodium-23 NMR peak, in this case, into components representing intra- and extracellular Na/sup +/. The time course of the efflux is in good agreement with the literature and can be well fitted with a double exponential decay expression. Splitting of the lithium-7 NMR signal from a suspension of Li/sup +/-rich respiratory-deficient, petite yeasts is also reported.

  15. [Studies on potassium transport through glial cell membranes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Coles, J A; Gardner-Medwin, A R; Tsacopoulos, M

    1980-04-01

    The retina of the honeybee drone is used as a model for the study of ion movements across the membranes of the glial cells caused by changes in the extracellular potassium concentration. The values found for changes in extracellular potential suggest that at least some of the potassium that enters glial cells in an active region of tissue is associated with an efflux of potassium from parts of the glial syncytium not affected by an increase in extracellular potassium concentration. In addition, it appears that ions other than K+ cross the glial membrane. PMID:7421023

  16. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). It involves simulated trips down the ...

  17. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  18. ACT Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: ACT; Activated Coagulation Time Formal name: Activated Clotting Time Related tests: ... in the blood called platelets and proteins called coagulation factors are activated in a sequence of steps ...

  19. Aeolian sediment transport over gobi: Field studies atop the Mogao Grottoes, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lihai; Zhang, Weimin; Qu, Jianjun; Wang, Junzhan; An, Zhishan; Li, Fang

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on field studies of aeolian sediment transport over a rough surface-gobi atop the Mogao Grottoes, China, in relation to sediment entrainment, saltation mass flux and transport rate prediction. Wind speeds were measured with five cup anemometers at different heights and sediment entrainment and transport measured with horizontal and vertical sediment traps coupled to weighing sensors, where sediment entrainment and transport were measured synchronously with wind speeds. Four sediment transport events, with a measurement duration ranging between 2.5 and 11 h, were studied. The entrainment threshold determined by the horizontal sediment trap varied between 0.28 and 0.33 m s-1, and the effect of non-erodible roughness elements-gravels increased the entrainment threshold approximately by 1.8 times compared to a uniform sand surface. Unlike the non-monotone curve shape of sediment flux density profile over gobi measured in wind tunnels, the flux density profile measured in the field showed an exponential form. Aeolian sediment transport over gobi could be predicted by an Owen-type saltation model: q = Aρ /gu∗ (u∗2 - u∗t2) , where q is sediment transport rate, A is a soil-related dimensionless factor, u∗ is the friction velocity, u∗t is the threshold friction velocity, g is the gravitational acceleration, ρ is the air density. This study indicates that the sediment flux sampling using horizontal and vertical sediment traps coupled to weighing sensors provides a practical method to determine values for A in this model that can provide good estimates of sediment transport rates in gobi areas.

  20. Structural Studies on Cytosolic Domain of Magnesium Transporter MgtE from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ragumani, S.; Sauder, J; Burley, S; Swaminathan, S

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) is an essential element for growth and maintenance of living cells. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymes and is also essential for stability of the plasma membrane. There are two distinct classes of magnesium transporters identified in bacteria that convey Mg{sup 2+} from periplasm to cytoplasm [ATPase-dependent (MgtA and MgtB) and constitutively active (CorA and MgtE)]. Previously published work on Mg{sup 2+} transporters yielded structures of full length MgtE from Thermus thermophilus, determined at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, and its cytoplasmic domain with and without bond Mg{sup 2+} determined at 2.3 and 3.9 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Here, they report the crystal structure of the Mg{sup 2+} bound form of the cytosolic portion of MgtE (residues 6-262) from Enterococcus faecalis at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. The present structure and magnesium bound cytosolic domain structure from T. thermophilus (PDB ID: 2YVY) are structurally similar. Three magnesium binding sites are common to both MgtE full length and the present structure. Their work revealed an additional Mg{sup 2+} binding site in the E. faecalis structure. In this report, they discuss the functional significance of Mg{sup 2+} binding sites in the cytosolic domains of MgtE transporters.

