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Sample records for act wallops flight

  1. 75 FR 8997 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration... Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program (SRIPP). SUMMARY... Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia 23337. Comments may be submitted via...

  2. 76 FR 40751 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility; Site-Wide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ..., the 2010 Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program PEIS, the 2011 Alternative Energy... PEIS and to request input regarding the definition of reasonable alternatives and significant... Visitor Center adjacent to the Wallops Island National Wildlife Refuge. Alternatives The PEIS...

  3. Telemetry Computer System at Wallops Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, H.; Strock, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Telemetry Computer System in operation at NASA's Wallops Flight Center for real-time or off-line processing, storage, and display of telemetry data from rockets and aircraft. The system accepts one or two PCM data streams and one FM multiplex, converting each type of data into computer format and merging time-of-day information. A data compressor merges the active streams, and removes redundant data if desired. Dual minicomputers process data for display, while storing information on computer tape for further processing. Real-time displays are located at the station, at the rocket launch control center, and in the aircraft control tower. The system is set up and run by standard telemetry software under control of engineers and technicians. Expansion capability is built into the system to take care of possible future requirements.

  4. Orbital Rolls to Launch Pad at Wallops for Station Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rolled out to launch Pad-0A at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Sunday, January 5, 2014, in advance of a planned Wednesday, Jan. 8th, 1:32 p.m. EST launch. Th...

  5. The NASA radar entomology program at Wallops Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    NASA contribution to radar entomology is presented. Wallops Flight Center is described in terms of its radar systems. Radar tracking of birds and insects was recorded from helicopters for airspeed and vertical speed.

  6. Runway Incursion Prevention System Testing at the Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    2005-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) integrated with a Synthetic Vision System concept (SVS) was tested at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (RNO) and Wallops Flight Facility (WAL) in the summer of 2004. RIPS provides enhanced surface situational awareness and alerts of runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted using a Gulfstream-V (G-V) aircraft as the test platform and a NASA test aircraft and a NASA test van as incurring traffic. The purpose of the study, from the RIPS perspective, was to evaluate the RIPS airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts, focusing on crossing runway incursion scenarios. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, WAL flight test activities, and WAL test results.

  7. Runway incursion prevention system testing at the Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    2005-05-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) integrated with a Synthetic Vision System concept (SVS) was tested at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (RNO) and Wallops Flight Facility (WAL) in the summer of 2004. RIPS provides enhanced surface situational awareness and alerts of runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted using a Gulfstream-V (G-V) aircraft as the test platform and a NASA test aircraft and a NASA test van as incurring traffic. The purpose of the study, from the RIPS perspective, was to evaluate the RIPS airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts, focusing on crossing runway incursion scenarios. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, WAL flight test activities, and WAL test results.

  8. A new dimension. Wallops Island flight test range: The first fifteen years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortal, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A record of the first fifteen years (1945-1959) of research and development tests that were performed at Wallops Island is presented. It begins with the events that led to the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics flight test range on Wallops Island to the first year as a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Technical publications of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, 1980 through 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography lists the publications sponsored by the NASA Wallops Flight Center/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility during the period 1980 through 1983. The compilation contains citations listed by type of publication; i.e., NASA formal report, NASA contractor report, journal article, or presentation; by contract/grant number; and by accession number. Oceanography, astrophysics, artificial satellites, fluid mechanics, and sea ice are among the topics covered.

  10. Static tests of excess ground attenuation at Wallops Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, L. C.; Brown, R.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive experimental measurement program which evaluated the attenuation of sound for close to horizontal propagation over the ground was designed to replicate, under static conditions, results of the flight measurements carried out earlier by NASA at the same site (Wallops Flight Center). The program consisted of a total of 41 measurement runs of attenuation, in excess of spreading and air absorption losses, for one third octave bands over a frequency range of 50 to 4000 Hz. Each run consisted of measurements at 10 locations up to 675 m, from a source located at nominal elevations of 2.5, or 10 m over either a grassy surface or an adjacent asphalt concrete runway surface. The tests provided a total of over 8100 measurements of attenuation under conditions of low wind speed averaging about 1 m/s and, for most of the tests, a slightly positive temperature gradient, averaging about 0.3 C/m from 1.2 to 7 m. The results of the measurements are expected to provide useful experimental background for the further development of prediction models of near grazing incidence sound propagation losses.

  11. The Wallops Flight Facility Model for an Integrated Federal/Commercial Launch Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the federal government has been the predominant purchaser of space launches in the United States. The government met its needs through purchase of hardware and services. It also provided the infrastructure necessary to conduct launch operations through federal launch ranges, both military and NASA. Under this model, the government had the complete ownership, responsibility, liability, and expense for launch activities. As the commercial space sector grew, there emerged a corresponding growth in demand for launch range services. However, the expense and complexity of activities has thus far deterred a rapid rise in the establishment of purely commercial launch sites. In this context, purely commercial is defined as "without benefit of capabilities provided by the federal government." Consistent with the Commercial Space Launch Act, in recent years NASA and the Air Force have supported commercial launches from government launch ranges on a cost-reimbursable, non-interference basis. In this mode the commercial launch service providers contract with the government to provide services including use of facilities, tracking and data services, and range safety. As the commercial market projections began to show significant opportunities for economic development, several states established spaceports to provide the services necessary to meet these projected commercial needs. In 1997, NASA agreed to the establishment of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at the Wallops Flight Facility. Under this arrangement, NASA agreed to allow Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) to construct facilities on NASA property and agreed to provide services in accordance with the Space Act of 1958 and the Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984 (as amended) to support VSFC launch customers. The relationship between NASA and VCSFA, however, has evolved beyond a customer supplier relationship. A partnership relationship has emerged which pairs the strengths of the

  12. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  13. Goodard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility airborne geoscience support capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Roger L.

    1991-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Facility (GSFC/WFF), operates six aircraft which are used as airborne geoscience platforms. The aircraft complement consists of two UH-1B helicopters, one twin engine Skyvan, one twin jet T-39, and two four engine turboprop aircraft (P-3 and Electra) offering the research community a wide range of payload, altitude, speed, and range capabilities. WFF's support to a principal investigator include mission planning of all supporting elements, installation of equipment on the aircraft, fabrication of brackets, and adapters as required to adapt payloads to the aircraft, and planning of mission profiles to meet science objectives. The flight regime includes local, regional, and global missions. The WFF aircraft serve scientists at GSFC, other NASA centers, other government agencies, and universities. The WFF mode of operation features the walk on method of conducting research projects. The principal investigator requests aircraft support by letter to WFF and after approval is granted, works with the assigned mission manager to plan all phases of project support. The instrumentation is installed in WFF electronics racks, mounted on the aircraft, the missions are flown, and the equipment is removed when the scientific objectives are met. The principal investigator reimburses WFF for each flight hours, any overtime and travel expenses generated by the project, and for other mission-related expenses such as aircraft support services required at deployment bases.

  14. Engine Installation Effects of Four Civil Transport Airplanes: Wallops Flight Facility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gregg G.; Senzig, David A.; McCurdy, David A.; Roof, Christopher J.; Rapoza, Amanda S.

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC), the Environmental Measurement and Modeling Division of the United States Department of Transportation s John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe), and several other organizations (see Appendix A for a complete list of participating organizations and individuals) conducted a noise measurement study at NASA s Wallops Flight Facility (Wallops) near Chincoteague, Virginia during September 2000. This test was intended to determine engine installation effects on four civil transport airplanes: a Boeing 767-400, a McDonnell-Douglas DC9, a Dassault Falcon 2000, and a Beechcraft King Air. Wallops was chosen for this study because of the relatively low ambient noise of the site and the degree of control over airplane operating procedures enabled by operating over a runway closed to other uses during the test period. Measurements were conducted using a twenty microphone U-shaped array oriented perpendicular to the flight path; microphones were mounted such that ground effects were minimized and low elevation angles were observed.

