Science.gov

Sample records for act transportation study

  1. Energy Policy Act Transportation Rate Study: Final Report on Coal Transportation

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This is the final in a series of reports prepared for the U.S. Congress by the Secretary of Energy on coal distribution and transportation rates as mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates, of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486).

  2. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  3. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  4. Integrative application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. Initial act configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The performance and economic benefits of a constrained application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) are identified, and the approach to airplane design is established for subsequent steps leading to the development of a less constrained final ACT configuration. The active controls configurations are measured against a conventional baseline configuration, a state-of-the-art transport, to determine whether the performance and economic changes resulting from ACT merit proceeding with the project. The technology established by the conventional baseline configuration was held constant except for the addition of ACT. The wing, with the same planform, was moved forward on the initial ACT configuration to move the loading range aft relative to the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Wing trailing-edge surfaces and surface controls also were reconfigured for load alleviation and structural stabilization.

  5. Transportation Security Administration Authorization Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson-Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2009-04-30

    06/08/2009 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  7. Integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. Initial ACT configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The initial ACT configuration design task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program is summarized. A constrained application of active controls technology (ACT) resulted in significant improvements over a conventional baseline configuration previously established. The configuration uses the same levels of technology, takeoff gross weight, payload, and design requirements/objectives as the baseline, except for flying qualities, flutter, and ACT. The baseline wing is moved forward 1.68 m. The configuration incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 45% reduction in horizontal tail size), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle of attack limiter, wing load alleviation, and flutter mode control. This resulted in a 930 kg reduction in airplane operating empty weight and a 3.6% improvement in cruise efficiency, yielding a 13% range increase. Adjusted to the 3590 km baseline mission range, this amounts to 6% block fuel reduction and a 15.7% higher incremental return on investment, using 1978 dollars and fuel cost.

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  15. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

  16. Surface Transportation Board Reauthorization Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Rockefeller, John D., IV [D-WV

    2009-12-16

    12/21/2010 By Senator Rockefeller from Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation filed written report. Report No. 111-380. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Surface Transportation Board Reauthorization Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Rockefeller, John D., IV [D-WV

    2014-09-08

    12/12/2014 By Senator Rockefeller from Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation filed written report. Report No. 113-321. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Transportation Reports Elimination Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Shuster, Bill [R-PA-9

    2013-12-02

    01/09/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Essential Transportation Worker Identification Credential Assessment Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Jackson Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2013-09-27

    07/29/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Surface Transportation Savings Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Perriello, Thomas S.P. [D-VA-5

    2010-06-25

    07/21/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Protecting Taxpayers in Transportation Asset Transfers Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2011-06-16

    06/16/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3896-3897) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. 78 FR 43261 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act... for the Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation...

  3. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  5. Americans with Disabilities Act: Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities, Transportation Facilities, Transportation Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Washington, DC.

    Guidelines are presented regarding accessibility to buildings and facilities, transportation facilities, and transportation vehicles by individuals with disabilities, under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. These guidelines are to be applied during building design, construction, and alteration. Part 1 offers detailed facility…

  6. 77 FR 50068 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA38 Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers... Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) is holding a public...

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  8. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  10. Transport mechanisms acting in toroidal devices: A theoretician's view

    SciTech Connect

    Carreras, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the basic mechanisms of transport in toroidal confinement devices remains one of the more challenging scientific issues in magnetic confinement. At the same time, it is a critical issue for the magnetic fusion program. Recent progress in understanding fluctuations and transport has been fostered by the development and use of new diagnostics, bringing new perspectives on these studies. This has stimulated new theoretical developments. A view of the most recent issues and progress in this area is given. The role of long wavelengths in core transport and the relation between shear flows and turbulence at the plasma edge are the primary topics considered.

  11. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  12. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An active controls technology (ACT) system architecture was selected based on current technology system elements and optimal control theory was evaluated for use in analyzing and synthesizing ACT multiple control laws. The system selected employs three redundant computers to implement all of the ACT functions, four redundant smaller computers to implement the crucial pitch-augmented stability function, and a separate maintenance and display computer. The reliability objective of probability of crucial function failure of less than 1 x 10 to the -9th power per flight of 1 hr can be met with current technology system components, if the software is assumed fault free and coverage approaching 1.0 can be provided. The optimal control theory approach to ACT control law synthesis yielded comparable control law performance much more systematically and directly than the classical s-domain approach. The ACT control law performance, although somewhat degraded by the inclusion of representative nonlinearities, remained quite effective. Certain high-frequency gust-load alleviation functions may require increased surface rate capability.

  13. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport is reported. Supplementary technical data on the following topics are included: (1) 1990's avionics technology assessment; (2) function criticality assessment; (3) flight deck system for total control and functional features list; (4) criticality and reliability assessment of units; (5) crew procedural function task analysis; and (6) recommendations for simulation mechanization.

  14. 78 FR 59751 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy cost of supporting Federal credit...: Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act program or TIFIA program. OMB Control Number:...

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu; Sri Suresh Kumar Thiroveedhula

    2000-04-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with water under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic drilling fluids. Initial calibration tests have been conducted by using water. Currently, the base oil of the Petrobras synthetic drilling fluid is being tested. Foam flow experiments have been conducted. Currently, more experiments are being conducted while data are being analyzed to characterize the rheology of the foam. Cuttings transport experiments have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Preliminary results have shown that it may not be possible to avoid cuttings bed deposition under any practical combination of air and water flow rates. Foam stability analyses have been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. A software for controlling the data sampling and data storage during cuttings monitoring process have been developed.

  17. Cabrillo College Transportation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Terrence

    This report provides results of the survey and other sources of information which have been used to develop a transportation management plan at Cabrillo College (California). In 2000, Cabrillo College organized a Transportation Management Committee to review the existing transportation situation and develop and implement a plan with the goal of…

  18. Transonic transport study: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Wilcox, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of advanced materials, increased aerodynamic and structural efficiencies, and cruise speed on advanced transport aircraft designed for cruise Mach numbers of .90, .98, and 1.15. A detailed weight statement was generated by an aircraft synthesis computer program called TRANSYN-TST; these weights were used to estimate the cost to develop and manufacture a fleet of aircraft of each configuration. The direct and indirect operating costs were estimated for each aircraft, and an average return on investment was calculated for various operating conditions. There was very little difference between the operating economics of the aircraft designed for Mach numbers .90 and .98. The Mach number 1.15 aircraft was economically marginal in comparison but showed significant improvements with the application of carbon/epoxy structural material. However, the Mach .90 and Mach .98 aircraft are the most economically attractive vehicles in the study.

  19. 75 FR 28046 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration--002 Transportation Security Threat Assessment System System of Records AGENCY... accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 the Department of Homeland Security proposes to update and...

  20. 78 FR 73868 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-DHS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITY Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration--DHS/TSA-001 Transportation Security Enforcement Record System System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act System of Records Update. SUMMARY:...

  1. Payload transportation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A standard size set of shuttle payload transportation equipment was defined that will substantially reduce the cost of payload transportation and accommodate a wide range of payloads with minimum impact on payload design. The system was designed to accommodate payload shipments between the level 4 payload integration sites and the launch site during the calendar years 1979-1982. In addition to defining transportation multi-use mission support equipment (T-MMSE) the mode of travel, prime movers, and ancillary equipment required in the transportation process were also considered. Consistent with the STS goals of low cost and the use of standardized interfaces, the transportation system was designed to commercial grade standards and uses the payload flight mounting interfaces for transportation. The technical, cost, and programmatic data required to permit selection of a baseline system of MMSE for intersite movement of shuttle payloads were developed.

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  3. Recovery Act: An Integrated Experimental and Numerical Study: Developing a Reaction Transport Model that Couples Chemical Reactions of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation with Spatial and Temporal Flow Variations.

    SciTech Connect

    Saar, Martin O.; Seyfried, Jr., William E.; Longmire, Ellen K.

    2016-06-24

    A total of 12 publications and 23 abstracts were produced as a result of this study. In particular, the compilation of a thermodynamic database utilizing consistent, current thermodynamic data is a major step toward accurately modeling multi-phase fluid interactions with solids. Existing databases designed for aqueous fluids did not mesh well with existing solid phase databases. Addition of a second liquid phase (CO2) magnifies the inconsistencies between aqueous and solid thermodynamic databases. Overall, the combination of high temperature and pressure lab studies (task 1), using a purpose built apparatus, and solid characterization (task 2), using XRCT and more developed technologies, allowed observation of dissolution and precipitation processes under CO2 reservoir conditions. These observations were combined with results from PIV experiments on multi-phase fluids (task 3) in typical flow path geometries. The results of the tasks 1, 2, and 3 were compiled and integrated into numerical models utilizing Lattice-Boltzmann simulations (task 4) to realistically model the physical processes and were ultimately folded into TOUGH2 code for reservoir scale modeling (task 5). Compilation of the thermodynamic database assisted comparisons to PIV experiments (Task 3) and greatly improved Lattice Boltzmann (Task 4) and TOUGH2 simulations (Task 5). PIV (Task 3) and experimental apparatus (Task 1) have identified problem areas in TOUGHREACT code. Additional lab experiments and coding work has been integrated into an improved numerical modeling code.

  4. Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hunter, Duncan D. [R-CA-50

    2014-02-06

    04/02/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. National Transportation Safety Board Reauthorization Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Oberstar, James L. [D-MN-8

    2010-03-02

    09/29/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  7. Howard Coble Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hunter, Duncan D. [R-CA-50

    2014-12-01

    12/04/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.2444, which became Public Law 113-281 on 12/18/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. LoBiondo, Frank A. [R-NJ-2

    2012-06-01

    06/07/2012 Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Discharged. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2838, which became Public Law 112-213 on 12/20/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  10. 75 FR 18863 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-006...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration--006 Correspondence and Matters Tracking Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ] ACTION: Notice to alter an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  12. Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-12-14

    The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board or Board) is issuing a final rule that revises its existing accessibility guidelines for non-rail vehicles--namely, buses, over-the-road buses, and vans--acquired or remanufactured by entities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. The revised guidelines ensure that such vehicles are readily accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is required to revise its accessibility standards for transportation vehicles acquired or remanufactured by entities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to be consistent with the final rule.

  13. Computational Studies of Glutamate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Setiadi, Jeffry; Heinzelmann, Germano; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain whose binding to receptors on neurons excites them while excess glutamate are removed from synapses via transporter proteins. Determination of the crystal structures of bacterial aspartate transporters has paved the way for computational investigation of their function and dynamics at the molecular level. Here, we review molecular dynamics and free energy calculation methods used in these computational studies and discuss the recent applications to glutamate transporters. The focus of the review is on the insights gained on the transport mechanism through computational methods, which otherwise is not directly accessible by experimental probes. Recent efforts to model the mammalian glutamate and other amino acid transporters, whose crystal structures have not been solved yet, are included in the review. PMID:26569328

  14. Stratospheric dynamics and transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, William L.; Turner, R. E.; Blackshear, W. T.; Eckman, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    A three dimensional General Circulation Model/Transport Model is used to simulate stratospheric circulation and constituent distributions. Model simulations are analyzed to interpret radiative, chemical, and dynamical processes and their mutual interactions. Concurrent complementary studies are conducted using both global satellite data and other appropriate data. Comparisons of model simulations and data analysis studies are used to aid in understanding stratospheric dynamics and transport processes and to assess the validity of current theory and models.

  15. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  16. Tether Transportation System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, M. E.; Lorenzini, E.; Vestal, L.

    1998-01-01

    The projected traffic to geostationary earth orbit (GEO) is expected to increase over the next few decades. At the same time, the cost of delivering payloads from the Earth's surface to low earth orbit (LEO) is projected to decrease, thanks in part to the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). A comparable reduction in the cost of delivering payloads from LEO to GEO is sought. The use of in-space tethers, eliminating the requirement for traditional chemical upper stages and thereby reducing the launch mass, has been identified as such an alternative. Spinning tethers are excellent kinetic energy storage devices for providing the large delta vee's required for LEO to GEO transfer. A single-stage system for transferring payloads from LEO to GEO was proposed some years ago. The study results presented here contain the first detailed analyses of this proposal, its extension to a two-stage system, and the likely implementation of the operational system.

  17. Overview of TFTR transport studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Arunasalam, V.; Beer, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Biglari, H.; Bitter, M.; Boivin, R.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chu, T.K.; Cohen, S.A.; Cowley, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.; Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Greene, G.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Hulse, R.A.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Kieras-Phillips, C.; Kilpatrick, S

    1991-10-01

    A review of TFTR plasma transport studies is presented. Parallel transport and the confinement of suprathermal ions are found to be relatively well described by theory. Cross-field transport of the thermal plasma, however, is anomalous with the momentum diffusivity being comparable to the ion thermal diffusivity and larger than the electron thermal diffusivity in neutral beam heated discharges. Perturbative experiments have studied non-linear dependencies in the transport coefficients and examined the role of possible non-local phenomena. The underlying turbulence has been studied using microwave scattering, beam emission spectroscopy and microwave reflectometry over a much broader range in k{perpendicular} than previously possible. Results indicate the existence of large-wavelength fluctuations correlated with enhanced transport. MHD instabilities set important operational constraints. However, by modifying the current profile using current ramp-down techniques, it has been possible to extend the operating regime to higher values of both {var epsilon}{beta}{sub p} and normalized {beta}{sub T}. In addition, the interaction of MHD fluctuations with fast ions, of potential relevance to {alpha}-particle confinement in D-T plasmas, has been investigated. The installation of carbon-carbon composite tiles and improvements in wall conditioning, in particular the use of Li pellet injection to reduce the carbon recycling, continue to be important in the improvement of plasma performance. 96 refs., 16 figs.

  18. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. E.; Rashotte, A. M.; Murphy, A. S.; Normanly, J.; Tague, B. W.; Peer, W. A.; Taiz, L.; Muday, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Polar transport of the plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development. A number of synthetic compounds have been shown to block the process of auxin transport by inhibition of the auxin efflux carrier complex. These synthetic auxin transport inhibitors may act by mimicking endogenous molecules. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolic compounds, have been suggested to be auxin transport inhibitors based on their in vitro activity. The hypothesis that flavonoids regulate auxin transport in vivo was tested in Arabidopsis by comparing wild-type (WT) and transparent testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as many secondary inflorescence stems, reduced plant height, decreased stem diameter, and increased secondary root development. Growth of WT Arabidopsis plants on naringenin, a biosynthetic precursor to those flavonoids with auxin transport inhibitor activity in vitro, leads to a reduction in root growth and gravitropism, similar to the effects of synthetic auxin transport inhibitors. Analyses of auxin transport in the inflorescence and hypocotyl of independent tt4 alleles indicate that auxin transport is elevated in plants with a tt4 mutation. In hypocotyls of tt4, this elevated transport is reversed when flavonoids are synthesized by growth of plants on the flavonoid precursor, naringenin. These results are consistent with a role for flavonoids as endogenous regulators of auxin transport.

  19. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  20. Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Provision in the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a memorandum regarding Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Provision in Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act, which provides long-term funding certainty for surface transportation infrastructure planning

  1. 75 FR 7978 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-023 Workplace Violence... Security Administration-023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records and this proposed... a new system of records under the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a) titled, DHS/TSA-023 Workplace...

  2. Identification of an intronic cis-acting element in the human dopamine transporter gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Yanhong; Lin, Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    The human dopamine transporter gene (hDAT) encodes the dopamine transporter in dopamine (DA) neurons to regulate DA transmission. hDAT expression varies significantly from neuron to neuron, and from individual to individual so that dysregulation of hDAT is related to many neuropsychiatric disorders. It is critical to identify hDAT-specific cis-acting elements that regulate the hDAT expression. Previous studies showed that hDAT Intron 1 displayed inhibitory activity for reporter gene expression. Here we report that the hDAT Intron 1 contains a 121-bp fragment that down-regulated both SV40 and hDAT promoter activities by 80% in vitro. Subfragments of 121-bp still down-regulated the SV40 promoter but not the hDAT promoter, as supported by nuclear protein-binding activities. Collectively, 121-bp is a silencer in vitro that might coordinate with transcriptional activities both inside and outside 121-bp in regulation of hDAT. PMID:22160470

  3. Transportation Efficiency Act to End Oil Addiction: Securing America’s Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-17

    policy additions and changes and asks the nation to commit to fundamentally changing the way Americans approach transportation. Robert Puentes , a...takes thinking and acting in ways that may seem contrary to the current American way of life! Endnotes 1 Robert Puentes , ―Strengthening the...Information Home Page, http://www.eia.doe.gov/ (accessed February 17, 2011). 3 Robert Puentes , Congressional Testimony, 2. 4 Jeffrey A. Connelly

  4. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; Miles, Natasha; Nehrir, Amin; Obland, Michael; O'Dell, Chris; Sweeney, Colm; Yang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  5. Pragmatic Study of Directive Speech Acts in Stories in Alquran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santosa, Rochmat Budi; Nurkamto, Joko; Baidan, Nashruddin; Sumarlam

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at describing the directive speech acts in the verses that contain the stories in the Qur'an. Specifically, the objectives of this study are to assess the sub directive speech acts contained in the verses of the stories and the dominant directive speech acts. The research target is the verses ("ayat") containing stories…

  6. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Concepts for possible future airplanes are studied that include all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multi-body airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short range feeder airplanes. Results indicate that each of these concepts has the potential for important performance and economic advantages, provided certain suggested research tasks are successfully accomplished. Indicated research areas include all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  7. 2012 Report on Section 25 of Act 58 of 2011: Driver Education 2011 Summer Study Report. Report/Recommendations to the House and Senate Committees on Education and Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oettinger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Section 25 of Act 58 of 2011 required the Department of Education (DOE) to "explore options for restructuring the delivery of driver education." The DOE convened a combination of partial and total stakeholder meetings. Included in this meetings were representatives of the DOE, Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), Vermont Superintendents Association…

  8. Transport mechanisms acting in toroidal devices: A theoretician`s view

    SciTech Connect

    Carreras, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding the basic mechanisms of transport in toroidal confinement devices remains one of the more challenging scientific issues in magnetic confinement. At the same time, it is a critical issue for the magnetic fusion program. Recent progress in understanding fluctuations and transport has been fostered by the development and use of new diagnostics, bringing new perspectives on these studies. This has stimulated new theoretical developments. A view of the most recent issues and progress in this area is given. The role of long wavelengths in core transport and the relation between shear flows and turbulence at the plasma edge are the primary topics considered.

  9. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-03-01

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code`s credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code`s reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows{sup {trademark}} point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs.

  10. Systems Studies of DDT Transport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, H. L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Major consequences of present and additional environmental quantities of DDT pesticide are predictable by mathematical models of transport, accumulation and concentration mechanisms in the Wisconsin regional ecosystem. High solubility and stability produce increased DDT concentrations at high organism trophic levels within world biosphere…

  11. Transportation Workload Forecasting (TWF) Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    The findings of this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy , or decision unless so designated by other...15, Mobility Systems Policies , Procedures and Considerations, 2 June 1974, contains approved joint transportation procedures applicable to the...User Ocean Terminals Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) Publications JCS Publication 15, Mobility System Policies , Procedures and Considerations C-1 4 4 4

  12. RECOVERY ACT - Thylakoid Assembly and Folded Protein Transport by the Tat Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Dabney-Smith, Carole

    2016-07-18

    Assembly of functional photosystems complete with necessary intrinsic (membrane-bound) and extrinsic proteins requires the function of at least 3 protein transport pathways in thylakoid membranes. Our research focuses on one of those pathways, a unique and essential protein transport pathway found in the chloroplasts of plants, bacteria, and some archaebacteria, the Twin arginine translocation (Tat) system. The chloroplast Tat (cpTat) system is thought to be responsible for the proper location of ~50% of thylakoid lumen proteins, several of which are necessary for proper photosystem assembly, maintenance, and function. Specifically, cpTat systems are unique because they transport fully folded and assembled proteins across ion tight membranes using only three membrane components, Tha4, Hcf106, and cpTatC, and the protonmotive force generated by photosynthesis. Despite the importance of the cpTat system in plants, the mechanism of transport of a folded precursor is not well known. Our long-term goal is to investigate the role protein transport systems have on organelle biogenesis, particularly the assembly of membrane protein complexes in thylakoids of chloroplasts. The objective of this proposal is to correlate structural changes in the membrane-bound cpTat component, Tha4, to the mechanism of translocation of folded-precursor substrates across the membrane bilayer by using a cysteine accessibility and crosslinking approach. Our central hypothesis is that the precursor passes through a proteinaceous pore of assembled Tha4 protomers that have undergone a conformational or topological change in response to transport. This research is predicated upon the observations that Tha4 exists in molar excess in the membrane relative to the other cpTat components; its regulated assembly to the precursor-bound receptor; and our data showing oligomerization of Tha4 into very large complexes in response to transport. Our rationale for these studies is that understanding cp

  13. The ActP acetate transporter acts prior to the PitA phosphate carrier in tellurite uptake by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Elías, Alex; Díaz-Vásquez, Waldo; Abarca-Lagunas, María José; Chasteen, Thomas G; Arenas, Felipe; Vásquez, Claudio C

    2015-08-01

    The tellurium oxyanion tellurite is harmful for most microorganisms. Since its toxicity occurs chiefly once the toxicant reaches the intracellular compartment, unveiling the toxicant uptake process is crucial for understanding the whole phenomenon of tellurium toxicity. While the PitA phosphate transporter is thought to be one of the main paths responsible for toxicant entry into Escherichia coli, genetic and physiological evidence have identified the ActP acetate carrier as the main tellurite importer in Rhodobacter capsulatus. In this work, new background on the role of these transporters in tellurite uptake by E. coli is presented. It was found that, similar to what occurs in R. capsulatus, ActP is able to mediate toxicant entry to this bacterium. Lower reactive oxygen species levels were observed in E. coli lacking the actP gene. Antioxidant enzyme catalase and fumarase C activity was almost unchanged after short exposure of E. coli ΔactP to sublethal tellurite concentrations, suggesting a low antioxidant response. In this strain, tellurite uptake decreased significantly during the first 5 min of exposure and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy assays using an actP-overexpressing strain confirmed that this carrier mediates toxicant uptake. Relative gene expression experiments by qPCR showed that actP expression is enhanced at short times of tellurite exposure, while pitA and pitB genes are induced later. Summarizing, the results show that ActP is involved in tellurite entry to E. coli and that its participation occurs mainly at early stages of toxicant exposure.

  14. 77 FR 70795 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Transportation Security Administration System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security... Security Administration-002 Transportation Security Threat Assessment System System of Records (May 19... Transportation Worker Identification Credentialing and other Transportation Security......

  15. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  16. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  17. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  18. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  19. 41 CFR 304-3.8 - Must I adhere to the provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... provisions of the Fly America Act when I receive air transportation to a meeting furnished or paid by a non... reimbursed to your agency by the non-Federal source, the provisions of the Fly America Act do not apply....

  20. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Several concepts for possible future airplanes, including all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multibody airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear-powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long-range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short-range feeder airplanes are described. Performance and economic advantages of each concept are indicated. Further research is recommended in the following areas: all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  1. Acoustic Study of Acted Emotions in Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong

    An extensive set of carefully recorded utterances provided a speech database for investigating acoustic correlates among eight emotional states. Four professional actors and four professional actresses simulated the emotional states of joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, sadness, hate, fear, and depression. The values of 14 acoustic parameters were extracted from analyses of the simulated portrayals. Normalization of the parameters was made to reduce the talker-dependence. Correlates of emotion were investigated by means of principal components analysis. Sadness and depression were found to be "ambiguous" with respect to each other, but "unique" with respect to joy and anger in the principal components space. Joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, hate, and fear did not separate well in the space and so exhibited ambiguity with respect to one another. The different talkers expressed joy, anger, sadness, and depression more consistently than the other four emotions. The analysis results were compared with the results of a subjective study using the same speech database and considerable consistency between the two was found.

  2. 75 FR 18867 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Security Administration--011, Transportation Security Intelligence Service Operations Files Systems of... Administration--011 Transportation Security Intelligence Service Operations Files previously published on... Transportation Security Intelligence Service Operations Filing System contains records on individuals...

  3. 77 FR 70796 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Transportation Security Administration System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security.... The program is no longer in operation within the Transportation Security Administration and associated..., Privacy Policy and Compliance, TSA-36, Transportation Security Administration, 601 South 12th......

  4. Ergonomic analyses within the French transport and logistics sector: first steps towards a new "act elsewhere" prevention approach.

    PubMed

    Wioland, Liên

    2013-10-01

    Statistics from the French Employee National Health Insurance Fund indicate high accident levels in the transport sector. This study represents initial thinking on a new approach to transport sector prevention based on the assumption that a work situation could be improved by acting on another interconnected work situation. Ergonomic analysis of two connected work situations, involving the road haulage drivers and cross-docking platform employees, was performed to test this assumption. Our results show that drivers are exposed to a number of identified risks, but their multiple tasks raise the question of activity intensification. The conditions, under which the drivers will perform their work and take to the road, are partly determined by the quality and organisation of the platform with which they interact. We make a number of recommendations (e.g. changing handling equipment, re-appraising certain jobs) to improve platform organisation and employee working conditions with the aim of also improving driver conditions. These initial steps in this prevention approach appear promising, but more detailed investigation is required.

  5. NMR studies of cation transport across membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shochet, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    /sup 23/Na NMR Studies of cation transport across membranes were conducted both on model and biological membranes. Two ionophores, the carrier monensin and the channel-former gramicidin, were chosen to induce cation transport in large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The distinction between the NMR signals arising from the two sides of the membrane was achieved by the addition of an anionic paramagnetic shift reagent to the outer solution. The kinetics of the cation transport across the membrane was observed simultaneously monitoring the changes in the /sup 23/Na NMR signals of both compartments. Two mathematical models were developed for the estimation of the transport parameters of the monensin- and gramicidin-induced cation transport. The models were able to fit the experimental data very well. A new method for the estimation of the volume trapped inside the vesicles was developed. The method uses the relative areas of the intra- and extravesicular NMR signals arising from a suspension of vesicles bathed in the same medium they contain, as a measure for the relative volumes of these compartments. Sodium transport across biological membranes was studied by /sup 23/ NMR, using suspensions of cultured nerve cells. The sodium influx through voltage-gated channels was studied using the channel modifier batrachotoxin in combination with scorpion toxin.

  6. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  8. 75 FR 18860 - Privacy Act of 1974, Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-013...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... designed to defend aircraft flight decks against acts of criminal violence or air piracy. As a result of... Deck Officer Program designed to defend aircraft flight decks against acts of criminal violence or air... law enforcement to defend the flight decks of aircraft of such air carriers against acts of...

  9. Molecular archeological studies of transmembrane transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saier, Milton H.; Wang, Bin; Sun, Eric I.; Matias, Madeleine; Yen, Ming Ren

    We here review studies concerned with the evolutionary pathways taken for the appearance of complex transport systems. The transmembrane protein constituents of these systems generally arose by (1) intragenic duplications, (2) gene fusions, and (3) the superimposition of enzymes onto carriers. In a few instances, we have documented examples of “reverse” or “retrograde” evolution where complex carriers have apparently lost parts of their polypeptide chains to give rise to simpler channels. Some functional superfamilies of transporters that are energized by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) include several independently evolving permease families. The ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily couples transport to ATP hydrolysis where the ATPases are superimposed on at least three distinct, independently evolving families of permeases. The prokaryotic sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS) uses homologous PEP-dependent general energy-coupling phosphoryl transfer enzymes superimposed on at least three independently arising families of permeases to give rise to complex group translocators that modify their sugar substrates during transport, releasing cytoplasmic sugar phosphates. We suggest that simple carriers evolved independently of the energizing enzymes, and that chemical energization of transport resulted from the physical and functional coupling of the enzymes to the carriers.

  10. 78 FR 26845 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary of Transportation; DOT...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Administrations and Secretarial Offices, to collect and maintain biographical information of Department of Transportation employees and other individuals for the purpose of publicizing skills, experiences, and expertise... submission to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), which will include the...

  11. 76 FR 42003 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence Prevention...--023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records'' from certain provisions of the Privacy.../Transportation Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records'' from one...

  12. Subchronic administration of short-acting naltrexone has no effect on striatal dopamine transporter availability, food intake or body weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaaijer, Eline R; de Bruin, Kora; la Fleur, Susanne E; Goudriaan, Anna E; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone is successfully used in the treatment of opioid and alcohol dependence. However, questions have been raised about possible anhedonic side effects, because the opioid system is directly involved in hedonic responses to natural rewarding activities, possibly due to its indirect effects on the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT). In order to test this hypothesis, 30 rats were randomized to either a 10-day treatment with 3 mg/kg short-acting naltrexone or vehicle. No significant differences between the groups were found in striatal DAT availability, cumulative food intake (for 48 or 72 h), body weight gain and abdominal fatpad weight. Thus, the results of this study suggest that (sub)chronic treatment with short-acting naltrexone does not induce possible anhedonic effects. However, it cannot be ruled out the anhedonic effect of naltrexone is only short-lived and thus not detected in the current study. Therefore, future studies are needed to study possible acute anhedonic effects at several time points shortly after short-acting naltrexone administration and to directly compare the possible anhedonic effects of long-acting with those of short-acting opioid antagonists.

  13. 75 FR 43747 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) is proposing to revise and update its accessibility guidelines for buses, over-the-road buses, and vans. The guidelines ensure that transportation vehicles are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. The guidelines apply to the acquisition of new, used, and remanufactured transportation......

  14. 77 FR 56590 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... 56590-56591] [FR Doc No: 2012-22554] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR...) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers... Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) is holding an information meeting in Seattle, WA on October...

  15. 77 FR 70792 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Transportation Security Administration System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security... and programs. The Transportation Security Administration will rely upon Department of Homeland.../Transportation Security Administration (TSA)-009 General Legal Records (August 18, 2003, 68 FR 49496), which......

  16. 77 FR 70796 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Transportation Security Administration System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security.../Transportation Security Administration- 019, Secure Flight Records (November 9, 2007, 72 FR 63711) to cover the..., Director, Privacy Policy and Compliance, TSA-36, Transportation Security Administration, 601......

  17. A vacuolar iron-transporter homologue acts as a detoxifier in Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    Slavic, Ksenija; Krishna, Sanjeev; Lahree, Aparajita; Bouyer, Guillaume; Hanson, Kirsten K.; Vera, Iset; Pittman, Jon K.; Staines, Henry M.; Mota, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient but is also highly toxic. In yeast and plant cells, a key detoxifying mechanism involves iron sequestration into intracellular storage compartments, mediated by members of the vacuolar iron-transporter (VIT) family of proteins. Here we study the VIT homologue from the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum (PfVIT) and Plasmodium berghei (PbVIT). PfVIT-mediated iron transport in a yeast heterologous expression system is saturable (Km∼14.7 μM), and selective for Fe2+ over other divalent cations. PbVIT-deficient P. berghei lines (Pbvit−) show a reduction in parasite load in both liver and blood stages of infection in mice. Moreover, Pbvit− parasites have higher levels of labile iron in blood stages and are more sensitive to increased iron levels in liver stages, when compared with wild-type parasites. Our data are consistent with Plasmodium VITs playing a major role in iron detoxification and, thus, normal development of malaria parasites in their mammalian host. PMID:26786069

  18. Helium transport and ash control studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition window'' shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A best'' value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  19. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste

  20. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Final ACT configuration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Final ACT Configuration Evaluation Task of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology project within the energy efficient transport program is summarized. The Final ACT Configuration, through application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span, exhibits significant performance improvements over the conventional baseline configuration. At the design range for these configurations, 3590 km, the block fuel used is 10% less for the Final ACT Configuration, with significant reductions in fuel usage at all operational ranges. Results of this improved fuel usage and additional system and airframe costs and the complexity required to achieve it were analyzed to determine its economic effects. For a 926 km mission, the incremental return on investment is nearly 25% at 1980 fuel prices. For longer range missions or increased fuel prices, the return is greater. The technical risks encountered in the Final ACT Configuration design and the research and development effort required to reduce these risks to levels acceptable for commercial airplane design are identified.

  1. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work completed under the Human Transportation System Study. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems (e.g., Shuttle, Titan, etc. ) as well as proposed systems (e.g., PLS, Single-Stage-to-Orbit, etc.) to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  3. Beaver Dam Effects on Gravel Transport Patterns - a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Swingle, K. W.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Beaver dams are numerous in mountain streams, but little is known about gravel transport in those streams. The dams may be fully functioning and retain all incoming sediment or partially permeable to sediment or be almost completely removed. Beaver dams in their various states of preservation can have a profound influence on stream morphology and bedload transport. During the spring of 2011, the authors made a time series study of bedload transport in a mountain stream dominated by beavers dams. Dams occurred with a frequency of one every 50 feet and showed a range of decay and fluvial influence. Gravel transport was sampled with bedload traps over a 2-month long snowmelt highflow season. The reach-average gradient was 0.03 and stream widths ranged from 3 to 8 m. The stream bed was incised 0.5 to 1.5 m deep into a floodplain and typically trapezoidal in its cross-sectional shape. Much of the floodplain consisted of filled-in beaver dams. Partially breached dams that were permeable to gravel transport acted as an obstacle, forcing the flow around sharp bends. Complex hydraulic conditions developed in the vicinity of the bends with backwater eddies upstream and downstream of the remnant dam. Wake eddies at the downstream side of dam remnants caused gravel deposits. The tortuous channel course around the bends caused strong secondary currents that forced gravel transport into a narrow pathway along one of the banks causing a strong lateral concentration of transport. The pathway had a bed of fine and medium gravel, while the remainder of the bed consisted mostly of coarse gravel and cobbles that became immobile shortly after peak flows. Tracer experiments indicated that most of the mobile gravel traveled along that bankward path, even though flow velocities and depths were considerably smaller than in the stream center. Over the highflow season, flows increased to about 160% of the 1.5 year recurrence interval (Q1.5) within about a week and then remained within the

  4. High-speed civil transport study. Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A system of study of the potential for a high speed commercial transport aircraft addressed technology, economic, and environmental constraints. Market projections indicated a need for fleets of transport with supersonic or greater cruise speeds by the years 2000 to 2005. The associated design requirements called for a vehicle to carry 250 to 300 passengers over a range of 5000 to 6000 nautical miles. The study was initially unconstrained in terms of vehicle characteristics, such as cruise speed, propulsion systems, fuels, or structural materials. Analyses led to a focus on the most promising vehicle concepts. These were concepts that used a kerosene type fuel and cruised at Mach numbers between 2.0 to 3.2. Further systems study identified the impact of environmental constraints (for community noise, sonic boom, and engine emissions) on economic attractiveness and technological needs. Results showed that current technology cannot produce a viable high speed civil transport. Significant advances are needed to take off gross weight and allow for both economic attractiveness and environment acceptability. Specific technological requirements were identified to meet these needs.

  5. High-speed civil transport study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A system study of the potential for a high-speed commercial transport has addressed technological, economic, and environmental constraints. Market projections indicate a need for fleets of transports with supersonic or greater cruise speeds by the year 2000 to 2005. The associated design requirements called for a vehicle to carry 250 to 300 passengers over a range of 5,000 to 6,000 nautical miles. The study was initially unconstrained in terms of vehicle characteristic, such as cruise speed, propulsion systems, fuels, or structural materials. Analyses led to a focus on the most promising vehicle concepts. These were concepts that used a kerosene-type fuel and cruised at Mach numbers between 2.0 to 3.2. Further systems study identified the impact of environmental constraints (for community noise, sonic boom, and engine emissions) on economic attractiveness and technological needs. Results showed that current technology cannot produce a viable high-speed civil transport; significant advances are required to reduce takeoff gross weight and allow for both economic attractiveness and environmental accepatability. Specific technological requirements were identified to meet these needs.

  6. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes act as charge transport channel to boost the efficiency of hole transport material free perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Nian; Liu, Pei; Qi, Fei; Xiao, Yuqin; Yu, Wenjing; Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-11-01

    The two-step spin coating process produces rough perovskite surfaces in ambient condition with high humidity, which are unfavorable for the contact between the perovskite film and the low temperature carbon electrode. To tackle this problem, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are embedded into the perovskite layer. The MWCNTs can act as charge transport high way between individual perovskite nanoparticles and facilitate the collection of the photo-generated holes by the carbon electrode. Longer carrier lifetime is confirmed in the perovskite solar cells with addition of MWCNTs using open circuit voltage decay measurement. Under optimized concentration of MWCNT, average power conversion efficiency of 11.6% is obtained in hole transport material free perovskite solar cells, which is boosted by ∼15% compared to solar cells without MWCNT.

  7. 75 FR 8096 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-023...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office..., ``Department of Homeland Security/Transportation Security Administration--023 Workplace Violence Prevention... and maintain records on their Workplace Violence Prevention Program. Additionally, the Department...

  8. Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, D.; Paméla, J.

    1996-07-01

    NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H-/H+) and charge exchanges (H-/H0). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter.

  9. Cargo transportation by airships: A systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Dalton, C.

    1976-01-01

    A systems engineering study of a lighter than air airship transportation system was conducted. The feasibility of the use of airships in hauling cargo was demonstrated. Social, legal, environmental and political factors were considered as well as the technical factors necessary to design an effective airship transportation system. In order to accomplish an effective airship transportation program two phases of implementation were recommended. Phase I would involve a fleet of rigid airships of 3.5 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying 25 tons of cargo internal to the helium-filled gas bag. The Phase I fleet would demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of modern-day airships while providing a training capability for the construction and operation of larger airships. The Phase II portion would be a fleet of rigid airships of 12 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying a cargo of 100 tons a distance of 2,000 miles at a cruising speed of 60 mph. An economic analysis is given for a variety of missions for both Phase I and Phase II airships.

  10. The ACT transport: Panacea for the 80's or designer's illusion (panel discussion)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A panel discussion was held which attempted to make an objective and pragmatic assessment of the standing of active control technology. The discussion focused on the standing of active control technology relative to civil air transport applications, the value as opposed to the cost of the projected benefits, the need for research, development, and demonstration, the role of government and industry in developing the technology, the major obstacles to its implementation, and the probable timing of the full utilization of active control technology in commercial transportation. An edited transcription of the prepared statements of the panel members and the subsequent open discussion between the panel and the audience is presented.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  12. Analytical and simulator study of advanced transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Rickard, W. W.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic methodology, based on the optimal-control pilot model, was demonstrated for assessing longitidunal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft in final approach. Calibration of the methodology is largely in terms of closed-loop performance requirements, rather than specific vehicle response characteristics, and is based on a combination of published criteria, pilot preferences, physical limitations, and engineering judgment. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling qualities problems, including the presence of flexible aircraft modes. The analytical procedure was used to obtain predictions of Cooper-Harper ratings, a solar quadratic performance index, and rms excursions of important system variables.

  13. 75 FR 22713 - Implementation of Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...-state outbreak of salmonellosis was associated with an ice cream mix that became contaminated during... regarding the transportation of food raised by a 1994 outbreak of salmonellosis involving ice cream mix that..., resulting in roof leaks, gaps in doors, and dripping condensation or ice accumulations; Poor...

  14. Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Sound Attenuation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi N.; MacDonald, Rod; Faszer, Clifford

    2004-01-01

    The crawler transporter (CT) is the world's largest tracked vehicle known, weighing 6 million pounds with a length of 131 feet and a width of 113 feet. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has two CTs that were designed and built for the Apollo program in the 1960's, maintained and retrofitted for use in the Space Shuttle program. As a key element of the Space Shuttle ground systems, the crawler transports the entire 12-million-pound stack comprising the orbiter, the mobile launch platform (MLP), the external tank (ET), and the solid rocket boosters (SRB) from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to the launch pad. This rollout, constituting a 3.5-5.0-mile journey at a top speed of 0.9 miles-per-hour, requires over 8 hours to reach either Launch Complex 39A or B. This activity is only a prelude to the spectacle of sound and fury of the Space Shuttle launch to orbit in less than 10 minutes and traveling at orbital velocities of Mach 24. This paper summarizes preliminary results from the Crawler Transporter Sound Attenuation Study, encompassing test and engineering analysis of significant sound sources to measure and record full frequency spectrum and intensity of the various noise sources and to analyze the conditions of vibration. Additionally, data such as ventilation criteria, plus operational procedures were considered to provide a comprehensive noise suppression design for implementation. To date, sound attenuation study and results on Crawler 2 have shown significant noise reductions ranging from 5 to 24 dBA.