  1. Advances in Studies of Electrode Kinetics and Mass Transport in AMTEC Cells (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Kisor, A.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work reported from JPL has included characterization of electrode kinetics and alkali atom transport from electrodes including Mo, W, WRh(sub x), WPt(sub x)(Mn), in sodium AMTEC cells and vapor exposure cells, and Mo in potassium vapor exposure cells. These studies were generally performed in cells with small area electrodes (about 1 to 5 cm(sup 2)), and device geometry had little effect on transport. Alkali diffusion coefficients through these electrodes have been characterized, and approximate surface diffusion coefficients derived in cases of activated transport. A basic model of electrode kinetic at the alkali metal vapor/porous metal electrode/alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte three phase boundary has been proposed which accounts for electrochemical reaction rates with a collision frequency near the three phase boundary and tunneling from the porous electrode partially covered with adsorbed alkali metal atoms. The small electrode effect in AMTEC cells has been discussed in several papers, but quantitative investigations have described only the overall effect and the important contribution of electrolyte resistance. The quantitative characterization of transport losses in cells with large area electrodes has been limited to simulations of large area electrode effects, or characterization of transport losses from large area electrodes with significant longitudinal temperature gradients. This paper describes new investigations of electrochemical kinetics and transport, particularily with WPt(sub 3.5) electrodes, including the influence of electrode size on the mass transport loss in the AMTEC cell. These electrodes possess excellent sodium transport properties making verification of device limitations on transport much more readily attained.

  2. Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Huang, Jianping; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Tian; Jin, Hongchun

    2015-11-01

    Asian dust can be transported long distances from the Taklimakan or Gobi desert to North America across the Pacific Ocean, and it has been found to have a significant impact on ecosystems, climate, and human health. Although it is well known that Asian dust is transported all over the globe, there are limited observations reporting Asian dust transported to the Arctic. We report a case study of a large-scale heavy dust storm over East Asia on 19 March 2010, as shown by ground-based and space-borne multi-sensor observations, as well as NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and HYSPLIT trajectories. Our analysis suggests that Asian dust aerosols were transported from northwest China to the Arctic within 5 days, crossing eastern China, Japan and Siberia before reaching the Arctic. The results indicate that Asian dust can be transported for long distances along a previously unreported transport path. Evidence from other dust events over the past decade (2001-2010) also supports our results, indicating that dust from 25.2% of Asian dust events has potentially been transported directly to the Arctic. The transport of Asian dust to the Arctic is due to cyclones and the enhanced East Asia Trough (EAT), which are very common synoptic systems over East Asia. This suggests that many other large dust events would have generated long-range transport of dust to the Arctic along this path in the past. Thus, Asian dust potentially affects the Arctic climate and ecosystem, making climate change in the Arctic much more complex to be fully understood.

  3. Structural and functional studies of conserved nucleotide-binding protein LptB in lipopolysaccharide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhongshan; Xiang, Quanju; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Dong, Haohao; He, Chuan; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yizheng; Wang, Wenjian; Dong, Changjiang

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Determination of the structure of the wild-type LptB in complex with ATP and Mg{sup 2+}. • Demonstrated that ATP binding residues are essential for LptB’s ATPase activity and LPS transport. • Dimerization is required for the LptB’s function and LPS transport. • Revealed relationship between activity of the LptB and the vitality of E. coli cells. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, which plays an essential role in protecting the bacteria from harsh conditions and antibiotics. LPS molecules are transported from the inner membrane to the outer membrane by seven LPS transport proteins. LptB is vital in hydrolyzing ATP to provide energy for LPS transport, however this mechanism is not very clear. Here we report wild-type LptB crystal structure in complex with ATP and Mg{sup 2+}, which reveals that its structure is conserved with other nucleotide-binding proteins (NBD). Structural, functional and electron microscopic studies demonstrated that the ATP binding residues, including K42 and T43, are crucial for LptB’s ATPase activity, LPS transport and the vitality of Escherichia coli cells with the exceptions of H195A and Q85A; the H195A mutation does not lower its ATPase activity but impairs LPS transport, and Q85A does not alter ATPase activity but causes cell death. Our data also suggest that two protomers of LptB have to work together for ATP hydrolysis and LPS transport. These results have significant impacts in understanding the LPS transport mechanism and developing new antibiotics.