  15. Analysis of Wallops Flight Test Data Through an Automated COTS System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackstock, Dexter Lee; Theobalds, Andre B.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2004 NASA Langley Research Center flight tested a Synthetic Vision System (SVS) at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (RNO) and the Wallops Flight Facility (WAL). The SVS included a Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) to improve pilot situational awareness while operating near and on the airport surface. The flight tests consisted of air and ground operations to evaluate and validate the performance of the system. This paper describes the flight test and emphasizes how positioning data was collected, post processed and analyzed through the use of a COTS-derived software system. The system that was developed to analyze the data was constructed within the MATLAB(TM) environment. The software was modified to read the data, perform several if-then scenarios and produce the relevant graphs, figures and tables.

  16. Rocket research and test at the NACA/NASA Wallops Island flight test range 1945-1959

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortal, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Established by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) to function under the supervision of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (PARD) of the Langley Research Center, the Wallops Island flight test range began operations in 1945. Before the end of the decade, researchers at Wallops Island had developed two techniques for studying transonic problems - the free-falling body technique and the wing-flow technique - accomplishments which won NACA the needed funds to develop a guided missile for the Army Armed Forces. PARD kept abreast of developments in solid rocket motor technology and added new rockets to its inventory as they became available, and by 1955 Wallops Island programs encompassed sounding-rocket and spaceflight research. By 1959, after the Wallops range had become a NASA facility, it had played essential roles in the development of such satellite programs as Echo and Project Mercury.

  17. Verification and Refinement of GPM Ground Validation Data at Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, D. A.; Wolff, D. B.; Petersen, W. A.; Tokay, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Precipitation Research Facility (PRF) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center - Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) employs numerous remote sensing and in-situ instruments for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) ground validation program. Among these assets are the NPOL S-band radar, D3R Ku/Ka-band radar, 2-D video disdrometers, Parsivel2 disdrometers, tipping bucket, and weighing bucket rain gauges. The WFF PRF has deployed these instruments in the Mid-Atlantic Delmarva region, and is actively collecting data for GPM ground validation. The NPOL radar is an observational tool to bridge the spatial difference between ground and satellite observations. Connecting the points near the ground between NPOL and other instruments leads to the extension of the full column through the atmosphere for direct comparisons with GPM observations. This in turn provides critical feedback to physical algorithm developers. Therefore, the verification and refinement of observations from radar, rain gauges, and disdrometers are critical to the GPM ground validation program by providing confidence in the underlying data used to validate satellite measurements. This research entails comparisons of data and derived products between validation instruments to verify and quantify differences in reflectivity, computed rain rates, and derived drop-size-distribution (DSD) parameters. Results comparing reflectivity from NPOL and 2-D video disdrometers indicate agreement within 1 dB from several significant rain events with light wind. Mixed-phase and windy events show greater variability. Rain rates and DSD parameters will show significant variability depending on computational methods chosen for each instrument. Comparisons between two radar-based dual-polarimetric approaches for estimating rain rates will be discussed, in addition to the retrieval of DSD parameters. Careful consideration of specific events will be needed for the best possible datasets for GPM statistical and physical

  18. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, VA 23337. Comments also may be submitted... Program Manager, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility; telephone 757-824-2319; or... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY:...

  19. High-Resolution Mesoscale Model Setup for the Eastern Range and Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale weather conditions can have an adverse effect on space launch, landing, ground processing, and weather advisories, watches, and warnings at the Eastern Range (ER) in Florida and Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. During summer, land-sea interactions across Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) lead to sea breeze front formation, which can spawn deep convection that can hinder operations and endanger personnel and resources. Many other weak locally-driven low-level boundaries and their interactions with the sea breeze front and each other can also initiate deep convection in the KSC/CCAFS area. These convective processes often last 60 minutes or less and pose a significant challenge to the local forecasters. Surface winds during the transition seasons (spring and fall) pose the most difficulties for the forecasters at WFF. They also encounter problems forecasting convective activity and temperature during those seasons. Therefore, accurate mesoscale model forecasts are needed to better forecast a variety of unique weather phenomena. Global and national scale models cannot properly resolve important local-scale weather features at each location due to their horizontal resolutions being much too coarse. Therefore, a properly tuned local data assimilation (DA) and forecast model at a high resolution is needed to provide improved capability. To accomplish this, a number of sensitivity tests were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in order to determine the best DA/model configuration for operational use at each of the space launch ranges to best predict winds, precipitation, and temperature. A set of Perl scripts to run the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI)/WRF in real-time were provided by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT). The GSI can analyze many types of observational data including satellite, radar, and conventional data. The GSI/WRF scripts

  20. Wallops: The Management of Rapid Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremer, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    A unique national resource, Wallops Flight Facility's Research Range enables flexible, low-cost space access, in-flight science, and technology research for all of NASA and the nation. It is the only launch range that NASA owns. This is for Keynote Address and charts are primarily an overview of activities performed at Wallops Flight Facility.

  1. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  2. 75 FR 66800 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Availability (NOA) of the Draft SRIPP Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on February 26, 2010 (75 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Infrastructure Protection Program AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration...

  3. Wallops and its role in depressed metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holton, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    Facilities and organization at the Wallops station are reviewed and some current research work is described that pertains to noise abatement studies as well as some testing phases on V/STOL aircraft. Radiation biology results of various space flights are reviewed and some efforts for the Regulatory Biology Program, involving depressed metabolism aspects of space travel are detailed.

  4. Antares Rolls Out to Wallops Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    Orbital Sciences Corporation’s Antares rocket rolls out to the launch pad at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility on the morning of Oct. 1, 2012. Over the next several months, Orbital plans a hot-fir...

  5. Birds of Wallops Island, Virginia, 1970 - 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides extensive data on birdlife at Wallops Island, a mid-Atlantic barrier island, and home to NASA Wallops Flight Facility's launch range. Variation in the distribution and abundance of many species is considerable in this region, which is centered along the north-south axis of the Delmarva Peninsula. Data (date of occurrence and general abundance) and analysis of the Island's diverse habitat structure are provided. A total of 244 species of birds are recorded; a summary of the records are given in the Species Accounts and the Appendix.

  6. Wallops Station and the Creation of an American Space Program. Master's Degree awarded by Univ. of Maryland-Baltimore County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Harold D., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the NASA history series a detailed history of Wallops Space Flight Facility from 1957 to 1966 is given. Discussions of Sputnik, NASA, Piloted Space Flight, Space Science Research, and comments on the changes the facility went through during the period are presented. Several appendices are attached as well covering R&D Launches, the NACA Era, organizational charts, Wallops' complement, and selected international cooperative programs.

  7. Agreements/subagreements Applicable to Wallops, 12 Nov. 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The status of space science agreements are noted. A general overview of the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is given. The geography, history, and mission of the facility are briefly surveyed. Brief accounts are given of NASA earth science activities at the WFF, including atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric optics, ocean physics, microwave altimetry, ocean color research, wind-wave-current interaction, flight support activities, the Sounding Rocket Program, and the NASA Balloon Program. Also discussed are the WFF launch range, the research airport, aircraft airborne science, telemetry, data systems, communications, and command and control.

  8. 76 FR 62692 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Virginia; Danger Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility conducts rocket-launching operations. The proposed amendment is necessary to protect the public from hazards associated with the rocket-launching operations. The proposed... is necessary to protect the public from hazards associated with rocket-launching operations....

  9. Antares Hot Fire Test at Wallops

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA commercial partner Orbital Sciences of Dulles, Va., successfully conducted an engine test of its Antares rocket Friday, Feb. 22, from Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport Pad-0A at NASA's Wallops F...

  10. Air Force Convair F-102 at Wallops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Two models of the Air Force's Convair F-102 sit poised for launch from Langley's Wallops Island facility. The Coke Bottle shape of the model on the bottom follows the area rule. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, (page 60), by James Schultz.