  15. Potential of public transit as a transportation control measure: Case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sillings, M.

    1998-07-01

    This report is the final product of the Clean Air Project of the National Association of Regional Councils/NARC. It documents a nationwide study of transit projects and programs initiated in the wake of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments/CAAA and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991/ISTEA. The study purpose was to assess the experience, limitations, and value of public transit as a potential transportation control measure/TCM, i.e., generates significant air quality benefits by eliminating or reducing emissions from motor vehicles. Four in-depth case studies and six additional projects featured as innovations in transportation are offered as examples investigating the potential of transit as a TCM. These case studies and innovations highlight the efforts of ten metropolitan areas and transit agencies which have succeed in developing and implementing innovative transit strategies.

  16. Xenobiotic transporters: ascribing function from gene knockout and mutation studies.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Curtis D; Lu, Hong

    2008-02-01

    Transporter-mediated absorption, secretion, and reabsorption of chemicals are increasingly recognized as important determinants in the biological activities of many xenobiotics. In recent years, the rapid progress in generating and characterizing mice with targeted deletion of transporters has greatly increased our knowledge of the functions of transporters in the pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics of xenobiotics. In this introduction, we focus on functions of transporters learned from experiments on knockout mice as well as humans and rodents with natural mutations of these transporters. We limit our discussion to transporters that either directly transport xenobiotics or are important in biliary excretion or cellular defenses, namely multidrug resistance, multidrug resistance-associated proteins, breast cancer resistance protein, organic anion transporting polypeptides, organic anion transporters, organic cation transporters, nucleoside transporters, peptide transporters, bile acid transporters, cholesterol transporters, and phospholipid transporters, as well as metal transporters. Efflux transporters in intestine, liver, kidney, brain, testes, and placenta can efflux xenobiotics out of cells and serve as barriers against the entrance of xenobiotics into cells, whereas many xenobiotics enter the biological system via uptake transporters. The functional importance of a given transporter in each tissue depends on its substrate specificity, expression level, and the presence/absence of other transporters with overlapping substrate preferences. Nevertheless, a transporter may affect a tissue independent of its local expression by altering systemic metabolism. Further studies on the gene regulation and function of transporters, as well as the interrelationship between transporters and phase I/II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, will provide a complete framework for developing novel strategies to protect us from xenobiotic insults.

  17. The Davis-Bacon Act: An Appraisal of Recent Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert S.; Morrall, John F., III

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the Davis-Bacon Act, including how its wage determinations compare to local construction wages as measured by sources other than the act's administrators; the effects of lags in the act's data-gathering process; and the savings that would result from changing the way prevailing rates are calculated. (CT)

  18. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  19. Study of high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A systems study to identify the economic potential for a high-speed commercial transport (HSCT) has considered technology, market characteristics, airport infrastructure, and environmental issues. Market forecasts indicate a need for HSCT service in the 2000/2010 time frame conditioned on economic viability and environmental acceptability. Design requirements focused on a 300 passenger, 3 class service, and 6500 nautical mile range based on the accelerated growth of the Pacific region. Compatibility with existing airports was an assumed requirement. Mach numbers between 2 and 25 were examined in conjunction with the appropriate propulsion systems, fuels, structural materials, and thermal management systems. Aircraft productivity was a key parameter with aircraft worth, in comparison to aircraft price, being the airline-oriented figure of merit. Aircraft screening led to determination that Mach 3.2 (TSJF) would have superior characteristics to Mach 5.0 (LNG) and the recommendation that the next generation high-speed commercial transport aircraft use a kerosene fuel. The sensitivity of aircraft performance and economics to environmental constraints (e.g., sonic boom, engine emissions, and airport/community noise) was identified together with key technologies. In all, current technology is not adequate to produce viable HSCTs for the world marketplace. Technology advancements must be accomplished to meet environmental requirements (these requirements are as yet undetermined for sonic boom and engine emissions). High priority is assigned to aircraft gross weight reduction which benefits both economics and environmental aspects. Specific technology requirements are identified and national economic benefits are projected.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PM 2.5 FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD TO DIFFERENTIATE FINE AND COARSE MODE AEROSOL (A RESPONSE TO SECTION 6102(E) OF THE TRANSPORTATION EQUITY ACT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is submitted in response to Section 6102(e) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, which states:

    "The Administrator shall conduct a field study of the ability of the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method to differentiate those particles that ...

  1. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-12-01

    National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  2. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Fueled Supersonic Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhara, Tatsunori; Rinoie, Kenichi

    Recently, environmental problems have been paid great attention in the world. According to the current report of ICAO, CO2 emissions of aircraft to the total emissions will increase at an average annual rate of 3˜4%. Furthermore, stable supply of oil is becoming difficult. Without exceptions, those are hitting aviation industries. Therefore, in the near future, the time to shift from kerosene to liquid hydrogen (LH2) as fuel of aircraft will come. An idea of supersonic transport (SST) fueled by LH2 as one of the next-generation SST has been proposed by JAXA. The purpose of this study is to compare the weight, aerodynamics and cost of hydrogen fueled SST with those of kerosene fueled SST and to discuss its feasibilities. A possibility of two-bubble fuselage configuration is also evaluated.

  3. Studies of runaway electron transport in TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pei-Wen.

    1991-12-01

    The transport of runaway electrons is studied by a plasma position shift experiment and by imposing an externally applied perturbing magnetic field on the edge. The perturbing magnetic field can produce either magnetic islands or, with overlapping islands, a stochastic field. Hard X-ray signals are then measured and compared with analytic and numerical model results. Diffusion coefficients in the edge, {approximately}10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/sec, and inside the plasma, {approximately}10{sup 2} {minus} 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/sec, are estimated. The averaged drift effects are small and the intrinsic magnetic fluctuations are estimated to be < (b{sub r}/B{sub 0}){sup 2} > {approximately}1-{sup {minus}10} at the edge and decreasing inward. Runaway electrons are a good diagnostic of the magnetic fluctuations. It is considered that the magnetic fluctuations have a negligible effect on electron thermal diffusion in the edge plasma.

  4. Tidewater metropolitan area transportation survey study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficht, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted in southeastern Virginia to identify public opinion regarding requirements for future public transportation are analyzed. The effects of age and income level on attitudes concerning city living and no importance of various characteristics described for urban transportation systems are identified.

  5. A way through the dark and thorny thickets? The adjudication of "serious injury" under the narrative tests in the Transport Accident Act 1986 (Vic) and the Workplace Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2013 (Vic).

    PubMed

    Taliadoros, Jason

    2015-09-01

    The so-called "narrative" test provides the means by which injured persons who satisfy the statutory and common law definition of "serious injury" may bring proceedings for common law damages under s 93 of the Transport Accident Act 1986 (Vic) and s 134AB of the Accident Compensation Act 1985 (Vic) (or, for injuries after 1 July 2014, under ss 324-347 of the Workplace Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2013 (Vic)). These are among the most litigated provisions in Australia. This article outlines the legislative and political background to these provisions, the provisions themselves, and an account of the statutory and common law requirements needed to satisfy the provisions.

  6. Optical and transport studies of magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shaoping

    In this thesis, various studies of magneto-transport and magneto-optical effects in III-V and II-V magnetic semiconductors are presented. The magneo-transport study involved the investigation of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in (Ga,Mn)As epilayers with low Mn concentration, grown in ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy (UHV MBE) chamber. Experiments were carried out in National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) on a series of samples with same Mn concentrations (x = 1.4%) but with various Be co-doping levels. We observed a sublinear relationship between the transverse resistivity rhoxy and the longitudinal resistivity rhoxx with a scaling factor n = 0.5, which has not been predicted theoretically. We also investigated the magneto-optical and magnetic properties of two quaternary diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) alloys, Cd1- x-yMnxCryTe and Cd1-x-yMnxCo yTe grown by the vertical Bridgman method, with a fixed Mn concentration x ˜ 0.37 and, respectively, with concentrations of Cr in the range 0 < y < 0.07 and Co in the range 0 < y < 0.009. The introduction of Cr and Co leads to very different behaviors, including the occurrence of ferromagnetic order in the case of Cd1-x-yMn xCryTe and several interesting optical transitions for Cd1-x-yMn xCoyTe. We discuss the possible origins of these observed behaviors. Last, we focused on DMS based nano-structures. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies have been carried out on a series of 1.4 nm thick CdSe:Mn nano-ribbons synthesized via colloidal chemical route. MCD spectra have been used for investigating the Zeeman splitting in these one-dimensional (1D) quantum confined diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures. In all samples, a strong MCD signal was found at about 2.9 eV due to a large Zeeman splitting of the exciton confined in the nano-ribbon. The Zeeman splitting is a result of strong sp-d exchange interaction between the electronic holes of the nano-ribbons and localized magnetic moment of Mn2

  7. Polyglycine Acts as a Rejection Signal for Protein Transport at the Chloroplast Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Endow, Joshua K.; Rocha, Agostinho Gomes; Baldwin, Amy J.; Roston, Rebecca L.; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Kamikubo, Hironari

    2016-01-01

    PolyGly is present in many proteins in various organisms. One example is found in a transmembrane β-barrel protein, translocon at the outer-envelope-membrane of chloroplasts 75 (Toc75). Toc75 requires its N-terminal extension (t75) for proper localization. t75 comprises signals for chloroplast import (n75) and envelope sorting (c75) in tandem. n75 and c75 are removed by stromal processing peptidase and plastidic type I signal peptidase 1, respectively. PolyGly is present within c75 and its deletion or substitution causes mistargeting of Toc75 to the stroma. Here we have examined the properties of polyGly-dependent protein targeting using two soluble passenger proteins, the mature portion of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (mSS) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Both t75-mSS and t75-EGFP were imported into isolated chloroplasts and their n75 removed. Resultant c75-mSS was associated with the envelope at the intermembrane space, whereas c75-EGFP was partially exposed outside the envelope. Deletion of polyGly or substitution of tri-Ala for the critical tri-Gly segment within polyGly caused each passenger to be targeted to the stroma. Transient expression of t75-EGFP in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in accumulation of c75-EGFP exposed at the surface of the chloroplast, but the majority of the EGFP passenger was found free in the cytosol with most of its c75 attachment removed. Results of circular dichroism analyses suggest that polyGly within c75 may form an extended conformation, which is disrupted by tri-Ala substitution. These data suggest that polyGly is distinct from a canonical stop-transfer sequence and acts as a rejection signal at the chloroplast inner envelope. PMID:27936133

  8. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  9. Transport studies in fusion plasmas: Perturbative experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, N.J.L.

    1996-03-01

    By subjecting a plasma in steady state to small perturbations and measuring the response, it is possible to determine elements of the matrix of transport coefficients. Experimentally this is difficult, and results are mainly limited to transport driven by the pressure and temperature gradients. Importantly, off-diagonal elements in the transport matrix appear to be important. This has also implications for the interpretation of the so-called `power balance` diffusivity, determined from the steady state fluxes and gradients. Experimental techniques, analysis techniques, basic formulas, etc., are briefly reviewed. Experimental results are summarized. The fundamental question whether the fluxes are linear functions of the gradients or not is discussed. 31 refs.

  10. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  11. A study of solar radiation pressure acting on GPS satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froideval, Laurent Olivier

    An increasing number of GPS applications require a high level of accuracy. To reduce the error contributed by the GPS ephemerides, an accurate modeling of the forces acting on GPS satellites is necessary. These forces can be categorized into gravitational and non-gravitational forces. The non-gravitational forces are a significant contribution to the total force on a GPS satellite but they are still not fully understood whereas the gravitational forces are well modeled. This study focuses on two non-gravitational forces: Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) and the y-bias force. Different SRP models are available in the University of Texas Multi-Satellite Orbit Determination Program (MSODP). The recently developed University College London model was implemented for the purpose of this study. Several techniques to compute parameters associated with SRP models and the y-bias force during an orbit prediction were examined. Using the International GNSS Service (IGS) precise ephemerides as a reference, five different models were compared in the study. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) residuals were also studied to validate the approach. Results showed that the analytical UCL model performed as well as a purely empirical model such as the Extended CODE model. This is important since analytical models attempt to represent the physical phenomena and thus might be better suited to separate SRP from other forces. The y-bias force was then shown to have a once per revolution effect. The time evolution of the y-bias was found to be dependent on the SRP model used, the satellite Block type, the orbital plane, and the attitude of the satellite which suggests that estimates of y-bias contain errors from other sources, particularly the SRP models. The dependency of the y-bias evolution on the orbital plane suggests that the orientation of the plane towards the Sun is important.

  12. A.C.T.S. Mechanical Aptitude Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1941-05-07

    purposes of comparison. 2. Reliability coefficients wore calculated by means of the Richardson - Kuder formula #21 and are given in Tablo II. P sf-pf̂...34true" reliability for two reasons. First, the Eichardson- Kuder formula #21 "will in most cases underostimato and will never overestimate the...of A.C.T.S. Tests ond MA-1 Reliability (Eiohardson- Kuder #21) N =U8l N � A.C.T.S.: Mechanic al Movements Surface Development Shop

  13. Simulation study of proton transport in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Philip; Allahyarov, Elshad

    2008-03-01

    Coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations were used to study the morphological changes induced in a Nafion-like ionomer by the imposition of a strong electric field. We observe that proton transport through this polymer electrolyte membrane is accompanied by morphological changes that include the formation of structures aligned along the direction of the applied field. The polar head groups of the ionomer side chains assemble into clusters, which then form rod-like formations, and these cylindrical structures then assemble into a hexagonally ordered array aligned with the direction of current flow. For dry ionomers, at current densities in excess of 1 A/cm^2 these rod-like clusters undergo an inner micro-phase separation, in which distinct wire-like lines of sulfonate head groups are accompanied by similar wire-like alignments of bound protons. The clusters appear to be of two types. If there are two, four, or five lines of sulfonates then there is an equal number of lines of protons, but if there are three lines of sulfonates then they are accompanied by four lines of protons. Occasionally these lines of sulfonates and protons form a helical structure. Upon removal of the electric field, the hexagonal array of rod-like structures remains, but the microphase separation disappears below the threshold current of 1 A/cm^2.

  14. ACT-CCREC Core Research Program: Study Questions and Design. ACT Working Paper Series. WP-2015-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruce, Ty M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a non-technical overview of the guiding research questions and research design for the ACT-led core research program conducted on behalf of the GEAR UP College and Career Readiness Evaluation Consortium (CCREC). The core research program is a longitudinal study of the effectiveness of 14 GEAR UP state grants on the academic…

  15. Across-shelf transport of bivalve larvae: can the interface between a coastal current and inshore waters act as an ecological barrier to larval dispersal?

    PubMed

    Tilburg, Charles E; McCartney, Michael A; Yund, Philip O

    2012-01-01

    Using an integrated physical and biological approach, we examined across-shelf advection and exchange and the associated transport of bivalve larvae in the presence of a strong coastal current separated from the coast by a stratified inshore environment. We tested the hypothesis that the interface of the coastal current and inshore waters can act as an ecological barrier to across-shelf transport of larvae but can be overcome by wind- or tidally-induced transport. Our study region in the Gulf of Maine encompasses a coastal current that diverges from the coast as it moves downshelf. The region inshore of this current is home to several species that exhibit limited recruitment in spite of extensive upshelf larval sources. Analysis of surface water temperatures and wind velocities revealed episodic decreases in temperature along the coast correlated with alongshelf (but not upwelling) winds, indicating wind-forced onshore movement of the cold coastal current. Such wind-driven onshore migrations are more common along the northern portion of the study region where the coastal current is near the coast, tidal currents are strong, and wind directions are more conducive to onshore migration, but rarer further south where the interface between inshore waters and the coastal current is further offshore and suitable wind events are less common. The distribution of bivalve larvae was consistent with the physical measurements. There was little across-shelf variation in larval abundance where the current abuts the coast, indicating strong across-shelf exchange of larvae, but strong across-shelf variation in larval density where the stratified inshore waters separate the current from the coast, indicating weak across-shelf transport of larvae. Our results suggest that the interface between the coastal current and inshore waters may constitute a major ecological barrier to larval dispersal in the southern part of the region that may only be overcome by rare, strong wind

  16. Across-Shelf Transport of Bivalve Larvae: Can the Interface between a Coastal Current and Inshore Waters Act as an Ecological Barrier to Larval Dispersal?

    PubMed Central

    Tilburg, Charles E.; McCartney, Michael A.; Yund, Philip O.

    2012-01-01

    Using an integrated physical and biological approach, we examined across-shelf advection and exchange and the associated transport of bivalve larvae in the presence of a strong coastal current separated from the coast by a stratified inshore environment. We tested the hypothesis that the interface of the coastal current and inshore waters can act as an ecological barrier to across-shelf transport of larvae but can be overcome by wind- or tidally-induced transport. Our study region in the Gulf of Maine encompasses a coastal current that diverges from the coast as it moves downshelf. The region inshore of this current is home to several species that exhibit limited recruitment in spite of extensive upshelf larval sources. Analysis of surface water temperatures and wind velocities revealed episodic decreases in temperature along the coast correlated with alongshelf (but not upwelling) winds, indicating wind-forced onshore movement of the cold coastal current. Such wind-driven onshore migrations are more common along the northern portion of the study region where the coastal current is near the coast, tidal currents are strong, and wind directions are more conducive to onshore migration, but rarer further south where the interface between inshore waters and the coastal current is further offshore and suitable wind events are less common. The distribution of bivalve larvae was consistent with the physical measurements. There was little across-shelf variation in larval abundance where the current abuts the coast, indicating strong across-shelf exchange of larvae, but strong across-shelf variation in larval density where the stratified inshore waters separate the current from the coast, indicating weak across-shelf transport of larvae. Our results suggest that the interface between the coastal current and inshore waters may constitute a major ecological barrier to larval dispersal in the southern part of the region that may only be overcome by rare, strong wind

  17. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, P. D.; Dolan, T. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a week after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  18. A Study of the Relationship between the ACT College Mathematics Readiness Standard and College Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Post, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the American College Testing (ACT) college mathematics readiness standard and college mathematics achievement using a sample of students who met or exceeded the minimum 3 years high school mathematics coursework recommended by ACT. According to ACT, a student who scores 22 or higher on the ACT…

  19. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model.

    PubMed

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay (®) (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  20. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model

    PubMed Central

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay ® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  1. Clinton River Sediment Transport Modeling Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. ACE develops sediment transport models for tributaries to the Great Lakes that discharge to AOCs. The models developed help State and local agencies to evaluate better ways for soil conservation and non-point source pollution prevention.

  2. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ACT OF 1963, A CASE STUDY IN LEGISLATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLIEVER, DOUGLAS E.

    THE SMITH-HUGHES ACT OF 1917, DEVELOPED FROM THE "REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON NATIONAL AID TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION," WAS THE BASIS FOR HR4955. THE BILL'S IMMEDIATE HISTORY BEGAN IN 1960 WITH THE ENTHUSIASM OF ADVOCATES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION FOR THE NOMINATION OF JOHN F. KENNEDY. THE AMERICAN VOCATIONAL ASSOCIATION (AVA) RECEIVED A…

  3. Study of active cooling for supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential benefits of using the fuel heat sink of hydrogen fueled supersonic transports for cooling large portions of the aircraft wing and fuselage are examined. The heat transfer would be accomplished by using an intermediate fluid such as an ethylene glycol-water solution. Some of the advantages of the system are: (1) reduced costs by using aluminum in place of titanium, (2) reduced cabin heat loads, and (3) more favorable environmental conditions for the aircraft systems. A liquid hydrogen fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic transport aircraft design was used for the reference uncooled vehicle. The cooled aircraft designs were analyzed to determine their heat sink capability, the extent and location of feasible cooled surfaces, and the coolant passage size and spacing.

  4. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) contracted with IHS Global, Inc. (IHS) to analyze the relationship between the value of industrial output, physical output, and freight movement in the United States for use in updating analytic assumptions and modeling structure within the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) freight transportation module, including forecasting methodologies and processes to identify possible alternative approaches that would improve multi-modal freight flow and fuel consumption estimation.

  5. Act No. 88-1091 modifying Act No. 66-420 of 18 June 1966 on chartering and maritime transport contracts, 1 December 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Law provides that international transportation carriers may refuse the boarding or landing of a passenger who does not present a document authorizing landing at the point of arrival and at anticipated ports in France.

  6. Integrated mass transportation system study/definition/implementation program definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, R. K.; Deptula, D. A.; Yorke, G. G.

    1975-01-01

    Specific actions needed to plan and effect transportation system improvements are identified within the constraints of limited financial, energy and land use resources, and diverse community requirements. A specific program is described which would develop the necessary generalized methodology for devising improved transportation systems and evaluate them against specific criteria for intermodal and intramodal optimization. A consistent, generalized method is provided for study and evaluation of transportation system improvements.

  7. Benzothiazoles as probes for the 5HT1A receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT): a search for new dual-acting agents as potential antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue Y; Etukala, Jagan R; Eyunni, Suresh V K; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2012-07-01

    The synthesis and evaluation of several benzothiazole-based compounds are described in an attempt to identify novel dual-acting 5HT(1A) receptor and SERT inhibitors as new antidepressants. Binding affinities at the 5HT(1A) receptor and the serotonin transporter do not appear to be congruent and other areas of the binding sites would need to be explored in order to improve binding simultaneously at both sites. Compounds 20 and 23 show moderate binding affinity at the 5HT(1A) receptor and the SERT site and thus, have the potential to be further explored as dual-acting agents. In addition, compound 20 binds with low affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT), the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and 5HT(2C) receptor, which are desirable properties as selectivity for SERT (and not DAT or NET) is associated with an absence of cardiovascular side effects.

  8. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  9. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S.

    2011-09-01

    the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Under Section 368, Congress divided the United States into two groups of states: the 11 contiguous western states and the remaining states. Direction for energy transportation corridor analysis and selection in the 11 western states was addressed in Section 368(a) of EPAct, while direction for energy transportation corridor analysis and selection in all other states was addressed under Section 368(b) of EPAct. It was clearly the priority of Congress to conduct corridor location studies and designation first on federal lands in the western states. Under Section 368(a), the Agencies produced a programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS), Designation of Energy Corridors on Federal Land in the 11 Western States (DOE and DOI 2008), that was used in part as the basis for designating more than 6,000 mi (9,656 km) of energy transportation corridors on federal land in 11 western states. Under Section 368(a) of EPAct, Congress clearly stated the Agencies needed to (1) designate energy transportation corridors on federal land, (2) conduct the necessary environmental review of the designated corridors, and (3) incorporate the designated corridors into the appropriate land use plans. Congressional direction under Section 368(b) of EPAct differs from that provided under Section 368(a). Specifically, Section 368(b) requires the secretaries of the Agencies, in consultation with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), affected utility industries, and other interested persons, to jointly: (1) Identify corridors for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines and electricity transmission and distribution facilities on federal land in states other than the 11 western states identified under Section 368(a) of EPAct, and (2) Schedule prompt action to identify, designate, and incorporate the corridors into the applicable land use plans. While Section 368(a) clearly directs designation as a necessary first step for energy transportation

  10. Studies of thunderstorm transport processes with aircraft using tracer techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Detwiler, A.G.; Smith, P.L.; Stith, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Instrumented aircraft can provide in situ measurements of winds and turbulence useful for studying transport and dispersion in clouds. Using inert artificial gases as tracers, and fast response analyzers on aircraft, time-resolved observations of transport and dispersion have been obtained. Examples are shown of these types of observations in and around cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  11. High-speed civil transport study: Special factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental factors associated with high speed civil transports were conducted. Projected total engine emissions for year 2015 fleets of several subsonic/supersonic transport fleet scenarios, discussion of sonic boom reduction methods, discussion of community noise level requirements, fuels considerations, and air traffic control impact are presented.

  12. Deschutes estuary feasibility study: hydrodynamics and sediment transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Douglas A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Lesser, Giles; Stevens, Andrew W.

    2006-01-01

    - Provide the completed study to the CLAMP Steering Committee so that a recommendation about a long-term aquatic environment of the basin can be made. The hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling task developed a number of different model simulations using a process-based morphological model, Delft3D, to help address these goals. Modeling results provide a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior both prior to dam construction and after various post-dam removal scenarios. Quantitative data from the model is used in the companion biological assessment and engineering design components of the overall study. Overall, the modeling study found that after dam removal, tidal and estuarine processes are immediately restored, with marine water from Budd Inlet carried into North and Middle Basin on each rising tide and mud flats being exposed with each falling tide. Within the first year after dam removal, tidal processes, along with the occasional river floods, act to modify the estuary bed by redistributing sediment through erosion and deposition. The morphological response of the bed is rapid during the first couple of years, then slows as a dynamic equilibrium is reached within three to five years. By ten years after dam removal, the overall hydrodynamic and morphologic behavior of the estuary is similar to the pre-dam estuary, with the exception of South Basin, which has been permanently modified by human activities. In addition to a qualitative assessment of estuarine behavior, process-based modeling provides the ability address specific questions to help to inform decision-making. Considering that predicting future conditions of a complex estuarine environment is wrought with uncertainties, quantitative results in this report are often expressed in terms of ranges of possible outcomes.

  13. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  14. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  15. Genetic studies of leucine transport in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, M A; Lobatón, C D; Collarini, E J; Moreno, A; Giles, R E; Oxender, D L

    1984-05-15

    We have taken two approaches to the study of the genetics of leucine transport in mammalian cells. First, from a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line that has a temperature-sensitive leucyl-tRNA synthetase, we isolated temperature-resistant revertants with increased leucine transport activity. This transport elevation is reflected by increased Vmax values of leucine uptake and unchanged Km values of uptake. The temperature resistance in each revertant appears to result from the increased transport and not from any change in the leucyl-tRNA synthetase. We conclude that in each revertant there is a stable derepression of amino acid transport system L. In a second approach, we started with a Chinese hamster-human hybrid strain formed by the fusion of a temperature-sensitive leucyl-tRNA synthetase mutant hamster cell line and normal human leukocytes. From this temperature-sensitive hybrid strain we selected temperature-resistant hybrids, one class of which we found to have greatly elevated leucine transport activity. We have allowed human chromosomes to segregate from these high-transport hybrids, promoted by the presence of low concentrations of colcemid. The loss of the high-transport phenotype coincides with the loss of a single small human chromosome, which we are attempting to identify by using G-11 and G-banding staining techniques.

  16. 76 FR 43729 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act... conduct an evaluation to provide rigorous, nationally representative estimates of the net impacts of intensive services and training provided under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Adult and...

  17. Experimental Study of Heat Transport in Fractured Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Nicola; Cherubini, Claudia; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicoletta M.; Redondo, Jose M.; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    Fractured rocks play an important role in transport of natural resources or contaminants transport through subsurface systems. In recent years, interest has grown in investigating heat transport by means of tracer tests, driven by the important current development of geothermal applications. In literature different methods are available for predicting thermal breakthrough in fractured reservoirs based on the information coming from tracer tests. Geothermal energy is one of the largest sources of renewable energies that are extracted from the earth. The growing interest in this new energy source has stimulated attempts to develop methods and technologies for extracting energy also from ground resource at low temperature. An example is the exploitation of low enthalpy geothermal energy that can be obtained at any place with the aid of ground-source heat pump system from the soil, rock and groundwater. In such geothermal systems the fluid movement and thermal behavior in the fractured porous media is very important and critical. Existing theory of fluid flow and heat transport through porous media is of limited usefulness when applied to fractured rocks. Many field and laboratory tracer tests in fractured media show that fracture -matrix exchange is more significant for heat than mass tracers, thus thermal breakthrough curves (BTCs) are strongly controlled by matrix thermal diffusivity. In this study the behaviour of heat transport in a fractured network at bench scale has been investigated. Heat tracer tests on an artificially created fractured rock sample have been carried out. The observed thermal BTCs obtained with six thermocouple probes located at different locations in the fractured medium have been modeled with the Explicit Network Model (ENM) based an adaptation of Tang's solution for solute transport in a semi-infinite single fracture embedded in a porous matrix. The ENM model is able to represent the behavior of observed heat transport except where the

  18. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  19. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Moore, T. J.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of gaseous contaminants through the working fluid to or from sensitive refractory alloys is theoretically possible during long time operation of Brayton and Stirling space power generation systems which use a gas as the working fluid. A test was designed which could give an answer to whether transport of contaminants through the working fluid was a potential major problem. The findings of that preliminary study are summarized.

  20. Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

  1. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  2. Screening study on high temperature energy transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of the study described in this document is to identify the options for transporting thermal energy over long distances. The study deals specifically and exclusively with high temperature (> 400/sup 0/C(752/sup 0/F)) energy for industrial use. Energy transport is seen as a potential solution to: high unit cost of small coal and nuclear steam generators, and opposition to siting of coal or nuclear plants near populated areas. The study is of a preliminary nature but covers many options including steam, molten salts, organics, and chemical heat pipes. The development status and potential problems of these and other energy transport methods are discussed. Energy transport concepts are compared on a fundamental level based on physical properties and also are subjected to an economic study. The economic study indicated that the chemical heat pipe, under a specific set of circumstances, appeared to be the least expensive for distances greater than about 32 km (20 miles). However, if the temperature of the energy was lowered, the heat transfer salt (sodium nitrate/nitrite) system would apparently be a better economic choice for less than about 80 km (50 miles). None of the options studied appear to be more attractive than small coal-fired boilers when the transport distance is over about 64 km (40 miles). Several recommendations are made for refining the analysis.

  3. Small transport aircraft technology propeller study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, B. M.; Magliozzi, B.; Rohrbach, C.

    1983-01-01

    A study to define potential benefits of advanced technology propeller for 1985-1990 STAT commuter airplanes was completed. Two baselines, a Convair, 30 passenger, 0.47 Mach number airplane and a Lockheed, 50 passenger, 0.70 Mach number airplane, were selected from NASA-Ames sponsored airframe contracts. Parametric performance, noise level, weight and cost trends for propellers with varying number of blades, activity factor, camber and diameter incorporating blade sweep, tip proplets, advanced composite materials, advanced airfoils, advanced prevision synchrophasing and counter-rotation are presented. The resulting DOC, fuel burned, empty weight and acquisition cost benefits are presented for resizings of the two baseline airplanes. Six-bladed propeller having advanced composite blades, advanced airfoils, tip proplets and advanced prevision synchrophasers provided the maximum DOC improvements for both airplanes. DOC and fuel burned were reduced by 8.3% and 17.0% respectively for the Convair airplane and by 24.9% and 41.2% respectively for the Lockheed airplane. The larger reductions arose from a baseline definition with very heavy fuselage acoustic treatment. An alternate baseline, with a cabin noise 13dB in excess of the objective, was also studied.

  4. Mechanistic Study of Human Glucose Transport Mediated by GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xuegang; Zhang, Gang; Liu, Ran; Wei, Jing; Zhang-Negrerie, Daisy; Jian, Xiaodong; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-03-28

    The glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and is responsible for the constant uptake of glucose. However, the molecular mechanism of sugar transport remains obscure. In this study, homology modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in lipid bilayers were performed to investigate the combination of the alternate and multisite transport mechanism of glucose with GLUT1 in atomic detail. To explore the substrate recognition mechanism, the outward-open state human GLUT1 homology model was generated based on the template of xylose transporter XylE (PDB ID: 4GBZ), which shares up to 29% sequence identity and 49% similarity with GLUT1. Through the MD simulation study of glucose across lipid bilayer with both the outward-open GLUT1 and the GLUT1 inward-open crystal structure, we investigated six different conformational states and identified four key binding sites in both exofacial and endofacial loops that are essential for glucose recognition and transport. The study further revealed that four flexible gates consisting of W65/Y292/Y293-M420/TM10b-W388 might play important roles in the transport cycle. The study showed that some side chains close to the central ligand binding site underwent larger position changes. These conformational interchanges formed gated networks within an S-shaped central channel that permitted staged ligand diffusion across the transporter. This study provides new inroads for the understanding of GLUT1 ligand recognition paradigm and configurational features which are important for molecular, structural, and physiological research of the MFS members, especially for GLUT1-targeted drug design and discovery.

  5. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Final ACT configuration evaluation. Final Report, October 1980-April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The Final ACT Configuration Evaluation Task of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology project within the energy efficient transport program is summarized. The Final ACT Configuration, through application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span, exhibits significant performance improvements over the conventional baseline configuration. At the design range for these configurations, 3590 km, the block fuel used is 10% less for the Final ACT Configuration, with significant reductions in fuel usage at all operational ranges. Results of this improved fuel usage and additional system and airframe costs and the complexity required to achieve it were analyzed to determine its economic effects. For a 926 km mission, the incremental return on investment is nearly 25% at 1980 fuel prices. For longer range missions or increased fuel prices, the return is greater. The technical risks encountered in the Final ACT Configuration design and the research and development effort required to reduce these risks to levels acceptable for commercial airplane design are identified.

  6. Update on Douglas' high-speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of high speed civil transport (HSCT) studies underway at Douglas Aircraft. A brief review is given of experience with design and development of advanced supersonic transport concepts and associated technology. A review is then presented of past NASA funded contract research studies focused on selection of appropriate concepts for high speed civil transport aircraft to be introduced in the year 2000 time frame for commercial service. Follow-on activities to those studies are then presented which were conducted under independent research studies as well as under further NASA funded efforts. Design Mach number selections and associated baseline design missions are then discussed along with forecasted passenger traffic and associated supersonic fleet sizes, and then proceeds into a discussion of individual issues related either to environmental acceptability or overall technology requirements in order to achieve the required economic viability of the program. A summary is given of current and future plans and activities.

  7. The Practical Aspects of the Visual Act in Studying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bernard N.

    This paper explores the role of vision in reading and studying. "How Vision Occurs" discusses the functions of rods, cones, the cerebral cortex, and the receptor senses. "The Optometrist and the Educator" views the role of the optometrist in relation to student learning. "Eye Anatomy Terms" defines the ciliary muscle, optic disc and nerve, macula…

  8. Defining Is an Unnatural Act: A Study of Written Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Fisher, Peter J. L.

    A study examined fourth grade students' written definitions to determine if definitions or aspects of definitions were schematized by the students. Subjects, 89 students from several Midwestern suburban school districts and 15 inservice and preservice teachers enrolled at a nearby college, were asked to write definitions of 16 words, four each of…

  9. Balancing Act: Student Valuation and Cultural Studies Composition Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Eliot

    2011-01-01

    Composition scholars have contributed many theoretical analyses that WPAs and teachers might apply to first-year composition textbooks in order to make informed decisions about book adoption and implementation. As they offer critiques of the ideological effects of FYC books, many of these studies call composition textbooks "tools" without…

  10. First Clean Air Act Benefits and Costs Prospective Study - Press Release November 16, 1999

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The economic value of the public health and environmental benefits that Americans enjoy from the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 exceed their costs by a margin of four to one, according to this EPA study released in 1999.

  11. Transportation study for the Geysers Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Potential cumulative impacts on the transportation system are assessed and recommendations are made as to options for handling future transportation development. The area is served by state highways, county roads, and an internal network of private roads. Access into the area is limited, and the roads must handle a variety of traffic including an unusually high percentage of heavy trucks transporting construction equipment and materials, hazardous chemicals, and toxic wastes. In conducting the transportation study public documents on geothermal power plant developments were researched and field trips to inspect the transportation facilities were made. People who have a special interest in the transportation system were also interviewed. In addition, traffic, accident, and road data were analyzed. Traffic forecasts based on projected geothermal resource develpoment were made. All access roads are of substandard design and efficient in structural adequacy. With projected traffic at 40% above the current level for most of the next six years, it is expected that cumulative impacts will cause accelerated degradation of the existing roads.

  12. A computational study of routing algorithms for realistic transportation networks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.V.; Nagel, K.

    1998-12-01

    The authors carry out an experimental analysis of a number of shortest path (routing) algorithms investigated in the context of the TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis and Simulation System) project. The main focus of the paper is to study how various heuristic and exact solutions, associated data structures affected the computational performance of the software developed especially for realistic transportation networks. For this purpose the authors have used Dallas Fort-Worth road network with very high degree of resolution. The following general results are obtained: (1) they discuss and experimentally analyze various one-one shortest path algorithms, which include classical exact algorithms studied in the literature as well as heuristic solutions that are designed to take into account the geometric structure of the input instances; (2) they describe a number of extensions to the basic shortest path algorithm. These extensions were primarily motivated by practical problems arising in TRANSIMS and ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) related technologies. Extensions discussed include--(i) time dependent networks, (ii) multi-modal networks, (iii) networks with public transportation and associated schedules. Computational results are provided to empirically compare the efficiency of various algorithms. The studies indicate that a modified Dijkstra`s algorithm is computationally fast and an excellent candidate for use in various transportation planning applications as well as ITS related technologies.

  13. UNC-16 (JIP3) Acts Through Synapse-Assembly Proteins to Inhibit the Active Transport of Cell Soma Organelles to Caenorhabditis elegans Motor Neuron Axons.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Stacey L; Morrison, Logan M; Yorks, Rosalina M; Hoover, Christopher M; Boominathan, Soorajnath; Miller, Kenneth G

    2015-09-01

    The conserved protein UNC-16 (JIP3) inhibits the active transport of some cell soma organelles, such as lysosomes, early endosomes, and Golgi, to the synaptic region of axons. However, little is known about UNC-16's organelle transport regulatory function, which is distinct from its Kinesin-1 adaptor function. We used an unc-16 suppressor screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to discover that UNC-16 acts through CDK-5 (Cdk5) and two conserved synapse assembly proteins: SAD-1 (SAD-A Kinase), and SYD-2 (Liprin-α). Genetic analysis of all combinations of double and triple mutants in unc-16(+) and unc-16(-) backgrounds showed that the three proteins (CDK-5, SAD-1, and SYD-2) are all part of the same organelle transport regulatory system, which we named the CSS system based on its founder proteins. Further genetic analysis revealed roles for SYD-1 (another synapse assembly protein) and STRADα (a SAD-1-interacting protein) in the CSS system. In an unc-16(-) background, loss of the CSS system improved the sluggish locomotion of unc-16 mutants, inhibited axonal lysosome accumulation, and led to the dynein-dependent accumulation of lysosomes in dendrites. Time-lapse imaging of lysosomes in CSS system mutants in unc-16(+) and unc-16(-) backgrounds revealed active transport defects consistent with the steady-state distributions of lysosomes. UNC-16 also uses the CSS system to regulate the distribution of early endosomes in neurons and, to a lesser extent, Golgi. The data reveal a new and unprecedented role for synapse assembly proteins, acting as part of the newly defined CSS system, in mediating UNC-16's organelle transport regulatory function.

  14. The ARIES Advanced And Conservative Tokamak (ACT) Power Plant Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.; Tillack, M. S.; Najmabadi, F.; Wang, X. R.; Navaei, D.; Toudeshki, H. H.; Koehly, C.; El-Guebaly, L.; Blanchard, J. P.; Martin, C. J.; Mynsburge, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Yoda, M.; Abdel-Khalik, S. I.; Hageman, M. D.; Mills, B. H.; Radar, J. D.; Sadowski, D. L.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.; Waganer, L. M.; Malang, S.; Rowcliffe, A. F.

    2014-03-05

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies in order to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding, and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared to older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium (SCLL) blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q95 of 4.5, a {beta}N{sup total} of 5.75, H{sub 98} of 1.65, n/nGr of 1.0, and peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m{sup 2}. The conservative configuration assumes a dual coolant lead lithium (DCLL) blanket concept with ferritic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma major radius is 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q95 of 8.0, a {beta}N{sup total} of 2.5, H{sub 98} of 1.25, n/n{sub Gr} of 1.3, and peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}. The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape-off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range of 10-15 MW/m{sup 2}. Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here.