  4. Composite propellant tank study for very low cost space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. J.; Keith, E. L.

    1992-01-01

    A study of life-cycle cost is conducted to determine acceptable options for composite propellant tanks at low cost and weight and for use at moderate pressures. The review examines all cost issues relevant to the production, mass, applications, and reliability of the tanks for pressure-fed rockets. Specific attention is given to the manufacturing and life-cycle issues relevant to the use of composite materials in this application since composites are effective materials for liquid propellant tanks. Specific costs and parametric considerations are given for several tank candidates with 62,303-lb capacities. The mass sensitivity of the fourth stage for the concept vehicle is shown to be high, and the use of a 325-psi fourth-stage tank is shown to yield the minimum cost/lb for the stage. Wound S-glass/epoxy composites can be employed as cost-effective replacements for steel in the design of liquid-propellant tanks.

  5. Small watersheds used to study water transport, pollution, more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, M. Robbins

    As John Muir, the eminent American naturalist and founder of the Sierra Club wrote, “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.” Attempting to understand and predict the response of an ecosystem to large-scale stresses such as acid deposition, nonpoint source pollution, or climate change exemplifies this truth. This effort requires the integration of knowledge from a range of physical and biological sciences spanning hydrology and geochemistry to microbial and community ecology. One approach to studying ecosystems is to divide the landscape into small watersheds, which enables input and output budgets for solutes to be constructed. Such budgets can constrain the the problem of comprehending and quantifying mechanisms operating in the ecosystem. The hydrochemistry and biogeochemistry of small watersheds are the subject of “Comparative Analyses of Small Watersheds,” session H-16 of the Fall Meeting.

  6. Experimental studies of Reynolds number dependence of turbulent mixing & transport

    SciTech Connect

    Warhaft, Z.

    1996-12-31

    An overview of recent experiments, in which the author generated high Reynolds number homogeneous grid turbulence, is provided. The author shows that in a small wind tunnel, Reynolds numbers that are sufficiently high (R{sub {lambda}} {approximately} 800, R{sub {ell}} {approximately} 36, 000) such that many of the aspects of turbulence that hitherto have only been observed in large scale anisotropic shear flows, are obtained. In particular the author studied the evolution of the spectrum with Reynolds number, the Kolmogorov constant and the internal intermittency, showing the way they tend to their high Reynolds number asymptotes. Thus the author links previous low Reynolds number laboratory experiments with large scale environmental measurements.

  7. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Transportation system elements were synthesized and evaluated on the basis of their potential to satisfy overall satellite (SPS) transportation requirements and of their sensitivities, interfaces, and impact on the SPS. Additional analyses and investigations were conducted to further define transportation system concepts that will be needed for the developmental and operational phases of an SPS program. To accomplish these objectives, transportation systems such as shuttle and its derivatives have been identified; new heavy lift launch vehicle concepts, cargo and personnel orbital transfer vehicles and intra-orbit transfer vehicle concepts have been evaluated. To a limited degree, the program implications of their operations and costs were assessed. The results of these analyses have been integrated into other elements of the overall SPS concept definition studies.

  8. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system-speed and flexibility-are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. This study attempts to determine if the aircraft can contribute toward solving the transportation problems of major metropolitan areas and be economically viable in such an environment.

  9. Thermochemical Model and Experimental Studies on Physical Vapor Transport of Lead Telluride-Selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Alexander, H. A.; Grasza, K.

    2000-01-01

    Mass transport rate and composition of the transported material as a function of different process parameters like temperature, undercooling, inert gas pressure, and the source compactness for different PbTe(1-x)Se(x), compositions were studied. With a proper preparation procedures mass transport rates suitable for growth at the rate of 0.5 - 1 mm/h were obtained. Different composition non-uniformities in the deposited material were observed. Due to deviation of the PbTe-PbSe solid solution from ideality, congruent mass transport of the material takes place around X = 0.3. For other compositions an improved and even good uniformity can be achieved when a solid, premelted source material is used.