  11. Air Force Convair F-102 at Wallops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    Two models of the Air Force's Convair F-102 sit poised for launch from Langley's Wallops Island facility. The coke bottle shape of the model on the bottom follows the area rule. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 60).

  12. Observations of ionospheric convection from the Wallops SuperDARN radar at middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, J. B. H.; Greenwald, R. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Oksavik, K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Paxton, L. J.; Hairston, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    During geomagnetic storms the ability of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) to measure ionospheric convection becomes limited when the radars suffer from absorption and the auroral disturbance expands equatorward of the radar sites. To overcome these shortcomings, it was decided to construct a SuperDARN radar at middle latitudes on the grounds of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. This paper presents the first comprehensive analysis of Doppler measurements from the Wallops radar, which commenced operations in May 2005. Wallops measurements are compared with the Goose Bay radar during the onset of a geomagnetic storm on 31 August 2005: Goose Bay measured the onset of geomagnetic activity at high latitude while Wallops monitored the expansion of convection to middle latitudes. Average convection patterns binned by the Kp geomagnetic index are also presented. During weak-moderate geomagnetic activity (Kp ≤ 3) the Wallops radar observes ionospheric irregularities between 50° and 60° magnetic latitude drifting westward across much of the nightside. When these measurements are incorporated into the calculation of an average SuperDARN convection pattern, the streamlines of polar cap outflow on the nightside become kinked in a manner reminiscent of the Harang discontinuity. This morphology arises quite naturally when the two-cell convection at high latitudes merges with the prevailing westward convection at middle latitudes. During increased geomagnetic activity (Kp ≥ 3), Wallops is able to measure the expansion of auroral electric fields to middle latitudes and the average SuperDARN cross-polar cap potential is increased by 25%.

  13. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  14. The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.

  15. From Wallops Island to Project Mercury, 1945 - 1958: A memoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilruth, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Research is described which was conducted at the Wallops Island Missile Range (operated by the old National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics). These early beginnings are shown to be the base from which the Mercury Project evolved.

  16. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49...

  17. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49...

  18. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18... assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. (a) General. (1... procedures against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman, under 49...

  19. NASA Wallops Flight Center GEOS-3 altimeter data processing report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, H. R.; Dwyer, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The procedures used to process the GEOS-3 radar altimeter data from raw telemetry data to a final user data product are described. In addition, the radar altimeter hardware design and operating parameters are presented to aid the altimeter user in understanding the altimeter data.

  20. Wallops Low Elevation Link Analysis for the Constellation Launch/Ascent Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Keith; Ho, C.; Kantak, A.; Lee, C.; Tye, R.; Richards, E.; Sham, C.; Schlesinger, A.; Barritt, B.

    2011-01-01

    To execute the President's Vision for Space Exploration, the Constellation Program (CxP) was formed to build the next generation spacecraft Orion and launch vehicles Ares, to transport human and cargo to International Space Station (ISS), moon, and Mars. This paper focuses on the detailed link analysis for Orion/Ares s launch and ascent links with Wallops 11.3m antenna (1) Orion's Dissimilar Voice link: 10.24 Kbps, 2-way (2) Ares Developmental Flight Instrument link, 20 Mbps, downlink. Three launch trajectories are considered: TD7-E, F (Feb), and G (Aug). In certain launch scenarios, the critical events of main engine cutoff (MECO) and Separation occur during the low elevation regime of WFF s downrange -- less than 5 degree elevation angle. The goal of the study is to access if there is enough link margins for WFF to track the DV and DFI links.

  1. Wallops' Low Elevation Link Analysis for the Constellation Launch/Ascent Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Ho, Christian; Kantak, Anil; Lee, Charles; Tye, Robert; Richards, Edger; Sham, Catherine; Schlesinger, Adam; Barritt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the redirection of the Constellation Program, the Wallops 11.3-meter ground station was tasked to support the Orion's Dissimilar Voice (DV) link and the Ares's Development Flight Instrument (DFI) link. Detailed analysis of the launch trajectories indicates that during the launch and ascent operation, the critical events of Orion-Ares main engine cut off (MECO) and Separation occur at low elevation angle. We worked with engineers from both Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) and Johnson Space Center (JSC) to perform an intensive measurement and link analysis campaign on the DV and DFI links. The main results were as follows: (1) The DV links have more than 3 dB margin at MECO and Separation. (2) The DFI links have 0 dB margin at Separation during certain weather condition in summer season. (3) Tropospheric scintillation loss is the major impairment at low elevation angle. (4) The current scintillation models in the Recommendation ITU-R P.618 (Propagation data and prediction methods required for the design of Earth-space telecommunication systems), which are based on limited experimental and theoretical work, exhibit idiosyncratic behaviors. We developed an improved model based on the measurements of recent Shuttle mission launch and ascent links and the ITU propagation data. (5) Due to the attitude uncertainty of the Orion-Ares stack, the high dynamics of the launch and ascent trajectory, and the irregularity of the Orion and Ares antenna patterns, we employed new link analysis approach to model the spacecraft antenna gain. In this paper we discuss the details of the aforementioned results.

  2. Wake Vortex Study at Wallops Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The air flow from the wing of this agricultural plane is made by a technique that uses colored smoke rising from the ground. The swirl at the wingtip traces the aircraft's wake vortex, which exerts a powerful influence on the flow field behind the plane. Because of wake vortex, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires aircraft to maintain set distances behind each other when they land. A joint NASA-FAA program aimed at boosting airport capacity, however, is aimed at determining conditions under which planes may fly closer together. NASA researchers are studying wake vortex with a variety of tools, from supercomputers to wind tunnels to actual flight tests in research aircraft. Their goal is to fully understand the phenomenon, then use that knowledge to create an automated system that could predict changing wake vortex conditions at airports. Pilots already know, for example, that they have to worry less about wake vortex in rough weather because windy conditions cause them to dissipate more rapidly.

  3. Photogrammetric calibration of the NASA-Wallops Island image intensifier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, B. F.

    1972-01-01

    An image intensifier was designed for use as one of the primary tracking systems for the barium cloud experiment at Wallops Island. Two computer programs, a definitive stellar camara calibration program and a geodetic stellar camara orientation program, were originally developed at Wallops on a GE 625 computer. A mathematical procedure for determining the image intensifier distortions is outlined, and the implementation of the model in the Wallops computer programs is described. The analytical calibration of metric cameras is also discussed.

  4. 75 FR 57056 - Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge and Wallops Island National Wildlife Refuge, Accomack...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ..., including opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, and environmental...-dependent recreational opportunities such as fishing, hunting, and wildlife photography. Wallops Island...

  5. 33 CFR 334.130 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. 334.130 Section 334.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.130 Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. (a) The...

  6. Nighttime ionization by energetic particles at Wallops Island in the altitude region 120 to 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    Five Nike Apache rockets, each including an energetic particle spectrometer and an electron density-electron temperature experiment, have been launched from Wallops Island (L = 2.6) near midnight under varying geomagnetic conditions. On the most recent of these (5 January 1978) an additional spectrometer with a broom magnet, and a 391.4 nm photometer were flown. The data from this flight indicate that the energetic particle flux consists predominantly of protons, neutral hydrogen and possibly other energetic nuclei. The energy spectrum becomes much softer and the flux more intense with increasing Kp for 10-100 keV. The pitch angle distribution at 180 km is asymmetrical with a peak at 90 deg indicating that the majority of particles are near their mirroring altitude. Ionization rates are calculated based on the measured energy spectrum and mirror height distribution. The resulting ionization rate profile is found to be nearly constant with altitude in the region 120 to 200 km. The measured energetic particle flux and calculated ionization rate from the five flights are found to vary with magnetic activity (based on the Kp and Dst indexes) in the same way as the independently derived ionization rates deduced from the electron density profile.

  7. Autonomous Flight Safety System - Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that uses tracking and attitude data from onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and configurable rule-based algorithms to make flight termination decisions. AFSS objectives are to increase launch capabilities by permitting launches from locations without range safety infrastructure, reduce costs by eliminating some downrange tracking and communication assets, and reduce the reaction time for flight termination decisions.