  15. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Test act system validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective of the Test Active Control Technology (ACT) System laboratory tests was to verify and validate the system concept, hardware, and software. The initial lab tests were open loop hardware tests of the Test ACT System as designed and built. During the course of the testing, minor problems were uncovered and corrected. Major software tests were run. The initial software testing was also open loop. These tests examined pitch control laws, wing load alleviation, signal selection/fault detection (SSFD), and output management. The Test ACT System was modified to interface with the direct drive valve (DDV) modules. The initial testing identified problem areas with DDV nonlinearities, valve friction induced limit cycling, DDV control loop instability, and channel command mismatch. The other DDV issue investigated was the ability to detect and isolate failures. Some simple schemes for failure detection were tested but were not completely satisfactory. The Test ACT System architecture continues to appear promising for ACT/FBW applications in systems that must be immune to worst case generic digital faults, and be able to tolerate two sequential nongeneric faults with no reduction in performance. The challenge in such an implementation would be to keep the analog element sufficiently simple to achieve the necessary reliability.

  16. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  17. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on full-scale development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  18. National space transportation and support study/mission requirements and architecture studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durocher, C. L.; Darwin, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The government approach to fulfilling the requirements of the National Space Transportation and Support Study is described. DOD and NASA were required to determine the architecture and technology that would be needed for civil and defense space transportation during the 1995-2010 time range. NASA collected data from the National Commission on Space and the DOD research focused on SDI requirements. The objectives and recommendations of the space transportation architecture, transportation and support systems, and technology assessment and planning tasks are discussed.

  19. The space transportation main engine phase A' study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Space Transportation Main Engine Phase A prime study was conducted over a 7 month period as an extension to the Phase A study. The Phase A prime program was designed to expand the study effort completed in Phase A, focusing on the baseline engine configuration selected. Analysis and trade studies were conducted to further optimize some of the major engine subsystems. These changes resulted in improvements to the baseline engine. Several options were evaluated for consideration by vehicle contractors.

  20. Advance care treatment plan (ACT-Plan) for African American family caregivers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Gloria J; Wang, Edward; Wilkie, Diana J; Ferrans, Carol E; Dancy, Barbara; Watkins, Yashika

    2014-01-01

    Research is limited on end-of-life treatment decisions made by African American family caregivers. In a pilot study, we examined the feasibility of implementing an advance care treatment plan (ACT-Plan), a group-based education intervention, with African American dementia caregivers. Theoretically based, the ACT-Plan included strategies to enhance knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral skills to make end-of-life treatment plans in advance. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and tube feeding were end-of-life treatments discussed in the ACT-Plan. In a four-week pre/posttest two-group design at urban adult day care centers, 68 caregivers were assigned to the ACT-Plan or attention-control health promotion conditions. Findings strongly suggest that the ACT-Plan intervention is feasible and appropriate for African American caregivers. Self-efficacy and knowledge about dementia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and tube feeding increased for ACT-Plan participants but not for the attention-control. More ACT-Plan than attention-control participants developed advance care plans for demented relatives. Findings warrant a randomized efficacy trial.

  1. Is slow-onset long-acting monoamine transport blockade to cocaine as methadone is to heroin? Implication for anti-addiction medications.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Qing; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Li, Xia; Spiller, Krista; Li, Jie; Chun, Lauren; Wu, Kuo-Ming; Froimowitz, Mark; Gardner, Eliot L

    2010-12-01

    The success of methadone in treating opiate addiction has suggested that long-acting agonist therapies may be similarly useful for treating cocaine addiction. Here, we examined this hypothesis, using the slow-onset long-acting monoamine reuptake inhibitor 31,345, a trans-aminotetralin analog, in a variety of addiction-related animal models, and compared it with methadone's effects on heroin's actions in the same animal models. Systemic administration of 31,345 produced long-lasting enhancement of electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR) and extracellular nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA). Pretreatment with 31,345 augmented cocaine-enhanced BSR, prolonged cocaine-enhanced NAc DA, and produced a long-term (24-48  h) reduction in cocaine self-administration rate without obvious extinction pattern, suggesting an additive effect of 31,345 with cocaine. In contrast, methadone pretreatment not only dose-dependently inhibited heroin self-administration with an extinction pattern but also dose-dependently inhibited heroin-enhanced BSR and NAc DA, suggesting functional antagonism by methadone of heroin's actions. In addition, 31,345 appears to possess significant abuse liability, as it produces dose-dependent enhancement of BSR and NAc DA, maintains a low rate of self-administration behavior, and dose-dependently reinstates drug-seeking behavior. In contrast, methadone only partially maintains self-administration with an extinction pattern, and fails to induce reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. These findings suggest that 31,345 is a cocaine-like slow-onset long-acting monoamine transporter inhibitor that may act as an agonist therapy for cocaine addiction. However, its pattern of action appears to be significantly different from that of methadone. Ideal agonist substitutes for cocaine should fully emulate methadone's actions, that is, functionally antagonizing cocaine's action while blocking monoamine transporters to augment synaptic DA.

  2. Transport studies of radon in limestone underlying houses

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Saultz, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In hilly limestone terrains of the southern Appalachians, subterranean networks of solution cavities and fissures present circulatory systems facilitating convective and advective transport of radon-bearing gas. Evidence suggests that the primary driving forces for transport are aerostatic pressure differentials created by the difference between the underground and the outside air temperatures. Examples are presented of houses experiencing elevated indoor radon levels as a consequence of communicating with such subsurface transportation systems. The location of a house near the upper or lower end of a subterranean-circulatory system seems to produce amplification of indoor radon levels in winter or summer, respectively. The transport mechanism for radon-bearing air in karst and its impact on indoor radon need better understanding, both in regard to evaluating the geographical prevalence of the phenomenon and the induced spatial and temporal effects that are possible. This paper reports field studies made at houses in karst regions at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Huntsville, Alabama. A primary radon-transport mechanism is advocated of ascending or descending subsurface columns of air whose flows are largely driven by aerostatic pressure gradients created by the inground-outdoor air temperature differentials. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Addendum: Design definition document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Gas generator engine characteristics and results of engine configuration refinements are discussed. Updated component mechanical design, performance, and manufacturing information is provided. The results are also provided of ocean recovery studies and various engine integration tasks. The details are provided of the maintenance plan for the Space Transportation Booster Engine.

  4. Gyrokinetic studies of stellarator turbulent transport via Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A. H.

    2009-05-01

    We study the turbulence and turbulent transport in stellarators (and tokamaks), via analysis of simulation results from the 3D gyrokinetic code Gene with particular emphasis on the configuration-dependence of turbulence characteristics. Present day stellarator designs seek to optimize stellarator neoclassical transport. With the advent of simulation codes like Gene, one can now seek to characterize and then optimize designs for TOTAL transport. The comparison between different configurations in stellarator parameter space is of 2 types, global and local. Global comparisons look at changes in plasma performance (eg, levels of turbulent fluxes and zonal flows, dependence of these on plasma gradients) between very different designs (eg, a QA versus a QI/QO design). Local comparisons look at the changes in performance between slight variants of the same design. Both aid in gaining insight into which geometric features (curvature, local and global shear, etc) are important in determining the turbulent characteristics. P. Xanthopoulos, F. Jenko, Phys.Plasmas 13, 092301 (2006).

  5. A Study of the Economic Benefit Potential of Intermodal Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Kawai, R. T.; Gregg, R. D.; McKinley, Robert E., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual study was conducted to determine the benefit potential of an Intermodal Transport in which quick change payload modules are used to reduce the cost of air travel by increasing daily utilization. Three basic concepts varying the degree of modularity were investigated for a 122,000 pounds payload 3,000 NM range regional wide body transport. The profit potential for operating as a passenger transport during the day and as a freighter at night was assessed. Assuming current levels of profitability, Intermodal operations could offer an operating cost reduction potential up to 20%. Enabling technology needs are identified as very quiet aircraft for expanded night operations, distributed load carrying quick disconnect latching, and configuration dependent safety issues. Recommendations are made to explore if additional benefits are possible from alternative mission and usage modules.

  6. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Experimental Studies on Mass Transport of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental studies on mass transport of ternary compound, Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te by physical vapor transport (PVT) for source compositions up to X = 0.21 are presented. The effect of thermochemical (temperatures, vapor composition) and other factors (preparation of the source, crystal growth rate, temperature gradient) on composition and composition profiles of the grown crystals were investigated. A steep decrease in the mass flux with an increase in X(crystal) for X less than 0.1, and a difference in composition between the source and the deposited material have been observed. The composition profiles of the crystals were found to depend on the density and pretreatment of the source, and on the temperature gradient in the source zone. The homogeneity of the crystals improves at low undercoolings and/or when an appropriate excess of metal constituents is present in the vapor phase. The experimental results are in good agreement with our thermochemical model of this system.

  8. Spin Labeling Studies of Transmembrane Signaling and Transport: Applications to Phototaxis, ABC Transporters and Symporters.

    PubMed

    Klare, Johann P; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins still represent a major challenge for structural biologists. This chapter will focus on the application of continuous wave and pulsed EPR spectroscopy on spin-labeled membrane proteins. Site-directed spin labeling EPR spectroscopy has evolved as a powerful tool to study the structure and dynamics of proteins, especially membrane proteins, as this method works largely independently of the size and complexity of the biological system under investigation. This chapter describes applications of this technique to three different systems: the archaeal photoreceptor/-transducer complex SRII/HtrII as an example for transmembrane signaling and two transport systems, the histidine ATP-binding cassette transporter HisQMP, and the sodium-proline symporter PutP.

  9. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Widdows, Kate L; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P; Please, Colin P; Hanson, Mark A; Sibley, Colin P; Johnstone, Edward D; Sengers, Bram G; Lewis, Rohan M; Glazier, Jocelyn D

    2015-06-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [(14)C]L-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [(14)C]L-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with L-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.

  10. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  11. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  12. A bill to require the Transportation Security Administration to comply with the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2011-12-14

    12/14/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S8604) (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3670, which became Public Law 112-171 on 8/16/2012. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Test act system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The engineering and fabrication of the test ACT system, produced in the third program element of the IAAC Project is documented. The system incorporates pitch-augmented stability and wing-load alleviation, plus full authority fly-by-wire control of the elevators. The pitch-augmented stability is designed to have reliability sufficient to allow flight with neutral or negative inherent longitudinal stability.

  14. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  15. A numerical study of gas transport in human lung models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Long; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2005-04-01

    Stable Xenon (Xe) gas has been used as an imaging agent for decades in its radioactive form, is chemically inert, and has been used as a ventilation tracer in its non radioactive form during computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using hyperpolarized Helium (He) gas and Xe has also emerged as a powerful tool to study regional lung structure and function. However, the present state of knowledge regarding intra-bronchial Xe and He transport properties is incomplete. As the use of these gases rapidly advances, it has become critically important to understand the nature of their transport properties and to, in the process, better understand the role of gas density in general in determining regional distribution of respiratory gases. In this paper, we applied the custom developed characteristic-Galerkin finite element method, which solves the three-dimensional (3D) incompressible variable-density Navier-Stokes equations, to study the transport of Xe and He in the CT-based human lung geometries, especially emulating the washin and washout processes. The realistic lung geometries are segmented and reconstructed from CT images as part of an effort to build a normative atlas (NIH HL-064368) documenting airway geometry over 4 decades of age in healthy and disease-state adult humans. The simulation results show that the gas transport process depends on the gas density and the body posture. The implications of these results on the difference between washin and washout time constants are discussed.

  16. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    A study of quiet turbofan short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were to: (1) define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs associated with their development, (2) identify critical technology and technology related problems to be resolved in successful introduction of representative short haul aircraft, (3) determine relationships between quiet short takeoff aircraft and the economic and social viability of short haul, and (4) identify high payoff technology areas.

  17. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  18. Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economic Effects Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and summarizes the findings of three 1969 studies of the economic effects of these amendments. The studies found that economic growth continued through the third phase of the amendments, beginning February 1, 1969, despite increased wage and hours restrictions for recently…

  19. Study on the scale of wet-ash transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yafei; Gao Xiang; Fang Mengxiang; Luo Zhongyang; Shi Zhenglun; Chen Guanyi; Ye Chunzhen; Ni Mingjiang; Cen Kefa

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, the scale phenomenon of a wet-ash transportation system against SFDS-coal ash rich in CaO is studied. The mechanism of scale, the static state dissolution attribute of Ca{sup 2+} and scale dynamic state simulation are investigated. In the research of scale dynamic state simulation experiment, the following factors are analyzed separately: ash type, tube material, flow rate of ash-water, recovery rate of transportation water, retention period of ash-water in ash tanker, operating period in tube and scale along the tube with distance. Results show that the content of basic oxide, especially the content of soluble basic oxide in ash has a decisive effect on scale. Compared with metal tubes, a rubberish tube can reduce scale deposition efficiently. Improving flow rate of ash-water, recovery rate of transportation water and retention period of ash water in ash tanker can reduce scale, too. During ash-water flows in the ash transportation tube, initial scaling rate is lower at first, but it will improve as time goes on until it reaches a constant. Scale along the tube is different in time, scale rate is very high at the entrance but exponential decays along the tube.

  20. Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, George J.; Maggs, James E.

    2014-10-25

    The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.

  1. Genetic linkage study of bipolar disorder and the serotonin transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsoe, J.R.; Morison, M.; Mroczkowski-Parker, Z.; Bergesch, P.; Rapaport, M.H.; Mirow, A.L.

    1996-04-09

    The serotonin transporter (HTT) is an important candidate gene for the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder. It is the site of action of many antidepressants, and plays a key role in the regulation of serotonin neurotransmission. Many studies of affectively ill patients have found abnormalities in serotonin metabolism, and dysregulation of the transporter itself. The human serotonin transporter has been recently cloned and mapped to chromosome 17. We have identified a PstI RFLP at the HTT locus, and here report our examination of this polymorphism for possible linkage to bipolar disorder. Eighteen families were examined from three populations: the Old Order Amish, Iceland, and the general North American population. In addition to HTT, three other microsatellite markers were examined, which span an interval known to contain HTT. Linkage analyses were conducted under both dominant and recessive models, as well as both narrow (bipolar only) and broad (bipolar + recurrent unipolar) diagnostic models. Linkage could be excluded to HTT under all models examined. Linkage to the interval spanned by the microsatellites was similarly excluded under the dominant models. In two individual families, maximum lod scores of 1.02 and 0.84 were obtained at D17S798 and HTT, respectively. However, these data overall do not support the presence of a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder near the serotonin transporter. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Transport studies in high-performance field reversed configuration plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Barnes, D. C.; Dettrick, S. A.; Trask, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Hubbard, K.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.; Zhai, K.; Tajima, T.

    2016-05-01

    A significant improvement of field reversed configuration (FRC) lifetime and plasma confinement times in the C-2 plasma, called High Performance FRC regime, has been observed with neutral beam injection (NBI), improved edge stability, and better wall conditioning [Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)]. A Quasi-1D (Q1D) fluid transport code has been developed and employed to carry out transport analysis of such C-2 plasma conditions. The Q1D code is coupled to a Monte-Carlo code to incorporate the effect of fast ions, due to NBI, on the background FRC plasma. Numerically, the Q1D transport behavior with enhanced transport coefficients (but with otherwise classical parametric dependencies) such as 5 times classical resistive diffusion, classical thermal ion conductivity, 20 times classical electron thermal conductivity, and classical fast ion behavior fit with the experimentally measured time evolution of the excluded flux radius, line-integrated density, and electron/ion temperature. The numerical study shows near sustainment of poloidal flux for nearly 1 ms in the presence of NBI.

  3. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  4. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter.

    PubMed

    Modali, Sita D; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tripartite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins.

  5. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  6. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  7. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  8. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study FY 2003 Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2003-04-15

    and suction lysimeters. The tension infiltrometer will be used to measure mobile-immobile parameters. The resulting data will used characterize fine-scale heterogeneity as well as correlation lengths of hydraulic and transport parameters. Tracer breakthrough data will be used to determine longitudinal and transverse dispersivities and their scale dependence. Parameters will be analyzed to identify a suitable averaging (upscaling) procedure for field-scale infiltration predictions. A combination of in situ permeability, water content and resistivity measurements will be combined with the granulometry and core analysis to quantify hydraulic geochemical properties in the laboratory. These data will be coupled with the field-measured hydraulic and transport parameters and the 3-D lithofacies map to generate a 3-D hydrofacies map of the site that includes the distribution geochemical properties controlling sorption. This map, along with measured distributions of water and solute, will be used to validate a numerical model for forward predictions and the applicability of upscaled parameters to reactive transport processes that typically occur under transient flow and at large spatial and temporal scales. The results of this study will help to bridge the gap between local-scale transport observations and field-scale transport behavior. It will allow validation of recently developed inverse procedures for predicting field-scale parameters and will improve our prediction capability fort reactive transport in heterogeneous sediments at Hanford. The improved conceptualizations will permit the DOE to make defensible corrective and remedial action decisions at Hanford and other waste sites.

  9. Multi-path transportation futures study: Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    This PowerPoint briefing provides documentation and details for Phase 1 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study, which compares alternative ways to make significant reductions in oil use and carbon emissions from U.S. light vehicles to 2050. Phase I, completed in 2006, was a scoping study, aimed at identifying key analytic issues and constructing a study design. The Phase 1 analysis included an evaluation of several pathways and scenarios; however, these analyses were limited in number and scope and were designed to be preliminary.

  10. Transport Theoretical Studies of Some Microscopic and Macroscopic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astwood, Alden Matthew

    This dissertation is a report on theoretical transport studies of two systems of vastly different sizes. The first topic is electronic motion in quantum wires. In recent years, it has become possible to fabricate wires that are so small that quantum effects become important. The conduction properties of these wires are quite different than those of macroscopic wires. In this dissertation, we seek to understand scattering effects in quantum wires in a simple way. Some of the existing formalisms for studying transport in quantum wires are reviewed, and one such formalism is applied to calculate conductance in some simple systems. The second topic concerns animals which move in groups, such as flocking birds or schooling fish. Exact analytic calculations of the transport properties of such systems are very difficult because a flock is a system that is far from equilibrium and consists of many interacting particles. We introduce two simplified models of flocking which are amenable to analytic study. The first model consists of a set of overdamped Brownian particles that interact via spring forces. The exact solution for the probability distribution is calculated, and equations of motion for continuous coarse-grained quantities, such as the density, are obtained from the full solution. The second model consists of particles which move in one dimension at constant speed, but which change their directions at random. The flipping rates are constructed in such a way that particles tend to align their directions with each other. The model is solved exactly for one and two particles, the first two moments are obtained, and equations of motion for continuous coarse-grained quantities are written. The model cannot be solved exactly for many particles, but the first and second moments are calculated. Finally, two additional topics are briefly discussed. The first is transport in disordered lattices, and the second is a static magnetic model of flocking.

  11. A novel method for trace tritium transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonheure, Georges; Mlynar, Jan; Murari, A.; Giroud, C.; Belo, P.; Bertalot, L.; Popovichev, S.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2009-08-01

    A new method combining a free-form solution for the neutron emissivity and the ratio method (Bonheure et al 2006 Nucl. Fusion 46 725-40) is applied to the investigation of tritium particle transport in JET plasmas. The 2D neutron emissivity is calculated using the minimum Fisher regularization method (MFR) (Anton et al 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1849, Mlynar et al 2003 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45 169). This method is being developed and studied alongside other methods at JET. The 2D neutron emissivity was significantly improved compared with the first MFR results by constraining the emissivity along the magnetic flux surfaces. 1D profiles suitable for transport analysis are then obtained by subsequent poloidal integration. In methods on which previous JET publications are based (Stork et al 2005 Nucl. Fusion 45 S181, JET Team (prepared by Zastrow) 1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 1891, Zastrow et al 2004 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46 B255, Adams et al 1993 Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 329 277, Jarvis et al 1997 Fusion Eng. Des. 34-35 59, Jarvis et al 1994 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 36 219), the 14.07 MeV D-T neutron line integrals measurements were simulated and the transport coefficients varied until good fits were obtained. In this novel approach, direct knowledge of tritium concentration or the fuel ratio nT/nD is obtained using all available neutron profile information, e.g both 2.45 MeV D-D neutron profiles and 14.07 MeV D-T neutron profiles (Bonheure et al 2006 Nucl.Fusion 46 725-40). Tritium particle transport coefficients are then determined using a linear regression from the dynamic response of the tritium concentration nT/nD profile. The temporal and spatial evolution of tritium particle concentration was studied for a set of JET discharges with tritium gas puffs from the JET trace tritium experiments. Local tritium transport coefficients were derived from the particle flux equation Γ = -D∇nT + VnT, where D is the particle diffusivity and V the

  12. Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers' professional identities: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lerbaek, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup; Buus, Niels

    2016-12-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers provide healthcare services to people with severe and persistent mental illness. These case managers take on generic roles in multidisciplinary teams and provide all-around services in the clients' private homes. This focus group study aimed to gain insight into Danish ACT case managers' professional identity work by examining their discussions of ethical dilemmas and collaboration in their everyday practice. Data were collected during five focus groups at three ACT teams in the North Denmark Region and subjected to discourse analysis emphasizing how identity work was accomplished through talk. The findings indicated that the case managers constructed professional identities by actively positioning themselves and the particular ACT approach in relation to other mental healthcare professionals and clients. They represented themselves as achieving better client-related outcomes by being more assertive and persistent, and as responsible caregivers who provided the help that their clients needed when other services had failed to do so. They depicted their services as being focused on the clients' well-being, and their persistent efforts to establish and sustain interpersonal relationships with clients were an important part of their service. Basic nursing tasks were described as an important part of their everyday work, and even though such tasks were not distinctive for ACT case managers, the representations of their work seemed to give them a sense of worth as professionals and legitimized a unique role in the community mental healthcare services.

  13. Theoretical studies of the transport properties in compound semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    This final report is an overview of the work done on Cooperative Agreement NCC 3-55 with the Solid State Technology Branch of the NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Over the period of time that the agreement was in effect, the principal investigator and, in the last three years, the co-principal investigator worked on a significant number of projects and interacted with members of the Solid State Technology (SST) branch in a number of different ways. For the purpose of this report, these efforts will be divided into five categories: 1) work directly with experimental electrical transport studies conducted by members of the SST branch; 2) theoretical work on electrical transport in compound semiconductors; 3) electronic structure calculations which are relevant to the electrical transport in polytypes of SiC and SiC-AlN alloys; 4) the electronic structure calculations of polar interfaces; and 5) consultative and supportive activities related to experiments and other studies carried out by SST branch members. Work in these categories is briefly discussed.

  14. Ion transport in porous media studied by NMR.

    PubMed

    Pel, L; Huinink, H P; Kopinga, K; Rijniers, L A; Kaasschieter, E F

    2001-01-01

    Moisture and salt transport in masonry can give rise to damages. Therefore a detailed knowledge of the moisture and salt transport is essential for understanding the durability of masonry. A special NMR apparatus has been made allowing quasi-simultaneous measurements of both moisture and Na profiles in porous building materials. Using this apparatus both the absorption of a 4 M NaCl solution in a calcium silicate brick and the drying of a 3 M NaCl capillary saturated fired-clay brick have been studied. It was found that during the absorption process the Na ions clearly stay behind, which this is caused by adsorption of these ions to the pore surface. For the drying it was found that at the beginning of the drying process the ions accumulate near the surface. As the drying rate decreases, diffusion becomes dominant and the ion profile levels off again.

  15. Studies of local electron heat transport on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E.D.; Chang, Z.Y.; Janos, A.; McGuire, K.M.; Scott, S.; Taylor, G.

    1993-08-16

    The anomalously fast relaxation of the perturbations to the electron temperature profile caused by a sawtooth crash has been studied extensively on TFTR. We will show that on a short timescale the heat pulse is not simply diffusive as has been generally assumed, but that modeling of the heat pulse requires a transient enhancement in {chi}{sub e} following the sawtooth crash. It will be shown that the time-dependent enhancement in {chi}{sub e} predicted by non-linear thermal transport models, i.e., incremental {chi} models or the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins transport model, is much smaller than that required to explain the anomalies in the heat pulse propagation.

  16. Spheromak Energy Transport Studies via Neutral Beam Injection

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, H S; Hill, D N; Wood, R D; Jayakumar, J; Pearlstein, L D

    2008-02-11

    Results from the SSPX spheromak experiment provide strong motivation to add neutral beam injection (NBI) heating. Such auxiliary heating would significantly advance the capability to study the physics of energy transport and pressure limits for the spheromak. This LDRD project develops the physics basis for using NBI to heat spheromak plasmas in SSPX. The work encompasses three activities: (1) numerical simulation to make quantitative predictions of the effect of adding beams to SSPX, (2) using the SSPX spheromak and theory/modeling to develop potential target plasmas suitable for future application of neutral beam heating, and (3) developing diagnostics to provide the measurements needed for transport calculations. These activities are reported in several publications.

  17. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Decision making in early transportation planning must be responsive to complex value systems representing various policies and objectives. The assessment of alternative transportation concepts during the early initial phases of the system life cycle, when supportive research and technology development activities are defined, requires estimates of transportation, environmental, and socio-economic impacts throughout the system life cycle, which is a period of some 40 or 50 years. A unified methodological framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is described and is extended to include the comparison of long term transportation trends arising from implementation of the various R & D programs. The attributes of existing and future transportation systems are reviewed in order to establish measures for comparison, define value functions, and attribute weightings needed for comparing alternative policy actions for furthering transportation goals. Comparison criteria definitions and an illustrative example are included.

  18. 77 FR 25152 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-National Longitudinal Transitions Study-2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... national assessment of Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA). It will be conducted under a contract that IES awarded in September 2010. The central research questions that the study will address are..., Monday through Friday of each week except Federal holidays. Assistance to Individuals With...

  19. Exploring the Impact of the Clinger-Cohen Act on Information Technology Governance: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Passage of the Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1996 was in direct response to Congressional inquiry into the perceived lack of proper management and oversight of information technology (IT) in the federal agencies. This current qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences and perceptions of 20 IT professionals to determine if the…

  20. Tools for Studying Electron and Spin Transport in Single Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Daniel C.

    2005-03-01

    Experiments in the field of single-molecule electronics are challenging in part because it can be very difficult to control and characterize the device structure. Molecules contacted by metal electrodes cannot easily be imaged by microscopy techniques. Moreover, if one attempts to characterize the device structure simply by measuring a current-voltage curve, it is easy to mistake nonlinear transport across a bare tunnel junction or a metallic short for a molecular signal. I will discuss the development of a set of experimental test structures that enable the properties of a molecular device to be tuned controllably in-situ, so that the transport mechanisms can be studied more systematically and compared with theoretical predictions. My collaborators and I are developing the means to use several different types of such experimental "knobs" in coordination: electrostatic gating to shift the energy levels in a molecule, mechanical motion to adjust the molecular configuration or the molecule-electrode coupling strength, illumination with light to promote electrons to excited states or to make and break chemical bonds, and the use of ferromagnetic electrodes to study spin-polarized transport. Our work so far has provided new insights into Kondo physics, the coupling between a molecule's electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom, and spin transport through a molecule between magnetic electrodes. Collaborators: Radek Bialczak, Alex Champagne, Luke Donev, Jonas Goldsmith, Jacob Grose, Janice Guikema, Jiwoong Park, Josh Parks, Abhay Pasupathy, Jason Petta, Sara Slater, Burak Ulgut, Alexander Soldatov, H'ector Abruña, and Paul McEuen.

  1. Transport Studies and Modeling in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Xu, Hui; Brawn, Shelly

    2014-07-30

    This project’s aim was to develop fuel cell components (i.e. membranes, gas-diffusion media (GDM), bipolar plates and flow fields) that possess specific properties (i.e. water transport and conductivity). A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to elucidate the effect of certain parameters on these specific properties. Ultimately, the model will be used to determine sensitivity of fuel cell performance to component properties to determine limiting components and to guide research. We have successfully reached our objectives and achieved most of the milestones of this project. We have designed and synthesized a variety of hydrocarbon block polymer membranes with lower equivalent weight, structure, chemistry, phase separation and process conditions. These membranes provide a broad selection with optimized water transport properties. We have also designed and constructed a variety of devices that are capable of accurately measuring the water transport properties (water uptake, water diffusivity and electro-osmatic drag) of these membranes. These transport properties are correlated to the membranes’ structures derived from X-ray and microscopy techniques to determine the structure-property relationship. We successfully integrated hydrocarbon membrane MEAs with a current distribution board (CBD) to study the impact of hydrocarbon membrane on water transport in fuel cells. We have designed and fabricated various GDM with varying substrate, diffusivity and micro-porous layers (MPL) and characterized their pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity. We have derived a universal chart (MacMullin number as function of wet proofing and porosity) that can be used to characterize various GDM. The abovementioned GDMs have been evaluated in operating fuel cells; their performance is correlated to various pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity of the GDM. Unfortunately, determining a universal relationship between the MacMullin number and these properties

  2. Analogue Study of Actinide Transport at Sites in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, A P; Simmons, A M; Halsey, W G

    2003-02-12

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) are engaged in a three-year cooperative study to observe the behavior of actinides in the natural environment at selected disposal sites and/or contamination sites in Russia. The purpose is to develop experimental data and models for actinide speciation, mobilization and transport processes in support of geologic repository design, safety and performance analyses. Currently at the mid-point of the study, the accomplishments to date include: evaluation of existing data and data needs, site screening and selection, initial data acquisition, and development of preliminary conceptual models.

  3. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W.; Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  4. Charge transport studies of proton and ion conducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versek, Craig Wm

    The development of a high-throughput impedance spectroscopy instrumentation platform for conductivity characterization of ion transport materials is outlined. Collaborative studies using this system are summarized. Charge conduction mechanisms and conductivity data for small molecule proton conducting liquids, pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and select mixtures of these compounds are documented. Furthermore, proton diffusivity measurements using a Pulse Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (PFG NMR) technique for imidazole and 1,2,3-triazole binary mixtures are compared. Studies of azole functionalized discotic and linear mesogens with conductivity, structural, and thermal characterizations are detailed.

  5. Integrated energy management study. Energy efficient transport program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Energy Management (IEM) Study investigated the practicality and feasibility of a closed-loop energy management system for transport aircraft. The study involved: (1) instrumentation and collection of in-flight data for a United Airlines 727-200 flying 80 revenue flights throughout the United Airlines network,(2) analysis of the in-flight data to select representative city pairs and establish operational procedures employed in flying a reference flight profile, (3) simulation of the reference profile in a fast-time model to verify the model and establish performance values against which to measure IEM benefits, (4) development of IEM algorithms, and (5) assessment of the IEM concept.

  6. Soil Production and Transport Perspectives on Critical Zone Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimsath, A. M.; Foster, M.; Whipple, K. X.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying soil production and transport rates and processes is a key aspect of most critical zone studies. Methodologies range from relatively straightforward, low cost studies like sediment traps and basin volume estimates to sophisticated and expensive studies using chemical and physical tracers and isotope geochemistry. Inherent in all methodologies are assumptions and simplifications that enable any measurement to be translated to a rate and interpreted in terms of process mechanics. For example, quantifying soil production using in situ cosmogenic nuclides measured in the parent material beneath an upland mobile regolith mantle depends on assuming a locally steady state soil thickness (i.e. neither thinning or thickening with time). Similarly, utilizing hillslope-scale sediment traps or landscape-scale basin analyses depends on assumptions of steady state processes and constraining the timescales represented by the captured sediment. As our analyses of landscapes have expanded into the details of how spatial and temporal gradients of all driving variables (lithology, climate, tectonics, distribution of biota, etc.) influence landscape evolution, our adherence to the assumptions and simplifications necessitated by our methods becomes questionable. Here we provide content analyses of recent and ongoing studies quantifying soil production and transport processes across a range of climatic, geologic and tectonic regimes. We code the studies for their inclusion and use of assumptions and simplifications necessary to ensure that the methodologies apply to their intended use. These analyses provide an important perspective on the use of quantitative methods and offer both a complimentary and cautionary views on critical zone studies in general.

  7. Numerical study of oxygen transport in a carotid bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Shigeru

    2010-07-01

    This study investigates the oxygen mass transport in the region around the human carotid bifurcation, particularly addressing the effects of bifurcation geometry and pulsatile blood flow on the oxygen transport between the blood flow and artery wall tissue, coupled with the metabolic oxygen consumption and oxygen diffusion in the artery wall tissue. The temporal variations and spatial distributions of the oxygen tension are predicted quantitatively using a geometric model of the human carotid bifurcation and realistic blood flow waveforms. Results reveal that the flow separation at the outside wall of the sinus of the internal carotid artery (ICA) can markedly alter the flow pattern, oxygen tension and the oxygen wall flux. Results also clarify that the flow unsteadiness has a secondary effect on the oxygen tension inside the wall. The non-dimensional oxygen flux, the Sherwood number Sh, at the outside wall of the ICA sinus, takes markedly lower values of about 45 than at other sites because the rates of oxygen transport by the convective flow are reduced at the outside wall of the ICA sinus. The transverse distributions of the oxygen tension inside the artery wall show parabolic profiles having minima in the middle of the wall thickness, with the lowest value of 35 mmHg. These predicted distributions of the oxygen tension inside the wall closely resemble those obtained from experiments. The results demonstrate that hypoxic zones appear inside the artery walls at locations where atherosclerotic lesions are prone to develop.

  8. Studying Polymer Transport on Soft and Hard Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanat

    2007-03-01

    We have employed experiments and simulations to understand the factors controlling the transport of polymers on surfaces. From an experimental viewpoint we have focused on the transport of DNA (single stranded) on lipid bilayers. We show that this behavior is slaved to the mobility of the lipids. More surprisingly, it appears that the transport of molecules adsorbed on surfaces follows the same dependence on lipid mobility as for molecules incorporated into the lipid layer. The ability to control this surface diffusion through the introduction of posts or varying the strength of adsorption (by the use of an AC field normal to the surfaces) will also be studied. Theoretically we have used molecular dynamics simulations of a polymer chain of length N dissolved in explicit solvent and adsorbed as a pancake at the solid-liquid interface to discriminate between respective influences on surface diffusion of hydrodynamics and adsorption energetics. Only for analytically-smooth surfaces do we observe a strong influence of hydrodynamics; the polymer lateral diffusion constant, D, scales as D 1/N^3/4, more weakly than for implicit solvent. For atomistic surface corrugation with uniform surface chemical makeup, D 1/N instead. This suggests that while we can understand the results for diffusion on lipid surfaces, more recent experimental observations of stronger N dependence for diffusion on hard solid surfaces originate not in hydrodynamic interactions but in spatially patchy energetic interactions.

  9. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost

  10. Improvement of Transmembrane Transport Mechanism Study of Imperatorin on P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug Transport.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Tang, Tao; Guan, Xue-Jing; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Yang, Ming; Liang, Xin-Li

    2016-11-24

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects the transport of many drugs; including puerarin and vincristine. Our previous study demonstrated that imperatorin increased the intestinal absorption of puerarin and vincristine by inhibiting P-gp-mediated drug efflux. However; the underlying mechanism was not known. The present study investigated the mechanism by which imperatorin promotes P-gp-mediated drug transport. We used molecular docking to predict the binding force between imperatorin and P-gp and the effect of imperatorin on P-gp activity. P-gp efflux activity and P-gp ATPase activity were measured using a rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) accumulation assay and a Pgp-Glo™ assay; respectively. The fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) was used to assess cellular membrane fluidity in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Western blotting was used to analyze the effect of imperatorin on P-gp expression; and P-gp mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. Molecular docking results demonstrated that the binding force between imperatorin and P-gp was much weaker than the force between P-gp and verapamil (a P-gp substrate). Imperatorin activated P-gp ATPase activity; which had a role in the inhibition of P-gp activity. Imperatorin promoted Rh-123 accumulation in MDCK-MDR1 cells and decreased cellular membrane fluidity. Western blotting demonstrated that imperatorin inhibited P-gp expression; and qRT-PCR revealed that imperatorin down-regulated P-gp (MDR1) gene expression. Imperatorin decreased P-gp-mediated drug efflux by inhibiting P-gp activity and the expression of P-gp mRNA and protein. Our results suggest that imperatorin could down-regulate P-gp expression to overcome multidrug resistance in tumors.

  11. Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1 extension: Transportation systems reference data, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Transportation mass requirements are developed for various mission and transportation modes based on vehicle systems sized to fit the exact needs of each mission. The parametric data used to derive the mass requirements for each mission and transportation mode are presented to enable accommodation of possible changes in mode options or payload definitions. The vehicle sizing and functional requirements used to derive the parametric data are described.

  12. Raman scattering studies and charge transport in polyfluorenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Mohammad Ali Iftekhar

    Organic semiconductors, such as short-chain oligomers and long-chain polymers, are now a core constituent in numerous organic and organic-inorganic hybrid technologies. Blue-emitting polyfluorenes (PFs) have emerged as especially attractive pi conjugated polymers (CP) due to their high luminescence efficiency and excellent electronic properties and thus great prospects for device applications. The performance of devices based on these polymers depends on side chain conformations, overall crystalline structure, and charge transport processes at the microscopic level. This project entails detailed Raman scattering studies and charge transport properties of two side chain substituted PFs: Poly(2,7-[9,9'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)] fluorene) (PF2/6) and Poly(9,9-(di-n,n-octyl) fluorene) (PF8). The structural properties of PFs are extremely sensitive to the choice of functionalizing side chains. PF8 adopts metastable structures that depend upon the thermal history and choice of solvents used in film forming conditions. Raman scattering techniques as a function of thermal cycling are used to monitor the changes in the backbone and side chain morphology of PF8. These studies establish a correlation between the conformational isomers and the side and main chain morphology. Theoretical modeling of the vibrational spectra of single chain oligomers in conjunction with the experimental results demonstrate the incompatibility of the beta phase, a low energy emitting chromophore, with the overall crystalline phase in PF8. Further, electroluminescence and photoluminescence measurements from PF-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are presented and discussed in terms of the crystalline phases and chain morphologies in the PFs. Charge carrier injection and transport properties of PF-based LEDs are presented using current-voltage (I--V) characteristic which is modeled by a space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) for discrete and continuous traps. PF2/6 with a high level of molecular disorder is

  13. Analysis of Productivity Improvement Act for Clinical Staff Working in the Health System: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vali, Leila; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Kiaei, Mohammad Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The productivity of healthcare staff is one of the main issues for health managers. This study explores the concept of executive regulation of Productivity Improvement Act of clinical staff in health. Methods: In this study phenomenological methodology has been employed. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group composed of 10 hospital experts and experts in human resources department working in headquarter of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and 16 nursing managers working in public and private hospitals of Mashhad using purposive sampling. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven step method. Results: The strengths of this Act included increasing spirit of hope in nurses, paying attention to quality of nursing care and decreasing problems related to the work plan development. Some of the weaknesses of Productivity Improvement Act included lack of required executive mechanisms, lack of considering nursing productivity indicator, increasing non-public hospitals problems, discrimination between employees, and removal of resting on night shifts. Suggestions were introduced to strengthen the Act such as increased organizational posts, use of a coefficient for wage in unusual work shifts and consideration of a performance indicator. Conclusion: The results may be used as a proper tool for long term management planning at organization level. Finally, if high quality care by health system staff is expected, in the first step, we should take care of them through proper policy making and focusing on occupational characteristics of the target group so that it does not result in discrimination among the staff. PMID:26383203

  14. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. In these studies, the total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.