  10. Design studies for a high-resolution, transportable neutron radiography/radioscopy system

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, G.H.; Micklich, B.J.; McMichael, G.E.

    1996-09-30

    A preliminary design has been developed for a high-resolution, transportable neutron radiology system (TNRS) concept. The primary system requirement is taken to be a thermal neutron flux of 10[sup 6] n/(cm[sup 2]-sec) with a L/D ratio of 100. The approach is to use an accelerator-driven neutron source, with a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) as the primary accelerator component. Initial concepts for all of the major components of the system have been developed,and selected key parts have been examined further. An overview of the system design is presented, together with brief summaries of the concepts for the ion source, low energy beam transport (LEBT), RFQ, high energy beam transport (HEBT), target, moderator, collimator, image collection, power, cooling, vacuum, structure, robotics, control system, data analysis, transport vehicle, and site support. The use of trade studies for optimizing the TNRS concept are also described.

  11. Experimental and theoretical study of Pseudomonas putida transport in a three-dimensional model aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliadou, I. A.; Katzourakis, V. E.; Syngouna, V. I.; Chrysikopoulos, C. V.

    2012-04-01

    This study is focused on the transport of Pseudomonas (P.) putida bacterial cells in a three-dimensional model aquifer. The pilot-scale aquifer consisted of a rectangular glass tank with internal dimensions: 120 cm length, 48 cm width, and 50 cm height, carefully packed with well-characterized quartz sand. The P. putida attachment onto the aquifer sand was determined with batch experiments, and was adequately described by a linear isotherm. Transport experiments with a conservative tracer and P. putida were conducted to characterize the aquifer and to investigate the bacterial behavior during transport in water saturated porous media. A three-dimensional, finite-difference numerical model for bacterial transport in saturated, homogeneous porous media was developed and was used to successfully fit the experimental data. Furthermore, theoretical interaction energy calculations suggested that the extended DLVO theory seems to predict bacteria attachment onto the aquifer sand better than the classical DLVO theory.

  12. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D S

    1987-01-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 6. PMID:3297665

  13. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity.

    PubMed

    Miller, D S

    1987-04-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule. PMID:3297665

  14. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed (1) by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and (2) by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule.

  15. Physical fitness in relation to transport to school in adolescents: the Danish youth and sports study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Lawlor, D A; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Anderssen, S A

    2009-06-01

    In many Western countries, there are concerns about declining levels of physical activity in school-aged children. Active transport is one way to increase physical activity in children, but few studies have evaluated whether active transport in school-aged children and adolescents has beneficial effects on fitness and, if so, whether different modes of transport affect different aspects of fitness. In this study, we examined the association of active transport with different aspects of fitness in a representative Danish sample of 545 boys and 704 girls, 15-19 years of age. Physical fitness was assessed through a number of field tests, including a maximal cycle test, dynamic and static strength in different muscle groups, muscle endurance, flexibility and agility. Transport to school was reported as the mode of transport. Almost two-thirds of the population cycled to school. Cyclists had higher aerobic power than both walkers and passive travelers (4.6-5.9%). Isometric muscle endurance (10-16%), dynamic muscle endurance in the abdominal muscles (10%) and flexibility (6%) were also higher in cyclists compared with walkers and passive travelers. Mode of travel was not related to leisure-time sports participation. Our findings suggest that commuter bicycling may be a way to improve health in adolescents. PMID:18492054

  16. A rabbit jejunal isolated enterocyte preparation suitable for transport studies.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P D; Sepúlveda, F V