  8. NASA's Suborbital Missions Teach Engineering and Technology: Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterton, Joyce L.

    2016-01-01

    A 50 minute-workshop based on NASA publicly available information will be conducted at the International Technology and Engineering Educator Association annual conference. Attendees will include middle and high school teachers and university teacher educators. Engineering and technology are essential to NASA's suborbital missions including sounding rockets, scientific balloon and airborne science. The attendees will learn how to include NASA information on these missions in their teaching.

  9. Norwegian airline passengers are not more afraid of flying after the terror act of September 11. The flight anxiety, however, is significantly attributed to acts of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Ekeberg, Oivind; Fauske, Berit; Berg-Hansen, Bente

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study: (1) the prevalence of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers; (2) situations that may be of concern during flights and situations not related to flying; (3) whether passengers feel more afraid after the terror act of September 11, 2001; and (4) whether passengers were more afraid in 2002 than in 1986.A questionnaire was distributed during domestic flights in Norway in 1986 and 2002. To asses flight anxiety, a six point scale was used, from 0 = not afraid at all, to 5 = always very afraid, and sometimes avoid flying because of that. A 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of anxiety. There were 50.8% who were not afraid at all. There were 12 women (5.2%) and one man (0.4%) with flight phobia. However, 22 (4.5%) had cancelled flights because of anxiety during the last two years. Situations that caused most concern during flights were turbulence and fear of terrorism and highjacking. After September 11, 48% were not more afraid, 38% a little more, 10% moderately, 3% rather much and 2% very much. The passengers, however, were not more afraid of flying in 2002 than in 1986. About 3% of Norwegian airline passengers have a flight phobia. Women are significantly more concerned than men. The impact of the terror act September 11, 2001 was rather moderate. The level of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers was not significantly different in 2002 and 1986.

  10. Norwegian airline passengers are not more afraid of flying after the terror act of September 11. The flight anxiety, however, is significantly attributed to acts of terrorism

    PubMed Central

    Ekeberg, Øivind; Fauske, Berit; Berg-Hansen, Bente

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study: (1) the prevalence of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers; (2) situations that may be of concern during flights and situations not related to flying; (3) whether passengers feel more afraid after the terror act of September 11, 2001; and (4) whether passengers were more afraid in 2002 than in 1986.A questionnaire was distributed during domestic flights in Norway in 1986 and 2002. To asses flight anxiety, a six point scale was used, from 0 = not afraid at all, to 5 = always very afraid, and sometimes avoid flying because of that. A 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of anxiety. There were 50.8% who were not afraid at all. There were 12 women (5.2%) and one man (0.4%) with flight phobia. However, 22 (4.5%) had cancelled flights because of anxiety during the last two years. Situations that caused most concern during flights were turbulence and fear of terrorism and highjacking. After September 11, 48% were not more afraid, 38% a little more, 10% moderately, 3% rather much and 2% very much. The passengers, however, were not more afraid of flying in 2002 than in 1986. About 3% of Norwegian airline passengers have a flight phobia. Women are significantly more concerned than men. The impact of the terror act September 11, 2001 was rather moderate. The level of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers was not significantly different in 2002 and 1986. PMID:24934082

  11. Field test to intercompare carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydroxyl instrumentation at Wallops Island, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Beck, Sherwin M.; Bendura, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    Documentation of the first of three instrument intercomparisons conducted as part of NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE-1) is given. This ground-based intercomparison was conducted during July 1983 at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. Instruments intercompared included one laser system and three grab-sample approaches for CO; two chemiluminescent systems and one laser-induced fluorescent (LIF) technique for NO; and two different LIF systems and a radiochemical tracer technique for OH. The major objectives of this intercomparison was to intercompare ambient measurements of CO, NO, and OH at a common site by using techniques of fundamentally different detection principles and to identify any major biases among the techniques prior to intercomparison on an aircraft platform. Included in the report are comprehensive discussions of workshop requirements, philosophies, and operations as well as intercomparison analyses and results. In addition, the large body of nonintercomparison data incorporated into the workshop measurements is summarized. The report is an important source document for those interested in conducting similar large and complex intercomparison tests as well as those interested in using the data base for purposes other than instrument intercomparison.

  12. 14 CFR 13.18 - Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil penalties: Administrative assessment against an individual acting as a pilot, flight engineer, mechanic, or repairman. 13.18 Section 13.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL...

  13. Flight results for the airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Burris, John F.

    1995-01-01

    The airborne Raman lidar recently completed a series of flight tests aboard a C-130 aircraft operated by the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The Raman lidar is intended to make simultaneous remote measurements of methane, water vapor, temperature, and pressure. The principal purpose of the measurements is to aid in the investigation of polar phenomena related to the formation of ozone 'holes' by permitting the identification of the origin of air parcels using methane as a tracer.

  14. 77 FR 69491 - Privacy Act of 1974: System of Records; Secure Flight Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... list, known as the TSDB. \\6\\ 73 FR 64018 (Oct. 28, 2008). TSA established the Secure Flight system of... System (TSERS), 75 FR 28042 (May 19, 2010). Consistent with its ongoing efforts to focus on passengers... records.'' A ``system of records'' is a group of any records under the control of an agency for...

  15. Multiyear slant-path rain fade statistics at 28.56 GHz for Wallops Island, Va.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1980-01-01

    The multiyear rain fade statistics collected in the Wallops Island, Va., area at 28.56 GHz during 1977 through 1979 showed that the overall fade distributions for the individual years showed small differences. Exceedance time variations were observed in the monthly and time of day fade data from year to year, but the second year fades relative to the first year had less than 20% rms deviation. These results are useful to designers of earth-satellite communications systems which require reliable fade statistics for establishing link-margin requirements. The Wallops Island fade distribution had an rms decibel deviation of less than 14% when compared with the International Radio Consultative Committee prediction model.

  16. ERTS-1 DCS technical support provided by Wallops Station. [ground truth stations and DCP repair depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.

    1975-01-01

    Wallops Station accepted the tasks of providing ground truth to several ERTS investigators, operating a DCP repair depot, designing and building an airborne DCP Data Acquisition System, and providing aircraft underflight support for several other investigators. Additionally, the data bank is generally available for use by ERTS and other investigators that have a scientific interest in data pertaining to the Chesapeake Bay area. Working with DCS has provided a means of evaluating the system as a data collection device possibly applicable to ongoing Earth Resources Program activities in the Chesapeake Bay area as well as providing useful data and services to other ERTS investigators. The two areas of technical support provided by Wallops, ground truth stations and repair for DCPs, are briefly discussed.

  17. The ACTS Flight System - Cost-Effective Advanced Communications Technology. [Advanced Communication Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, W. M., Jr.; Beck, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The multibeam communications package (MCP) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be STS-launched by NASA in 1988 for experimental demonstration of satellite-switched TDMA (at 220 Mbit/sec) and baseband-processor signal routing (at 110 or 27.5 Mbit/sec) is characterized. The developmental history of the ACTS, the program definition, and the spacecraft-bus and MCP parameters are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, block diagrams, and maps of the coverage plan. Advanced features of the MPC include 4.5-dB-noise-figure 30-GHz FET amplifiers and 20-GHz TWTA transmitters which provide either 40-W or 8-W RF output, depending on rain conditions. The technologies being tested in ACTS can give frequency-reuse factors as high as 20, thus greatly expanding the orbit/spectrum resources available for U.S. communications use.

  18. Flight test and evaluation of Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost flight research program was conducted to evaluate the performance of differential Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. The flight program consisted of two distinct parts corresponding to the two major objectives of the study. The Wallops Flight Program was conducted to obtain Omega signal and phase data in the Wallops Flight Center vicinity to provide preliminary technical information and experience in preparation for a comprehensive NASA/FAA flight test program of an experimental differential Omega system. The Northeast Corridor Flight Program was conducted to examine Omega operational suitability and performance on low altitude area navigation (RNAV) routes for city-center to city-center VTOL commercial operations in the Boston-New York-Washington corridor. The development, execution and conclusions of the flight research program are discribed. The results of the study provide both quantitative and qualitative data on the Omega Navigation System under actual operating conditions.