  15. A Quantitative Study of Magnetic Flux Transport on the Sun,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-15

    the Sun . Using Kitt Peak magnetograms as input, as have determined a best-fit diffusion constant by comparing the computed and observed fields at later times. This paper presents the initial results of a project to simulate the transport of solar magnetic flux using diffusion, differential rotation, and meridional flow. The study concerns the evolution of large-scale fields on a time scale of weeks of years, and ignores the rapid changes that accompany the emergence of new magnetic regions and the day-to-day changes of the supergranular network

  16. A study of altitude-constrained supersonic cruise transport concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, David C.; Martin, Glenn L.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of restricting maximum cruise altitude on the mission performance of two supersonic transport concepts across a selection of cruise Mach numbers is studied. Results indicate that a trapezoidal wing concept can be competitive with an arrow wing depending on the altitude and Mach number constraints imposed. The higher wing loading of trapezoidal wing configurations gives them an appreciably lower average cruise altitude than the lower wing loading of the arrow wing configurations, and this advantage increases as the maximum allowable cruise altitude is reduced.

  17. Numerical study of river bedrock incision by bedload sediment transport.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Guilhem; Langlois, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Modelling approaches of bedload sediment transport have long been restricted to the detachment-limited and transport-limited regimes. However recent experimental and numerical studies have revealed the crucial influence of sediment load on the rate of bedrock incision [Sklar and Dietrich (2001), Lague(2010)] by abrasion which results in the competition between the tool effect and the cover effect. We present a numerical study of the interactions between a bedload layer and an underlying bedrock. We use molecular dynamics to simulate the motion of solid particles entrained by a laminar viscous flow. These simulations are based on a combination of discrete and continuous approaches. Sediment particles are modelled by hard spheres interacting through simple contact forces, whereas the fluid flow is described by a "mean field" model. This allows us to compute individual particle trajectories inside the active layer and therefore to predict the transfer of energy between grains and the bedrock. The effect of three control parameters has been studied : sediment density, flow discharge and bedrock rugosity. We determine the phase space domain where the system reaches a saltation regime and calculate the resulting erosion rate of the bedrock. Our model exhibits a competition between tool and cover effects. The results of this mechanistic approach are compared with available experimental data and existing stochastic models.

  18. [Fructose transporter in yeasts].

    PubMed

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Dobrowolski, Adam; Robak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Study of hexoses transporter started with discovery of galactose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose, fructose and mannose assimilation is assumed by numerous proteins encoded by different genes. To date over 20 hexoses transporters, belonging to Sugar Porter family and to Major Facilitator Superfamily, were known. Genome sequence analysis of Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, S. cerevisaie and Debaryomyces hansenii reveled potential presence of 17-48 sugar porter proteins. Glucose transporters in S. cerevisiae have been already characterized. In this paper, hexoses transporters, responsible for assimilation of fructose by cells, are presented and compared. Fructose specific transporter are described for yeasts: Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces bailli, K. lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus, S. cerevisiae winemaking strain and for fungus Botritys cinerea and human (Glut5p). Among six yeasts transporters, five are fructose specific, acting by facilitated diffusion or proton symport. Yeasts monosaccharides transporter studies allow understanding of sugars uptake and metabolism important aspects, even in higher eukaryotes cells.

  19. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  20. Theoretical study on transport properties of topological states of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan

    In condensed matter physics, states of matter are usually classified by symmetry. Topological states of matter describe new quantum states of matter that cannot adiabatically connect to conventional states of matter even though they share the same symmetry. Thus, the discovery of topological states of matter has opened a new research era and attracted intensive research interests in recent years. This dissertation is devoted to the theoretical and numerical study of transport properties of topological states of matter, mainly focusing on two topological systems, time reversal invariant topological insulator nano-structures and the quantum anomalous Hall insulators. The first system studied in this dissertation is time reversal invariant topological insulator, which is an insulating material behaving as an insulator in its interior but with conducting channels on its surface. The conducting surface states of a topological insulator are known as "helical states" due to the spin texture in the momentum space and protected by time reversal symmetry. Helical surface states have been observed in surface sensitive experiments, such as angular-resolved photon emission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. However, signatures of topological surface states in transport measurements are complicated by the dominating conduction from bulk channels and strong disorder effect. Therefore, in this dissertation, we numerically study transport in disordered topological insulator nano-structures, e.g. nanowires and nanotubes, which possess a larger surfaceto-volume ratio compared to bulk systems. For a topological insulator nanowire, it is found that a gapless mode with linear dispersion, which is refered to as a topological state in the main text, arises when a half-integer magnetic flux quantum is inserted along the nanowire. We find that topological states possess a longer localization length than other non-topological states. Thus, for a long nanowire or nanotube, a

  1. Nitrogen transporter and assimilation genes exhibit developmental stage-selective expression in maize (Zea mays L.) associated with distinct cis-acting promoter motifs.

    PubMed

    Liseron-Monfils, Christophe; Bi, Yong-Mei; Downs, Gregory S; Wu, Wenqing; Signorelli, Tara; Lu, Guangwen; Chen, Xi; Bondo, Eddie; Zhu, Tong; Lukens, Lewis N; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for maize (Zea mays L.), but there is limited understanding of the regulation of nitrogen-related genes during maize development. An Affymetrix 82K maize array was used to analyze the expression of ≤ 46 unique nitrogen uptake and assimilation probes in 50 maize tissues from seedling emergence to 31 d after pollination. Four nitrogen-related expression clusters were identified in roots and shoots corresponding to, or overlapping, juvenile, adult, and reproductive phases of development. Quantitative real time PCR data was consistent with the existence of these distinct expression clusters. Promoters corresponding to each cluster were screened for over-represented cis-acting elements. The 8-bp distal motif of the Arabidopsis 43-bp nitrogen response element (NRE) was over-represented in nitrogen-related maize gene promoters. This conserved motif, referred to here as NRE43-d8, was previously shown to be critical for nitrate-activated transcription of nitrate reductase (NIA1) and nitrite reductase (NIR1) by the NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6 (NLP6) in Arabidopsis. Here, NRE43-d8 was over-represented in the promoters of maize nitrate and ammonium transporter genes, specifically those that showed peak expression during early-stage vegetative development. This result predicts an expansion of the NRE-NLP6 regulon and suggests that it may have a developmental component in maize. We also report leaf expression of putative orthologs of nitrite transporters (NiTR1), a transporter not previously reported in maize. We conclude by discussing how each of the four transcriptional modules may be responsible for the different nitrogen uptake and assimilation requirements of leaves and roots at different stages of maize development.

  2. The use of scans for impact studies of transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Witte, M.C.

    1988-06-24

    This paper presents the results of an impact study using the computer program SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System), which was developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) for structural analysis of transportation packages of radioactive materials. The program operates on IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. It has capabilities for other analysis such as heat transfer, pressure and thermal stress analysis. However, this study uses only the impact analysis capability, which includes a quasi-static and a dynamic analysis option. It is shown that the program produces reasonable results for a wide range of impact conditions. The results are in agreement with existing information on impact analysis and phenomenon. In view of its simplicity in modelling and convenience in usage, the SCANS program can be effectively used for confirmatory analysis, preliminary design study, and quick assessment of the need for detailed impact analysis. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A coupled field study of subsurface fracture flow and colloid transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiang-Yu; Weisbrod, Noam; Zhao, Pei; Reid, Brian J.

    2015-05-01

    Field studies of subsurface transport of colloids, which may act as carriers of contaminants, are still rare. This is particularly true for heterogeneous and fractured matrices. To address this knowledge gap, a 30-m long monitoring trench was constructed at the lower end of sloping farmland in central Sichuan, southwest China. During the summer of 2013, high resolution dynamic and temporal fracture flow discharging from the interface between fractured mudrock and impermeable sandstone was obtained at intervals of 5 min (for fast rising stages), 30-60 min (for slow falling stages) or 15 min (at all other times). This discharge was analyzed to elucidate fracture flow and colloid transport in response to rainfall events. Colloid concentrations were observed to increase quickly once rainfall started (∼15-90 min) and reached peak values of up to 188 mg/L. Interestingly, maximum colloid concentration occurred prior to the arrival of flow discharge peak (i.e. maximum colloid concentration was observed before saturation of the soil layer). Rainfall intensity (rather than its duration) was noted to be the main factor controlling colloid response and transport. Dissolved organic carbon concentration and δ18O dynamics in combination with soil water potential were used to apportion water sources of fracture flow at different stages. These approaches suggested the main source of the colloids discharged to be associated with the flushing of colloids from the soil mesopores and macropores. Beyond the scientific interest of colloid mobilization and transport at the field scale, these results have important implications for a region of about 160,000 km2 in southwest China that featured similar hydrogeologic settings as the experimental site. In this agriculture-dominated area, application of pesticides and fertilizers to farmland is prevalent. These results highlight the need to avoid such applications immediately before rainfall events in order to reduce rapid migration to

  4. Experimental study of a generic high-speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Pamela S.; Campbell, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study of generic high-speed civil transport was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The data base was obtained for the purpose of assessing the accuracy of various levels of computational analysis. Two models differing only in wingtip geometry were tested with and without flow-through nacelles. The baseline model has a curved or crescent wingtip shape, while the second model has a more conventional straight wingtip shape. The study was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.19. Force data were obtained on both the straight wingtip model and the curved wingtip model. Only the curved wingtip model was instrumented for measuring pressures. Selected longitudinal, lateral, and directional data are presented for both models. Selected pressure distributions for the curved wingtip model are also presented.

  5. Spatially resolved study of primary electron transport in magnetic cusps

    SciTech Connect

    Hubble, Aimee A.; Foster, John E.

    2012-01-15

    Spatially resolved primary electron current density profiles were measured using a planar Langmuir probe in the region above a magnetic cusp in a small ion thruster discharge chamber. The probe current maps obtained were used to study the electron collection mechanics in the cusp region in the limit of zero gas flow and no plasma production, and they allowed for the visualization of primary electron transport through the cusp. Attenuation coefficients and loss widths were calculated as a function of probe distance above the anode at various operating conditions. Finally, the collection mechanics between two magnetic cusps were studied and compared. It was found that primary electron collection was dominated by the upstream magnet ring.

  6. Laboratory Study of Angular Momentum Transport in Astrophysical Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hantao

    2014-10-01

    Studying astrophysical processes in the lab becomes increasingly possible and exciting, as one of Stirling's favorite subjects throughout his scientific career. In this talk, I will describe experimental efforts to study mechanisms of rapid angular momentum transport required to occur in accretion disks to explain a wide range of phenomena from star formation, energetic activity of cataclysmic variables, to powering quasars, the most luminous steady sources in the Universe. By carefully isolating effects due to artificial boundaries, which are inherent to terrestrial experiments, certain astrophysical questions regarding hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic stabilities are being addressed in the laboratory. Inspirations from Stirling as well as scientific exchanges with him will be mentioned during this talk as part of my scientific journey on this subject.

  7. The 1990 high-speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This summary report contains the results of the Douglas Aircraft Company system studies related to High-Speed Civil Transports (HSCT's). The tasks were performed under an 18-month extension of NASA Langley Research Center Contract NAS1-18378. The system studies were conducted to assess the emission impact of HSCT's at design Mach numbers ranging from 1.6 to 3.2. The tasks specifically addressed an HSCT market and economic assessment, development of supersonic route networks, and an atmospheric emissions scenario. The general results indicated: (1) market projections predict sufficient passenger traffic for the 2000 to 2025 time period to support a fleet of economically viable and environmentally compatible HSCT's; (2) the HSCT route structure to minimize supersonic overland traffic can be increased by innovative routing to avoid land masses; and (3) the atmospheric emission impact on ozone would be significantly lower for Mach 1.6 operations than for Mach 3.2 operations.

  8. Study of salt transport processes in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy

    1992-01-01

    The study described here is a subset of a broader climate-related study, and is focused primarily on salinity intrusion into Delaware Bay and River. Given changes in freshwater discharge into the Delaware River as determined from the larger study, and given probable sea level rise estimates, the purpose here is to calculate the distribution of salinity within Delaware Bay and River. The approach adopted for this study is composed of two parts: an analysis of existing physical data in order to derive a basic understanding of the salt dynamics, and numerical simulation of future conditions based on this analysis. There are two important constraints in the model used: it must resolve the spatial scales important to the salt dynamics, and it must be sufficiently efficient to allow extensive sensitivity studies. This has led to the development of a 3D model that uses harmonic decomposition in time and irregular finite elements in space. All nonlinear terms are retained in the governing equations, including quadratic bottom stress, advection, and wave transport (continuity nonlinearity). These equations are coupled to the advection-diffusion equation for salt so that density gradient forcing is included in the momentum equations. Although this study is still in progress, the model has reproduced sea level variations and the 3D structure of tidal and residual currents very well. In addition, the study has addressed the effects of a 1-meter rise in mean sea level on hydrodynamics of the study area. Current work is focused on salt dynamics.

  9. Numerical study on inter-tidal transports in coastal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xinyan; Jiang, Wensheng; Zhang, Ping; Feng, Shizuo

    2016-06-01

    Inter-tidal (subtidal) transport processes in coastal sea depend on the residual motion, turbulent dispersion and relevant sources/sinks. In Feng et al. (2008), an updated Lagrangian inter-tidal transport equation, as well as new concept of Lagrangian inter-tidal concentration (LIC), has been proposed for a general nonlinear shallow water system. In the present study, the LIC is numerically applied for the first time to passive tracers in idealized settings and salinity in the Bohai Sea, China. Circulation and tracer motion in the three idealized model seas with different topography or coastline, termed as `flat-bottom', `stairs' and `cape' case, respectively, are simulated. The dependence of the LIC on initial tidal phase suggests that the nonlinearities in the stairs and cape cases are stronger than that in the flat-bottom case. Therefore, the `flat-bottom' case still meets the convectively weakly nonlinear condition. For the Bohai Sea, the simulation results show that most parts of it still meet the weakly nonlinear condition. However, the dependence of the LIS (Lagrangian inter-tidal salinity) on initial tidal phase is significant around the southern headland of the Liaodong Peninsula and near the mouth of the Yellow River. The nonlinearity in the former region is mainly related to the complicated coastlines, and that in the latter region is due to the presence of the estuarine salinity front.

  10. Outgassing study of spacecraft materials and contaminant transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chung M.; Labatete-Goeppinger, Aura C.; Fowler, Jesse D.; Easton, Myriam P.; Liu, De-Ling

    2016-09-01

    Contamination control plays an important role in sustaining spacecraft performance. One spacecraft degradation mechanism involves long-term on-orbit molecular outgassing from spacecraft materials. The outgassed molecules may accumulate on thermal control surfaces and/or optics, causing degradation. In this study, we performed outgassing measurements of multiple spacecraft materials, including adhesives, Nylon Velcro, and other assembly materials through a modified ASTM E595 test method. The modified ASTM E595 test had the source and receiver temperature remained at 125°C and 25°C, respectively, but with prolonged outgassing periods of two weeks. The condensable contaminants were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine their spectral transmission and chemical composition. The FTIR spectra showed several spacecraft materials, primarily adhesives and potting materials, exhibiting slight absorption from contaminants consisting of hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acids. To gain insight into molecular contaminant transport, simulations were conducted to characterize contaminant accumulation inside a hypothetical space system cavity. The simulation indicated that contaminant molecules bouncing inside the hypothetical payload cavity can lead to deposition on colder surfaces, even though large openings are available to provide venting pathways for escaping to space. The newly established molecular contaminant transport simulation capability holds the promise of providing quantitative guidance for future spacecraft and its venting design.

  11. Studies of Transport Properties of Fractures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen R. Brown

    2006-06-30

    We proposed to study several key factors controlling the character and evolution of fracture system permeability and transport processes. We suggest that due to surface roughness and the consequent channeling in single fractures and in fracture intersections, the tendency of a fracture system to plug up, remain permeable, or for permeability to increase due to chemical dissolution/precipitation conditions will depend strongly on the instantaneous flow channel geometry. This geometry will change as chemical interaction occurs, thus changing the permeability through time. To test this hypothesis and advance further understanding toward a predictive capability, we endeavored to physically model and analyze several configurations of flow and transport of inert and chemically active fluids through channels in single fractures and through fracture intersections. This was an integrated program utilizing quantitative observations of fractures and veins in drill core, quantitative and visual observations of flow and chemical dissolution and precipitation within replicas of real rough-walled fractures and fracture intersections, and numerical modeling via lattice Boltzmann methods.

  12. Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Force Acting on Baseof Vertical Landing Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Fujimatsu, Nobuyoshi; Watanuki, Tadaharu; Suzuki, Kojiro

    An experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket during the landing phase is conducted with emphasis on the interaction between the supersonic nozzle jet and the ground surface. Because of the large base area, variations in the base pressure distribution have a significant effect on the aerodynamic forces acting on the body. When the distance between the base and the ground surface is small, the base pressure decreases and downward force acts on the body. The generation of such downward force is quite unfavorable from a viewpoint of the safety of the vehicle. This effect can be reduced to some extent by modifying the outer edge of the vehicle base and roughening the ground surface. Moreover, it is observed that the static stability in pitch motion vanishes near the ground. Consequently, careful control during the landing phase is necessary to ensure vehicle safety.

  13. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Wing planform study and final configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the Wing Planform Study Task and Final Configuration Selection of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program. Application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span resulted in significant improvements over the Conventional Baseline Configuration (Baseline) and the Initial ACT Configuration previously established. The configurations use the same levels of technology (except for ACT), takeoff gross weight, and payload as the Baseline. The Final ACT Configuration (Model 768-107) incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 45% reduction in horizontal tail sizes), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle-of-attack limiter, and wing-load alleviation. Flutter-mode control was not beneficial for this configuration. This resulted in an 890 kg (1960 lb) reduction in airplane takeoff gross weight and a 9.8% improvement in cruise lift/drag. At the Baseline mission range (3590 km) (1938 nmi), this amounts to 10% block fuel reduction. Good takeoff performance at high-altitude airports on a hot day was also achieved. Results of this task strongly indicate that the IAAC Project should proceed with the Final ACT evaluation and begin the required control system development and testing.

  14. 23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, TEA-21 (Pub. L. 105-178), an MPO(s), State(s), or public... constitutes the planning required by section 1308 of the TEA-21. The Alternatives Analysis may or may not...

  15. Studies of soil-water transport by MRI.

    PubMed

    Amin, M H; Richards, K S; Chorley, R J; Gibbs, S J; Carpenter, T A; Hall, L D

    1996-01-01

    Sequential spin-echo spin-warp MRI pulse sequences have been used to study soil-water transport processes including infiltration, redistribution, and drainage of water in soil columns. Those images provide a means for monitoring and quantifying spatial and temporal changes of soil-water distributions and the movement of wetting fronts. In addition, temporal-geometric changes of unstable wetting fronts during water redistribution were estimated from 2D images and the temporal development of the longest length of finger was described by a fractal relation t approximately L1.38. Bulk dispersion-time-dependent displacement and velocity spectra, as well as 2D maps of flow velocities and dispersion coefficients in soil macropores during saturated steady-state flow, were reconstructed from data obtained using the alternating-pulsed-field-gradient (APFG) pulse sequences.

  16. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  17. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study. Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Phil Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    Presentation reporting Phase 1 results, 3/9/2007. Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance — and uncertainty — of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). The Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of “what if” questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  18. Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Nicholas G.; Minnich, Austin J.

    2016-01-01

    Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials.

  19. Multiple Application Propfan Study (MAPS): Advanced tactical transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, F. C.; Liebeck, R. H.; Mitchell, G. H.; Mooiweer, A.; Platte, M. M.; Toogood, T. L.; Wright, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain potential benefits of a propfan propulsion system application to a blended wing/body military tactical transport. Based on a design cruise Mach no. of 0.75 for the design mission, the results indicate a significant advantage in various figures of merit for the propfan over those of a comparable technology turbofan. Although the propfan has a 1.6 percent greater takeoff gross weight, its life cycle cost is 5.3 percent smaller, partly because of a 27 percent smaller specific fuel consumption. When employed on alternate missions, the propfan configuration offers significantly improved flexibility and capability: an increase in sea level penetration distance of more than 100 percent, or in time-on-station of 24 percent, or in deployment payload of 38 percent.

  20. Parametric study of transport aircraft systems cost and weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Trapp, D. L.; Kimoto, B. W.; Marsh, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a NASA study to develop production cost estimating relationships (CERs) and weight estimating relationships (WERs) for commercial and military transport aircraft at the system level are presented. The systems considered correspond to the standard weight groups defined in Military Standard 1374 and are listed. These systems make up a complete aircraft exclusive of engines. The CER for each system (or CERs in several cases) utilize weight as the key parameter. Weights may be determined from detailed weight statements, if available, or by using the WERs developed, which are based on technical and performance characteristics generally available during preliminary design. The CERs that were developed provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the production cost of an aircraft. Likewise, the WERs provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the weight of aircraft based on conceptual design information.

  1. Analytic studies of colloid transport in fractured porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1989-11-01

    We analyze the interactive migration of radioactive colloids and solute in fractured rock. Two possible interactions between radionuclides as colloids and as solute are considered: solute sorption on nonradioactive colloids to form pseudocolloids, and dissolution of radioactive colloids. Previous studies have discussed the formation and transport of colloids in porous media, including removal of colloids by filtration and sedimentation. Colloids can migrate faster than solute because of weaker sorption on stationary solids and because of hydrochromatography of colloid particles in flow channels. However, the migration of colloids and pseudocolloids can be retarded by the interaction of colloids with solute, and the migration of solute in local equilibrium with colloids can be more rapid than if colloids were not present. Here we present a new quantative analysis to predict the interactive migration of colloids and solute in porous and fractured media. 4 figs.

  2. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, H. C.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of an effective short range, high density computer transportation system for intraurban systems is presented. The seven county Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area, was chosen as the scenario for the analysis. The study consisted of an analysis and forecast of the Detroit market through 1985, a parametric analysis of appropriate short haul aircraft concepts and associated ground systems, and a preliminary overall economic analysis of a simplified total system designed to evaluate the candidate vehicles and select the most promising VTOL and STOL aircraft. Data are also included on the impact of advanced technology on the system, the sensitivity of mission performance to changes in aircraft characteristics and system operations, and identification of key problem areas that may be improved by additional research. The approach, logic, and computer models used are adaptable to other intraurban or interurban areas.

  3. Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Nicholas G.; Minnich, Austin J.

    2016-01-04

    Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials.

  4. Reducing the Genetic Redundancy of Arabidopsis PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 Transporters to Study Phosphate Uptake and Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Amal; David, Pascale; Arrighi, Jean-François; Chiarenza, Serge; Thibaud, Marie-Christine; Nussaume, Laurent; Marin, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) absorbs inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the soil through an active transport process mediated by the nine members of the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1) family. These proteins share a high level of similarity (greater than 61%), with overlapping expression patterns. The resulting genetic and functional redundancy prevents the analysis of their specific roles. To overcome this difficulty, our approach combined several mutations with gene silencing to inactivate multiple members of the PHT1 family, including a cluster of genes localized on chromosome 5 (PHT1;1, PHT1;2, and PHT1;3). Physiological analyses of these lines established that these three genes, along with PHT1;4, are the main contributors to Pi uptake. Furthermore, PHT1;1 plays an important role in translocation from roots to leaves in high phosphate conditions. These genetic tools also revealed that some PHT1 transporters likely exhibit a dual affinity for phosphate, suggesting that their activity is posttranslationally controlled. These lines display significant phosphate deficiency-related phenotypes (e.g. biomass and yield) due to a massive (80%–96%) reduction in phosphate uptake activities. These defects limited the amount of internal Pi pool, inducing compensatory mechanisms triggered by the systemic Pi starvation response. Such reactions have been uncoupled from PHT1 activity, suggesting that systemic Pi sensing is most probably acting downstream of PHT1. PMID:25670816

  5. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, David Louis

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  6. Remote sensing applications for transportation and traffic engineering studies: A review of the literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epps, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current references were surveyed for the application of remote sensing to traffic and transportation studies. The major problems are presented that concern traffic engineers and transportation managers, and the literature references that discuss remote sensing applications are summarized.

  7. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-12-31

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He{sup 2{plus}} and Fe{sup 24{plus}} transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He{sup 2{plus}} studies. By examining the electron and He{sup 2{plus}} responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed.

  8. Laboratory studies of aeolian sediment transport processes on planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Keld R.; Valance, Alexandre; Merrison, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    We review selected experimental saltation studies performed in laboratory wind tunnels and collision experiments performed in (splash-) laboratory facilities that allow detailed observations between impinging particles on a stationary bed. We also discuss progress in understanding aeolian transport in nonterrestrial environments. Saltation studies in terrestrial wind tunnels can be divided into two groups. The first group comprises studies using a short test bed, typically 1-4 m long, and focuses on the transitional behavior near the upwind roughness discontinuity where saltation starts. The other group focuses on studies using long test beds - typically 6 m or more - where the saturated saltation takes place under equilibrium conditions between wind flow and the underlying rough bed. Splash studies using upscaled model experiments allow collision simulations with large spherical particles to be recorded with a high speed video camera. The findings indicate that the number of ejected particles per impact scales linearly with the impact velocity of the saltating particles. Studies of saturated saltation in several facilities using predominantly Particle Tracking Velocimetry or Laser Doppler Velocimetry indicate that the velocity of the (few) particles having high trajectories increases with increasing friction velocity. However, the speed of the majority of particles that do not reach much higher than Bagnold's focal point is virtually independent of Shields parameter - at least for low or intermediate u*-values. In this case mass flux depends on friction velocity squared and not cubed as originally suggested by Bagnold. Over short beds particle velocity shows stronger dependence on friction velocity and profiles of particle velocity deviate from those obtained over long beds. Measurements using horizontally segmented traps give average saltation jump-lengths near 60-70 mm and appear to be only weakly dependent on friction velocity, which is in agreement with some

  9. A phenomenological study of sediment transport in shallow overland flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion is a highly complicated phenomenon consisting of many component processes. On upland areas, these processes are usually thought of as detachment and transport of soil particles by rainfall and surface flow. One of the most difficult processes to quantify is sediment transport. This proc...

  10. Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh

    2016-04-01

    Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and

  11. Accessible Transportation for All Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2014-09-18

    09/18/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5790-5792) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Transportation Security Acquisition Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Ayotte, Kelly [R-NH

    2013-12-20

    11/17/2014 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 599. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2719, which became Public Law 113-245 on 12/18/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Cosmic ray heliospheric transport study with neutron monitor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Ygbuhay, R. C.; Modzelewska, R.; Dorman, L. I.; Alania, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    Determining transport coefficients for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) propagation in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) poses a fundamental challenge in modeling cosmic ray modulation processes. GCR scattering in the solar wind involves wave-particle interaction, the waves being Alfven waves which propagate along the ambient field (B). Empirical values at 1 AU are determined for the components of the diffusion tensor for GCR propagation in the heliosphere using neutron monitor (NM) data. At high rigidities, particle density gradients and mean free paths at 1 AU in B can only be computed from the solar diurnal anisotropy (SDA) represented by a vector A (components Ar, Aϕ, and Aθ) in a heliospherical polar coordinate system. Long-term changes in SDA components of NMs (with long track record and the median rigidity of response Rm ~ 20 GV) are used to compute yearly values of the transport coefficients for 1963-2013. We confirm the previously reported result that the product of the parallel (to B) mean free path (λ||) and radial density gradient (Gr) computed from NM data exhibits a weak Schwabe cycle (11y) but strong Hale magnetic cycle (22y) dependence. Its value is most depressed in solar activity minima for positive (p) polarity intervals (solar magnetic field in the Northern Hemisphere points outward from the Sun) when GCRs drift from the polar regions toward the helioequatorial plane and out along the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), setting up a symmetric gradient Gθs pointing away from HCS. Gr drives all SDA components and λ|| Gr contributes to the diffusive component (Ad) of the ecliptic plane anisotropy (A). GCR transport is commonly discussed in terms of an isotropic hard sphere scattering (also known as billiard-ball scattering) in the solar wind plasma. We use it with a flat HCS model and the Ahluwalia-Dorman master equations to compute the coefficients α (=λ⊥/λ∥) and ωτ (a measure of turbulence in the solar wind) and transport

  14. Manned Mars System Study (MMSS): Mars transportation and facility study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to design and analyze systems for conducting human missions to Mars and the moon, with special emphasis on the transportation and facility infrastructure. This study was conducted by Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, with an important teaming role by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This work included the studies and separate reports of the FY-1988 and 1989 case studies as well as special analyses and parametric studies.

  15. Manned Mars System Study (MMSS): Mars transportation and facility study. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to design and analyze systems for conducting human missions to Mars and the moon, with special emphasis on the transportation and facility infrastructure. This study was conducted by Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, with an important teaming role by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This work included the studies and separate reports of the FY-1988 and 1989 case studies as well as special analyses and parametric studies.

  16. Proceedings of the Seventeenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 17) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX) is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investors from domestic and international organizations. NAPEX 17 was held on 15 June 1993. The meeting was organized into two technical sessions. The first session was dedicated to slant path propagation studies and experiments. The second session focused on propagation studies for mobile and personal communications. Preceding NAPEX 17, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop was held on 14 June 1993 to review ACTS propagation activities with emphasis on ACTS experiments status and data collection, processing, and exchange.

  17. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  18. A field study on downwind odor transport from swine facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents field data to illustrate the characteristics of downwind odor dispersion. A total of eight swine facilities were studied in this project and power functions were found to be an appropriate description of the pattern of downwind odor transport for both swine buildings and manure storage lagoons and tanks. The coefficients of correlation for the power regressions ranged from 0.75-0.87. It was found that swine buildings have the potential of generating more odor than manure storage facilities such as lagoons and tanks and thus could be the major odor sources causing downwind odor nuisance. Therefore, to maintain the building clean should be highly recommended as swine producers' best management practice. For earthen basins, the odor strength was reduced by 80% at about 250-meter distance from the source. While for the swine building, a 50% of reduction in odor strength was observed at the same distance. The study did not show any advantages of using lagoons over concrete (or steel) manure tanks in terms of reducing downwind odor concentrations. Land application of manure did not cause persistent downwind odor problems.

  19. The 1989 high-speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented for the Douglas Aircraft Company system studies related to high speed civil transports (HSCTs). The system studies were conducted to assess the environmental compatibility of a HSCT at a design Mach number of 3.2. Sonic boom minimization, exterior noise, and engine emissions were assessed together with the effect of a laminar flow control (LFC) technology on vehicle gross weight. The general results indicated that (1) achievement of a 90 PLdB sonic boom loudness level goal at Mach 3.2 may not be practical; (2) the high flow engine cycle concept shows promise of achieving the side line FAR Part 36 noise limit but may not achieve the aircraft range design goal of 6,500 nautical miles; (3) the rich burn/quick quench (RB/QQ) combustor concept shows promise for achieving low EINO(sub x) levels when combined with a premixed pilot stage/advanced technology high power stage duct burner in the P and W variable stream control engine (VSCE); and (4) full chord wing LFC has significant performance and economic advantages relative to the turbulent wing baseline.

  20. The 1990 high-speed civil transport studies. Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the results of the Douglas Aircraft Company system studies related to High-Speed Civil Transports (HSCT's). The tasks were performed under an 18-month extension of NASA Langley Research Center Contract NAS1-18378. The system studies were conducted to assess the emission impact of HSCT's at design Mach numbers ranging from 1.6 to 3.2. In particular, engine cycles were assessed regarding community noise and atmospheric emissions impact, and a HSCT route structure was developed. The general results indicated the following: (1) in the Mach number range 1.6 to 2.5, the development of polymer composite and discontinuous reinforced alumnium materials is essential to ensure a minimum operational weight; (2) the HSCT route structure to minimize supersonic overland can be increased by innovative routing to avoid land masses; (3) at least two engine concepts show promise in achieving sideline stage 3 noise limits; (4) two promising low-NO(x) combustor concepts were identified; (5) the atmospheric emission impact on ozone could be significantly lower for Mach 1.6 operations than for Mach 3.2 operations; and (6) sonic boom minimization concepts are maturing at an encouraging rate.

  1. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chouffani, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  2. Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which mission fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. The results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  3. Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1 extension: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Potential future space programs are analyzed beyond the scope of the current shuttle traffic model to determine their transportation needs and alternative ways of evolving future space transportation systems from the baseline space transportation system (space shuttle and upper stage). Objectives of the entire study are summarized along with results to date.

  4. 23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project development. 450.212 Section 450.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  5. 23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project development. 450.318 Section 450.318 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...

  6. 23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project development. 450.318 Section 450.318 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...

  7. 23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project development. 450.318 Section 450.318 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...

  8. 23 CFR 450.318 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project development. 450.318 Section 450.318 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...

  9. 23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project development. 450.212 Section 450.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  10. 23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project development. 450.212 Section 450.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  11. 23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project development. 450.212 Section 450.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  12. 23 CFR 450.212 - Transportation planning studies and project development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation planning studies and project development. 450.212 Section 450.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  13. Picowatt Resolution Calorimetry for Micro and Nanoscale Energy Transport Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat, Seid H.

    Precise quantification of energy transport is key to obtaining insights into a wide range of phenomena across various disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. This thesis describes technical advancements into heat-flow calorimetry which enable measurement of energy transport at micro and nanoscales with picowatt resolution. I have developed two types of microfabricated calorimeter devices and demonstrated single digit picowatt resolution at room temperature. Both devices incorporate two distinct features; an active area isolated by a thermal conductance (GTh) of less than 1 microW/K and a high resolution thermometer with temperature resolution (DeltaTres) in the micro kelvin regime. These features enable measurements of heat currents (q) with picowatt resolution (q= Th xDeltaTres). In the first device the active area is suspended via silicon nitride beams with excellent thermal isolation (~600 nW/K) and a bimaterial cantilever (BMC) thermometer with temperature resolution of ~6 microK. Taken together this design enabled calorimetric measurements with 4 pW resolution. In the second device, the BMC thermometry technique is replaced by a high-resolution resistance thermometry scheme. A detailed noise analysis of resistance thermometers, confirmed by experimental data, enabled me to correctly predict the resolution of different measurement schemes and propose techniques to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the resolution of resistive thermometers. By incorporating resistance thermometers with temperature resolution of ~30 microK, combined with a thermal isolation of ~150 nW/K, I demonstrated an all-electrical calorimeter device with a resolution of ~ 5 pW. Finally, I used these calorimeters to study Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer (NF-RHT). Using these devices, we studied--for the first time--the effect of film thickness on the NF-RHT between two dielectric surfaces. We showed that even a very thin film (~50 nm) of silicon

  14. Speech Acts across Cultures: Challenges to Communication in a Second Language. Studies on Language Acquisition, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Neu, Joyce, Ed.

    Articles on speech acts and intercultural communication include: "Investigating the Production of Speech Act Sets" (Andrew Cohen); "Non-Native Refusals: A Methodological Perspective" (Noel Houck, Susan M. Gass); "Natural Speech Act Data versus Written Questionnaire Data: How Data Collection Method Affects Speech Act…

  15. Transport and spectroscopic studies of liquid and polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopege, Dharshani Nimali

    Liquid and polymer electrolytes are interesting and important materials to study as they are used in Li rechargeable batteries and other electrochemical devices. It is essential to investigate the fundamental properties of electrolytes such as ionic conductivity, diffusion, and ionic association to enhance battery performance in different battery markets. This dissertation mainly focuses on the temperature-dependent charge and mass transport processes and ionic association of different electrolyte systems. Impedance spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to measure the ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficients of ketone and acetate based liquid electrolytes. In this study, charge and mass transport in non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have been viewed from an entirely different perspective by introducing the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Here, the conductivity and diffusion coefficient are written as an Arrhenius-like expression with a temperature-dependent static dielectric constant dependence in the exponential prefactor. The compensated Arrhenius formalism reported in this dissertation very accurately describes temperature-dependent conductivity data for acetate and ketone-based electrolytes as well as temperature-dependent diffusion data of pure solvents. We found that calculated average activation energies of ketone-based electrolytes are close to each other for both conductivity and diffusion data (in the range 24-26 kJ/mol). Also, this study shows that average activation energies of acetate-based electrolytes are higher than those for the ketone systems (in the range 33-37 kJ/mol). Further, we observed higher dielectric constants and ionic conductivities for both dilute and concentrated ketone solutions with temperature. Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared and Raman) was used to probe intermolecular interactions in both polymer and liquid electrolytes, particularly those which contain lithium

  16. Helium, Iron and Electron Particle Transport and Energy Transport Studies on the TFTR Tokamak

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Synakowski, E. J.; Efthimion, P. C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B. C.; Tang, W. M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Johnson, D .W.; Mansfield, D. K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M. C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kissick, M. W. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Results from helium, iron, and electron transport on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal transport analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the electron channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the electron heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to electron heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal transport is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.

  17. Moisture Transport in Silica Gel Particle Beds: I. Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Mills, A. F.

    1986-08-01

    Diffusion mechanisms of moisture within silica gel particles are investigated. It is found that for microporous silica gel surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism of moisture transport, while for macroporous silica gel both Knudsen and surface diffusion are important.

  18. Transport of electrons in lead oxide studied by CELIV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, O.; Juska, G.; Oelerich, J. O.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Reznik, A.

    2017-01-01

    Although polycrystalline lead oxide (PbO) has a long history of application in optoelectronics and imaging, the transport mechanism for electrons in this material has not yet been clarified. Using the photo-generated charge extraction by linear increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) technique, we provide the temperature- and field-dependences of electron mobility in poly-PbO. It is found that electrons undergo dispersive transport, i.e. their mobility decreases in the course of time. Multiple trapping of electrons from the conduction band into the developed band tail is revealed as the dominant transport mechanism. This differs dramatically from the dispersive transport of holes in the same material, dominated by topological factors and not by energy disorder.

  19. Studies in the demand for short haul air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Gosling, G.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    Demand is analyzed in a short haul air transportation corridor. Emphasis is placed on traveler selection from available routes. Model formulations, estimation techniques, and traffic data handling are included.

  20. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, D. E.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation of three aircraft concepts, deflected slipstream STOL, helicopter VTOL, and fixed wing STOL, is presented. An attempt was made to determine the best concept for the intraurban transportation system. Desirability of the concept was based on ease of maintenance, development timing, reliability, operating costs, and the noise produced. Indications are that the deflected slipstream STOL is best suited for intraurban transportation. Tables and graphs are included.