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for isolating viable enterocytes from rabbit jejunum. Estimates of sucrase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities in cells isolated by this method suggest that they originate from the upper villus only. Isolated cells accumulate both alpha-methyl-D-glucoside and alanine, maintaining high intracellular concentrations for at least 60 and 40 min respectively. Accumulation of alpha-methyl-D-glucoside is inhibited by the presence of phloridzin. The cells accumulate 42K and 86Rb in an identical manner. This uptake, which is maintained for at least 60 min, is inhibited in the presence of ouabain. Passive efflux of 42K and 86Rb occurs with rate constants which are virtually identical. The efflux follows a single exponential suggesting that it originates from only one intracellular compartment. It is suggested that the preparation can be used to study the effect of sugars and amino acids on K efflux. The advantages of using such a preparation are discussed. PMID:2862277

  17. Feasibility study on introduction of petroleum substituting energy for transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    Concerning electric cars, methanol cars, and CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) cars, the status of development of each of them is studied, grasps the problems on their wide spread through hearings to users, and makes an estimate of the number of cars which is the target for the spread for the time being on the condition that their performance is on the present level. The development of more efficient electric batteries and motors is anticipated for electric cars. Methanol cars have a problem on traveling performance that travel distance by one battery charge is not more than about (1/2) of the existing cars, as well as technical problems such as the development of diesel type use engines, durability of parts, etc. CNG cars have a problem on travel distance by one battery charge which is not more than about (1/3) of the existing cars and a problem on the space caused by carrying the fuel bomb. The target number of fuel substitution cars for the spread is estimated at 833,000 cars, 14% of all the cars in Japan. As of 1991, the number of fuel substitution cars introduced is about 1,200 cars only. In order to lessen the gap, it is indispensable to prepare the infrastructure, improve performance and reliability of the cars, and reduce the cost.

  18. Computational studies of transport in ion channels using metadynamics.

    PubMed

    Furini, Simone; Domene, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have played a fundamental role in numerous fields of science by providing insights into the structure and dynamics of complex systems at the atomistic level. However, exhaustive sampling by standard molecular dynamics is in most cases computationally prohibitive, and the time scales accessible remain significantly shorter than many biological processes of interest. In particular, in the study of ion channels, realistic models to describe permeation and gating require accounting for large numbers of particles and accurate interaction potentials, which severely limits the length of the simulations. To overcome such limitations, several advanced methods have been proposed among which is metadynamics. In this algorithm, an external bias potential to accelerate sampling along selected collective variables is introduced. This bias potential discourages visiting regions of the configurational space already explored. In addition, the bias potential provides an estimate of the free energy as a function of the collective variables chosen once the simulation has converged. In this review, recent contributions of metadynamics to the field of ion channels are discussed, including how metadynamics has been used to search for transition states, predict permeation pathways, treat conformational flexibility that underlies the coupling between gating and permeation, or compute free energy of permeation profiles. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov. PMID:26891818

  19. Computational study of pressure-driven methane transport in hierarchical nanostructured porous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Kisung; Huang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Using the reflecting particle method together with a perturbation-relaxation loop developed in our previous work, we studied pressure-driven methane transport in hierarchical nanostructured porous carbons (HNPCs) containing both mesopores and micropores in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The surface morphology of the mesopore wall was systematically varied by tuning interaction strength between carbon atoms and the template in a mimetic nanocasting process. Effects of temperature and mesopore size on methane transport in HNPCs were also studied. Our study shows that increased mesopore wall surface roughness changes the character of the gas-wall interaction from specular to diffuse, while the gas-gas interaction is diminished due to the decrease of adsorption density. Effects of the mesopore wall surface morphology are the most significant at low temperatures and in small channels. Our systematic study provides a better understanding of the transport mechanisms of light gases through carbon nanotube composite membranes in experiments.

  20. Has Elementary Social Studies Instruction Become Collateral Damage of the No Child Left Behind Act?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babini, Kathleen Callanan

    2013-01-01

    Public schools stress the need for students to become informed and engaged citizens, however social studies instruction is becoming marginalized in many elementary schools today, the very area where they learn citizenship and about the world around them. This study seeks to: understand the reason for the loss of instructional time for social…