  19. IRVE-II Post-Flight Trajectory Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Bose, David M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) II successfully demonstrated an inflatable aerodynamic decelerator after being launched aboard a sounding rocket from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF). Preliminary day of flight data compared well with pre-flight Monte Carlo analysis, and a more complete trajectory reconstruction performed with an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) approach followed. The reconstructed trajectory and comparisons to an attitude solution provided by NASA Sounding Rocket Operations Contract (NSROC) personnel at WFF are presented. Additional comparisons are made between the reconstructed trajectory and pre and post-flight Monte Carlo trajectory predictions. Alternative observations of the trajectory are summarized which leverage flight accelerometer measurements, the pre-flight aerodynamic database, and on-board flight video. Finally, analysis of the payload separation and aeroshell deployment events are presented. The flight trajectory is reconstructed to fidelity sufficient to assess overall project objectives related to flight dynamics and overall, IRVE-II flight dynamics are in line with expectations

  20. HyBoLT Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fang-Jeng (Frank); Berry, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    HyBoLT was a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition flight experiment funded by the Hypersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program in NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The HyBoLT test article mounted on the top of the ALV X-1 rocket was launched from Virginia's Wallops Island on August 22, 2008. Unfortunately a problem in the rocket's flight control system caused the vehicle to veer off the designed flight course. Launch officials activated a self-destruct mechanism in the rocket's nose cone after 20 seconds into flight. This report is a closeout document about the HyBoLT flight experiment. Details are provided of the objectives and approach associated with this experimental program as well as the 20 seconds flight data acquired before the vehicle was destroyed.

  1. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  2. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  3. Seasonal Evolution of Rossby and Gravity Wave Induced Laminae in Ozonesonde Data Obtained from Wallops Island, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grant, William B.

    1998-01-01

    A method for evaluating the seasonal evolution of ozone laminae using ozonesonde data is discussed. The method uses the correlation between small-scale ozone and potential temperature variations to distinguish between laminae generated by quasi-isentropic filamentation by Rossby waves and by vertical displacements of material surfaces by gravity waves. Data from Wallops Island, Virginia show that Rossby wave induced ozone laminae are most frequently encountered at Wallops during the winter months near 15 km while statistically significant gravity wave induced laminae occur above 15 km during the early winter and at the tropopause from late winter through early spring.

  4. Honor Flight Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Toomey, Pat [R-PA

    2014-07-28

    07/28/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4812, which became Public Law 113-221 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Honor Flight Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Murphy, Christopher S. [D-CT

    2014-07-24

    07/24/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4812, which became Public Law 113-221 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Differential GPS/inertial navigation approach/landing flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Scott; Schipper, Brian; Vallot, Larry; Parker, Nigel; Spitzer, Cary

    1992-01-01

    In November of 1990 a joint Honeywell/NASA-Langley differential GPS/inertial flight test was conducted at Wallops Island, Virginia. The test objective was to acquire a system performance database and demonstrate automatic landing using an integrated differential GPS/INS (Global Positioning System/inertial navigation system) with barometric and radar altimeters. The flight test effort exceeded program objectives with over 120 landings, 36 of which were fully automatic differential GPS/inertial landings. Flight test results obtained from post-flight data analysis are discussed. These results include characteristics of differential GPS/inertial error, using the Wallops Island Laser Tracker as a reference. Data on the magnitude of the differential corrections and vertical channel performance with and without radar altimeter augmentation are provided.

  7. Drosophila indirect flight muscle specific Act88F actin mutants as a model system for studying congenital myopathies of the human ACTA1 skeletal muscle actin gene.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah E; Salvi, Sheetal S; Sevdali, Maria; Stark, Meg; Goulding, David; Clayton, Jonathan D; Bullard, Belinda; Sparrow, John C; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2010-06-01

    Most human ACTA1 skeletal actin gene mutations cause dominant, congenital myopathies often with severely reduced muscle function and neonatal mortality. High sequence conservation of actin means many mutated ACTA1 residues are identical to those in the DrosophilaAct88F, an indirect flight muscle specific sarcomeric actin. Four known Act88F mutations occur at the same actin residues mutated in ten ACTA1 nemaline mutations, A138D/P, R256H/L, G268C/D/R/S and R372C/S. These Act88F mutants were examined for similar muscle phenotypes. Mutant homozygotes show phenotypes ranging from a lack of myofibrils to almost normal sarcomeres at eclosion. Aberrant Z-disc-like structures and serial Z-disc arrays, 'zebra bodies', are observed in homozygotes and heterozygotes of all four Act88F mutants. These electron-dense structures show homologies to human nemaline bodies/rods, but are much smaller than those typically found in the human myopathy. We conclude that the Drosophila indirect flight muscles provide a good model system for studying ACTA1 mutations. PMID:20452215

  8. Autonomous Flight Safety System Road Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.; Zoemer, Roger D.; Forney, Chris S.

    2005-01-01

    On February 3, 2005, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) conducted the first Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) test on a moving vehicle -- a van driven around the KSC industrial area. A subset of the Phase III design was used consisting of a single computer, GPS receiver, and UPS antenna. The description and results of this road test are described in this report.AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations.

  9. Test flights of the NASA ultra-long duration balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ultra-Long Duration Balloon development project is attempting to extend the potential flight durations for large scientific balloon payloads. The culmination of each of the development steps has been the fabrication and test flight of progressively larger balloons. This new super-pressure balloon is a pumpkin balloon design. This paper concentrates on the super-pressure balloon development test flights that have been, and are currently being planned by the NASA Balloon Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Descriptions of two test flights from early 2001 are presented along with lessons learned. Results are also presented of a July 2002 test flight of a full-scale 610,500 m 3 balloon with a 2800 kg suspended load that incorporated the lessons learned.

  10. Computer program for post-flight analysis of rigid body moments acting on a launch vehicle first stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauber, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program and method for evaluation of the rigid body disturbing moments for a launch vehicle first stage based on post-flight measurements is described. The technique is a straightforward deterministic approach. Residual moments are computed to satisfy the equations of motion. Residuals are expressed in terms of altered vehicle characteristics; the aerodynamic coefficients, thrust misalignment, and control effectiveness. This method was used on the Scout launch vehicle and uncovered several significant differences between flight data and wind tunnel data. The computer program is written in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 173 computer system.

  11. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-08-20

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements.

  12. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-10-01

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements. PMID:26292289

  13. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Davis, K.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, G.; Dobler, J. T.; Fried, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lin, B.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N. L.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; O'Dell, C.; Sweeney, C.; Yang, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital - 2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT - America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT - America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2 and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  14. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; Miles, Natasha; Nehrir, Amin; Obland, Michael; O'Dell, Chris; Sweeney, Colm; Yang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  15. Temporal Variability of Upper-level Winds at the Eastern Range, Western Range and Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Space launch vehicle commit-to-launch decisions include an assessment of the upper-level (UL) atmospheric wind environment to assess the vehicle's controllability and structural integrity during ascent. These assessments occur at predetermined times during the launch countdown based on measured wind data obtained prior to the assessment. However, the pre-launch measured winds may not represent the wind environment during the vehicle ascent. Uncertainty in the UL winds over the time period between the assessment and launch can be mitigated by a statistical analysis of wind change over time periods of interest using historical data from the launch range. Without historical data, theoretical wind models must be used, which can result in inaccurate wind placards that misrepresent launch availability. Using an overconservative model could result in overly restrictive vehicle wind placards, thus potentially reducing launch availability. Conversely, using an under-conservative model could result in launching into winds that might damage or destroy the vehicle. A large sample of measured wind profiles best characterizes the wind change environment. These historical databases consist of a certain number of wind pairs, where two wind profile measurements spaced by the time period of interest define a pair.