  1. Spin-Dependent Transport through Chiral Molecules Studied by Spin-Dependent Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Fontanesi, Claudio; Waldeck, David H; Naaman, Ron

    2016-11-15

    Molecular spintronics (spin + electronics), which aims to exploit both the spin degree of freedom and the electron charge in molecular devices, has recently received massive attention. Our recent experiments on molecular spintronics employ chiral molecules which have the unexpected property of acting as spin filters, by way of an effect we call "chiral-induced spin selectivity" (CISS). In this Account, we discuss new types of spin-dependent electrochemistry measurements and their use to probe the spin-dependent charge transport properties of nonmagnetic chiral conductive polymers and biomolecules, such as oligopeptides, L/D cysteine, cytochrome c, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid structures. Spin-dependent electrochemical measurements were carried out by employing ferromagnetic electrodes modified with chiral molecules used as the working electrode. Redox probes were used either in solution or when directly attached to the ferromagnetic electrodes. During the electrochemical measurements, the ferromagnetic electrode was magnetized either with its magnetic moment pointing "UP" or "DOWN" using a permanent magnet (H = 0.5 T), placed underneath the chemically modified ferromagnetic electrodes. The spin polarization of the current was found to be in the range of 5-30%, even in the case of small chiral molecules. Chiral films of the l- and d-cysteine tethered with a redox-active dye, toludin blue O, show spin polarizarion that depends on the chirality. Because the nickel electrodes are susceptible to corrosion, we explored the effect of coating them with a thin gold overlayer. The effect of the gold layer on the spin polarization of the electrons ejected from the electrode was investigated. In addition, the role of the structure of the protein on the spin selective transport was also studied as a function of bias voltage and the effect of protein denaturation was revealed. In addition to "dark" measurements, we also describe

  2. Spin-Dependent Transport through Chiral Molecules Studied by Spin-Dependent Electrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Molecular spintronics (spin + electronics), which aims to exploit both the spin degree of freedom and the electron charge in molecular devices, has recently received massive attention. Our recent experiments on molecular spintronics employ chiral molecules which have the unexpected property of acting as spin filters, by way of an effect we call “chiral-induced spin selectivity” (CISS). In this Account, we discuss new types of spin-dependent electrochemistry measurements and their use to probe the spin-dependent charge transport properties of nonmagnetic chiral conductive polymers and biomolecules, such as oligopeptides, L/D cysteine, cytochrome c, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and oligopeptide-CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid structures. Spin-dependent electrochemical measurements were carried out by employing ferromagnetic electrodes modified with chiral molecules used as the working electrode. Redox probes were used either in solution or when directly attached to the ferromagnetic electrodes. During the electrochemical measurements, the ferromagnetic electrode was magnetized either with its magnetic moment pointing “UP” or “DOWN” using a permanent magnet (H = 0.5 T), placed underneath the chemically modified ferromagnetic electrodes. The spin polarization of the current was found to be in the range of 5–30%, even in the case of small chiral molecules. Chiral films of the l- and d-cysteine tethered with a redox-active dye, toludin blue O, show spin polarizarion that depends on the chirality. Because the nickel electrodes are susceptible to corrosion, we explored the effect of coating them with a thin gold overlayer. The effect of the gold layer on the spin polarization of the electrons ejected from the electrode was investigated. In addition, the role of the structure of the protein on the spin selective transport was also studied as a function of bias voltage and the effect of protein denaturation was revealed. In addition to

  3. Whirl Flutter Studies for a SSTOL Transport Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Hoffman, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    A proposed new class of aircraft - the Advanced Theater Transport (ATT) will combine strategic range and high payload with 'Super-STOL' (short take-off and landing) capability. It is also proposed to modify a YC-15 into a technology demonstrator with a 20-deg tilt wing; four, eight-bladed propellers; cross-shafted gearboxes and V-22 engines. These constitute a unique combination of design features that potentially affect performance, loads and whirl-mode stability (whirl flutter). NASA Ames Research Center is working with Boeing and Hamilton Sundstrand on technology challenges presented by the concept; the purpose of NASA involvement is to establish requirements for the demonstrator and for early design guidance, with emphasis on whirl flutter. CAMRAD II is being used to study the effects of various design features on whirl flutter, with special attention to areas where such features differ from existing aircraft, notably tiltrotors. Although the stability margins appear to be more than adequate, the concept requires significantly different analytical methods, principally including far more blade modes, than typically used for tiltrotors.

  4. Autoradiographic study of serotonin transporter during memory formation.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Ruth; Rocha, Luisa; Castillo, Carlos; Meneses, Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) has been associated with drugs of abuse like d-methamphetamine (METH). METH is well known to produce effects on the monoamine systems but it is unclear how METH affects SERT and memory. Here the effects of METH and the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) on autoshaping and novel object recognition (NOR) were investigated. Notably, both memory tasks recruit different behavioral, neural and cognitive demand. In autoshaping task a dose-response curve for METH was determined. METH (1.0mg/kg) impaired short-term memory (STM; lasting less of 90min) in NOR and impaired both STM and long-term memory (LTM; lasting 24 and 48h) in autoshaping, indicating that METH had long-lasting effects in the latter task. A comparative autoradiography study of the relationship between the binding pattern of SERT in autoshaping new untrained vs. trained treated (METH, FLX, or both) animals was made. Considering that hemispheric dominance is important for LTM, hence right vs. left hemisphere of the brain was compared. Results showed that trained animals decreased cortical SERT binding relative to untrained ones. In untrained and trained treated animals with the amnesic dose (1.0mg/kg) of METH SERT binding in several areas including hippocampus and cortex decreased, more remarkably in the trained animals. In contrast, FLX improved memory, increased SERT binding, prevented the METH amnesic effect and re-established the SERT binding. In general, memory and amnesia seemed to make SERT more vulnerable to drugs effects.

  5. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  6. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  7. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  8. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Wing planform study and final configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Wing Planform Study and Final Configuration Selection Task of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program is documented. Application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span resulted in significant improvements over the Conventional Baseline Configuration (Baseline) and the Initial ACT Configuration previously established. The configurations use the same levels of technology, takeoff gross weight, and payload as the Baseline. The Final ACT Configuration (Model 768-107) incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 44% reduction in horizontal tail size), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle-of-attack limiter, and wing-load alleviation. Flutter-mode control was not beneficial for this configuration. This resulted in an 890 kg (1960 lb) reduction in airplane takeoff gross weight and a 9.8% improvement in cruise lift/drag. At the Baseline mission range (3589 km 1938 nmi), this amounts to 10% block-fuel reduction. Results of this task strongly indicate that the IAAC Project should proceed with the Final ACT evaluation, and begin the required control system development and test.

  9. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

  10. Balancing Act: A Phenomenological Study of Female Adult Learners Who Successfully Persisted in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jeff; Nelson, Barbara Mullins

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted utilizing Cross' (1981) barriers to adult learning as a framework to better understand how adults successfully complete their graduate studies. Participants in the study were solicited via Facebook and LinkedIn. Three female adult learners who persisted in their graduate studies while balancing demands outside academics…

  11. Simulation studies of circular muscle contraction, longitudinal muscle shortening, and their coordination in esophageal transport.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-08-15

    On the basis of a fully coupled active musculomechanical model for esophageal transport, we aimed to find the roles of circular muscle (CM) contraction and longitudinal muscle (LM) shortening in esophageal transport, and the influence of their coordination. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, bolus transport with only CM contraction, only LM shortening, or both was simulated. Overall features and detailed information on pressure and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of mucosal and the two muscle layers were analyzed. In the second group, bolus transport with varying delay in CM contraction or LM shortening was simulated. The effect of delay on esophageal transport was studied. For cases showing abnormal transport, pressure and CSA were further analyzed. CM contraction by itself was sufficient to transport bolus, but LM shortening by itself was not. CM contraction decreased the CSA and the radius of the muscle layer locally, but LM shortening increased the CSA. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening led to overlapping of muscle CSA and pressure peaks. Advancing LM shortening adversely influenced bolus transport, whereas lagging LM shortening was irrelevant to bolus transport. In conclusion, CM contraction generates high squeezing pressure, which plays a primary role in esophageal transport. LM shortening increases muscle CSA, which helps to strengthen CM contraction. Advancing LM shortening decreases esophageal distensibility in the bolus region. Lagging LM shortening no longer helps esophageal transport. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening seems to be most effective for esophageal transport.

  12. Simulation studies of circular muscle contraction, longitudinal muscle shortening, and their coordination in esophageal transport

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a fully coupled active musculomechanical model for esophageal transport, we aimed to find the roles of circular muscle (CM) contraction and longitudinal muscle (LM) shortening in esophageal transport, and the influence of their coordination. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, bolus transport with only CM contraction, only LM shortening, or both was simulated. Overall features and detailed information on pressure and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of mucosal and the two muscle layers were analyzed. In the second group, bolus transport with varying delay in CM contraction or LM shortening was simulated. The effect of delay on esophageal transport was studied. For cases showing abnormal transport, pressure and CSA were further analyzed. CM contraction by itself was sufficient to transport bolus, but LM shortening by itself was not. CM contraction decreased the CSA and the radius of the muscle layer locally, but LM shortening increased the CSA. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening led to overlapping of muscle CSA and pressure peaks. Advancing LM shortening adversely influenced bolus transport, whereas lagging LM shortening was irrelevant to bolus transport. In conclusion, CM contraction generates high squeezing pressure, which plays a primary role in esophageal transport. LM shortening increases muscle CSA, which helps to strengthen CM contraction. Advancing LM shortening decreases esophageal distensibility in the bolus region. Lagging LM shortening no longer helps esophageal transport. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening seems to be most effective for esophageal transport. PMID:26113296

  13. Pharmacokinetic study of an injectable long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate in calves.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Estrada, D; Gracia-Mora, J; Sumano, H

    2008-06-01

    Doxycycline hyclate (DOX-h) can be regarded as a time-dependant antibacterial. Hence, a parenteral long-acting formulation may be regarded as more pharmacologically sound. A poloxamer-based matrix was used to produce a long-acting injectable preparation (DOX-h-LA) and its serum concentrations vs. time profile investigated after its s.c. injection to calves. Serum concentrations profiles for such a prepartion were compared to the corresponding profiles obtained with an aqueous formulation of DOX-h injected either i.m. or i.v. in 10 calves in a crossover study at dose of 10mg/kg, with washout periods. DOX-h-LA showed the greatest values for bioavailability (602%); maximum serum concentration (C(max)) value was 1.99microg/mL with a time to reach C(max) (T(max)) of 25h and an elimination half-life of 40.81h. Considering minimum effective serum concentration of 0.5microg/mL a dose-interval of 80h can be achieved for DOX-h-LA, and only 9.7h and 17h after the i.v. or i.m. administration of DOX-h, respectively.

  14. Studies of vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad for the photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-01-01

    In this pre-clinical study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide) is investigated as an alternative treatment modality for the ablation of prostate cancer. Canine prostate was used as the animal model. PDT was performed by interstitially irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the IV infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug dose, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on PDT efficacy were evaluated. The prostates and adjacent tissues were harvested at one-week post PDT and subjected to histopathological examination. The dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Urinalysis showed trace blood. Histological examination showed minimal damage to the prostatic urethra. These indicated that the urethra was well preserved. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis with a clear demarcation. Maximum lesion volume of ~3 cm3 could be achieved with a single 1-cm diffuser fiber at a dose level of 1 mg/kg and 200 J/cm, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. PDT induced lesion could reach the capsule layers but adjacent tissues were well preserved. The novel photosensitizer is a vascular drug and cleared rapidly from the circulation. Light irradiation can be performed during drug infusion thereby eliminating waiting time. The novel vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad-mediated PDT could provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  15. Economic deregulation and transport safety: a synthesis of evidence from evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of evidence from studies that have evaluated the impacts of economic deregulation on transport safety. Most of these studies refer to aviation or road transport. Very few studies deal with deregulation of rail transport. There are no studies of maritime transport, which has never been regulated the same way as other modes of transport. The review includes studies that have attempted to quantify the impacts of transport deregulation on transport safety. Each study contains one or more estimates of the effect on transport safety of deregulation. Summary estimates of effect have been derived from the individual estimates of effect by means of meta-analysis. Airline deregulation, which has only been evaluated in the United States, does not appear to influence the safety of air travel. Deregulation of road transport has been evaluated in several countries. The summary estimate of effect indicates that no statistically significant changes in road safety have occurred as a result of deregulation. Deregulation of rail transport has only been evaluated in Great Britain and the United States. The experience so far suggests that deregulation of railways is associated with improved rail safety. This association does, however, not necessarily imply a causal relationship.

  16. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Muller, Erik

    2015-01-05

    The development of the Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) has produced significant results under our previous HEP funded efforts both on the fabrication of working devices and the understanding of the underlying physics governing its performance. The results presented here substantiate the use of diamond as both a secondary electron amplifier for high-brightness, high-average-current electron sources and as a photon and particle detector in harsh radiation environments. Very high average current densities (>10A/cm2) have been transported through diamond material. The transport has been measured as a function of incident photon energy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. Measurements of the charge transport for photon energies near the carbon K-edge (290 eV for sp3 bonded carbon) have provided insight into carrier loss due to diffusion; modeling of this aspect of charge transport is underway. The response of diamond to nanosecond x-ray pulses has been measured; in this regime the charge transport is as expected. Electron emission from hydrogenated diamond has been measured using both electron and x-ray generated carriers; a gain of 178 has been observed for electron-generated carriers. The energy spectrum of the emitted electrons has been measured, providing insight into the electron affinity and ultimately the thermal emittance. The origin of charge trapping in diamond has been investigated for both bulk and surface trapping

  17. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He[sup 2[plus

  18. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Moore, Thomas J.; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary tests were conducted to determine if interstitial element transport through a circulating helium working fluid was a potential problem in Brayton and Stirling space power systems. Test specimens exposed to a thermal gradient for up to 3000-hr included Nb-1%Zr, a Sm-Co alloy (referred to as SmCo in this paper), Hiperco 50 steel, and alumina to simulate various engine components of the Brayton and Stirling systems. Results indicate that helium transport of interstitial contaminants can be minimized over a 7-yr life with a monometallic Nb-1%Zr design. Exposure with other materials indicated a potential for interstitial contaminant transport. Determination of contamination kinetics and the effects on structural integrity will require additional testing.

  19. Test particle study of ion transport in drift type turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.

    2013-12-15

    Ion transport regimes in drift type turbulence are determined in the frame of a realistic model for the turbulence spectrum based on numerical simulations. The model includes the drift of the potential with the effective diamagnetic velocity, turbulence anisotropy, and dominant waves. The effects of the zonal flow modes are also analyzed. A semi-analytical method that is able to describe trajectory stochastic trapping or eddying is used for obtaining the transport coefficients as function of the parameters of the turbulence. Analytical approximations of the transport coefficients are derived from the results. They show the transition from Bohm to gyro-Bohm scaling as plasma size increases in very good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  20. The manned transportation system study - Defining human pathways into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Nick; Geyer, Mark S.; Gaunce, Michael T.; Anson, H. W.; Bienhoff, D. G.; Carey, D. A.; Emmett, B. R.; Mccandless, B.; Wetzel, E. D.

    1992-01-01

    Substantiating data developed by a NASA-industry team (NIT) for subsequent NASA decisions on the 'right' set of manned transportation elements needed for human access to space are discussed. Attention is given to the framework for detailed definition of these manned transportation elements. Identifying and defining architecture evaluation criteria, i.e., attributes, specified the amount and type of data needed for each concept under consideration. Several architectures, each beginning with today's transportation systems, were defined using representative systems to explore future options and address specific questions currently being debated. The present solutions emphasize affordability, safety, routineness, and reliability. Key issues associated with current business practices were challenged and the impact associated with these practices quantified.

  1. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: FY 2002 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2003-01-02

    This work reported here is part of the U. S. Department of Energy’s Science and Technology Initiative to develop improved conceptual models of flow and transport in the vadose zone, particularly for the Hanford Site, Washington. The National Academy of Sciences has identified significant knowledge gaps in conceptual model development as one reason for discovery of subsurface contamination in unexpected places. Inadequate conceptualizations limits, not only the understanding of long-term fate and transport, but also the selection and design of remediation technologies. Current conceptual models are limited partly because they do not account for the random heterogeneity that occurs under the extremes of very nonlinear flow behavior typical of the Hanford vadose zone. A major improvement in conceptual modeling of the Hanford vadose zone includes a better understanding and description of soil anisotropy, a property that appears to control much of the subsurface flow and transport in layered sediments at the Hanford Site.

  2. Study of electronic transport in gamma ray exposed nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlawat, Devender Chauhan, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A sharp decline in the I–V characteristics of Cu (and Cd) nanowires was experimentally observed after the gamma ray exposure of nanowires. Irradiation induced transformations in the granular properties and the resonance state of electron–phonon coupling beyond a particular value of external field may be accountable for observed shape of I–V characteristics in gamma ray exposed nanowires. - Highlights: • Cu and Cd nanowires were synthesized by technique of electrodeposition in templates. • The nanowires were exposed to different doses of gamma ray photons. • A sharp decline in the current in I–V characteristics (IVC) was observed. • Structural deviation in terms of granular orientations was also analysed. • The electron–phonon coupling may be responsible for observed sharp decline in IVC. - Abstract: One dimensional nanostructures provide the most restricted and narrow channel for the transport of charge carriers and therefore 1D structures preserve their significance from the viewpoint of electronic devices. The net radiation effect on nanomaterials is expected to be more (due to their increased reactivity and lesser bulk volume) than their bulk counterparts. Radiation often modifies the structure and simultaneously the other physical properties of materials. In this manner, the irradiation phenomenon could be counted as a strong criterion to induce changes in the structural and electrical properties of nanowires. We have studied the effect of gamma rays on the electronic flow through Cu and Cd nanowires by plotting their I–V characteristics (IVC). The IVC of gamma ray exposed nanowires was found to be a combination of the linear and nonlinear regions and a decreasing pattern in the electrical conductivity (calculated from the linear portion of IVC) was observed as we increased the dose of gamma rays.

  3. Tanker navigation safety standards: Tanker navigation safety research baseline: A study required by section 4111(b)(9) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 directed the Secretary of Transportation to review and incorporate the results of past studies, including studies by the Coast Guard and Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). This literature search and review focuses on materials pertinent to determining or evaluating current and/or `best` practices, and not on the adequacy of current statutes or regulations. In addition, it is not the intention of the report to assess best practices (e.g., suggest the appropriate crew sizes or what navigation equipment should be required on tankers), but to establish the baseline for future study of best practices. The report does not provide answers to new analytical quations, but presents the status of research so that questions addressed previoulsy will not be duplicated by future studies.

  4. Proceedings of the Fourteenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 14) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX), supported by the NASA Propagation Program, is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investigators from domestic and international organizations. NAPEX XIV was held on May 11, 1990, at the Balcones Research Centers, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. The meeting was organized into two technical sessions: Satellite (ACTS) and the Olympus Spacecraft, while the second focused on the fixed and mobile satellite propagation studies and experiments. Following NAPEX XIV, the ACTS Miniworkshop was held at the Hotel Driskill, Austin, Texas, on May 12, 1990, to review ACTS propagation activities since the First ACTS Propagation Studies Workshop was held in Santa Monica, California, on November 28 and 29, 1989.

  5. Proceedings of the Fifteenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 15) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX), supported by the NASA Propagation Program, is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investigators from domestic and international organizations. The meeting was organized into three technical sessions. The first session was dedicated to Olympus and ACTS studies and experiments, the second session was focused on the propagation studies and measurements, and the third session covered computer-based propagation model development. In total, sixteen technical papers and some informal contributions were presented. Following NAPEX 15, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) miniworkshop was held on 29 Jun. 1991, to review ACTS propagation activities, with emphasis on ACTS hardware development and experiment planning. Five papers were presented.

  6. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the Option I period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company - Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) provided support to both the Planetary Surface Systems (PSS) Office at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center and to the Flight and Ground Systems Projects Office (Payload Projects Management) at the Kennedy Space Center. The primary objective of the Option I phase of the study was to assist the above NASA centers in developing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts. MDSSC-KSC conducted three analyses which provided launch and landing detail to the proposed exploration concepts. One analysis, the Lunar Ejecta Assessment, was conducted to determine the effects of launch and landing a vehicle in a dusty environment. A second analysis, the Thermal/Micrometeoroid Protection Trade Study, was refined to determine the impacts that Reference Architecture Option 5A would have on thermal/micrometeoroid protection approaches. The third analysis, the Centaur Prelaunch Procedure Analysis, used a Centaur prelaunch test and checkout flow to identify key considerations that would be important if a Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) was to use an expander cycle liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. Several 'quick look' assessments were also conducted. One quick look assessment, the Storable Propellant Quick Look Assessment, was conducted to identify design considerations that should be made if storable propellants were to be used instead of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The LEV Servicer Maintenance Analysis provided an early look at the effort required to maintain an LEV Servicer on the lunar surface. Also, support was provided to the PSS Logistics Manager to develop initial LEV Servicer cost inputs. Consideration was given to the advanced development that must be provided to accomplish a lunar and/or Mars mission. MDSS-KSC also provided support to both MASE

  7. Site study plan for Transportation, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This site study plan describes transportation field studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. The studies are needed to identify and assess potential project impacts to transportation infrastructure and systems in the project vicinity and along potential transportation routes to the site across the State of Texas. The studies are also needed to locate and design project transportation facilities, and to evaluate and design impact mitigation. After identifying the transportation information requirements needed to comply with Federal, State, and local regulations and repository program requirements, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs for the characterization of site vicinity rail corridors and highway corridors, characterization of alternative statewide transportation routes, monitoring of site characterization effects on transportation, characterization of aircraft overflight patterns and hazardous material transportation patterns, and assessment of emergency response preparedness along alternative statewide transportation routes. 34 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. A case study of chlorine transport and fate following a large accidental release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Robert L.; Hunter, Charles H.; Werth, David W.; Whiteside, Morgana T.; Chen, Kuo-Fu; Mazzola, Carl A.

    2012-12-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.Previous studies of large chlorine releases have concluded that depletion of the resulting vapor cloud through physical and chemical reactions with sunlight, atmospheric constituents, and local surfaces can significantly reduce the areal extent over which the vapor poses a toxicological hazard. For Graniteville, modeling results were the most consistent with available data on human health effects, animal and fish mortality, and vegetation damage when an effective deposition velocity in the lower end of a range of values commonly cited in other studies (1 cm s-1) was applied. This relatively small deposition is attributed to a lack of sunlight, a limited uptake in vegetation due to rapid stomatal damage, and the limited presence of nearby man-made structures. Explicit simulations of chlorine deposition into adjacent surface waters were based on a modified Henry's Law approach and resulted in the transfer of an estimated 21 kg of chlorine into these waters.

  9. NMR studies on Na+ transport in Synechococcus PCC 6311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitschmann, W. H.; Packer, L.

    1992-01-01

    The freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6311 is able to adapt to grow after sudden exposure to salt (NaCl) stress. We have investigated the mechanism of Na+ transport in these cells during adaptation to high salinity. Na+ influx under dark aerobic conditions occurred independently of delta pH or delta psi across the cytoplasmic membrane, ATPase activity, and respiratory electron transport. These findings are consistent with the existence of Na+/monovalent anion cotransport or simultaneous Na+/H+ +anion/OH- exchange. Na+ influx was dependent on Cl-, Br-, NO3-, or NO2-. No Na+ uptake occurred after addition of NaI, NaHCO3, or Na2SO4. Na+ extrusion was absolutely dependent on delta pH and on an ATPase activity and/or on respiratory electron transport. This indicates that Na+ extrusion via Na+/H+ exchange is driven by primary H+ pumps in the cytoplasmic membrane. Cells grown for 4 days in 0.5 m NaCl medium, "salt-grown cells," differ from control cells by a lower maximum velocity of Na+ influx and by lower steady-state ratios of [Na+]in/[Na+]out. These results indicate that cells grown in high-salt medium increase their capacity to extrude Na+. During salt adaptation Na+ extrusion driven by respiratory electron transport increased from about 15 to 50%.

  10. HYDRODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT MODELING STUDY IN A HIGHLY STRATIFIED ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the preliminary results of hydrodynamic and salinity predictions and the implications to an ongoing contaminated sediment transport and fate modeling effort in the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW), Seattle, Washington. The LDW is highly strati-fied when freshwate...

  11. Abnormal mucociliary transport study in a patient with Kartagener syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R E Russell

    2006-04-01

    Mucociliary transport can be assessed by monitoring the clearance rate of inhaled, dried, and crushed technetium-99m labeled sulfur colloid. A case is described of a patient who had a history of recurrent sinusitis, purulent sputum production, and infertility. It was thought he might have Kartagener syndrome, and his mucociliary clearance was shown to be abnormal.

  12. Theoretical Studies of High Field Transport in III-V Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD-A123 947 THEORETICAL STUDIES OF HIGH FIELD TRANSPORT IN Ill-V- 1/2 SENXCONDUCTORS(U) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA COORDINATED SCIENCE LAB H SHICHIJO...CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitleo S. TYPE Of REPORT & PERIOD COVERED THEORETICAL STUDIES OF HIGH FIELD TRANSPORT Technical Report IN IllI-V...Continue on reverse aide It necessary and identitfy by block number) High field transport , 3-5 semicopductors, Monte Carlo simulation 20. ABSTRACT

  13. Fluorescence studies on the nucleotide binding domains of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Sharom, F J

    1997-03-11

    One of the major causes of multidrug resistance in human cancers is expression of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter, which acts as an efflux pump for a diverse range of natural products, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hydrophobic peptides. In the present study, fluorescence techniques were used to probe the nucleotide binding domains (NBD) of P-glycoprotein. The transporter was labeled at two conserved cysteine residues, one within each NBD, using the thiol-reactive fluor 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)-naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (MIANS), and collisional quenching was used to assess solvent accessibility of the bound probe. Acrylamide was a poor quencher, which suggests that MIANS is buried in a relatively inaccessible region of the protein. Iodide ion was a highly effective quencher, whereas Cs+ was not, demonstrating the presence of a positive charge in the region close to the ATP binding site. The fluorescent nucleotide derivative 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP (TNP-ATP) was hydrolysed slowly by P-glycoprotein, with a V(max) approximately 20-fold lower than that for unmodified ATP, and a K(M) of 81 microM. TNP-ATP and TNP-ADP inhibited P-glycoprotein ATPase activity, indicating that they interact with the NBD, whereas TNP-AMP was a very poor inhibitor. When TNP-nucleotides bound to P-glycoprotein, their fluorescence intensity was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. Both TNP-ATP and TNP-ADP bound to P-glycoprotein with substantially higher affinity than ATP, with K(d) values of 43 and 36 microM, respectively. Addition of ATP led to only partial displacement of TNP-ATP. Resonance energy transfer was observed between cysteine-bound MIANS and TNP-ATP/ADP, which indicated that the two fluorescent groups are located close to each other within the catalytic site of P-glycoprotein.

  14. Brownian dynamics study of ion transport in the vestibule of membrane channels.

    PubMed

    Li, S C; Hoyles, M; Kuyucak, S; Chung, S H

    1998-01-01

    Brownian dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the transport of ions in a vestibular geometry, which offers a more realistic shape for membrane channels than cylindrical tubes. Specifically, we consider a torus-shaped channel, for which the analytical solution of Poisson's equation is possible. The system is composed of the toroidal channel, with length and radius of the constricted region of 80 A and 4 A, respectively, and two reservoirs containing 50 sodium ions and 50 chloride ions. The positions of each of these ions executing Brownian motion under the influence of a stochastic force and a systematic electric force are determined at discrete time steps of 50 fs for up to 2.5 ns. All of the systematic forces acting on an ion due to the other ions, an external electric field, fixed charges in the channel protein, and the image charges induced at the water-protein boundary are explicitly included in the calculations. We find that the repulsive dielectric force arising from the induced surface charges plays a dominant role in channel dynamics. It expels an ion from the vestibule when it is deliberately put in it. Even in the presence of an applied electric potential of 100 mV, an ion cannot overcome this repulsive force and permeate the channel. Only when dipoles of a favorable orientation are placed along the sides of the transmembrane segment can an ion traverse the channel under the influence of a membrane potential. When the strength of the dipoles is further increased, an ion becomes detained in a potential well, and the driving force provided by the applied field is not sufficient to drive the ion out of the well. The trajectory of an ion navigating across the channel mostly remains close to the central axis of the pore lumen. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the transport of ions across the membrane.

  15. Glycosylated Sertraline-Loaded Liposomes for Brain Targeting: QbD Study of Formulation Variabilities and Brain Transport.

    PubMed

    Harbi, Ibrahim; Aljaeid, Bader; El-Say, Khalid M; Zidan, Ahmed S

    2016-12-01

    Effectiveness of CNS-acting drugs depends on the localization, targeting, and capacity to be transported through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which can be achieved by designing brain-targeting delivery vectors. Hence, the objective of this study was to screen the formulation and process variables affecting the performance of sertraline (Ser-HCl)-loaded pegylated and glycosylated liposomes. The prepared vectors were characterized for Ser-HCl entrapment, size, surface charge, release behavior, and in vitro transport through the BBB. Furthermore, the compatibility among liposomal components was assessed using SEM, FTIR, and DSC analysis. Through a thorough screening study, enhancement of Ser-HCl entrapment, nanosized liposomes with low skewness, maximized stability, and controlled drug leakage were attained. The solid-state characterization revealed remarkable interaction between Ser-HCl and the charging agent to determine drug entrapment and leakage. Moreover, results of liposomal transport through mouse brain endothelialpolyoma cells demonstrated greater capacity of the proposed glycosylated liposomes to target the cerebellar due to its higher density of GLUT1 and higher glucose utilization. This transport capacity was confirmed by the inhibiting action of both cytochalasin B and phenobarbital. Using C6 glioma cells model, flow cytometry, time-lapse live cell imaging, and in vivo NIR fluorescence imaging demonstrated that optimized glycosylated liposomes can be transported through the BBB by classical endocytosis, as well as by specific transcytosis. In conclusion, the current study proposed a thorough screening of important formulation and process variabilities affecting brain-targeting liposomes for further scale-up processes.

  16. Proceedings of the Twentieth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX XX) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nassar (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) Meeting and associated Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop convene yearly to discuss studies supported by the NASA Propagation Program. Representatives from the satellite communications (satcom)industry, academia, and government with an interest in space-ground radio wave propagation have peer discussion of work in progress, disseminate propagation results, and interact with the satcom industry. NAPEX XX, in Fairbanks, Alaska, June 4-5, 1996, had three sessions: (1) "ACTS Propagation Study: Background, Objectives, and Outcomes," covered results from thirteen station-years of Ka-band experiments; (2) "Propagation Studies for Mobile and Personal Satellite Applications," provided the latest developments in measurement, modeling, and dissemination of propagation phenomena of interest to the mobile, personal, and aeronautical satcom industry; and (3)"Propagation Research Topics," covered a range of topics including space/ground optical propagation experiments, propagation databases, the NASA Propagation Web Site, and revision plans for the NASA propagation effects handbooks. The ACTS Miniworkshop, June 6, 1996, covered ACTS status, engineering support for ACTS propagation terminals, and the ACTS Propagation Data Center. A plenary session made specific recommendations for the future direction of the program.

  17. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  18. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  19. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  20. 49 CFR 215.7 - Prohibited acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited acts. 215.7 Section 215.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.7 Prohibited acts....

  1. PROFILE: Impending Recovery of Kirtland's Warbler: Case Study in the Effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act

    PubMed

    Solomon

    1998-01-01

    / The Endangered Species Act (ESA) has received a large amount of criticism in recent years by conservative landowners and others who believe that it has infringed on property rights. It also has been criticized by those who think it has been costly and ineffective in reaching its goal of preventing extinction and recovering species. Recent evidence, however, shows that the ESA has stabilized or increased the populations of over a third of the listed species. In addition, its chief administrator, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, has been increasingly flexible in implementing the ESA. After reviewing the administrative machinery of the ESA, this paper provides a case study of one endangered species, the Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii). This particular recovery program actually began before passage of the federal ESA, when biologists alerted the Michigan Department of Natural Resources of the perilously low population of this bird, which only breeds under jack pine (Pinus banksiana) trees in Michigan. By the time an ESA Recovery Team was formed for this bird in 1975 (the first such team created under the ESA), a legacy of consensus and interagency cooperation was well established. This has led to successful efforts at habitat management and control of its nest parasite, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). While the Kirtland's warbler is not yet recovered, its population is near an all-time high, and its recovery is possible within the next decade. When (and if) this happens, it will be clearly attributable to this successful model of federalism for natural resources management.KEY WORDS: Endangered species; Kirtland's warbler; Brown-headed cowbird; Jack pine; Endangered Species Act

  2. SLC1 Glutamate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Grewer, Christof; Gameiro, Armanda; Rauen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane transporters for the neurotransmitter glutamate belong to the solute carrier 1 (SLC1) family. They are secondary active transporters, taking up glutamate into the cell against a substantial concentration gradient. The driving force for concentrative uptake is provided by the cotransport of Na+ ions and the countertransport of one K+ in a step independent of the glutamate translocation step. Due to eletrogenicity of transport, the transmembrane potential can also act as a driving force. Glutamate transporters are expressed in many tissues, but are of particular importance in the brain, where they contribute to the termination of excitatory neurotransmission. Glutamate transporters can also run in reverse, resulting in glutamate release from cells. Due to these important physiological functions, glutamate transporter expression and, therefore, the transport rate, are tightly regulated. This review summarizes recent literature on the functional and biophysical properties, structure-function relationships, regulation, physiological significance, and pharmacology of glutamate transporters. Particular emphasis is on the insight from rapid kinetic and electrophysiological studies, transcriptional regulation of transporter expression, and reverse transport and its importance for pathophysiological glutamate release under ischemic conditions. PMID:24240778

  3. [Molecular genetic studies of mitochondrial ornithine transporter deficiency (HHH syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Tsujino, S; Miyamoto, T; Kanazawa, N

    2001-11-01

    Mitochondrial ornithine transporter deficiency has been called HHH syndrome, because this disorder is characterized by three biochemical abnormalities; hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia, and homocitrullinuria, and presents with various neurological symptoms; mental retardation, spastic paraparesis with pyramidal signs, cerebellar ataxia and episodic disturbance of consciousness or coma due to hyperammonemia. We identified four mutations in the mitochondrial ornithine transporter gene (ORNT1) of Japanese patients with HHH syndrome. These include a nonsense mutation (R179X), associated with exon skipping, missense mutations (G27E, P126R), and an insertion of AAC between codons 228 and 229, leading to an insertion of amino acid Asn. Especially, R179X was detected 4 of 7 Japanese patients (8 of 14 alleles), implying that this is a common mutation in Japanese population.

  4. Membrane vesicles: A simplified system for studying auxin transport

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Indoleacetic acid (IAA), the auxin responsible for regulation of growth, is transported polarly in plants. Several different models have been suggested to account for IAA transport by cells and its accumulation by membrane vesicles. One model sees diffusion of IAA driven by a pH gradient. The anion of a lipophilic weak acid like IAA or butyrate accumulates in an alkaline compartment in accord with the size of the pH gradient The accumulation of IAA may be diminished by the permeability of its lipophilic anion. This anion leak may be blocked by NPA. With anion efflux blocked, a gradient of two pH units would support an IAA accumulation of less than 50-fold at equilibrium (2) Another model sees diffusion of IAA in parallel with a saturable symport (IAA[sup [minus

  5. Distribution of pressure-induced fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve. An autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1981-07-01

    The distribution of transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve from eyes subjected to five hours of pressure elevation (perfusion pressure of 35 mm Hg) was studied. Tissue autoradiography and electron microscopy were used to localize regions of the lamina cribrosa with increased transport interruption. A preferential involvement by this transport abnormality involved the superior, temporal, and inferior portions, to the exclusion of the nasal portion, of the optic nerve head. This observation supports the hypothesis that transport interruption seen in this model may be pertinent to the study of clinical glaucomatous neuropathy.

  6. Privacy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  7. Simulation studies of the role of esophageal mucosa in bolus transport.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2017-01-03

    Based on a fully coupled computational model for esophageal transport, we analyzed the role of the mucosa (including the submucosa) in esophageal bolus transport and how bolus transport is affected by mucosal stiffness. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, a base case that represents normal esophageal transport and two hypothetical cases were simulated: (1) esophageal mucosa replaced by muscle and (2) esophagus without mucosa. For the base case, the geometric configuration of the esophageal wall was examined and the mechanical role of mucosa was analyzed. For the hypothetical cases, the pressure field and transport features were examined. In the second group of studies, cases with mucosa of varying stiffness were simulated. Overall transport characteristics were examined, and both pressure and geometry were analyzed. Results show that a compliant mucosa helped accommodate the incoming bolus and lubricate the moving bolus. Bolus transport was marginally achieved without mucosa or with mucosa replaced by muscle. A stiff mucosa greatly impaired bolus transport due to the lowered esophageal distensibility and increased luminal pressure. We conclude that mucosa is essential for normal esophageal transport function. Mechanically stiffened mucosa reduces the distensibility of the esophagus by obstructing luminal opening and bolus transport. Mucosal stiffening may be relevant in diseases characterized by reduced esophageal distensibility, elevated intrabolus pressure, and/or hypertensive muscle contraction such as eosinophilic esophagitis and jackhammer esophagus.

  8. Mission modeling for the Manned Transportation System study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunce, Michael T.; Emmet, Brian R.

    1992-03-01

    To determine the requirements and potential options for the next Manned Transportation System, a 'needs' analysis was performed. The analysis identified the number, mass, type, and destination of manned and unmanned payloads to space. The needs model is based on the NASA Mixed Fleet Manifest and a version of the FY90 Civil Needs Data Base with Space Station Restructure modifications and a 'strawman' DOD mission model.

  9. Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-10

    microstructure obtained form micrographs provided by UA. Anisotropic thermal expansion coefficient and elastic properties are assigned to each boron nitride ...of the HET plasma discharge in which a kinetic treatment is used to model electron transport along magnetic field lines while a 2D macroscopic model...calculate electron mobility. This mobility is then used in a hybrid 2D axial code for thruster discharge (b). Upon reaching steady state, ions exiting the

  10. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2013-03-31

    As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading electron gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the electron emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge transport modeling, and spatial uniformity.

  11. Anomalous transport model study of chiral magnetic effects in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yifeng; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Using an anomalous transport model for massless quarks and antiquarks, we study the effect of a magnetic field on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions. With initial conditions from a blast wave model and assuming that the strong magnetic field produced in noncentral heavy ion collisions can last for a sufficiently long time, we obtain an appreciable electric quadrupole moment in the transverse plane of a heavy ion collision. The electric quadrupole moment subsequently leads to a splitting between the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks. The slope of the charge asymmetry dependence of the elliptic flow difference between positively and negatively charged particles is positive, which is expected from the chiral magnetic wave formed in the produced QGP and observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, only if the Lorentz force acting on the charged particles is neglected and the quark-antiquark scattering is assumed to be dominated by the chirality changing channel.

  12. Numerical Study of Fractional Ensemble Average Transport Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Park, Y.; Gyeong, C. B.; Lee, O.

    2014-12-01

    In this presentation, a newly developed theory is applied to the case of stationary and non-stationary stochastic advective flow field, and a numerical solution method is presented for the resulting fractional Fokker-Planck equation (fFPE), which describes the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of contaminant concentration. The derived fFPE is evaluated for three different form: 1) purely advective form, 2) second-order moment form and 3) second-order cumulant form. The Monte Carlo analysis of the fractional governing equation is then performed in a stochastic flow field, generated by a fractional Brownian motion for the stationary and non-stationary stochastic advection, in order to provide a benchmark for the results obtained from the fFPEs. When compared to the Monte Carlo simulation based PDFs and their ensemble average, the second-order cumulant form gives a good fit in terms of the shape and mode of the PDF of the contaminant concentration. Therefore, it is quite promising that the non-Fickian transport behavior can be modeled by the derived fractional ensemble average transport equations either by means of the long memory in the underlying stochastic flow, or by means of the time-space non-stationarity of the underlying stochastic flow, or by means of the time and space fractional derivatives of the transport equations. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non-point source pollution control research group"

  13. Do Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience Affect Speech Act Production? Analysis of Appropriateness, Accuracy, and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the effect of general proficiency and study-abroad experience in production of speech acts among learners of L2 English. Participants were 25 native speakers of English and 64 Japanese college students of English divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 22) had lower proficiency and no study-abroad experience.…

  14. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 5: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The economic aspects of the STOL aircraft for short-haul air transportation are discussed. The study emphasized the potential market, the preferred operational concepts, the design characteristics, and the economic viability. Three central issues governing economic viability are as follows: (1) operator economics given the market, (2) the required transportation facilities, and (3) the external economic effects of a set of regional STOL transportation systems.

  15. Assessing child welfare under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008: a case study in medicalisation?

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellie; Macvarish, Jan; Sheldon, Sally

    2014-05-01

    This article reports on a study with staff working in assisted conception clinics in the UK about making welfare of the child (WOC) assessments pre-conception. This aspect of infertility treatment is obligatory under section 13(5) of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act, which was amended in 2008. The aim of the study was to find out how this change to the law had impacted on practice. In describing what we found, we also make a contribution to scholarship about the medicalisation of reproduction. S13(5) has often been discussed as a prime example of medicalisation, giving clinics power to grant or deny access to treatment on child welfare grounds, encompassing far more than purely clinical considerations. Yet, while such medicalisation may be entrenched in the law, our findings suggest this power is used with a very light touch. Further, while our interviewees offered near-universal support for the need to consider child welfare, this is now justified by concerns that address not only family form (e.g. the need for a father figure) but also the quality of interactions between parents and children. In this light we suggest that the concept of medicalisation may offer a rather blunt tool for understanding a far more complex reality.