  16. GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) Altimeter Document Series. Volume 5; Version 1; GFO Radar Altimeter Processing at Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Dennis W.; Conger, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    This document is a compendium of the WFF GFO Software Development Team's knowledge regarding of GDO CAL/VAL Data. It includes many elements of a requirements document, a software specification document, a software design document, and a user's guide. In the more technical sections, this document assumes the reader is familiar with GFO and its CAL/VAL Data.

  17. The Longitudinal Stability, Control Effectiveness, and Control Hinge Moment Characteristics Obtained from a Flight Investigation of a Canard Missile Configuration at Transonic and Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niewald, Roy J; Moul, Martin T

    1950-01-01

    A 60 degree delta wing canard missile configuration was flight-tested at the Langley pilotless aircraft research station at Wallops Island, Va. The results include the longitudinal stability derivatives, control effectiveness, drag characteristics, and control-surface hinge-moment characteristics for a Mach number range of 0.7 to 1.45.

  18. IRVE-3 Post-Flight Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, Aaron D.; Beck, Roger; Bose, David; White, Joseph; Edquist, Karl; Hollis, Brian; Lindell, Michael; Cheatwood, F. N.; Gsell, Valerie; Bowden, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) was conducted from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility on July 23, 2012. Launched on a Black Brant XI sounding rocket, the IRVE-3 research vehicle achieved an apogee of 469 km, deployed and inflated a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD), re-entered the Earth's atmosphere at Mach 10 and achieved a peak deceleration of 20 g's before descending to splashdown roughly 20 minutes after launch. This paper presents the filtering methodology and results associated with the development of the Best Estimated Trajectory of the IRVE-3 flight test. The reconstructed trajectory is compared against project requirements and pre-flight predictions of entry state, aerodynamics, HIAD flexibility, and attitude control system performance.

  19. Flight of a UV spectrophotometer aboard Galileo 2, the NASA Convair 990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, B.; Hunderwadel, J. L.; Hanser, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    An ultraviolet interference-filter spectrophotometer (UVS) fabricated for aircraft-borne use on the DOT Climatic Impact Assessment Program (CIAP) has been successfully tested in a series of flights on the NASA Convair 990, Galileo II. UV flux data and the calculated total ozone above the flight path are reported for several of the flights. Good agreement is obtained with the total ozone as deducted by integration of an ozone sonde vertical profile obtained at Wallops Island, Virginia near the time of a CV-990 underpass. Possible advantages of use of the UVS in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program are discussed.

  20. Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    This program was developed to fill a need within the Wallops Flight Facility workflow for automation of the development of vertical plan limit lines used by flight safety officers during the conduct of expendable launch vehicle missions. Vertical plane present-position-based destruct lines have been used by range safety organizations at numerous launch ranges to mitigate launch vehicle risks during the early phase of flight. Various ranges have implemented data submittal and processing workflows to develop these destruct lines. As such, there is significant prior art in this field. The ElLimits program was developed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to automate the process for developing vertical plane limit lines using current computing technologies. The ElLimits program is used to configure launch-phase range safety flight control lines for guided missiles. The name of the program derives itself from the fundamental quantity that is computed - flight elevation limits. The user specifies the extent and resolution of a grid in the vertical plane oriented along the launch azimuth. At each grid point, the program computes the maximum velocity vector flight elevation that can be permitted without endangering a specified back-range location. Vertical plane x-y limit lines that can be utilized on a present position display are derived from the flight elevation limit data by numerically propagating 'streamlines' through the grid. The failure turn and debris propagation simulation technique used by the application is common to all of its analysis options. A simulation is initialized at a vertical plane grid point chosen by the program. A powered flight failure turn is then propagated in the plane for the duration of the so-called RSO reaction time. At the end of the turn, a delta-velocity is imparted, and a ballistic trajectory is propagated to impact. While the program possesses capability for powered flight failure turn modeling, it does not require extensive user

  1. Impact of Vehicle Flexibility on IRVE-II Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, David M.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment II (IRVE-II) successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on August 17, 2009. The primary objectives of this flight test were to demonstrate inflation and re-entry survivability, assess the thermal and drag performance of the reentry vehicle, and to collect flight data for refining pre-flight design and analysis tools. Post-flight analysis including trajectory reconstruction outlined in O Keefe3 demonstrated that the IRVE-II Research Vehicle (RV) met mission objectives but also identified a few anomalies of interest to flight dynamics engineers. Most notable of these anomalies was high normal acceleration during the re-entry pressure pulse. Deflection of the inflatable aeroshell during the pressure pulse was evident in flight video and identified as the likely cause of the anomaly. This paper provides a summary of further post-flight analysis with particular attention to the impact of aeroshell flexibility on flight dynamics and the reconciliation of flight performance with pre-flight models. Independent methods for estimating the magnitude of the deflection of the aeroshell experienced on IRVE-II are discussed. The use of the results to refine models for pre-flight prediction of vehicle performance is then described.

  2. Miracle Flights

    MedlinePlus

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  3. Flight Test Evaluation of Situation Awareness Benefits of Integrated Synthetic Vision System Technology f or Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III

    2005-01-01

    Research was conducted onboard a Gulfstream G-V aircraft to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts during flight tests over a 6-week period at the Wallops Flight Facility and Reno/Tahoe International Airport. The NASA Synthetic Vision System incorporates database integrity monitoring, runway incursion prevention alerting, surface maps, enhanced vision sensors, and advanced pathway guidance and synthetic terrain presentation. The paper details the goals and objectives of the flight test with a focus on the situation awareness benefits of integrating synthetic vision system enabling technologies for commercial aircraft.

  4. Test flights of the NASA ultra long duration balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H.

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon development project is attempting to extend the potential flight durations for large scientific balloon payloads. The culmination of each of the development steps has been the fabrication and test flight of progressively larger balloons. This new super-pressure balloon is a pumpkin balloon design. This paper concentrates on the super-pressure balloon development test flights that have been, and are currently being planned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Two Ultra Long Duration balloon test flights took place from Australia in early 2001. The results from these flights, as well as the challenges presented, will be discussed. With these lessons learned and incorporating both material and design improvements, a test flight of a full-scale 610,500m3 balloon with a 2,800 kg suspended load will be completed in Spring of 2002 from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. This balloon, the largest single celled super- pressure balloon ever flown, has been sized to satisfy the requirements for the planned ULDB CREAM mission in late 2003. A description of the balloon design, including the modifications made as a result of the lessons learned from the two Australia flights, will be presented. The results, highlighting balloon performance, from the Spring 2002 test flight will be presented. This will include information related to the balloon preparation, flight operations, and flight performance. A review of the radiative environmental influences on the balloon related to this flight will be presented. A second test flight of a full-scale Ultra Long Duration Balloon is scheduled for December of 2002. This flight is expected to be one orbit or approximately 15 days. The plans for this Southern Hemisphere, Australia launched, global flight will also be presented.

  5. Flight demonstration of flight termination system and solid rocket motor ignition using semiconductor laser initiated ordnance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Maxfield, B.; Boucher, C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid State Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) offers new technology having potential for enhanced safety, reduced costs, and improved operational efficiency. Concerns over the absence of programmatic applications of the technology, which has prevented acceptance by flight programs, should be abated since LIO has now been operationally implemented by the Laser Initiated Ordnance Sounding Rocket Demonstration (LOSRD) Program. The first launch of solid state laser diode LIO at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) occurred on March 15, 1995 with all mission objectives accomplished. This project, Phase 3 of a series of three NASA Headquarters LIO demonstration initiatives, accomplished its objective by the flight of a dedicated, all-LIO sounding rocket mission using a two-stage Nike-Orion launch vehicle. LIO flight hardware, made by The Ensign-Bickford Company under NASA's first Cooperative Agreement with Profit Making Organizations, safely initiated three demanding pyrotechnic sequence events, namely, solid rocket motor ignition from the ground and in flight, and flight termination, i.e., as a Flight Termination System (FTS). A flight LIO system was designed, built, tested, and flown to support the objectives of quickly and inexpensively putting LIO through ground and flight operational paces. The hardware was fully qualified for this mission, including component testing as well as a full-scale system test. The launch accomplished all mission objectives in less than 11 months from proposal receipt. This paper concentrates on accomplishments of the ordnance aspects of the program and on the program's implementation and results. While this program does not generically qualify LIO for all applications, it demonstrated the safety, technical, and operational feasibility of those two most demanding applications, using an all solid state safe and arm system in critical flight applications.