  16. Parameter-Study Of The Thermal Yarkovsky Effect Acting On Neas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Prialnik, D.; Rosenberg, E.; Brosch, N.

    2010-10-01

    We study the relevant parameters for the thermal Yarkovsky effect acting on Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), specifically the rotation period and rotation axis. The study uses a quasi 3-D thermal model to derive the temperature map over the surface of the asteroid, and the thermal thrust is calculated. The model (Prialnik et al. 2004, Rosenberg and Prialnik 2006), uses an implicit scheme to numerically solve the equations that describe the asteroid and its thermal evolution. The results show how the thermal thrust is stronger for fast-rotating asteroids, as heat is emitted from their surface on the evening side, increasing the tangential component of the thermal thrust. Moreover, we show the differences in the thermal thrust between asteroids with different perihelion distances, and how this can explain the observed distribution of asteroids in the inner Solar System on the spin-perihelion plane. Our results suggest that many asteroids within the inner Solar System may have retrograde spins. Acknowledgements: D. Polishook is grateful for an Ilan Ramon doctoral scholarship from the Israeli Ministry of Science.

  17. Theoretical studies on electronic structures and photophysical properties of anthracene derivatives as hole-transporting materials for OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Chitpakdee, Chirawat; Namuangruk, Supawadee; Khongpracha, Pipat; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Tarsang, Ruangchai; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Promarak, Vinich

    2014-05-05

    The electronic structures and photophysical properties of anthracene derivatives as hole-transporting materials (HTM) in OLEDs have been studied by DFT and TD-DFT methods. Thiophene and triphenylamine (TPA) moieties are used as substituents in anthracene based HTMs providing FATn and FAPn compounds (n=1-2), respectively. The calculated electronic levels by B3LYP show proper energy matching of FAPn and hole-injecting layer (HIL), indicating that the hole-transports of the FAPn compounds are better than the FATn compounds. The photophysical properties calculated by TD-B3LYP elucidate that TPA in FAPn compounds acts as electron donating group and induces charge transfer character in the absorptions. Furthermore, the calculated ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA) and reorganization energies also revealed that the extended FAP2 compound has the highest charge-transporting ability among the studied compounds. The calculated results are consistent to our experimental observations showing that FAP2 exhibits bright fluorescence with highest quantum yield in electroluminescent devices. Understanding of these properties is useful for further design of new HTMs of desired properties, such as high efficiency and stability.

  18. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, John C.; Edwards, W. Scott; Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J.; West, Lori D.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  19. Radiation inactivation studies of renal brush border water and urea transport

    SciTech Connect

    Verkman, A.S.; Dix, J.A.; Seifter, J.L.; Skorecki, K.L.; Jung, C.Y.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1985-12-01

    Radiation inactivation was used to determine the nature and molecular weight of water and urea transport pathways in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) isolated from rabbit renal cortex. BBMV were frozen to -50 degrees C, irradiated with 1.5 MeV electrons, thawed, and assayed for transport or enzyme activity. The freezing process had no effect on enzyme or transport kinetics. BBMV alkaline phosphatase activity gave linear ln(activity) vs. radiation dose plots with a target size of 68 +/- 3 kDa, similar to previously reported values. Water and solute transport were measured using the stopped-flow light-scattering technique. The rates of acetamide and osmotic water transport did not depend on radiation dose (0-7 Mrad), suggesting that transport of these substances does not require a protein carrier. In contrast, urea and thiourea transport gave linear ln(activity) vs. dose curves with a target size of 125-150 kDa; 400 mM urea inhibited thiourea flux by -50% at 0 and 4.7 Mrad, showing that radiation does not affect inhibitor binding to surviving transporters. These studies suggest that BBMV urea transport requires a membrane protein, whereas osmotic water transport does not.

  20. Heat transport in Rayleigh-Bénard convection and angular momentum transport in Taylor-Couette flow: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Brauckmann, Hannes J; Eckhardt, Bruno; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-03-13

    Rayleigh-Bénard convection and Taylor-Couette flow are two canonical flows that have many properties in common. We here compare the two flows in detail for parameter values where the Nusselt numbers, i.e. the thermal transport and the angular momentum transport normalized by the corresponding laminar values, coincide. We study turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in air at Rayleigh number Ra=10(7) and Taylor-Couette flow at shear Reynolds number ReS=2×10(4) for two different mean rotation rates but the same Nusselt numbers. For individual pairwise related fields and convective currents, we compare the probability density functions normalized by the corresponding root mean square values and taken at different distances from the wall. We find one rotation number for which there is very good agreement between the mean profiles of the two corresponding quantities temperature and angular momentum. Similarly, there is good agreement between the fluctuations in temperature and velocity components. For the heat and angular momentum currents, there are differences in the fluctuations outside the boundary layers that increase with overall rotation and can be related to differences in the flow structures in the boundary layer and in the bulk. The study extends the similarities between the two flows from global quantities to local quantities and reveals the effects of rotation on the transport.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'.

  1. Heat transport in Rayleigh-Bénard convection and angular momentum transport in Taylor-Couette flow: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauckmann, Hannes J.; Eckhardt, Bruno; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    Rayleigh-Bénard convection and Taylor-Couette flow are two canonical flows that have many properties in common. We here compare the two flows in detail for parameter values where the Nusselt numbers, i.e. the thermal transport and the angular momentum transport normalized by the corresponding laminar values, coincide. We study turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in air at Rayleigh number Ra=107 and Taylor-Couette flow at shear Reynolds number ReS=2×104 for two different mean rotation rates but the same Nusselt numbers. For individual pairwise related fields and convective currents, we compare the probability density functions normalized by the corresponding root mean square values and taken at different distances from the wall. We find one rotation number for which there is very good agreement between the mean profiles of the two corresponding quantities temperature and angular momentum. Similarly, there is good agreement between the fluctuations in temperature and velocity components. For the heat and angular momentum currents, there are differences in the fluctuations outside the boundary layers that increase with overall rotation and can be related to differences in the flow structures in the boundary layer and in the bulk. The study extends the similarities between the two flows from global quantities to local quantities and reveals the effects of rotation on the transport.

  2. Sensitivity study of neutron transport through standard and rebar concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Roussin, R.W.; Lucius, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation is under way at ORNL to (1) develop a data base pertinent to the transport of neutrons through thick concrete shields, (2) use the data base in an energy group boundary selection and collapsing scheme, and (3) develop a simple methodology to access the data base to provide rapid solutions to practical shielding problems. This paper describes work carried out to fulfill objective (1), the work consisting of calculations of the transport of fission neutrons through 1- and 2-m-thick slabs of standard concrete and rebar (steel-reinforced) concrete, together with calculations of the sensitivities of the results to total, absorption, and elastic cross sections. The transport calculations were performed with the one-dimensional discrete ordinates code ANISN in both forward and adjoint modes. The DLC-41C/VITAMIN-C cross-section library (171 neutron, 36 gamma groups) was employed, with a P/sub 3/ cross-section expansion and an S/sub 16/ angular quadrature. In all cases the fission source was assumed to be distributed within the first 1-cm thickness of the slab and the detector was assumed to occupy the last 1-cm thickness of the slab. For the rebar concrete the slab constituents were homogenized, with the horizontal and vertical No. 11 reinforcing steel rods comprising 7.6 vol. % of the slab. The quantity calculated was the absorbed dose rate, and care was taken in the mesh interval selection and source description to ensure agreement between the forward and adjoint results to within 0.02%.

  3. Geostatistical and Stochastic Study of Flow and Transport in the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ming; Pan, Feng; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Jianting

    2007-08-14

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s long-term, permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste. The potential repository would be located in Yucca Mountain’s unsaturated zone (UZ), which acts as a critical natural barrier delaying arrival of radionuclides to the water table. Since radionuclide transport in groundwater can pose serious threats to human health and the environment, it is important to understand how much and how fast water and radionuclides travel through the UZ to groundwater. The UZ system consists of multiple hydrogeologic units whose hydraulic and geochemical properties exhibit systematic and random spatial variation, or heterogeneity, at multiple scales. Predictions of radionuclide transport under such complicated conditions are uncertain, and the uncertainty complicates decision making and risk analysis. This project aims at using geostatistical and stochastic methods to assess uncertainty of unsaturated flow and radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. Focus of this study is parameter uncertainty of hydraulic and transport properties of the UZ. The parametric uncertainty arises since limited parameter measurements are unable to deterministically describe spatial variability of the parameters. In this project, matrix porosity, permeability and sorption coefficient of the reactive tracer (neptunium) of the UZ are treated as random variables. Corresponding propagation of parametric uncertainty is quantitatively measured using mean, variance, 5th and 95th percentiles of simulated state variables (e.g., saturation, capillary pressure, percolation flux, and travel time). These statistics are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method, in which a three-dimensional flow and transport model implemented using the TOUGH2 code is executed with multiple parameter realizations of the random model parameters. The project specifically studies uncertainty of unsaturated

  4. Study of electronic transport properties of doped 8AGNR

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Uma Shankar; Srivastava, Anurag; Verma, U. P.

    2014-04-24

    The electronic and transport properties of 8-armchair graphene nanoribbon (8AGNR) with defect at different sites are investigated by performing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The calculated results show that the 8AGNR are semiconductor. The introduction of 3d transition metals, creates the nondegenerate states in the conduction band, makes 8AGNR metallic. The computed transmission spectrum confirms that AGNR are semiconducting in nature and their band gap remain unchanged and localized states appear when there is vacancy in their structures, and the conductance decreases due to defects compared with the pristine nanoribbon.

  5. Study of methane fuel for subsonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, L. K.; Davis, G. W.; Versaw, E. F.; Cunnington, G. R., Jr.; Daniels, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The cost and performance were defined for commercial transport using liquid methane including its fuel system and the ground facility complex required for the processing and storage of methane. A cost and performance comparison was made with Jet A and hydrogen powered aircraft of the same payload and range capability. Extensive design work was done on cryogenic fuel tanks, insulation systems as well as the fuel system itself. Three candidate fuel tank locations were evaluated, i.e., fuselage tanks, wing tanks or external pylon tanks.

  6. Study of the transport parameters of cloud lightning plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Z. S.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, N.

    2010-11-15

    Three spectra of cloud lightning have been acquired in Tibet (China) using a slitless grating spectrograph. The electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity of the cloud lightning, for the first time, are calculated by applying the transport theory of air plasma. In addition, we investigate the change behaviors of parameters (the temperature, the electron density, the electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity) in one of the cloud lightning channels. The result shows that these parameters decrease slightly along developing direction of the cloud lightning channel. Moreover, they represent similar sudden change behavior in tortuous positions and the branch of the cloud lightning channel.

  7. Electrical transport studies of Ag nanoclusters embedded in glass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magudapathy, P.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nair, K. G. M.; Dhara, S.

    2001-05-01

    Silver nanoclusters embedded in glass matrices have been obtained by the combined use of ion exchange and subsequent ion implantation. XRD and UV-visible spectro-photometric analysis have confirmed the formation of Ag nano-clusters in the ion-irradiated samples. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements of the irradiated samples have been found to follow ρ( T)∝exp√( T0/ T) in the temperature range of 80-280 K. The observed behaviour of ρ( T) is consistent with charge transport due to hopping between isolated, conducting islands. The separation distance between the conducting islands has been found to be a function of fluence.

  8. Preclinical studies of vascular acting photosensitizer bacteriopheophorbide for the treatment of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Huang, Zheng

    2004-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad), is investigated as an alternative modality for the total ablation of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate is used as the animal model. Interstitial PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the IV infused photosensitizer drug. The prostate and its adjacent tissues were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. At one-week post PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. Prostate lesions could be detected by MRI scan as early as 48 h post PDT. Maximum lesion size of 1.5 cm3 and 2.9 cm3 could be achieved at 50 J/cm and 100 J/cm, respectively, with interstitial treatment using a single 1-cm diffuser fiber, suggesting the Tookad-PDT is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. Pharmacokinetic studies show that the photosensitizer is cleared rapidly from the circulation. In conclusion, the novel photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat localized prostate cancer.

  9. The experience of social exclusion in women with a history of suicidal acts: a neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Olié, Emilie; Jollant, Fabrice; Deverdun, Jeremy; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Cyprien, Fabienne; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Mura, Thibaut; Bonafé, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Suicidal behaviors result from a complex interaction between social stressors and individual vulnerability. However, little is known of the specific neural network supporting the sensitivity to social stressors in patients at risk of suicidal acts. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, we investigated brain processing of social rejection in suicide attempters. Thirty-six euthymic women with a history of depression and suicidal behavior were compared to 41 euthymic women with a history of depression but no suicidal attempt, and 28 healthy controls. The Cyberball Game was used as a validated social exclusion paradigm. Relative to healthy controls, both patient groups reported higher levels of social distress related to the task, without significant differences according to suicidal status. Compared to patients without any history of suicide attempt and healthy controls, suicide attempters showed decreased contrast in the left insula and supramarginal gyrus during the exclusion vs. inclusion condition, after controlling for number of depressive episodes, medication, mood disorder type or social phobia. Our study highlights impaired brain response to social exclusion in euthymic female suicide attempters in regions previously implicated in pain tolerance and social cognition. These findings suggest sustained brain dysfunctions related to social perception in suicide attempters.

  10. Using Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle to Enhance Completeness of Suicide Firearm Reporting.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongwen; Young, Shannon; Foss, Karen; Angeloni, Magaly; Norcini, Erica; Viner-Brown, Samara

    2017-02-01

    The Rhode Island Violent Death Reporting System (RIVDRS) collects comprehensive surveillance data on violent deaths to support violence prevention programs in Rhode Island and nationwide. Successful collection of firearm information is critical to understanding gun violence in public health. A recent quality improvement (QI) project was performed to improve gun information collection in the RIVDRS program. Our aim was to increase the presence of firearm model information for 2014 suicides from 50% to 80% by December 31, 2015. We used the 2014 RIVDRS data and the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle for this project. Our efforts achieved a 50% increase in the number of firearm model reporting. If we work more closely with police departments, they may understand the data importance, and be more likely to include the firearm information in their reports. We describe this process and provide lessons learned that can be generalizable to other states' violent death reporting system. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-02.asp].

  11. Predicting the use of public transportation: a case study from Putrajaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Syamsunur, Deprizon; Akhir, Norliza Mohd; Yazid, Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq

    2014-01-01

    Putrajaya is a new federal administrative capital of Malaysia which has been set to achieve a 70% share of all travels by public transport in the city area. However, the current modal split between the public transport and private transport is 15:85. In order to understand travelers' willingness to use the public transport, a conceptual model has been developed to determine the factors that affect them to use the public transport instead of travelling in their own cars. Various variables such as service quality, environmental impact, attitude, and behavior intention were analyzed and tested using structural equation model (SEM). Results indicate that the service quality and attitude are found to have positive effects on the behavioral intention of taking the public transport. Other than this, this study also shows that the service quality and environmental impact have some positive influences on the attitude to using the public transport. However, environmental impact has no significant, positive, and direct effect on behavioral intention. The results of this study demonstrate that the model that was developed is useful in predicting the public transport and it could provide a more complete understanding of behavioral intention towards public transport use.

  12. Predicting the Use of Public Transportation: A Case Study from Putrajaya, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Mohd Akhir, Norliza; Mat Yazid, Muhamad Razuhanafi; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq

    2014-01-01

    Putrajaya is a new federal administrative capital of Malaysia which has been set to achieve a 70% share of all travels by public transport in the city area. However, the current modal split between the public transport and private transport is 15 : 85. In order to understand travelers' willingness to use the public transport, a conceptual model has been developed to determine the factors that affect them to use the public transport instead of travelling in their own cars. Various variables such as service quality, environmental impact, attitude, and behavior intention were analyzed and tested using structural equation model (SEM). Results indicate that the service quality and attitude are found to have positive effects on the behavioral intention of taking the public transport. Other than this, this study also shows that the service quality and environmental impact have some positive influences on the attitude to using the public transport. However, environmental impact has no significant, positive, and direct effect on behavioral intention. The results of this study demonstrate that the model that was developed is useful in predicting the public transport and it could provide a more complete understanding of behavioral intention towards public transport use. PMID:25110744

  13. Crystallographic study of FABP5 as an intracellular endocannabinoid transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Sanson, Benoît; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Liqun; Kaczocha, Martin; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale; Li, Huilin

    2014-02-01

    FABP5 was recently found to intracellularly transport endocannabinoid signaling lipids. The structures of FABP5 complexed with two endocannabinoids and an inhibitor were solved. Human FABP5 was found to dimerize via a domain-swapping mechanism. This work will help in the development of inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels. In addition to binding intracellular fatty acids, fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) have recently been reported to also transport the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid derivatives that function as neurotransmitters and mediate a diverse set of physiological and psychological processes. To understand how the endocannabinoids bind to FABPs, the crystal structures of FABP5 in complex with AEA, 2-AG and the inhibitor BMS-309403 were determined. These ligands are shown to interact primarily with the substrate-binding pocket via hydrophobic interactions as well as a common hydrogen bond to the Tyr131 residue. This work advances our understanding of FABP5–endocannabinoid interactions and may be useful for future efforts in the development of small-molecule inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels.

  14. The Bunny: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, David; Gallagher, Patrick; Grannan, William; Martin, Jennifer; Mastej, Nicole; Wujek, Brett

    1993-01-01

    The Bunny is a single-engine, 100 passenger commercial transport designed to serve the high density short-to-medium range markets in AEROWORLD. The aircraft's design range is 10,000 feet at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. The aircraft features a low wing which incorporates polyhedral for roll control. Yaw and pitch control are accomplished by a rudder and elevator, respectively. Propulsion is provided by a nose-mounted Astro 15 electric motor powered by thirteen 1.2 V, 1000 mah batteries with a Zinger 12-6 propeller. The aircraft is structurally designed with a safety factor of 1.5 and is constructed primarily of balsa, bass, and birch wood. Passenger seating is arranged on two levels, with three-abreast on the lower level and two-abreast on the upper level. The factors which had the most significant influence on the final design were the direct operating cost and the take-off distance. The primary strength of The Bunny is its ability to compete economically with the HB-40. At full capacity and mid-range fuel costs, the cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSK) of this aircraft is 25% less than the HB-40. Another principal strength is its ability to operate in all airports in AEROWORLD. Also, The Bunny's two-piece removable wing is an advantage from a transportability standpoint.

  15. Comparison of SGA oral medications and a long-acting injectable SGA: the PROACTIVE study.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Peter F; Schooler, Nina R; Goff, Donald C; Hsiao, John; Kopelowicz, Alexander; Lauriello, John; Manschreck, Theo; Mendelowitz, Alan J; Miller, Del D; Severe, Joanne B; Wilson, Daniel R; Ames, Donna; Bustillo, Juan; Mintz, Jim; Kane, John M

    2015-03-01

    Until relatively recently, long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations were only available for first-generation antipsychotics and their utilization decreased as use of oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) increased. Although registry-based naturalistic studies show LAIs reduce rehospitalization more than oral medications in clinical practice, this is not seen in recent randomized clinical trials. PROACTIVE (Preventing Relapse Oral Antipsychotics Compared to Injectables Evaluating Efficacy) relapse prevention study incorporated efficacy and effectiveness features. At 8 US academic centers, 305 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to LAI risperidone (LAI-R) or physician's choice oral SGAs. Patients were evaluated during the 30-month study by masked, centralized assessors using 2-way video, and monitored biweekly by on-site clinicians and assessors who knew treatment assignment. Relapse was evaluated by a masked Relapse Monitoring Board. Differences between LAI-R and oral SGA treatment in time to first relapse and hospitalization were not significant. Psychotic symptoms and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score improved more in the LAI-R group. In contrast, the LAI group had higher Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms Alogia scale scores. There were no other between-group differences in symptoms or functional improvement. Despite the advantage for psychotic symptoms, LAI-R did not confer an advantage over oral SGAs for relapse or rehospitalization. Biweekly monitoring, not focusing specifically on patients with demonstrated nonadherence to treatment and greater flexibility in changing medication in the oral treatment arm, may contribute to the inability to detect differences between LAI and oral SGA treatment in clinical trials.

  16. Lab-on-chip methodologies for the study of transport in porous media: energy applications.

    PubMed

    Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Djilali, Ned; Sinton, David

    2008-05-01

    We present a lab-on-chip approach to the study of multiphase transport in porous media. The applicability of microfluidics to biological and chemical analysis has motivated much development in lab-on-chip methodologies. Several of these methodologies are also well suited to the study of transport in porous media. We demonstrate the application of rapid prototyping of microfluidic networks with approximately 5000 channels, controllable wettability, and fluorescence-based analysis to the study of multiphase transport phenomena in porous media. The method is applied to measure the influence of wettability relative to network regularity, and to differentiate initial percolation patterns from active flow paths. Transport phenomena in porous media are of critical importance to many fields and particularly in many energy-related applications including liquid water transport in fuel cells, oil recovery, and CO(2) sequestration.

  17. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  18. Study of short haul high-density V/STOL transportation systems. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Essential supporting data to the short haul transportation study are presented. The specific appendices are arena characteristics, aerospace transportation analysis computer program, economics, model calibration, STOLport siting and services path selection, STOL schedule definition, tabulated California corridor results, and tabulated Midwest arena results.

  19. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  20. A Study of States' Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. NCSER 2011-3001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollmer, Julie; Cronin, Roberta; Brauen, Marsha; Howell, Bethany; Fletcher, Philip; Gonin, Rene; Jenkins, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The Study of Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) examined how states monitored the implementation of IDEA by local special education and early intervention services programs. State monitoring and improvement practices in 2004-05 and 2006-07 were the focus of the study. Prior to the…

  1. Black Metropolis and Mental Life: Beyond the "Burden of "Acting White"" Toward a Third Wave of Critical Racial Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akom, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Signithia Fordham and John Ogbu's classic research on the "burden of "acting White"" to develop a long overdue dialogue between Africana studies and critical white studies. It highlights the dialectical nature of Fordham and Ogbu's philosophy of race and critical race theory by locating the origins of the "burden of…

  2. 77 FR 38611 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Study of Promising Features of Teacher Preparation Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Study of Promising Features of Teacher Preparation Programs AGENCY... Teacher Preparation Programs'' (18-13-29). The National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional... Abt Associates to conduct a rigorous study of the effect on student learning of teachers who...

  3. Validity Decay in STEM and Non-STEM Fields of Study. ACT Working Paper Series. WP-2014-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrick, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if validity coefficients for ACT scores and high school grade point average (HSGPA) decayed or held stable over eight semesters of undergraduate study in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields at civilian four-year institutions, and whether the decay patterns differed from those…

  4. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  5. The Physiological Contribution of Acinetobacter PcaK, a Transport System That Acts upon Protocatechuate, Can Be Masked by the Overlapping Specificity of VanK†

    PubMed Central

    D’Argenio, David A.; Segura, Ana; Coco, Wayne M.; Bünz, Patricia V.; Ornston, L. Nicholas

    1999-01-01

    VanK is the fourth member of the ubiquitous major facilitator superfamily of transport proteins to be identified that, together with PcaK, BenK, and MucK, contributes to aromatic catabolism in Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. VanK and PcaK have overlapping specificity for p-hydroxybenzoate and, most clearly, for protocatechuate: inactivation of both proteins severely impairs growth with protocatechuate, and the activity of either protein alone can mask the phenotype associated with inactivation of its homolog. Furthermore, vanK pcaK double-knockout mutants appear completely unable to grow in liquid culture with the hydroaromatic compound quinate, although such cells on plates convert quinate to protocatechuate, which then accumulates extracellularly and is readily visible as purple staining. This provides genetic evidence that quinate is converted to protocatechuate in the periplasm and is in line with the early argument that quinate catabolism should be physically separated from aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the cytoplasm so as to avoid potential competition for intermediates common to both pathways. Previous studies of aromatic catabolism in Acinetobacter have taken advantage of the ability to select directly strains that contain a spontaneous mutation blocking the β-ketoadipate pathway and preventing the toxic accumulation of carboxymuconate. By using this procedure, strains with a mutation in structural or regulatory genes blocking degradation of vanillate, p-hydroxybenzoate, or protocatechuate were selected. In this study, the overlapping specificity of the VanK and PcaK permeases was exploited to directly select strains with a mutation in either vanK or pcaK. Spontaneous mutations identified in vanK include a hot spot for frameshift mutation due to contraction of a G6 mononucleotide repeat as well as point mutations producing amino acid substitutions useful for analysis of VanK structure and function. Preliminary second-site suppression analysis using

  6. A case study of mobilization and transport of Saharan dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, Douglas L.; Toon, Owen B.; Carlson, Toby N.

    1988-01-01

    The mobilization and transport of the Saharan dust over the West Africa and the tropical Atlantic Ocean during the days of August 23-28, 1974, were investigated using the data set developed by GFDL, together with numerical models of the atmosphere and aerosol. It was found that the mobilization of dust during this period was related to the passage of a shallow easterly wave; mobilization was effected by dry convective mixing of low-level jets associated with the easterly wave. Model simulations show that the aerosol at any one point can be a complicated mixture of particles lifted at different times and different places; bimodal size distributions developed when dust was mobilized within a dust plume that was generated on a previous day.

  7. Application study of transport intensity equation in quantitative phase reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaojun; Cheng, Wei; Wei, Chunjuan; Xue, Liang; Liu, Weijing; Bai, Baodan; Chu, Fenghong

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve detection speed and accuracy of biological cells, a quantitative non-interference optical phase recovery method is proposed in commercial microscope, taking the red blood cells as the classical phase objects. Three bright field micrographs were collected in the experiment. Utilizing the transport intensity equation (TIE), the quantitative phase distributions of red blood cell are gained and agree well with the previous optical phase models. Analysis shows that the resolution of introduced system reaches sub-micron. This method not only quickly gives quantitative phase distribution of cells, but also measures a large number of cells simultaneously. So it is potential in the use of real-time observing and quantitative analyzing of cells in vivo.

  8. Study of transport through an electro responsive polymer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D.; Datta, A.; Contractor, A. Q.

    2015-02-01

    Conducting polymers have been used widely for development of several electronic, sensing devices because of its electro active nature. In the present work porous polycarbonate (PC) support was coated with a thin gold layer. An electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) film was deposited on gold coated PC and characterisation was done by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For measuring the concentration of potassium ion (K+) inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used. Potassium ion transport across PANI membrane at various potential showed the gradual opening of the coiled PANI. In this work an effort has been given to picture the situation in the membrane electrolyte junction on application of potential.

  9. TRANSPORT STUDIES IN DIII-D WITH MODULATED ECH

    SciTech Connect

    DeBOO, J.C.; AUSTIN, M.E.; BRAVENEC, R.V.; KINSEY, J.E; LOHR, J.; LUCE, T.C.; McKEE, G.R.; PETTY, C.C.; PRATER, R.; RHODES, T.L.; STAEBLER, G.M.; ZENG, L.

    2002-07-01

    Experiments have been performed where the T{sub e} profile stiffness was tested at several spatial locations by varying the ECH resonance location. Propagation of the pulses was Fourier analyzed and compared to simulations based on several transport models. The plasma appears to be near the critical T{sub e} gradient for ETG modes and marginally stable to ITG modes. However, the local T{sub e} response to a locally applied heat pulse does not indicate a nonlinear, critical gradient model where T{sub e} is clipped when trying to rise above a critical gradient. The response can be simply understood as the plasma integrating the ECH power, producing an increase in T{sub e} which equilibrates to a new local level with an exponential time constant representing the local confinement time.

  10. Economic study of multipurpose advanced high-speed transport configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A nondimensional economic examination of a parametrically-derived set of supersonic transport aircraft was conducted. The measure of economic value was surcharged relative to subsonic airplane tourist-class yield. Ten airplanes were defined according to size, payload, and speed. The price, range capability, fuel burned, and block time were determined for each configuration, then operating costs and surcharges were calculated. The parameter with the most noticeable influence on nominal surcharge was found to be real (constant dollars) fuel price increase. A change in SST design Mach number from 2.4 to Mach 2.7 showed a very small surcharge advantage (on the order of 1 percent for the faster aircraft). Configuration design compromises required for an airplane to operate overland at supersonic speeds without causing sonic boom annoyance result in severe performance penalties and require high (more than 100 percent) surcharges.

  11. Institutional assessment of the implementation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act: Florida case study. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.F.; Innes, R.C.

    1980-10-15

    This report examines and evaluates the capabilities and effectiveness of the institutions charged with enforcing the Clean Air Act requirements in the state of Florida. Among the sections of the Act addressed are those dealing with Federal grants (Sections 105 and 175), designation and planning (Sections 107 and 110), enforcement issues (Sections 113, 114 and 120), and citizen suits (Section 304). The Title I, Part D requirements for nonattainment areas are reviewed extensively. This evaluation is part of a larger effort to aid the National Commission on Air Quality in assessing the ability of various levels of government to develop, implement, and enforce air quality management strategies in response to the requirements of the Act. Case studies are also underway in Puget Sound, Washington; Houston, Texas; the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Youngstown, Ohio area; and the Eastern Tennessee River Valley of Alabama and Tennessee. A summary report will integrate the findings of these five studies.

  12. Two Years of ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Propagation Studies in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Charles E.; Jaeger, Bradley E.

    1996-01-01

    The Alaska Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) propagation terminal (APT) is located on top of the engineering building on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. The latitude and longitude of the site are 64 degrees 51 minutes, 28 seconds N and 147 degrees, 48 minutes, 59 seconds west. The geometrical elevation angle to ACTS is 7.97 degrees; including a normal atmospheric refractivity, the elevation angle increases to 8.10 degrees. The azimuth angle to ACTS is 129.36 degrees. The terminal is located at 580 feet above mean sea level. The site is located in ITU-R rain zone C and Crane global model zone B1. ACTS transmits vertical polarization beacons at 27.505 and 20.185 GHz. At the APT, the polarization tilt angle is 19.4 degrees rotated CCW with respect to vertical when looking towards the satellite. The beacons are transmitted in a CONUS pattern. The ACTS beacon footprint at the Alaska APT is 9 dB down from the transmission pattern peak at 27.505 GHz and 11 dB down from the pattern peak at 20.185 GHz.

  13. Pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Geng, Peiwu; Luo, Xinhua; Zhou, Genzhi; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Shuanghu; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Ding, Ting

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that macitentan was metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 3A4, and ACT-132577, its pharmacologically active metabolite, is fivefold less potent at blocking ET receptors than macitentan. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of diazepam as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 546.9→200.6 for ACT-132577, and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 10-4000 ng/mL for ACT-132577 in rat plasma. Mean recovery of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 82.6% to 90.6%, matrix effect of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 101.4% to 115.2%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 96.1% to 103.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 after oral and intravenous administration of macitentan. PMID:26770447

  14. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The report concludes that, to effectively deal with our national energy problems, gas rate structures should be designed to reflect the costs which the nation avoids if gas is efficiently used and substituted for oil. Current pipeline and distribution company rate structures generally do not meet this test. Although gas is a substitute for oil in many applications, and conserved gas can reduce oil imports, gas rate structures often fail to convey to consumers the fact that, from a national perspective, gas is as valuable as oil. The provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) take a strong first step in correcting these problems. But, as clearly recognized in both NGPA and PURPA, these provisions need to be supplemented by updating pipeline and distribution company rate designs to address the problems of the 1980's - rather than the problems of the 1950's. In this regard, NGPA mandates incremental pricing, which raises the average price of gas to certain industrial users only. The Department of Energy (DOE) study suggests an alternate approach: pipeline and distribution rate structures that reflect in their tailblocks, for all customer classes, the economic costs of gas usage. Such rates would convey to all users the costs incurred by the nation as a consequence of their decisions to use or conserve gas. Such rate structures should promote the three purposes of PURPA - end-use conservation, efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates - to a greater extent than do traditional accounting cost rate designs, which reflect decisions made in the distant past.

  15. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  16. Water-quality, water-level, and discharge data associated with the Mississippi embayment agricultural chemical-transport study, 2006-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Rose, Claire E.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport and Fate study team (Agricultural Chemicals Team, ACT) of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program began a study in northwestern Mississippi to evaluate the influence of surface-water recharge on the occurrence of agriculturally related nutrients and pesticides in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. The ACT study was composed in the Bogue Phalia Basin, an indicator watershed within the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Mississippi Embayment Study Unit and utilized several small, subbasins within the Bogue Phalia to evaluate surface and groundwater interaction and chemical transport in the Basin. Data collected as part of this ACT study include water-quality data from routine and incident-driven water samples evaluated for major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, physical properties, and commonly used pesticides in the area; discharge, gage height and water-level data for surface-water sites, the shallow alluvial aquifer, and hyporheic zone; additionally, agricultural data and detailed management activities were reported by land managers for farms within two subbasins of the Bogue Phalia Basin—Tommie Bayou at Pace, MS, and an unnamed tributary to Clear Creek near Napanee, MS.

  17. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Integrated Circulation and Sediment Transport Studies. A Project Overview.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J. C.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.; Haas, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) is a cooperative research program funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and managed by the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium. The main objective of the study is to understand the factors and processes that control coastal sediment movement along the northern part of the South Carolina coast while at the same time advance our basic understanding of circulation, wave propagation and sediment transport processes. Earlier geological framework studies carried out by the same program provided detailed data on bathymetry, bottom sediment thickness and grain size distribution. They identified an extensive (10km long, 2km wide) sand body deposit located in the inner shelf that has potential use for beach nourishment. The main objectives are to: (1) identify the role of wind-driven circulation in controlling regional sediment distribution on the SC shelf; (2) examine the hypothesis that the shoal is of the "fair-weather type" with bedload being the dominant sediment transport mode and the tidally-averaged flow being at different directions at the two flanks of the shoal; (3) investigate the possibility that the sediment source for the shoal is derived from the nearshore as the result of the convergence of the longshore sediment transport; and finally, (4) quantify the control that the shoal exerts on the nearshore conditions through changes on the wave energy propagation characteristics. Field measurements and numerical modeling techniques are utilized in this project. Two deployments of oceanographic and sediment transport systems took place for a period of 6 months (October 2003 to April 2004) measuring wind forcing, vertical distribution of currents, stratification, and wave spectral characteristics. Further, bed-flow interactions were measured at two locations, with instrumented tripods equipped with pairs of ADVs for measuring turbulence, PC-ADPs for measuring vertical current profiles

  18. Nanoscale study of perovskite solar cells for efficient charge transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Nirmal

    The effect of temperature, humidity and water on the grain boundary potential and charge transport within the grains of pervoskite films prepared by sequential deposition technique. Grain boundary potential of perovskite films exhibited variation in electrical properties with humidity level, temperature and water concentration in methyl ammonium iodide solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the formation of PbI2 phase in perovskite film with increasing temperature, humidity and adding larger quantity of water in methyl ammonium iodide solution. It is found that optimum amount of lead iodide helps for the passivation of perovskite film. Spatial mapping of surface potential in the perovskite film exhibits higher positive potential at grain boundaries compared to the surface of the grains. Back recombination barrier between TiO2- perovskite increases to 378 meV for perovskite film annealed at 100 ºC for 15 min. Grain boundary potential barrier were found to increase from ˜35 meV to 80 meV for perovskite film exposed to 75% RH level compared to perovskite film kept inside glove box. Optimum amount of water which increases the solar cell performance by increasing the crystallinity of perovskite film was found to be 5% by volume of IPA. Results show strong correlation between temperature, humidity level, electronic grain boundary properties and device performance of perovskite solar cells.

  19. The endoscopic study of human middle ear mucociliary transport.

    PubMed

    Ilomäki, Jaana H; Karhuketo, T; Vasama, J P; Kääriäinen, J; Rautiainen, M

    2016-07-01

    The mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important defence mechanism of the middle ear. The mucociliary transport (MCT) is a part of MCC. We measured the duration of MCT and visualised its routes in middle ears of 31 patients (mean age 45 years; range 7-61 years; SD 11.6) with intact tympanic membrane, with ventilated middle ears and without a history of prolonged otitis media. The transition time of indigo carmine dye from the promontory mucosa to the middle ear orifice of the Eustachian tube (ET) was observed with a rigid 30°, 1.7-mm-diameter tympanoscope. The dye took an average of 7 min (range 4.5-15 min; SD 3.4; median 4.5) to reach the ET orifice in 25 (81 %) patients. Three main ciliary pathways were detected: (1) below and parallel to the tensor tympani muscle; (2) downwards, anterior to the round window, and then ascending to the ET; and (3) straight across the promontory.

  20. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysulfide caulk. The PCB-free panels were coated with the same materials but they were not spiked with PCBs. The dust was weighed and spread on the panels as evenly as possible. The dust on each panel was collected at different times to determine its PCB content. The dust data collected from the PCB panels were used to evaluate the PCB migration from the source to the dust through direct contact, and the data from the PCB-free panels were used to evaluate the sorption of PCBs through the dust/air partition. Settled dust can adsorb PCBs from air. The sorption concentration was dependent on the congener concentration in the air and favored less volatile congeners. When the house dust was in direct contact with a primary source, PCBs migrated into the dust at a much faster rate than the PCB transfer rate due to the dust/air partition. Unlike the dust/air partition, the dust/source partition was not significantly affected by the volatility of the congener. This research is important to decision makers, environmental engineers, and researchers who are concerned with risk assessment and risk management for PCB contamination.

  1. Study on Tetradecane Nanoemulsion for Thermal Energy Transportation and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a novel fluid used for heat storage and transfer. It has the following characteristics: higher apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer ability in the phase-change temperature range as compared to the conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids. In particular, oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are latent heat storage materials that have low melting points, thus offering attractive opportunities for heat transfer enhancement and thermal energy transportation and storage. In this paper, milky white oil-in-water emulsions have been formed using water, Tween 80, Span 80, and tetradecane by low-energy emulsification methods (e.g., the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method). The relations between the component ratios of the emulsions and both the particle diameters and the stability of the resulting emulsions have been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibration viscometry. The results show that the apparent viscosity of the nanoemulsion is lower than that of an emulsion, which was prepared with the same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. Moreover, the surfactant concentration is found to contribute to the stability of the phase change nanoemulsion. Results indicate that the phase change nanoemulsion is a promising material for thermal storage applications.

  2. The Gold Rush: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Amanda; Degiorgio, Chris; Galka, Edmund; Stumm, Albert; Valenta, Lisa; Winter, Tom

    1993-01-01

    The remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) GoldRush was designed to complete the mission of transporting passengers in AeroWorld at a lower cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSPK) than the competition, the HB-40. There were two major factors which were constant considerations in the design process. The cost of manufacturing was the most important. In light of this, the designs were kept as simple as possible while considering trade-offs in performance. For example, the wing was not tapered so that several ribs could be cut at one time. Also of major importance was the takeoff distance. In order to serve all the cities in AeroWorld it was necessary to maintain a takeoff distance requirement of 24 feet. The takeoff distance proved to be the number one force in driving the design process. The Astro 25 engine and 13 inch propellor, a large wing area, and the high lift Wortmann airfoil were all chosen in order to satisfy this objective.

  3. Title I of the Higher Education Act of 1965: A Study of Program Compliance with Congressional Intent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senecal, Robert Joseph

    The study examined the compliance of programs funded under Title I of the Higher Education Act of 1965 with Congressional intent, and explored the nature of the relationships between the measures of compliance and selected organizational characteristics of participating colleges and universities. Eighty-two programs, funded during the fiscal year…

  4. "Ebony's" Civil Rights Focus: A Study of Editorial Policy before and after the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, Tony

    A comprehensive analysis of articles and editorials was performed on "Ebony" magazine editions published two years before and after the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The writings of the publisher were also studied, as were personal interviews with the editors of "Ebony." Editorial content was analyzed with respect to the major…

  5. Do We All Apologize the Same?--An Empirical Study on the Act of Apologizing by Spanish Speakers Learning English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Montserrat

    1992-01-01

    A study examined the production of English apology strategies by Spanish speakers learning English, by analyzing the remedial move in native and non-native social interactions. To restore harmony when an offensive act has been committed, remedial exchanges are performed according to the rules of speaking and the social norms of the speech…

  6. Words from the Heart Speak to the Heart: A Study of Deep Acting, Faking, and Hiding among Child Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond T.; Brotheridge, Celeste M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand, from the child care worker's perspective, how work experience, display rules, and affectivity are related to emotional labor. It also examines the utility of separating surface acting into its two components: the hiding and faking of emotions. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on…

  7. Medical Educators' Social Acts of Explaining Passing Underperformance in Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.; Lewis, Natalie J.; Cleland, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Passing underperformance in students is ubiquitous across health and social care educators and is intimately related to the subsequent welfare of patients: underperforming students may become underperforming practitioners. This paper aims to examine how medical educators construct passing underperformance through an analysis of their social act of…

  8. National Evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA): Summary of the Second-Year Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John E.

    This document summarizes in non-technical terms the preliminary policy-relevant findings of a national evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) Basic and Pilot Programs during the second year of program operations, 1974-75. An attempt is also made to relate the second year results to findings in the first evaluation year, 1973-74. A major…

  9. A Construct Validation Study of the ACT Interest Inventory With High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabry, Julian; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Standard scores on comparable scales of the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory and the ACT Interest Inventory were intercorrelated to test construct validity of the instruments. Significant correlations were found for the comparable scales demonstrating construct validity for male and female high school students (N=91). (Author)

  10. Bioequivalence Study of Two Long-Acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline Following Intramuscular Administration in Bovines.

    PubMed

    Mestorino, Nora; Marchetti, María Laura; Lucas, Mariana Florencia; Modamio, Pilar; Zeinsteger, Pedro; Fernández Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio; Mariño, Eduardo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two commercial long-acting formulations based on oxytetracycline (OTC) hydrochloride between the reference formulation (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) and a test formulation (Cyamicin LA, Fort Dodge Saude Animal). Both formulations were administered in a single intramuscular route at a dose of 20 mg OTC/kg of body weight in clinically healthy bovines. The study was carried out according to a one-period parallel design. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/mL with an accuracy of 101.67% with a coefficient of variation of 13.15%. Analysis of variance and 90% confidence interval tests were used to compare the bioavailability parameters (maximum plasma concentration, C max, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity, AUC0-∞) of both products. In the case of the time to maximum concentration (T max), non-parametric tests based on Wilcoxon's signed rank test were preferred. The comparison of the mean AUC0-∞ values did not reveal any significant differences (311.40 ± 93.05 μg h/mL and 287.71 ± 45.31 μg h/mL, respectively). The results were similar for the T max (3.58 ± 0.90 h versus 3.42 ± 0.51 h). However, when comparing the mean C max some significant differences were found (8.73 ± 3.66 μg/mL and 10.43 ± 3.84 μg/mL, respectively). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of AUC0-∞ and T max values for the reference and test product are within the interval 80-125%, but the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of C max falls outside the proposed interval. It was concluded that C max of test product are not within the 20% of those of the reference, thus suggesting that test OTC is not bioequivalent to the reference formulation.

  11. Bioequivalence Study of Two Long-Acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline Following Intramuscular Administration in Bovines

    PubMed Central

    Mestorino, Nora; Marchetti, María Laura; Lucas, Mariana Florencia; Modamio, Pilar; Zeinsteger, Pedro; Fernández Lastra, Cecilia; Segarra, Ignacio; Mariño, Eduardo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of two commercial long-acting formulations based on oxytetracycline (OTC) hydrochloride between the reference formulation (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) and a test formulation (Cyamicin LA, Fort Dodge Saude Animal). Both formulations were administered in a single intramuscular route at a dose of 20 mg OTC/kg of body weight in clinically healthy bovines. The study was carried out according to a one-period parallel design. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of quantitation was 0.050 μg/mL with an accuracy of 101.67% with a coefficient of variation of 13.15%. Analysis of variance and 90% confidence interval tests were used to compare the bioavailability parameters (maximum plasma concentration, Cmax, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity, AUC0–∞) of both products. In the case of the time to maximum concentration (Tmax), non-parametric tests based on Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were preferred. The comparison of the mean AUC0–∞ values did not reveal any significant differences (311.40 ± 93.05 μg h/mL and 287.71 ± 45.31 μg h/mL, respectively). The results were similar for the Tmax (3.58 ± 0.90 h versus 3.42 ± 0.51 h). However, when comparing the mean Cmax some significant differences were found (8.73 ± 3.66 μg/mL and 10.43 ± 3.84 μg/mL, respectively). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of AUC0–∞ and Tmax values for the reference and test product are within the interval 80–125%, but the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax falls outside the proposed interval. It was concluded that Cmax of test product are not within the 20% of those of the reference, thus suggesting that test OTC is not bioequivalent to the reference formulation. PMID:27446938

  12. Manned Mars System Study (MMSS): Mars transportation and facility infrastructure study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Manned Mars System Study (MMSS) was conducted for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) over the 35 month period between May 15, 1987 and April 30, 1990. During the course of the study, the NASA Office of Exploration (OEXP; Code Z) was created and MSFC was subsequently designated the Transportation Integration Agent (TIA) for support of the OEXP Mission Analysis and Systems Engineering (MASE) team. As a result of this action, modifications to the contract redirected the efforts to be consistent with NASA's overall objectives, including lunar transportation system design. A large number of written submittals were required in order to provide TIA support to MASE. A list summarizing the documents which have been prepared and delivered by Martin Marietta under this contract during the course of this work is presented. In nearly all cases, full sets of view-graphs were also provided to the MSFC COTR, and in several cases magnetic media were provided as well. To incorporate all of these materials (more than 2,000 pages) into the present report would obviously produce an extremely unwieldy and confusing document. Therefore, a summary of key findings are presented in this final report, supplemented by other material produced under this contract but not already available in the widespread literature.

  13. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  14. Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study; Great Lakes Area Industries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Regional Transportation Study is an element of this planning process . The objective of the GL/SLS Regional Transportation Study is to develop an up-to-date...system performance and ability to process future cargo flows Evaluation of the performance and economic feasibility of improvements to increase the...section is organized as follows: Basic steelmaking processes Production centers in the U.S. and Canada The industry in the Great Lakes area. These

  15. Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP trial)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0080 TITLE: Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP trial) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP trial) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...IRB approval regarding changes to the protocol language. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prehospital; Tranexamic acid 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  16. Study on temperature-dependent carrier transport for bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Weilong; Qi, Mei; Li, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yixuan; Ren, Zhaoyu

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the temperature-dependent carrier transport property of the bilayer graphene, graphene films were synthesized on Cu foils by a home-built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with C2H2. Samples regularity, transmittance (T) and layer number were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, transmittance spectra and Raman spectra. Van Der Pauw method was used for resistivity measurements and Hall measurements at different temperatures. The results indicated that the sheet resistance (Rs), carrier density (n), and mobility (μ) were 1096.20 Ω/sq, 0.75×1012 cm-2, and 7579.66 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, respectively. When the temperature increased from 0 °C to 240 °C, carrier density (n) increased from 0.66×1012 cm-2 to 1.55×1012 cm-2, sheet resistance (Rs) decreased from 1215.55 Ω/sq to 560.77 Ω/sq, and mobility (μ) oscillated around a constant value 7773.99 cm2 V-1 s-1. The decrease of the sheet resistance (Rs) indicated that the conductive capability of the bilayer graphene film increased with the temperature. The significant cause of the increase of carrier density (n) was the thermal activation of carriers from defects and unconscious doping states. Because the main influence on the carrier mobility (μ) was the lattice defect scattering and a small amount of impurity scattering, the carrier mobility (μ) was temperature-independent for the bilayer graphene.

  17. CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. I. THE CONSTANT COOLING TIME CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Scott; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: tomsc@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: aaron.boley@gmail.com

    2012-02-10

    We conduct a convergence study of a protostellar disk, subject to a constant global cooling time and susceptible to gravitational instabilities (GIs), at a time when heating and cooling are roughly balanced. Our goal is to determine the gravitational torques produced by GIs, the level to which transport can be represented by a simple {alpha}-disk formulation, and to examine fragmentation criteria. Four simulations are conducted, identical except for the number of azimuthal computational grid points used. A Fourier decomposition of non-axisymmetric density structures in cos (m{phi}), sin (m{phi}) is performed to evaluate the amplitudes A{sub m} of these structures. The A{sub m} , gravitational torques, and the effective Shakura and Sunyaev {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses are determined for each resolution. We find nonzero A{sub m} for all m-values and that A{sub m} summed over all m is essentially independent of resolution. Because the number of measurable m-values is limited to half the number of azimuthal grid points, higher-resolution simulations have a larger fraction of their total amplitude in higher-order structures. These structures act more locally than lower-order structures. Therefore, as the resolution increases the total gravitational stress decreases as well, leading higher-resolution simulations to experience weaker average gravitational torques than lower-resolution simulations. The effective {alpha} also depends upon the magnitude of the stresses, thus {alpha}{sub eff} also decreases with increasing resolution. Our converged {alpha}{sub eff} is consistent with predictions from an analytic local theory for thin disks by Gammie, but only over many dynamic times when averaged over a substantial volume of the disk.

  18. A case study predicting environmental impacts of urban transport planning in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Shao, Li-guo; Xu, Ling; Shang, Jin-cheng

    2009-10-01

    Predicting environmental impacts is essential when performing an environmental assessment on urban transport planning. System dynamics (SD) is usually used to solve complex nonlinear problems. In this study, we utilized system dynamics (SD) to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with urban transport planning in Jilin City, China with respect to the local economy, society, transport, the environment and resources. To accomplish this, we generated simulation models comprising interrelated subsystems designed to utilize changes in the economy, society, road construction, changes in the number of vehicles, the capacity of the road network capacity, nitrogen oxides emission, traffic noise, land used for road construction and fuel consumption associated with traffic to estimate dynamic trends in the environmental impacts associated with Jilin's transport planning. Two simulation scenarios were then analyzed comparatively. The results of this study indicated that implementation of Jilin transport planning would improve the current urban traffic conditions and boost the local economy and development while benefiting the environment in Jilin City. In addition, comparative analysis of the two scenarios provided additional information that can be used to aid in scientific decision-making regarding which aspects of the transport planning to implement in Jilin City. This study demonstrates that our application of the SD method, which is referred to as the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), is feasible for use in urban transport planning.

  19. Children's Protection from Violent Programming Act. Report of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on S. 363. Senate, 105th Congress, 1st Session, Calendar No. 182.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    Senate Bill 363 is designed to protect American children from the harm caused by viewing violence on television. The bill amends the Communications Act of 1934 to require that violent video programming be limited to broadcast after the hours when children are reasonably likely to comprise a substantial portion of the audience, unless it is…

  20. Space transportation nodes assumptions and requirements: Lunar base systems study task 2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Taher Ali; Simonds, Charles H.; Stump, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Transportation Nodes Assumptions and Requirements task was performed as part of the Advanced Space Transportation Support Contract, a NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) study intended to provide planning for a Lunar Base near the year 2000. The original task statement has been revised to satisfy the following queries: (1) What vehicles are to be processed at the transportation node; (2) What is the flow of activities involved in a vehicle passing through the node; and (3) What node support resources are necessary to support a lunar scenario traffic model composed of a mix of vehicles in an active flight schedule. The Lunar Base Systems Study is concentrating on the initial years of the Phase 2 Lunar Base Scenario. The study will develop the first five years of that phase in order to define the transportation and surface systems (including mass, volumes, power requirements, and designs).

  1. Thermodynamic and Transport Studies of TETRAMETHYLTETRASELENAFULVALENE(2) Perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheven, Ulrich Martin

    The organic superconductor (TMTSF)_2 Cl_4 is a quasi one dimensional metal which is unstable to field induced spin density wave formation (FISDW) at temperatures below 5.5K and applied magnetic fields of several Teslas. This thesis describes measurements of heat capacity C_{p }, of (partial S/ partial H)_{T}, magnetization, rho_{xx}, and rho_{xy} in the FISDW state, and measurements of C_{p} in the superconducting state. The magnetocaloric measurements of (partial S/partial H)_{T} establish a phase diagram which is considerably more complicated than predicted by the 'standard model' of the FISDW state, while experimental claims of an arborescent phase diagram are shown to be erroneous. The inter-FISDW transition to the very stable high field phase above H = 9T is associated with irreversible, 'quaky' and reproducible heat release both upon entering and exiting this phase. The heat release depends on the sample, the cooling rate through the anion ordering transition, and the field sweep history. It is interpreted as evidence for pinning of FISDW domain boundaries to lattice defects. Simultaneous measurements of thermodynamic and transport properties show that a novel FISDW phase emerging from an apparently tetracritical point (T = 0.67K, H = 4.6T) in the phase diagram is associated with a distinct hall plateau, contrary to theoretical predictions based on models of coexisting order parameters. The simultaneous measurements establish the coincidence of all FISDW transition signatures, and in particular the coincidence of thermodynamic transitions with changes in the Hall effect, which had been called into question theoretically and experimentally. The anisotropic magnetization of (TMTSF) _2ClO_4 has been measured at temperatures between 0.6 and 7.5K in fields up to 35T. Magnetization oscillations reminiscent of dHvA behavior are observed below a metal-FISDW phase transition occurring at 5.5K between H = 12T and H = 35T. At fields above H ~eq 20T a first order

  2. Review of Transporter-Related Postmarketing Requirement or Postmarketing Commitment Studies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Sun, Bo; Agarwal, Sheetal; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this report are to summarize the content and status of transporter-related postmarketing requirement (PMR)/postmarketing commitment (PMC) studies in new drug applications (NDAs) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and to discuss the reasons for requesting such studies and the impact of PMR/PMC study results on labeling to guide the optimal use of the drugs. Multiple data sources were searched to collect information on transporter-related PMR/PMC studies between January 1999 and May 2015. A total of 40 transporter-related PMR/PMC study requests were issued for 35 NDAs. Among these PMR/PMC studies, 27 requested studies related to P-glycoprotein. As of May 31, 2015, 34 transporter-related PMR/PMC studies (85%) are considered "fulfilled" (per the FDA's PMR/PMC website), and 22 (65%) resulted in labeling updates. The majority of the PMR/PMC studies are for drugs in the therapeutic areas of anti-infectives, oncology, and neurology. The results from PMR/PMC studies are important for dosing optimization and are often included in the updated labeling. Because a significant lag time is anticipated between drug approval and PMR/PMC fulfillment, NDA applicants are encouraged to include transporter-related assessments in clinical drug development programs for drug products.

  3. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  4. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  5. An interpretive study of Yosemite National Park visitors' perspectives toward alternative transportation in Yosemite Valley.

    PubMed

    White, Dave D

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors' experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors' behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  6. Proceedings of the Eighteenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 18) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX), supported by the NASA Propagation Program, is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investigators from domestic and international organizations. Participants included representatives from Canada, the Netherlands, England, and the United States, including researchers from universities, government agencies, and private industry. The meeting was organized into two technical sessions. The first session was dedicated to slant path propagation studies and experiments. The second session focused on propagation studies for mobile, personal, and sound broadcast systems. In total, 14 technical papers and some informal contributions were presented. Preceding NAPEX_17, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop was held to review ACTS propagation activities.

  7. Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl porphyrin acts as a pro-oxidant to inhibit electron transport chain proteins, modulate bioenergetics, and enhance the response to chemotherapy in lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Melba C; Briehl, Margaret M; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Tome, Margaret E

    2015-06-01

    The manganese porphyrin, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP(5+)), acts as a pro-oxidant in the presence of intracellular H2O2. Mitochondria are the most prominent source of intracellular ROS and important regulators of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Due to the increased oxidants near and within the mitochondria, we hypothesized that the mitochondria are a target of the pro-oxidative activity of MnTE-2-PyP(5+) and that we could exploit this effect to enhance the chemotherapeutic response in lymphoma. In this study, we demonstrate that MnTE-2-PyP(5+) modulates the mitochondrial redox environment and sensitizes lymphoma cells to antilymphoma chemotherapeutics. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) increased dexamethasone-induced mitochondrial ROS and oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione pool in lymphoma cells. The combination treatment induced glutathionylation of Complexes I, III, and IV in the electron transport chain, and decreased the activity of Complexes I and III, but not the activity of Complex IV. Treatment with the porphyrin and dexamethasone also decreased cellular ATP levels. Rho(0) malignant T-cells with impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain function were less sensitive to the combination treatment than wild-type cells. These findings suggest that mitochondria are important for the porphyrin's ability to enhance cell death. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) also augmented the effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), an antiglycolytic agent. In combination with 2DG, MnTE-2-PyP(5+) increased protein glutathionylation, decreased ATP levels more than 2DG treatment alone, and enhanced 2DG-induced cell death in primary B-ALL cells. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) did not enhance dexamethasone- or 2DG-induced cell death in normal cells. Our findings suggest that MnTE-2-PyP(5+) has potential as an adjuvant for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  8. Mound-ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP{sup SM} process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks.

  9. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 4: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 4 of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) is presented. This volume is divided into the following sections: (1) transportation systems elements; (2) transportation systems requirements; (3) heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV); (4) LEO-GEO transportation; (5) on-orbit mobility systems; (6) personnel transfer systems; and (7) cost and programmatics. Three appendixes are also provided and they include: horizontal takeoff (single stage to orbit technical summary); HLLV reference vehicle trajectory and trade study data; and electric orbital transfer vehicle sizing.

  10. Trade study: Liquid hydrogen transportation - Kennedy Space Center. [cost and operational effectivenss of shipping methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cryogenic transportation methods for providing liquid hydrogen requirements are examined in support of shuttle transportation system launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the time frames 1982-1991 in terms of cost and operational effectiveness. Transportation methods considered included sixteen different options employing mobile semi-trailer tankers, railcars, barges and combinations of each method. The study concludes that the most effective method of delivering liquid hydrogen from the vendor production facility in New Orleans to Kennedy Space Center includes maximum utilization of existing mobile tankers and railcars supplemented by maximum capacity mobile tankers procured incrementally in accordance with shuttle launch rates actually achieved.

  11. Numerical studies of convective transport associated with crystal growth in mirrogravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.

    1992-01-01

    Information on numerical studies of convective transport associated with crystal growth in microgravity is given in viewgraph form. Inferences drawn from the research are that protein crystals seem to grow at much larger relative supersaturations than small molecule crystals; growth rate is limited by attachment kinetics more than by transport; attachment kinetics are apparently influenced by convective flows, although the mechanism is uncertain; acceleration levels required to achieve D/L growth within Space Station Freedom specifications may not be achievable on manned vehicles; and D/L transport can help minimize incorporation of impurities, but growth cessation cannot be explained.

  12. Experimental study of the role of atomic interactions on quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Henderson, K; Kelkar, H; Gutiérrez-Medina, B; Li, T C; Raizen, M G

    2006-04-21

    We report an experimental study of quantum transport for atoms confined in a periodic potential and compare between thermal and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) initial conditions. We observe ballistic transport for all values of well depth and initial conditions, and the measured expansion velocity for thermal atoms is in excellent agreement with a single-particle model. For weak wells, the expansion of the BEC is also in excellent agreement with single-particle theory, using an effective temperature. We observe a crossover to a new regime for the BEC case as the well depth is increased, indicating the importance of interactions on quantum transport.

  13. Ka-band propagation studies using the ACTS propagation terminal and the CSU-CHILL multiparameter, Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaver, J.; Turk, J.; Bringi, V. N.

    1995-01-01

    An increase in the demand for satellite communications has led to an overcrowding of the current spectrums being used - mainly at C and Ku bands. To alleviate this overcrowding, new technology is being developed to open up the Ka-band for communications use. One of the first experimental communications satellites using this technology is NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). In Sept. 1993, ACTS was deployed into a geostationary orbit near 100 deg W longitude. The ACTS system employs two Ka-band beacons for propagation experiments, one at 20.185 GHz and another at 27.505 GHz. Attenuation due to rain and tropospheric scintillations will adversely affect new technologies proposed for this spectrum. Therefore, before being used commercially, propagation effects at Ka-band must be studied. Colorado State University is one of eight sites across the United States and Canada conducting propagations studies; each site is equipped with the ACTS propagation terminal (APT). With each site located in a different climatic zone, the main objective of the propagation experiment is to obtain monthly and yearly attenuation statistics. Each site also has secondary objectives that are site dependent. At CSU, the CSU-CHILL radar facility is being used to obtain polarimetric radar data along the ACTS propagation path. During the expected two to four year period of the project, it is hoped to study several significant weather events. The S-band radar will be used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates and to initialize propagation models that have been developed, to help classify propagation events measured by the APT. Preliminary attenuation estimates for two attenuation events will be shown here - a bright band case that occurred on 13 May 1994 and a convective case that occurred on 20 Jun. 1994. The computations used to obtain Ka-band attenuation estimates from S-band radar data are detailed. Results from the two events are shown.

  14. Novel fluorescence-based approaches for the study of biogenic amine transporter localization, activity, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Mason, J N; Farmer, H; Tomlinson, I D; Schwartz, J W; Savchenko, V; DeFelice, L J; Rosenthal, S J; Blakely, R D

    2005-04-15

    Pre-synaptic norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) transporters (NET and DAT) terminate catecholamine synaptic transmission through reuptake of released neurotransmitter. Recent studies reveal that NET and DAT are tightly regulated by receptor and second messenger-linked signaling pathways. Common approaches for studying these transporters involve use of radiolabeled substrates or antagonists, methods possessing limited spatial resolution and that bear limited opportunities for repeated monitoring of living preparations. To circumvent these issues, we have explored two novel assay platforms that permit temporally resolved quantitation of transport activity and transporter protein localization. To monitor the binding and transport function of NET and DAT in real-time, we have investigated the uptake of the fluorescent organic compound 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+). We have extended our previous single cell level application of this substrate to monitor transport activity via high-throughput assay platforms. Compared to radiotracer uptake methods, acquisition of ASP+ fluorescence is non-isotopic and allows for continuous, repeated transport measurements on both transfected and native preparations. Secondly, we have extended our application of small-molecule-conjugated fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals, or quantum dots (Qdots), to utilize antibody and peptide ligands that can identify surface expressed transporters, receptors and other membrane proteins in living cell systems. Unlike typical organic fluorophores, Qdots are highly resistant to bleaching and can be conjugated to multiple ligands. They can also be illuminated by conventional light sources, yet produce narrow, gaussian emission spectra compatible with multiple target visualization (multiplexing). Together, these approaches offer novel opportunities to investigate changes in transporter function and distribution in real-time with superior spatial and temporal resolution.

  15. Use of PRD1 bacteriophage in groundwater viral transport, inactivation, and attachment studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2004-01-01

    PRD1, an icosahedra-shaped, 62 nm (diameter), double-stranded DNA bacteriophage with an internal membrane, has emerged as an important model virus for studying the manner in which microorganisms are transported through a variety of groundwater environments. The popularity of this phage for use in transport studies involving geologic media is due, in part, to its relative stability over a range of temperatures and low degree of attachment in aquifer sediments. Laboratory and field investigations employing PRD1 are leading to a better understanding of viral attachment and transport behaviors in saturated geologic media and to improved methods for describing mathematically subsurface microbial transport at environmentally significant field scales. Radioisotopic labeling of PRD1 is facilitating additional information about the nature of viral interactions with solid surfaces in geologic media, the importance of iron oxide surfaces, and allowing differentiation between inactivation and attachment in field-scale tracer tests.

  16. Simulator study of flight characteristics of several large, dissimilar, cargo transport airplanes during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Deal, P. L.; Neely, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom, ground based simulator study is conducted to evaluate the low-speed flight characteristics of four dissimilar cargo transport airplanes. These characteristics are compared with those of a large, present-day (reference) transport configuration similar to the Lockheed C-5A airplane. The four very large transport concepts evaluated consist of single-fuselage, twin-fuselage, triple-fuselage, and span-loader configurations. The primary piloting task is the approach and landing operation. The results of his study indicate that all four concepts evaluated have unsatisfactory longitudinal and lateral directional low speed flight characteristics and that considerable stability and control augmentation would be required to improve these characteristics (handling qualities) to a satisfactory level. Through the use of rate command/attitude hold augmentation in the pitch and roll axes, and the use of several turn-coordination features, the handling qualities of all four large transports simulated are improved appreciably.

  17. Studies of HZE particle interactions and transport for space radiation protection purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Wong, Mervyn

    1987-01-01

    The main emphasis is on developing general methods for accurately predicting high-energy heavy ion (HZE) particle interactions and transport for use by researchers in mission planning studies, in evaluating astronaut self-shielding factors, and in spacecraft shield design and optimization studies. The two research tasks are: (1) to develop computationally fast and accurate solutions to the Boltzmann (transport) equation; and (2) to develop accurate HZE interaction models, from fundamental physical considerations, for use as inputs into these transport codes. Accurate solutions to the HZE transport problem have been formulated through a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. In addition, theoretical models for the input interaction parameters are under development: stopping powers, nuclear absorption cross sections, and fragmentation parameters.

  18. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  19. Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model system to study neurotransmitter transporters

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ciara A.; Krantz, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The model genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, uses many of the same neurotransmitters as mammals and very similar mechanisms of neurotransmitter storage, release and recycling. This system offers a variety of powerful molecular-genetic methods for the study of transporters, many of which would be difficult in mammalian models. We review here progress made using Drosophila to understand the function and regulation of neurotransmitter transporters and discuss future directions for its use. PMID:24704795

  20. Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    28 Soviet Union ...34 Feature Articles Civil Aviation in the Soviet Union ................................................................. 39 Attacks on Airline...relief transport aircraft or hijackings; none were related to the Gulf war. Likewise, in Asia, there were few criminal acts against civil aviation

  1. Propulsion Study for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Staton, D. V.; Stolp, P. C.; Huelster, D. S.; Zolezzi, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    Propulsion requirements were determined for 0.5 and 0.7 Mach aircraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted on both these aircraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size and direct operating cost (DOC). Candidate technology elements and design features were identified and parametric studies conducted to select the STAT advanced engine cycle. Trade off studies were conducted to determine those advanced technologies and design features that would offer a reduction in DOC for operation of the STAT engines. These features were incorporated in the two STAT engines. A benefit assessment was conducted comparing the STAT engines to current technology engines of the same power and to 1985 derivatives of the current technology engines. Research and development programs were recommended as part of an overall technology development plan to ensure that full commercial development of the STAT engines could be initiated in 1988.

  2. Simulating photon-transport in uniform media using the radiative transport equation: a study using the Neumann-series approach

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Masumura, Takahiro; Clarkson, Eric; Maslov, Alexey V.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the implementation, validation, and performance of a Neumann-series approach for simulating light propagation at optical wavelengths in uniform media using the radiative transport equation (RTE). The RTE is solved for an anisotropic-scattering medium in a spherical harmonic basis for a diffuse-optical-imaging setup. The main objectives of this paper are threefold: to present the theory behind the Neumann-series form for the RTE, to design and develop the mathematical methods and the software to implement the Neumann series for a diffuse-optical-imaging setup, and, finally, to perform an exhaustive study of the accuracy, practical limitations, and computational efficiency of the Neumann-series method. Through our results, we demonstrate that the Neumann-series approach can be used to model light propagation in uniform media with small geometries at optical wavelengths. PMID:23201893

  3. Aeolian sediment transport over gobi: Field studies atop the Mogao Grottoes, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lihai; Zhang, Weimin; Qu, Jianjun; Wang, Junzhan; An, Zhishan; Li, Fang

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on field studies of aeolian sediment transport over a rough surface-gobi atop the Mogao Grottoes, China, in relation to sediment entrainment, saltation mass flux and transport rate prediction. Wind speeds were measured with five cup anemometers at different heights and sediment entrainment and transport measured with horizontal and vertical sediment traps coupled to weighing sensors, where sediment entrainment and transport were measured synchronously with wind speeds. Four sediment transport events, with a measurement duration ranging between 2.5 and 11 h, were studied. The entrainment threshold determined by the horizontal sediment trap varied between 0.28 and 0.33 m s-1, and the effect of non-erodible roughness elements-gravels increased the entrainment threshold approximately by 1.8 times compared to a uniform sand surface. Unlike the non-monotone curve shape of sediment flux density profile over gobi measured in wind tunnels, the flux density profile measured in the field showed an exponential form. Aeolian sediment transport over gobi could be predicted by an Owen-type saltation model: q = Aρ /gu∗ (u∗2- u∗t2), where q is sediment transport rate, A is a soil-related dimensionless factor, u∗ is the friction velocity, u∗t is the threshold friction velocity, g is the gravitational acceleration, ρ is the air density. This study indicates that the sediment flux sampling using horizontal and vertical sediment traps coupled to weighing sensors provides a practical method to determine values for A in this model that can provide good estimates of sediment transport rates in gobi areas.

  4. Structural and functional studies of conserved nucleotide-binding protein LptB in lipopolysaccharide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhongshan; Xiang, Quanju; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Dong, Haohao; He, Chuan; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yizheng; Wang, Wenjian; Dong, Changjiang

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Determination of the structure of the wild-type LptB in complex with ATP and Mg{sup 2+}. • Demonstrated that ATP binding residues are essential for LptB’s ATPase activity and LPS transport. • Dimerization is required for the LptB’s function and LPS transport. • Revealed relationship between activity of the LptB and the vitality of E. coli cells. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, which plays an essential role in protecting the bacteria from harsh conditions and antibiotics. LPS molecules are transported from the inner membrane to the outer membrane by seven LPS transport proteins. LptB is vital in hydrolyzing ATP to provide energy for LPS transport, however this mechanism is not very clear. Here we report wild-type LptB crystal structure in complex with ATP and Mg{sup 2+}, which reveals that its structure is conserved with other nucleotide-binding proteins (NBD). Structural, functional and electron microscopic studies demonstrated that the ATP binding residues, including K42 and T43, are crucial for LptB’s ATPase activity, LPS transport and the vitality of Escherichia coli cells with the exceptions of H195A and Q85A; the H195A mutation does not lower its ATPase activity but impairs LPS transport, and Q85A does not alter ATPase activity but causes cell death. Our data also suggest that two protomers of LptB have to work together for ATP hydrolysis and LPS transport. These results have significant impacts in understanding the LPS transport mechanism and developing new antibiotics.

  5. Advances in Studies of Electrode Kinetics and Mass Transport in AMTEC Cells (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; Kisor, A.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work reported from JPL has included characterization of electrode kinetics and alkali atom transport from electrodes including Mo, W, WRh(sub x), WPt(sub x)(Mn), in sodium AMTEC cells and vapor exposure cells, and Mo in potassium vapor exposure cells. These studies were generally performed in cells with small area electrodes (about 1 to 5 cm(sup 2)), and device geometry had little effect on transport. Alkali diffusion coefficients through these electrodes have been characterized, and approximate surface diffusion coefficients derived in cases of activated transport. A basic model of electrode kinetic at the alkali metal vapor/porous metal electrode/alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte three phase boundary has been proposed which accounts for electrochemical reaction rates with a collision frequency near the three phase boundary and tunneling from the porous electrode partially covered with adsorbed alkali metal atoms. The small electrode effect in AMTEC cells has been discussed in several papers, but quantitative investigations have described only the overall effect and the important contribution of electrolyte resistance. The quantitative characterization of transport losses in cells with large area electrodes has been limited to simulations of large area electrode effects, or characterization of transport losses from large area electrodes with significant longitudinal temperature gradients. This paper describes new investigations of electrochemical kinetics and transport, particularily with WPt(sub 3.5) electrodes, including the influence of electrode size on the mass transport loss in the AMTEC cell. These electrodes possess excellent sodium transport properties making verification of device limitations on transport much more readily attained.

  6. Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Huang, Jianping; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Tian; Jin, Hongchun

    2015-11-01

    Asian dust can be transported long distances from the Taklimakan or Gobi desert to North America across the Pacific Ocean, and it has been found to have a significant impact on ecosystems, climate, and human health. Although it is well known that Asian dust is transported all over the globe, there are limited observations reporting Asian dust transported to the Arctic. We report a case study of a large-scale heavy dust storm over East Asia on 19 March 2010, as shown by ground-based and space-borne multi-sensor observations, as well as NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and HYSPLIT trajectories. Our analysis suggests that Asian dust aerosols were transported from northwest China to the Arctic within 5 days, crossing eastern China, Japan and Siberia before reaching the Arctic. The results indicate that Asian dust can be transported for long distances along a previously unreported transport path. Evidence from other dust events over the past decade (2001-2010) also supports our results, indicating that dust from 25.2% of Asian dust events has potentially been transported directly to the Arctic. The transport of Asian dust to the Arctic is due to cyclones and the enhanced East Asia Trough (EAT), which are very common synoptic systems over East Asia. This suggests that many other large dust events would have generated long-range transport of dust to the Arctic along this path in the past. Thus, Asian dust potentially affects the Arctic climate and ecosystem, making climate change in the Arctic much more complex to be fully understood.

  7. Structural Studies on Cytosolic Domain of Magnesium Transporter MgtE from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ragumani, S.; Sauder, J; Burley, S; Swaminathan, S

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) is an essential element for growth and maintenance of living cells. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymes and is also essential for stability of the plasma membrane. There are two distinct classes of magnesium transporters identified in bacteria that convey Mg{sup 2+} from periplasm to cytoplasm [ATPase-dependent (MgtA and MgtB) and constitutively active (CorA and MgtE)]. Previously published work on Mg{sup 2+} transporters yielded structures of full length MgtE from Thermus thermophilus, determined at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, and its cytoplasmic domain with and without bond Mg{sup 2+} determined at 2.3 and 3.9 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Here, they report the crystal structure of the Mg{sup 2+} bound form of the cytosolic portion of MgtE (residues 6-262) from Enterococcus faecalis at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. The present structure and magnesium bound cytosolic domain structure from T. thermophilus (PDB ID: 2YVY) are structurally similar. Three magnesium binding sites are common to both MgtE full length and the present structure. Their work revealed an additional Mg{sup 2+} binding site in the E. faecalis structure. In this report, they discuss the functional significance of Mg{sup 2+} binding sites in the cytosolic domains of MgtE transporters.

  8. Transport and photochemical modeling. Studies of atmospheric species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natarajan, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program of research studies related to the photochemistry, radiative transfer, and dynamics of the stratosphere is described. Investigations were conducted in two broad areas: (1) studies of the stratospheric processes and their response to external perturbations, and (2) analysis of satellite measurements in conjunction with theoretical models. Contemporary one dimensional photochemical, radiative-convective model was used to assess the impact of perturbations such as solar flux variability, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, chlorofluoromethanes and other greenhouse gases. Data from satellite experiments such as LIMS and SBUV, were used along with theoretical models to develop a climatology of trace species in the stratosphere. The consistency of contemporary ozone photochemistry was examined in the light of LIMS data. Research work also includes analysis of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide distributions from different satellite experiments, investigation of the wintertime latitudinal gradients in NO2, estimation of the stratospheric odd nitrogen level and its variability, and studies related to the changes in ozone in the Antarctic, and mid latitude Southern Hemisphere.

  9. A rapid and efficient method to study the function of crop plant transporters in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangfeng; Zhong, Fudi; Woo, Cheuk Hang; Miao, Yansong; Grusak, Michael A; Zhang, Xiaobo; Tu, Jumin; Wong, Yum Shing; Jiang, Liwen

    2017-03-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Fe deficiency disease is widespread and has led to extensive studies on the mechanisms of Fe uptake and storage, especially in staple food crops such as rice. However, studies of functionally related genes in rice and other crops are often time and space demanding. Here, we demonstrate that transgenic Arabidopsis suspension culture cells and Arabidopsis plants can be used as an efficient expression system for gain-of-function study of selected transporters, using Fe transporters as a proof-of-principle. The vacuolar membrane transporters OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 have been described to be important for iron sequestration, and disruption of these two genes leads to Fe accumulation in rice seeds. In this study, we have taken advantage of the fluorescent-tagged protein GFP-OsVIT1, which functionally complements the Fe hypersensitivity of ccc1 yeast mutant, to generate transgenic Arabidopsis suspension cell lines and plants. GFP-OsVIT1 was shown to localize on the vacuolar membrane using confocal microscopy and immunogold EM. More importantly, the Fe concentration, as well as the concentration of Zn, in the transgenic cell lines and plants were significantly increased compared to that in the WT. Taken together, our study shows that the heterologous expression of rice vacuolar membrane transporter OsVIT1 in Arabidopsis system is functional and effectively enhances iron accumulation, indicating an useful approach for studying other putative transporters of crop plants in this system.

  10. Thermochemical Model and Experimental Studies on Physical Vapor Transport of Lead Telluride-Selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Alexander, H. A.; Grasza, K.

    2000-01-01

    Mass transport rate and composition of the transported material as a function of different process parameters like temperature, undercooling, inert gas pressure, and the source compactness for different PbTe(1-x)Se(x), compositions were studied. With a proper preparation procedures mass transport rates suitable for growth at the rate of 0.5 - 1 mm/h were obtained. Different composition non-uniformities in the deposited material were observed. Due to deviation of the PbTe-PbSe solid solution from ideality, congruent mass transport of the material takes place around X = 0.3. For other compositions an improved and even good uniformity can be achieved when a solid, premelted source material is used.

  11. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Transportation system elements were synthesized and evaluated on the basis of their potential to satisfy overall satellite (SPS) transportation requirements and of their sensitivities, interfaces, and impact on the SPS. Additional analyses and investigations were conducted to further define transportation system concepts that will be needed for the developmental and operational phases of an SPS program. To accomplish these objectives, transportation systems such as shuttle and its derivatives have been identified; new heavy lift launch vehicle concepts, cargo and personnel orbital transfer vehicles and intra-orbit transfer vehicle concepts have been evaluated. To a limited degree, the program implications of their operations and costs were assessed. The results of these analyses have been integrated into other elements of the overall SPS concept definition studies.

  12. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system-speed and flexibility-are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. This study attempts to determine if the aircraft can contribute toward solving the transportation problems of major metropolitan areas and be economically viable in such an environment.

  13. Transport gap engineering by contact geometry in graphene nanoribbons: Experimental and theoretical studies on artificial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Thomas; Franco-Villafañe, John A.; Kuhl, Ulrich; Mortessagne, Fabrice; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Electron transport in small graphene nanoribbons is studied by microwave emulation experiments and tight-binding calculations. In particular, it is investigated under which conditions a transport gap can be observed. Our experiments provide evidence that armchair ribbons of width 3 m +2 with integer m are metallic and otherwise semiconducting, whereas zigzag ribbons are metallic independent of their width. The contact geometry, defining to which atoms at the ribbon edges the source and drain leads are attached, has strong effects on the transport. If leads are attached only to the inner atoms of zigzag edges, broad transport gaps can be observed in all armchair ribbons as well as in rhomboid-shaped zigzag ribbons. All experimental results agree qualitatively with tight-binding calculations using the nonequilibrium Green's function method.

  14. Physical fitness in relation to transport to school in adolescents: the Danish youth and sports study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Lawlor, D A; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Anderssen, S A

    2009-06-01

    In many Western countries, there are concerns about declining levels of physical activity in school-aged children. Active transport is one way to increase physical activity in children, but few studies have evaluated whether active transport in school-aged children and adolescents has beneficial effects on fitness and, if so, whether different modes of transport affect different aspects of fitness. In this study, we examined the association of active transport with different aspects of fitness in a representative Danish sample of 545 boys and 704 girls, 15-19 years of age. Physical fitness was assessed through a number of field tests, including a maximal cycle test, dynamic and static strength in different muscle groups, muscle endurance, flexibility and agility. Transport to school was reported as the mode of transport. Almost two-thirds of the population cycled to school. Cyclists had higher aerobic power than both walkers and passive travelers (4.6-5.9%). Isometric muscle endurance (10-16%), dynamic muscle endurance in the abdominal muscles (10%) and flexibility (6%) were also higher in cyclists compared with walkers and passive travelers. Mode of travel was not related to leisure-time sports participation. Our findings suggest that commuter bicycling may be a way to improve health in adolescents.