  6. The 37-day flight of CREAM during the 2009-2010 austral summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was launched from McMurdo Station Antarctica on December 1, 2009, an early-launch record for Antarctic Long Duration Balloon (LDB) flights. A cumulative exposure of ˜ 156 days was achieved when this 37-day fifth flight of CREAM was terminated over the Ross Ice Shelf on January 8, 2010. Combining a sampling calorimeter for energy measurement with multiple charge detectors for particle identification, CREAM-V provided a large data sample to measure elemental spectra for 1 ≤ Z ≤ 26 in energies above 1014 eV. This was the first time that CREAM was supported with the standard Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) for LDB payloads. The first four flights were supported by the Command and Data Module (CDM) developed by the NASA Wallops Flight Facility for Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights. The instrument performance, results from the ongoing data analysis, and future plans will be presented.

  7. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  8. Flight Testing an Integrated Synthetic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream GV aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  9. Flight testing an integrated synthetic vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.

  10. Flight-Test Evaluation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of 0.5-Scale Models of the Fairchild Lark Pilotless-Aircraft Configuration: Standard Configuration with Wing Flaps Deflected 60 Degrees and Model having Tail in Line with Wings, TED No. NACA 2387

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, David G.

    1947-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted at the Flight Test Station of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division at Wallop Island, Va., to determine the longitudinal control and stability characteristics of 0.5-scale models of the Fairchild Lark pilotless aircraft with the tail in line with the wings a d with the horizontal wing flaps deflected 60 deg. The data were obtained by the use of a telemeter and by radar tracking.

  11. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  12. Flight Performance of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert; DiNonno, John; Bodkin, Richard; Gsell, Valerie; Miller, Nathanael; Olds, Aaron; Bruce, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) launched July 23, 2012, from NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on a Black Brant XI suborbital sounding rocket and successfully performed its mission, demonstrating the survivability of a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) in the reentry heating environment and also illustrating the effect of an offset center of gravity on the HIAD's lift-to-drag ratio. IRVE-3 was a follow-on to 2009's IRVE-II mission, which demonstrated exo-atmospheric inflation, reentry survivability - without significant heating - and the aerodynamic stability of a HIAD down to subsonic flight conditions. NASA Langley Research Center is leading the development of HIAD technology for use on future interplanetary and Earth reentry missions.

  13. Air Data Boom System Development for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Cox, Jeff; Bondurant, Robert; Dupont, Ron; ODonnell, Louise; Vellines, Wesley, IV; Johnston, William M.; Cagle, Christopher M.; Schuster, David M.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Newman, John A.; Tyler, Erik D.; Sterling, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale and passively, aerodynamically stabilized MLAS launch abort demonstrator was successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility following nearly two years of development work on the launch abort concept: from a napkin sketch to a flight demonstration of the full-scale flight test vehicle. The MLAS flight test vehicle was instrumented with a suite of aerodynamic sensors. The purpose was to obtain sufficient data to demonstrate that the vehicle demonstrated the behavior predicted by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and wind tunnel testing. This paper describes development of the Air Data Boom (ADB) component of the aerodynamic sensor suite.

  14. NASA Langley's AirSTAR Testbed: A Subscale Flight Test Capability for Flight Dynamics and Control System Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The

  15. TARFOX WALLOPS MET (ASCII)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    ... Ground Station Instrument:  Barometer Humidity Sensor Thermometer Wind Sensor Spatial Coverage:  ... ASDC Order Tool Parameters:  Pressure Relative Humidity Temperature Wind Direction Wind Speed Order ...

  16. Autonomous Flight Safety System September 27, 2005, Aircraft Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the first aircraft test of the Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS). The test was conducted on September 27, 2005, near Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using a privately-owned single-engine plane and evaluated the performance of several basic flight safety rules using real-time data onboard a moving aerial vehicle. This test follows the first road test of AFSS conducted in February 2005 at KSC. AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility (WEF) project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations. The mission rules are configured for each operation by the responsible Range Safety authorities and can be loosely categorized in four major categories: Parameter Threshold Violations, Physical Boundary Violations present position and instantaneous impact point (TIP), Gate Rules static and dynamic, and a Green-Time Rule. Examples of each of these rules were evaluated during this aircraft test.

  17. Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Billie M.

    1997-01-01

    The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.

  18. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN and C) Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Raymond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Engineering and Safety Center designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity; describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle; and lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  19. The Virginia Space Flight Center model for an integrated federal/commercial launch range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Billie M.

    2000-01-01

    Until 1998, the federal government has been the predominant purchaser of space launches in the U.S. through the purchase of hardware and services. Historically, the government provided the necessary infrastructure for launches from the federal DoD and NASA launch ranges. In this historical model, the federal government had complete ownership, responsibility, liability, and expense for launch activities. In 1998, commercial space launches accounted for 60% of U.S. launches. This growth in commercial launches has increased the demand for launch range services. However, the expense, complexity of activities, and issues over certification of flight safety have deterred the establishment of purely commercial launch sites, with purely commercial being defined as without benefit of capabilities provided by the federal government. Provisions of the Commercial Space Launch Act have enabled DoD and NASA to support commercial launches from government launch ranges on a cost-reimbursable, non-interference basis. The government provides services including use of facilities, tracking and data services, and range and flight safety. In the 1990's, commercial space market projections indicated strong potential for large numbers of commercial satellites to be launched well into the first decade of the 21st century. In response to this significant opportunity for economic growth, several states established spaceports to provide the services necessary to meet these forecast commercial needs. In 1997, NASA agreed to the establishment of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC), a commercial spaceport, at its Wallops Flight Facility. Under this arrangement, NASA agreed to allow the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) to construct facilities on NASA property and agreed to provide launch range and other services in accordance with the Space Act and Commercial Space Launch Act in support of VSFC launch customers. A partnership relationship between NASA and VCSFA has emerged

  20. Lightning attachment patterns and flight conditions for storm hazards, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Deal, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the NASA Langley Research Center Storm Hazards Program, 69 thunderstorm pentrations were made in 1980 with an F-106B airplane in order to record direct strike lightning data and the associated flight conditions. Ground based weather radar measurements in conjunction with these penetrations were made by NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory in Oklahoma and by NASA Wallops Flight Center in Virginia. In 1980, the airplane received 10 direct lightning strikes; in addition, lightning transient data were recorded from 6 nearby flashes. Following each flight, the airplane was thoroughly inspected for evidence of lightning attachment, and the individual lightning attachment points were plotted on isometric projections of the airplane to identify swept flash patterns. This report presents pilot descriptions of the direct strikes to the airplane, shows the strike attachment patterns that were found, and discusses the implications of the patterns with respect to aircraft protection design. The flight conditions are also included. Finally, the lightning strike scenarios for three U.S. Air Force F-106A airplanes which were struck during routine operations are given in the appendix to this paper.