  15. Quantitative study of molecular transport due to electroporation: uptake of bovine serum albumin by erythrocyte ghosts.

    PubMed Central

    Prausnitz, M R; Milano, C D; Gimm, J A; Langer, R; Weaver, J C

    1994-01-01

    Electroporation is believed to involve the creation of aqueous pathways in lipid bilayer membranes by transient elevation of the transmembrane voltage to approximately 1 V. Here, results are presented for a quantitative study of the number of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules transported into erythrocyte ghosts caused by electroportion. 1) Uptake of BSA was found to plateau at high field strength. However, this was not necessarily an absolute maximum in transport. Instead, it represented the maximum effect of increasing field strength for a particular pulse protocol. 2) Maximum uptake under any conditions used in this study corresponded to approximately one-fourth of apparent equilibrium with the external solution. 3) Multiple and longer pulses each increased uptake of BSA, where the total time integral of field strength correlated with uptake, independent of inter-pulse spacing. 4) Pre-pulse adsorption of BSA to ghost membranes appears to have increased transport. 5) Most transport of BSA probably occurred by electrically driven transport during pulses; post-pulse uptake occurred, but to a much lesser extent. Finally, approaches to increasing transport are discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:8061201

  16. Aquatic models for the study of renal transport function and pollutant toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Studies of renal cell transport mechanisms and their impairment by xenobiotics are often limited by technical difficulties related to renal tubule complexity. Problems include the juxtaposition of multiple tubule segments with different transport functions and severely limited access to the tubular lumen. Some limitations can be overcome by the careful selection of an appropriate aquatic experimental system. Two aquatic models for the vertebrate proximal segment are discussed here. The first is the kidney from certain marine flounder, which offers the following advantages: long-term viability, little tissue of nonproximal origin, and easy tubule isolation. Data are presented to demonstrate how studies with flounder kidney can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms whereby different classes of toxic pollutants may interact. Results from these experiments indicate that the excretion of certain anionic xenobiotics can be delayed (1) by other anionic xenobiotics that compete for secretory transport sites and (2) by compounds that disrupt cellular ion gradients and energy metabolism needed to drive transport. The second system is the crustacean urinary bladder, a simple, flatsheet epithelium. Bladder morphology and transport physiology closely resemble those of vertebrate proximal segment. Electron micrographs show a brush border membrane at the luminal surface, numerous mitochondria, and an infolded serosal membrane, while in vivo and in vitro transport studies show reabsorption of NaCl, nutrients and water and secretion of organic cations; organic anions are secreted in bladders from some species and reabsorbed in others. Moreover, since bladders can be mounted as flat sheets in flux chambers, studies with this tissue avoid the problems of complex renal tubule geometry and tissue heterogeneity and tissue heterogeneity that limit transport studies in proximal tubule.

  17. Theoretical Study of Ion Transport in the Gramicidin a Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Benoi T.

    Modern techniques are used to study the permeation process of ions through the gramicidin A channel. The conformation of the gramicidin molecule is investigated experimentally in dimethylsulfoxide/acetone using the techniques of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. An empirical energy function is developed from ab initio calculations to represent the interaction of Li^{+}, Na^{+} and K^ {+} ions with the backbone of polypeptides; the parameters are tested in dense systems with free energy simulations. The dynamics of the gramicidin A channel dimer in the absence of water and ions is studied in the harmonic approximation by a vibrational analysis of the atomic motions relative to their equilibrium positions. The behavior of the water molecules in the channel is studied with a molecular dynamics simulation of a fully solvated Gramicidin A dimer embedded in a model membrane. the potential of mean force and the mobility of Na^{+ }, K^{+} and water are calculated in the interior of a gramicidin-like periodic poly (L,D)-alanine beta -helix. The potential of mean force of Na^ {+} ion along the axis of the gramicidin A channel is calculated with a molecular dynamics simulation of a fully solvated Gramicidin A dimer embedded in a model membrane; the gramicidin channel is modeled as a right -handed head-to-head beta-helix dimer. Binding sites are found at the extremities of the channel; no large activation energy barrier is caused by the dehydration process at the entrance of the channel. In the appendices, Statistical Mechanical theories are used to investigate the equilibrium and dynamical properties of the liquid state. A theory of aqueous solutions is used to provide an interpretation for the Born model of ion hydration at the molecular level; the Born radius of hydration is interpreted in terms of the first peak in the solute-solvent radial distribution function. We show that some proposed closures for the RISM equation of Chandler and Andersen possess no solution because

  18. Experimental studies of Reynolds number dependence of turbulent mixing & transport

    SciTech Connect

    Warhaft, Z.

    1996-12-31

    An overview of recent experiments, in which the author generated high Reynolds number homogeneous grid turbulence, is provided. The author shows that in a small wind tunnel, Reynolds numbers that are sufficiently high (R{sub {lambda}} {approximately} 800, R{sub {ell}} {approximately} 36, 000) such that many of the aspects of turbulence that hitherto have only been observed in large scale anisotropic shear flows, are obtained. In particular the author studied the evolution of the spectrum with Reynolds number, the Kolmogorov constant and the internal intermittency, showing the way they tend to their high Reynolds number asymptotes. Thus the author links previous low Reynolds number laboratory experiments with large scale environmental measurements.

  19. Serious transport accidents in adults with ADHD, and the effect of medication: A population based study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Sjölander, Arvid; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Importance Studies have shown that Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with transport accidents, but the magnitude of the association remains unclear. Importantly, it is also unclear whether ADHD medication reduces this risk. Objective First, to estimate the association between ADHD and the risk of serious transport accidents. Second, to explore the extent to which ADHD medication influences this risk among ADHD patients. Design, Setting, and Participants 17,408 patients with a diagnosis of ADHD were followed from 2006 to 2009 for serious transport accidents in Swedish national registers. The association between ADHD and accidents was estimated with Cox regression. To study the effect of ADHD medication, we used stratified Cox regression to compare the risk of accidents during medication period with the risk during non-medication period within the same patients. Main Outcome and Measure Serious transport accident, identified as admission to an emergency hospital care or death due to transport accident. Results Compared with individuals without ADHD, male ADHD patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] =1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32–1.63) and female ADHD patients (HR=1.45, 95% CI 1.24–1.71) had increased risk of serious transport accidents. In male ADHD patients, ADHD medication was associated with a 58% risk reduction (HR=0.42, 95% CI 0.23–0.75), but there was no significant association in female patients. Estimates of the population attributable fractions suggested that 41% – 49% of the accidents in male patients with ADHD could have been avoided if they had been on treatment the entire follow-up. Conclusions and Relevance ADHD is associated with an increased risk of serious transport accidents, and this risk seems to be possibly reduced by ADHD medication, at least among male ADHD patients. This should lead to increased awareness of the association between serious transport accidents and ADHD medication among clinicians and

  20. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  1. Computational study of pressure-driven methane transport in hierarchical nanostructured porous carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Kisung; Huang, Liping

    2016-01-28

    Using the reflecting particle method together with a perturbation-relaxation loop developed in our previous work, we studied pressure-driven methane transport in hierarchical nanostructured porous carbons (HNPCs) containing both mesopores and micropores in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The surface morphology of the mesopore wall was systematically varied by tuning interaction strength between carbon atoms and the template in a mimetic nanocasting process. Effects of temperature and mesopore size on methane transport in HNPCs were also studied. Our study shows that increased mesopore wall surface roughness changes the character of the gas-wall interaction from specular to diffuse, while the gas-gas interaction is diminished due to the decrease of adsorption density. Effects of the mesopore wall surface morphology are the most significant at low temperatures and in small channels. Our systematic study provides a better understanding of the transport mechanisms of light gases through carbon nanotube composite membranes in experiments.

  2. Computational studies of transport in ion channels using metadynamics.

    PubMed

    Furini, Simone; Domene, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have played a fundamental role in numerous fields of science by providing insights into the structure and dynamics of complex systems at the atomistic level. However, exhaustive sampling by standard molecular dynamics is in most cases computationally prohibitive, and the time scales accessible remain significantly shorter than many biological processes of interest. In particular, in the study of ion channels, realistic models to describe permeation and gating require accounting for large numbers of particles and accurate interaction potentials, which severely limits the length of the simulations. To overcome such limitations, several advanced methods have been proposed among which is metadynamics. In this algorithm, an external bias potential to accelerate sampling along selected collective variables is introduced. This bias potential discourages visiting regions of the configurational space already explored. In addition, the bias potential provides an estimate of the free energy as a function of the collective variables chosen once the simulation has converged. In this review, recent contributions of metadynamics to the field of ion channels are discussed, including how metadynamics has been used to search for transition states, predict permeation pathways, treat conformational flexibility that underlies the coupling between gating and permeation, or compute free energy of permeation profiles. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov.

  3. Feasibility study on introduction of petroleum substituting energy for transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    Concerning electric cars, methanol cars, and CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) cars, the status of development of each of them is studied, grasps the problems on their wide spread through hearings to users, and makes an estimate of the number of cars which is the target for the spread for the time being on the condition that their performance is on the present level. The development of more efficient electric batteries and motors is anticipated for electric cars. Methanol cars have a problem on traveling performance that travel distance by one battery charge is not more than about (1/2) of the existing cars, as well as technical problems such as the development of diesel type use engines, durability of parts, etc. CNG cars have a problem on travel distance by one battery charge which is not more than about (1/3) of the existing cars and a problem on the space caused by carrying the fuel bomb. The target number of fuel substitution cars for the spread is estimated at 833,000 cars, 14% of all the cars in Japan. As of 1991, the number of fuel substitution cars introduced is about 1,200 cars only. In order to lessen the gap, it is indispensable to prepare the infrastructure, improve performance and reliability of the cars, and reduce the cost.

  4. Radio Studies of Electron Acceleration and Transport During Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    2002-05-01

    At centimeter wavelengths solar flare radiation is dominated by incoherent gyrosynchrotron emissions from 10 keV to several MeV electrons. Due to unique sensitivity of the gyrosynchrotron radiation to electron momentum distribution and ambient magnetic field, the radio observations at these wavelengths can provide important clues to the evolution of high-energy electrons residing in the flaring loops. In this talk I review some of recent progress made primarily using the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA) to understand acceleration, trapping, and precipitation of electrons during solar flares. These works are extensions of the traditional, correlative studies of temporal and spatial morphologies of radio bursts versus those of other flare radiations (X-rays, UV/EUV, and Hα ) to exploit the multi-frequencies of the OVSA. The results demonstrate additional advantages of radio observations as a flare diagnostic tool when both spatial and spectral resolutions are available, and provide a major initiative in building the Frequency-Agile Radio Telescope (FASR). This work has been supported by NASA grant NAG5-10891. The OVSA is supported by NSF grant AST-9987366 to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  5. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 2: Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study of the quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the relationships between STOL characteristics and economic and social viability of short haul air transportation, (2) to identify critical technology problems involving introduction of STOL short haul systems, (3) to define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs, and (4) to identify high payoff technology areas to improve STOL systems. The analyses of the aircraft designs which were generated to fulfill the objectives are summarized. The baseline aircraft characteristics are documented and significant trade studies are presented.

  6. Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1: Technical report, appendices. [a discussion of orbit transfer vehicles, lunar transport vehicles, space shuttles, and reusable spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transportation mass requirements developed for each mission and transportation mode were based on vehicle systems sized to fit the exact needs of each mission (i.e. rubber vehicles). The parametric data used to derive the mass requirements for each mission and transportation mode are presented to enable accommodation of possible changes in mode options or payload definitions. The vehicle sizing and functional requirements used to derive the parametric data will form the basis for conceptual configurations of the transportation elements in a later phase of study. An investigation of the weight growth approach to future space transportation systems analysis is presented. Parameters which affect weight growth, past weight histories, and the current state of future space-mission design are discussed. Weight growth factors of from 10 percent to 41 percent were derived for various missions or vehicles.

  7. Transporting Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1998-01-01

    Under the 1973 Rehabilitation Act (Section 504) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, school districts must transport students with disabilities to a site providing a free, appropriate education in the least restrictive environment. This article discusses federal and state laws governing student transportation, including wheelchair…

  8. Design study of shaft face seal with self-acting lift augmentation. 4: Force balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Zuk, J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A method for predicting the operating film thickness of self-acting seals is described. The analysis considers a 16.76-cm mean diameter seal that is typical of large gas turbines for aircraft. Four design points were selected to cover a wide range of operation for advanced engines. This operating range covered sliding speeds of 61 to 153 m/sec, sealed pressures of 45 to 217 N/sq cm abs, and gas temperatures of 311 to 977 K. The force balance analysis revealed that the seal operated without contact over the operating range with gas film thicknesses ranging between 0.00046 to 0.00119 cm, and with gas leakage rates between 0.01 to 0.39 scmm.

  9. Speaker-sensitive emotion recognition via ranking: Studies on acted and spontaneous speech(☆)

    PubMed

    Cao, Houwei; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a ranking approach for emotion recognition which naturally incorporates information about the general expressivity of speakers. We demonstrate that our approach leads to substantial gains in accuracy compared to conventional approaches. We train ranking SVMs for individual emotions, treating the data from each speaker as a separate query, and combine the predictions from all rankers to perform multi-class prediction. The ranking method provides two natural benefits. It captures speaker specific information even in speaker-independent training/testing conditions. It also incorporates the intuition that each utterance can express a mix of possible emotion and that considering the degree to which each emotion is expressed can be productively exploited to identify the dominant emotion. We compare the performance of the rankers and their combination to standard SVM classification approaches on two publicly available datasets of acted emotional speech, Berlin and LDC, as well as on spontaneous emotional data from the FAU Aibo dataset. On acted data, ranking approaches exhibit significantly better performance compared to SVM classification both in distinguishing a specific emotion from all others and in multi-class prediction. On the spontaneous data, which contains mostly neutral utterances with a relatively small portion of less intense emotional utterances, ranking-based classifiers again achieve much higher precision in identifying emotional utterances than conventional SVM classifiers. In addition, we discuss the complementarity of conventional SVM and ranking-based classifiers. On all three datasets we find dramatically higher accuracy for the test items on whose prediction the two methods agree compared to the accuracy of individual methods. Furthermore on the spontaneous data the ranking and standard classification are complementary and we obtain marked improvement when we combine the two classifiers by late-stage fusion.

  10. In vitro study of transporters involved in intestinal absorption of inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Marta; Barrios, Julio A; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta

    2012-02-20

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) [As(III)+As(V)] is a drinking water contaminant, and human exposure to these arsenic species has been linked with a wide range of health effects. The main path of exposure is the oral route, and the intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier that iAs must cross in order to be absorbed. However, there is a lack of information about intestinal iAs absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of certain transporters [glucose transporters (GLUT and SGLT), organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), aquaporins (AQPs), and phosphate transporters (NaPi and PiT)] in intestinal absorption of As(V) and As(III), using the Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal epithelium. For this purpose, the effects of chemical inhibition and gene silencing of the transporters of interest on iAs uptake were evaluated, and also the differential expression of these transporters after treatment with iAs. The results show that chemical inhibition using rifamycin SV (OATP inhibitor), phloridzin (SGLT inhibitor), phloretin (GLUT and AQP inhibitor), and copper sulfate (AQP inhibitor) leads to a significant reduction in the apparent permeability and cellular retention of As(III). RT-qPCR indicates up-regulation of GLUT2, GLUT5, OATPB, AQP3, and AQP10 after exposure to As(III), while exposure to As(V) increases the expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, especially NaPiIIb. Gene silencing of OATPB, AQP10, and GLUT5 for As(III) and NaPiIIb for As(V) significantly reduces uptake of the inorganic forms. These results indicate that these transporters may be involved in intestinal absorption of iAs.

  11. Group acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for bipolar disorder and co-existing anxiety - an open pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pankowski, Sara; Adler, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard; Lindefors, Nils; Svanborg, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have supported acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for reducing impairment related to various chronic conditions. ACT may possibly be beneficial for bipolar disorder (BD) with co-existing anxiety, which is associated with a poorer treatment outcome. Efforts are needed to identify suitable psychological interventions for BD and co-existing anxiety. In this open clinical trial, we included 26 patients with BD type 1 or 2 at an outpatient psychiatric unit specializing in affective disorders. The intervention consisted of a 12-session manualized group treatment that included psychoeducation, mindfulness, engaging in values-based behaviour, cognitive defusion, acceptance and relapse prevention modules. Participants completed four self-report questionnaires covering anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory - BAI), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI-II), quality of life (Quality of Life Inventory - QOLI) and psychological flexibility (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - AAQ-2) before, during and after the treatment. At post-treatment, the participants reported significant improvements in all outcome measures, with large effects (Cohen's d between 0.73 and 1.98). The mean reduction in anxiety symptoms was 45%. At post-treatment, 96% of the patients were classified as responders on at least one of the outcome measures. A limitation is that the trial is uncontrolled. The results suggest that ACT has the potential to be an effective treatment for BD patients with co-existing anxiety. Further randomized studies are warranted.

  12. Geothermal Fluid Interaction with Mafic Rocks in Porous Media - AN Experimental and Reactive Transport Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Reaction and reactive transport modeling is becoming an increasingly popular method to study fluid-rock interaction and fluid transport on small to large scales. In this study, fluid-rock experiments were carried out and the observations compared with the results of reaction and reactive transport models. The systems studied included fluid-rock interaction of olivine on one hand and basaltic glass on the other hand with dilute aqueous solutions containing CO2 at acid to neutral pH and temperatures from ambient to 250 °C. The experiments were conducted using batch type experiments in closed reactors and 1-D plug experiments in flow-through reactors and the solution chemistry, the reaction progress, secondary mineralization and porosity changes analyzed as a function of time. The reaction and 1-D reactive transport simulations were conducted with the aid of the PHREEQC program. For the simulations the thermodynamic database for mineral reactions was largely updated and the kinetics of mineral dissolution as well as mineral nucleation and crystal growth was incorporated. According to the experimental results and the reactive transport simulations, olivine and basaltic glass progressively dissolves forming secondary minerals and solutes that are partially transported out of them column (system). The exact reaction path was found to depend on solution composition and pH and reaction progress (time). The mass movement of the system at a particular steady state as well as porosity changes may be divided into three stages. Stage I is characterized by initial olivine or basaltic glass leaching, stage II is characterized by progressive mineral formation and decrease in porosity and stage III is characterized by remobilization of the previously formed secondary minerals and eventual increase in porosity. The reaction and reactive transport modeling was found to simulate reasonable the reaction path as a function of reaction time. However, exact mass movement and time

  13. Relationship of Transportation Noise and Annoyance for Two Metropolitan Cities in Korea: Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jiho; Park, Sang Jin; Sim, Chang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Transportation noise is known to have negative impact on both public health and life quality. This study evaluated the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance levels, and also the difference of annoyance levels in two metropolitan cities based on epidemiologic surveys. Two thousand adult subjects living in Seoul and Ulsan were enrolled by stratified random sampling on the basis of noise maps from July 2015 to January 2016. Individual annoyance in accordance with transportation noise levels in two metropolitan cities were surveyed using an 11-point visual analog scale questionnaire. The results show that transportation noise level was significantly correlated with annoyance in both cities. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of being 'highly annoyed' increased with noise level (Ldn, day-night average sound level) in both cities. After adjusting for age, residence period, sociodemographic factors (sex, education, marriage, income, alcohol, smoking, and exercise) and noise sensitivity, the risk of being 'highly annoyed' was increased with noise levels in both cities. In comparison to those of areas with noise levels below 55 dBA, the adjusted odds ratios of 'highly annoyed' for areas with 55-65 dBA and over 65 dBA were 2.056 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.225-3.450), 3.519 (95% CI 1.982-6.246) in Seoul and 1.022 (95% CI 0.585-1.785), 1.704 (95% CI 1.005-2.889) in Ulsan, respectively. Based on the results of a population study, we showed that transportation noise levels were significantly associated with annoyance in adults. However, there were some differences between the two cities. In this study, there were differences in transportation noise between the two cities. Seoul has complex noise (traffic and aircraft), compared to single road traffic noise in Ulsan. Therefore, single and complex transportation noise may have different effects on annoyance levels.

  14. Students' Thinking and Alternative Conceptions of Transport Systems in Plants: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' alternative conceptions and their associative thinking regarding internal transport in plants through administration of a refined diagnostic test. Questions of associative thinking and explanation were added to form a third tier of the previous two-tier test. The study found three terms related to…

  15. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  16. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability and transport of radio-labeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study included flow rate, pH, i...

  17. Conceptual design studies of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilized rotors, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R.; Alexander, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of conceptual design studies of tilt rotor and tandem helicopter aircraft for a 200 nautical mile commercial short haul transport mission are presented. The trade study data used in selecting the design point aircraft and technology details necessary to support the design conclusions are included.

  18. Fate and surface transport of urea in a coastal plain soil: a rainfall simulation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface transport of urea has rarely been studied since it is assumed to undergo rapid hydrolysis to ammonia. However, studies have shown urea to exist in estuarine and coastal waters. Urea in small amounts can trigger the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. to produce the toxin domoic acid, which is o...

  19. Educational Facilities Study Manual and Design; Flint-Genesee County Comprehensive Land Use-Transportation Planning Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee County Metropolitan Planning Commission, Flint, MI.

    The Educational Facilities Study Item of the Flint-Genesee County (Michigan) Comprehensive Land Use-Transportation Planning Study is implementing a program to identify present and future educational problems and needs in Genesee County. This report is a technical document to guide the execution of the research and analysis of the study. The study…

  20. Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Silvia; Kandel, Mikhail; Sridharan, Shamira; Majeed, Hassaan; Monroy, Freddy; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns of intracellular transport are very difficult to quantify and, consequently, continue to be insufficiently understood. While it is well documented that mass trafficking inside living cells consists of both random and deterministic motions, quantitative data over broad spatiotemporal scales are lacking. We studied the intracellular transport in live cells using spatial light interference microscopy, a high spatiotemporal resolution quantitative phase imaging tool. The results indicate that in the cytoplasm, the intracellular transport is mainly active (directed, deterministic), while inside the nucleus it is both active and passive (diffusive, random). Furthermore, we studied the behavior of the two-dimensional mass density over 30 h in HeLa cells and focused on the active component. We determined the standard deviation of the velocity distribution at the point of cell division for each cell and compared the standard deviation velocity inside the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We found that the velocity distribution in the cytoplasm is consistently broader than in the nucleus, suggesting mechanisms for faster transport in the cytosol versus the nucleus. Future studies will focus on improving phase measurements by applying a fluorescent tag to understand how particular proteins are transported inside the cell.

  1. Studies of the Biogenic Amine Transporters 15. Identification of Novel Allosteric Dopamine Transporter Ligands with Nanomolar Potency

    PubMed Central

    Ananthan, Subramaniam; Partilla, John S.; Saini, Surendra K.; Moukha-Chafiq, Omar; Pathak, Vibha; Baumann, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Novel allosteric modulators of the dopamine transporter (DAT) have been identified. We have shown previously that SRI-9804 [N-(diphenylmethyl)-2-phenyl-4-quinazolinamine], SRI-20040 [N-(2,2-diphenylethyl)-2-phenyl-4-quinazolinamine], and SRI-20041 [N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)-2-phenyl-4-quinazolinamine] partially inhibit [125I]RTI-55 ([125I]3β-(4′-iodophenyl)tropan-2β-carboxylic acid methyl ester) binding and [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) uptake, slow the dissociation rate of [125I]RTI-55 from the DAT, and allosterically modulate d-amphetamine–induced, DAT-mediated DA release. We synthesized and evaluated the activity of >500 analogs of these ligands and report here on 36 selected compounds. Using synaptosomes prepared from rat caudate, we conducted [3H]DA uptake inhibition assays, DAT binding assays with [3H]WIN35428 ([3H]2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane), and DAT-mediated release assays with either [3H]MPP+ ([3H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) or [3H]DA. We observed three groups of [3H]DA uptake inhibitors: 1) full-efficacy agents with a one-site fit, 2) full-efficacy agents with a two-site fit, and 3) partial-efficacy agents with a one-site fit—the focus of further studies. These agents partially inhibited DA, serotonin, and norepinephrine uptake, yet were much less potent at inhibiting [3H]WIN35428 binding to the DAT. For example, SRI-29574 [N-(2,2-diphenylethyl)-2-(imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-yl)quinazolin-4-amine] partially inhibited DAT uptake, with an IC50 = 2.3 ± 0.4 nM, without affecting binding to the DAT. These agents did not alter DAT-mediated release of [3H]MPP+ in the absence or presence of 100 nM d-amphetamine. SRI-29574 had no significant effect on the d-amphetamine EC50 or Emax value for DAT-mediated release of [3H]MPP+. These studies demonstrate the existence of potent DAT ligands that partially block [3H]DA uptake, without affecting DAT binding or d-amphetamine–induced [3H]MPP+ release. These compounds may prove to be useful probes of

  2. Experimental study on unsteady open channel flow and bedload transport based on a physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.

    2015-12-01

    Flow in a nature river are usually unsteady, while nearly all the theories about bedload transport are on the basis of steady, uniform flow, and also with supposed equilibrium state of sediment transport. This is may be one of the main reasons why the bedload transport formulas are notoriously poor accuracy to predict the bedload. The aim of this research is to shed light on the effect of unsteadiness on the bedload transport based on experimental studies. The novel of this study is that the experiments were not carried out in a conventional flume but in a physical model, which are more similar to the actual river. On the other hand, in our experiments, multiple consecutive flood wave were reproduced in the physical model, and all the flow and sediment parameters are based on a large number of data obtained from many of identical flood waves. This method allow us to get more data for one flood, efficiently avoids the uncertainty of bedload rate only for one single flood wave, due to the stochastic fluctuation of the bedload transport. Three different flood waves were selected in the experiments. During each run of experiment, the water level of five different positions along the model were measured by ultrasonic water level gauge, flow velocity at the middle of the channel were measured by two dimensional electromagnetic current meter. Moreover, the bedload transport rate was measured by a unique automatic trap collecting and weighing system at the end of the physical model. The results shows that the celerity of flood wave propagate varies for different flow conditions. The velocity distribution was approximately accord with log-law profile during the entire rising and falling limb of flood. The bedload transport rate show intensity fluctuation in all the experiments, moreover, for different flood waves, the moment when the shear stress reaches its maximum value is not the exact moment when the sediment transport rate reaches its maximum value, which indicates

  3. Conceptual design study of improved 1985 remote lift-fan V/STOL commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavage, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A design study was conducted for a remote lift-fan commercial V/STOL transport for the 1985 time period. The investigation centered on the commercial short haul transportation application to carry 100 passengers over trip distances of 400 nautical miles from a vertical takeoff and landing, and 800 nautical miles after a 1600 foot STOL takeoff. The study included investigation of alternate numbers and arrangements of lift fans and gas generators, fan control margins, and structural concepts. The sensitivity of direct operating costs to major airframe parameters, airframe costs, propulsion costs, yearly aircraft utilization rate, and trip distances are evaluated.

  4. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Volume 2: Design definition document and environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study is to contribute to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) development effort by providing highly reliable, low cost booster engine concepts for both expendable and reusable rocket engines. The objectives of the space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) Configuration Study were: (1) to identify engine configurations which enhance vehicle performance and provide operational flexibility at low cost, and (2) to explore innovative approaches to the follow-on Full-Scale Development (FSD) phase for the STBE.

  5. Indian MST radar: A remote sensing tool for studying long- and short- term cross tropopause transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddarth Shankar; Ratnam, Madineni Venkat; Suneeth, K. V.

    The stratospheric air is dry and ozone rich in nature, whereas the tropospheric air is enriched in humidity with high aerosol concentration. The tropopause is the stable layer which acts as a semi-permeable membrane between these two spheres (i.e. troposphere and stratosphere) and thus hinders the exchange of the minors constituents (e.g. water vapour and ozone) between these two spheres. This complex equilibrium region is known as the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The major mixing process befalls over the tropical region, where the maximum convective systems occur through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamical and chemical processes that occurring at UTLS region and quantative analysis of the mass exchange is essential. Ten years of data obtained from Indian MST radar located at a Tropical station Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) is used to study the long- and short (event) term cross tropopause transport. The prime mechanisms responsible for the radar backscattering echoes are isotropic/anisotropic turbulence fluctuations in the refractive index and Fresnel reflection/scattering due to sharp gradients in the radio refractive index. The inhomogeneties in the radio refractive index are contributed by both humidity and temperature below 8 km height, whereas above it, it is only contributed by the temperature gradients. When the dry stratospheric air penetrates into the troposphere, it will take some time to mix with the humid air of troposphere. Due to two different constituents of the air, there will be strong refractive index gradient, which will be reflected as enhanced radar backscattering echoes. The dry stratospheric air will slowly mix with the humid tropospheric air by means of small scale turbulence. Using this scattering mechanism behavior, the long-term and its seasonal characteristics, and the short-term event wise (convective disturbances) stratospheric air intrusion into the troposphere

  6. An exact approach for studying cargo transport by an ensemble of molecular motors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracellular transport is crucial for many cellular processes where a large fraction of the cargo is transferred by motor-proteins over a network of microtubules. Malfunctions in the transport mechanism underlie a number of medical maladies. Existing methods for studying how motor-proteins coordinate the transfer of a shared cargo over a microtubule are either analytical or are based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Approaches that yield analytical results, while providing unique insights into transport mechanism, make simplifying assumptions, where a detailed characterization of important transport modalities is difficult to reach. On the other hand, Monte-Carlo based simulations can incorporate detailed characteristics of the transport mechanism; however, the quality of the results depend on the number and quality of simulation runs used in arriving at results. Here, for example, it is difficult to simulate and study rare-events that can trigger abnormalities in transport. Results In this article, a semi-analytical methodology that determines the probability distribution function of motor-protein behavior in an exact manner is developed. The method utilizes a finite-dimensional projection of the underlying infinite-dimensional Markov model, which retains the Markov property, and enables the detailed and exact determination of motor configurations, from which meaningful inferences on transport characteristics of the original model can be derived. Conclusions Under this novel probabilistic approach new insights about the mechanisms of action of these proteins are found, suggesting hypothesis about their behavior and driving the design and realization of new experiments. The advantages provided in accuracy and efficiency make it possible to detect rare events in the motor protein dynamics, that could otherwise pass undetected using standard simulation methods. In this respect, the model has allowed to provide a possible explanation for possible mechanisms

  7. EmrE, a model for studying evolution and mechanism of ion-coupled transporters.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Shimon

    2009-05-01

    EmrE is a small (110 residues) SMR transporter from Escherichia coli that extrudes positively charged aromatic drugs in exchange for two protons, thus rendering bacteria resistant to a variety of toxic compounds. Due to its size, stability and retention of its function upon solubilization in detergent, EmrE provides a unique experimental paradigm for the biochemical and biophysical studies of membrane based ion-coupled transporters. In addition, EmrE has been in center stage in the past two years because it provides also a paradigm for the study of the evolution of membrane proteins. Controversy around this topic is still going on and some novel concepts are surfacing that may contribute to our understanding of evolution of topology of membrane proteins. Furthermore, based on the findings that the cell multidrug transporters interact functionally we introduce the concept of a cell Resistosome.

  8. Glucose Transport into Everted Sacks of Intestine of Mice: A Model for the Study of Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyrup-Olsen, Ingrith; Linder, Alison R.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a laboratory procedure which uses the small intestines of mice as models for the transport of glucose and other solutes. Demonstrations are suitable for either introductory or advanced physiology courses. (RE)

  9. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  10. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  11. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  12. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  13. 49 CFR 19.16 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 19.16 Section 19.16 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS... ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 19.16 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under the Act, any...

  14. Restrictions for reimbursement of direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus infection in Canada: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alison D.; Saeed, Sahar; Barrett, Lisa; Cooper, Curtis L.; Treloar, Carla; Bruneau, Julie; Feld, Jordan J.; Gallagher, Lesley; Klein, Marina B.; Krajden, Mel; Shoukry, Naglaa H.; Taylor, Lynn E.; Grebely, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Canada, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) regimens are costly. This presents challenges for universal drug coverage of the estimated 220 000 people with chronic HCV infection nationwide. The study objective was to appraise criteria for reimbursement of 4 HCV direct-acting antivirals in Canada. Methods: We reviewed the reimbursement criteria for simeprevir, sofosbuvir, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir plus dasabuvir in the 10 provinces and 3 territories. Data were extracted from April 2015 to June 2016. The primary outcomes extracted from health ministerial websites were: 1) minimum fibrosis stage required, 2) drug and alcohol use restrictions, 3) HIV coinfection restrictions and 4) prescriber type restrictions. Results: Overall, 85%-92% of provinces/territories limited access to patients with moderate fibrosis (Meta-Analysis of Histologic Data in Viral Hepatitis stage F2 or greater, or equivalent). There were no drug and alcohol use restrictions; however, several criteria (e.g., active injection drug use) were left to the discretion of the physician. Quebec did not reimburse simeprevir and sofosbuvir for people coinfected with HIV; no restrictions were found in the remaining jurisdictions. Prescriber type was restricted to specialists in up to 42% of provinces/territories. Interpretation: This review of criteria of reimbursement of HCV direct-acting antivirals in Canada showed substantial interjurisdictional heterogeneity. The findings could inform health policy and support the development and adoption of a national HCV strategy. PMID:28018873

  15. Crystal structure and biochemical studies of the trans-acting polyketide enoyl reductase LovC from lovastatin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Brian D.; Nguyen, Chi; Bruegger, Joel; Smith, Peter; Xu, Wei; Ma, Suzanne; Wong, Emily; Wong, Steven; Xie, Xinkai; Li, Jesse W.-H.; Vederas, John C.; Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Lovastatin is an important statin prescribed for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Biosynthesis of lovastatin uses an iterative type I polyketide synthase (PKS). LovC is a trans-acting enoyl reductase (ER) that specifically reduces three out of eight possible polyketide intermediates during lovastatin biosynthesis. Such trans-acting ERs have been reported across a variety of other fungal PKS enzymes as a strategy in nature to diversify polyketides. How LovC achieves such specificity is unknown. The 1.9-Å structure of LovC reveals that LovC possesses a medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) fold with a unique monomeric assembly. Two LovC cocrystal structures and enzymological studies help elucidate the molecular basis of LovC specificity, define stereochemistry, and identify active-site residues. Sequence alignment indicates a general applicability to trans-acting ERs of fungal PKSs, as well as their potential application to directing biosynthesis. PMID:22733743

  16. ttm-1 encodes CDF transporters that excrete zinc from intestinal cells of C. elegans and act in a parallel negative feedback circuit that promotes homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyun Cheol; Collier, Sara; Deshmukh, Krupa; Guthrie, James; Robertson, J David; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2013-05-01

    Zinc is an essential metal involved in a wide range of biological processes, and aberrant zinc metabolism is implicated in human diseases. The gastrointestinal tract of animals is a critical site of zinc metabolism that is responsible for dietary zinc uptake and distribution to the body. However, the role of the gastrointestinal tract in zinc excretion remains unclear. Zinc transporters are key regulators of zinc metabolism that mediate the movement of zinc ions across membranes. Here, we identified a comprehensive list of 14 predicted Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) family zinc transporters in Caenorhabditis elegans and demonstrated that zinc is excreted from intestinal cells by one of these CDF proteins, TTM-1B. The ttm-1 locus encodes two transcripts, ttm-1a and ttm-1b, that use different transcription start sites. ttm-1b expression was induced by high levels of zinc specifically in intestinal cells, whereas ttm-1a was not induced by zinc. TTM-1B was localized to the apical plasma membrane of intestinal cells, and analyses of loss-of-function mutant animals indicated that TTM-1B promotes zinc excretion into the intestinal lumen. Zinc excretion mediated by TTM-1B contributes to zinc detoxification. These observations indicate that ttm-1 is a component of a negative feedback circuit, since high levels of cytoplasmic zinc increase ttm-1b transcript levels and TTM-1B protein functions to reduce the level of cytoplasmic zinc. We showed that TTM-1 isoforms function in tandem with CDF-2, which is also induced by high levels of cytoplasmic zinc and reduces cytoplasmic zinc levels by sequestering zinc in lysosome-related organelles. These findings define a parallel negative feedback circuit that promotes zinc homeostasis and advance the understanding of the physiological roles of the gastrointestinal tract in zinc metabolism in animals.

  17. Intermediate acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents and risk of postoperative respiratory complications: prospective propensity score matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grosse-Sundrup, Martina; Henneman, Justin P; Sandberg, Warren S; Bateman, Brian T; Uribe, Jose Villa; Nguyen, Nicole Thuy; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Martinez, Elizabeth A; Kurth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during general anesthesia increases the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. Design Prospective, propensity score matched cohort study. Setting General teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 2006-10. Participants 18 579 surgical patients who received intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during surgery were matched by propensity score to 18 579 reference patients who did not receive such agents. Main outcome measures The main outcome measures were oxygen desaturation after extubation (hemoglobin oxygen saturation <90% with a decrease in oxygen saturation after extubation of >3%) and reintubations requiring unplanned admission to an intensive care unit within seven days of surgery. We also evaluated effects on these outcome variables of qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular transmission (train-of-four ratio) and reversal of neuromuscular blockade with neostigmine to prevent residual postoperative neuromuscular blockade. Results The use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents was associated with an increased risk of postoperative desaturation less than 90% after extubation (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.51) and reintubation requiring unplanned admission to an intensive care unit (1.40, 1.09 to 1.80). Qualitative monitoring of neuromuscular transmission did not decrease this risk and neostigmine reversal increased the risk of postoperative desaturation to values less than 90% (1.32, 1.20 to 1.46) and reintubation (1.76, 1.38 to 2.26). Conclusion The use of intermediate acting neuromuscular blocking agents during anesthesia was associated with an increased risk of clinically meaningful respiratory complications. Our data suggest that the strategies used in our trial to prevent residual postoperative neuromuscular blockade should be revisited. PMID:23077290

  18. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    SciTech Connect

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology initiative was created in FY 1999 to reduce the uncertainty associated with vadose zone transport processes beneath waste sites at DOE's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This information is needed not only to evaluate the risks from transport, but also to support the adoption of measures for minimizing impacts to the groundwater and surrounding environment. The principal uncertainties in vadose zone transport are the current distribution of source contaminants and the natural heterogeneity of the soil in which the contaminants reside. Oversimplified conceptual models resulting from these uncertainties and limited use of hydrologic characterization and monitoring technologies have hampered the understanding contaminant migration through Hanford's vadose zone. Essential prerequisites for reducing vadose transport uncertainly include the development of accurate conceptual models and the development or adoption of monitoring techniques capable of delineating the current distributions of source contaminants and characterizing natural site heterogeneity. The Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS) was conceived as part of the initiative to address the major uncertainties confronting vadose zone fate and transport predictions at the Hanford Site and to overcome the limitations of previous characterization attempts. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is managing the VZTFS for DOE. The VZTFS will conduct field investigations that will improve the understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. Ideally, these methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing infrastructure (i.e., more than 1,300 steel-cased boreholes). The objectives of the VZTFS are to conduct controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field sites at Hanford to

  19. Study of State and Local Implementation and Impact of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Final Report on Focus Study I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Ellen; Cohen, Gerald; Fiore, Tom; Muller, Eve; Robertson, Anne; Lingo, Amy Shearer

    This report summarizes findings from case studies that explored the implementation of the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and how it affects school district progress toward addressing the behavioral needs of students. Results are also presented on the progress districts are making on: developing…

  20. Study Abroad and Interlanguage Pragmatic Development in Request and Apology Speech Acts among Iranian Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorshidi, Hassan Rasouli

    2013-01-01

    This research study empirically investigated the impact of study abroad context on L2 learners' pragmatic development compared with study at home group in Iran. For the study abroad group the participants were selected from the Iranian students who registered in a six-month program in language institutes in India (Mysore) and for the study at home…