  1. Flight Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  2. Direct-strike lightning photographs, swept-flash attachment patterns, and flight conditions for storm hazards 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaepfel, K. P.; Fisher, B. D.; Ott, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the NASA Langley Research Center Storm Hazards Program, 241 thunderstorm penetrations were made in 1982 with an F-106B airplane in order to record direct-strike lightning data and the associated flight conditions. During these penetrations, the airplane received 156 direct lightning strikes; in addition, lightning transient data were recorded from 26 nearby lightning flashes. The tests were conducted within 150 nautical miles of Hampton, Virginia, assisted by ground-based weather-radar guidance from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The photographs of the lightning attachments taken from two onboard 16-mm color movie cameras and the associated strike attachment patterns are presented. A table of the flight conditions recorded at the time of each lightning event, and a table in which the data are cross-referenced with the previously published lightning electromagnetic waveform data are included.

  3. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  4. Earth Science Microwave Remote Sensing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was established as NASA's first space flight center in 1959. Its 12,000 personnel are active in the Earth and space sciences, astronomy, space physics, tracking and communications. GSFC's mission is to expand our knowledge of the Earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe through observations from space. The main Goddard campus is located in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, just north of Washington, D.C. The Wallops Flight Facility (operational since 1945), located on the Atlantic coast of Virginia was consolidated with the Goddard Space Flight Center in 1982. Wallops is now NASA's principal facility for management and implementation of suborbital research programs, and supports a wide variety of airborne science missions as well. As the lead Center for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE)--a long-term, coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global environmental system--GSFC scientists and engineers are involved in a wide range of Earth Science remote sensing activities. Their activities range from basic geoscience research to the development of instruments and technology for space missions, as well as the associated Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) work. The shear breadth of work in these areas precludes an exhaustive description here. Rather, this article presents selected brief overviews of microwave-related Earth Science applications and the ground-based, airborne, and space instruments that are in service, under development, or otherwise significantly involving GSFC. Likewise, contributing authors are acknowledged for each section, but the results and projects they describe represent the cumulative efforts of many persons at GSFC as well as at collaborating institutions. For further information, readers are encouraged to consult the listed websites and references.

  5. ACTE Wing Loads Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) project modified a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft with a new flexible flap that creates a seamless transition between the flap and the wing. As with any new modification, it is crucial to ensure that the aircraft will not become overstressed in flight. To test this, Star CCM a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software program was used to calculate aerodynamic data for the aircraft at given flight conditions.

  6. Flight (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)

  7. Simultaneous Observations of Electric Fields, Current Density, Plasma Density, and Neutral Winds During Two Sounding Rocket Experiments Launched from Wallops Island into Strong Daytime Dynamo Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Rowland, D. E.; Klenzing, J.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Martin, S. C.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Yamamoto, M. Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Kakinami, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Hurd, L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Bishop, R. L.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Fish, C. S.; Bullett, T. W.; Mabie, J. J.; Murphy, N.; Angelopoulos, V.; Leinweber, H. K.; Bernal, I.; Chi, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the ion-neutral coupling that creates the global electrical daytime "dynamo" currents in the mid-latitude, lower ionosphere, NASA carried out two multiple sounding rocket experiments from Wallops Island, VA on July 10, 2011 (14:00 UT, 10:00 LT) and July 4, 2013 (14:31 UT, 10:31 LT). The rockets were launched in the presence of well-defined, westward Hall currents observed on the ground with ΔH values of ­-25 nT and -30 nT, respectively, as well as a well-defined, daytime ionospheric density observed by the VIPIR ionosonde at Wallops. During the 2011 experiment, a narrow, intense sporadic-E layer was observed near 102 km. Each experiment consisted of a pair of rockets launched 15 sec apart. The first rocket of each pair carried instruments to measure DC electric and magnetic fields, as well as the ambient plasma and neutral gases and attained apogees of 158 km and 135 km in the 2011 and 2013 experiments, respectively. The second rocket of each pair carried canisters which released a lithium vapor trail along the upleg to illuminate neutral winds in the upper atmosphere. This daytime vapor trail technology was developed jointly by researchers at JAXA and Clemson University. In the second experiment, the lithium release was clearly visible in cameras with infrared filters operated by US and Japanese researchers in a NASA airplane at 9.6 km altitude. The observed wind profiles reached speeds of 100 m/s with strong shears with respect to altitude and were consistent with an independent derivation of the wind from the ionization gauge sensor suite on the instrumented rocket. The "vapor trail" rockets, which also included a falling sphere, attained apogees of 150 km and 143 km in the 2011 and 2013 experiments, respectively. By measuring the current density, conductivity, DC electric fields, and neutral winds, we solve the dynamo equation as a function of altitude, revealing the different contributions to the lower E-region currents. We find that the DC

  8. GN and C Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Ryamond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system (LAS) already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system (OS) design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. The goal was to obtain sufficient flight test data to assess performance, validate models/tools, and to reduce the design and development risks for a MLAS OS. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. Overall, the as-flown flight performance was as predicted prior to launch. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control (GN&C) technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity. This paper describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle (FTV). Lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  9. Flight Test Comparison Between Enhanced Vision (FLIR) and Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA s Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  10. Flight test comparison between enhanced vision (FLIR) and synthetic vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-05-01

    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA"s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  11. Reducing Flight Delays Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Collins, Susan M. [R-ME

    2013-04-25

    04/25/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1765, which became Public Law 113-9 on 5/1/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Reducing Flight Delays Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Collins, Susan M. [R-ME

    2013-04-25

    04/30/2013 Message on Senate action sent to the House. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1765, which became Public Law 113-9 on 5/1/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Multi-year slant path rain fade statistics at 28.56 and 19.04 GHz for Wallops Island, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1979-01-01

    Multiyear rain fade statistics at 28.56 GHz and 19.04 GHz were compiled for the region of Wallops Island, Virginia covering the time periods, 1 April 1977 through 31 March 1978, and 1 September 1978 through 31 August 1979. The 28.56 GHz attenuations were derived by monitoring the beacon signals from the COMSTAR geosynchronous satellite, D sub 2 during the first year, and satellite, D sub 3, during the second year. Although 19.04 GHz beacons exist aboard these satellites, statistics at this frequency were predicted using the 28 GHz fade data, the measured rain rate distribution, and effective path length concepts. The prediction method used was tested against radar derived fade distributions and excellent comparisons were noted. For example, the rms deviations between the predicted and test distributions were less than or equal to 0.2dB or 4% at 19.04 GHz. The average ratio between the 28.56 GHz and 19.04 GHz fades were also derived for equal percentages of time resulting in a factor of 2.1 with a .05 standard deviation.

  14. The flight planning - flight management connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Airborne flight management systems are currently being implemented to minimize direct operating costs when flying over a fixed route between a given city pair. Inherent in the design of these systems is that the horizontal flight path and wind and temperature models be defined and input into the airborne computer before flight. The wind/temperature model and horizontal path are products of the flight planning process. Flight planning consists of generating 3-D reference trajectories through a forecast wind field subject to certain ATC and transport operator constraints. The interrelationships between flight management and flight planning are reviewed, and the steps taken during the flight planning process are summarized.

  15. STS-67 post flight presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    This video is the post-flight presentation by the astronauts of the STS-67 Space Shuttle Mission. The astronauts were: Steve Oswald (Mission Commander), Bill Gregory (Shuttle Pilot), John Grunsfeld (Mission Specialist), Sam Durrance (Payload Specialist), Ron Parise (Payload Specialist), and Tammy Jernigan (Payload Commander). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup and launch (liftoff), the deployment of the telescope package payload (Hopkins UV telescope, Wisconsin UV polarimeter, and Astrostar Tracker) for their astronomical observations of different stellar objects, inside Shuttle shots of data collection stations, protein crystal growth experiments, medical BSO of head and eye functions in microgravity environment, storm activity over the United States and other Earth observation shots, Mid-deck Act Control Experiments, school-Shuttle direct radio communication, and descent and landing footage. This launch was a night launch and the flight was a 17 day flight (extended two days from original flight plan).

  16. STS-67 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This video is the post-flight presentation by the astronauts of the STS-67 Space Shuttle Mission. The astronauts were: Steve Oswald (Mission Commander), Bill Gregory (Shuttle Pilot), John Grunsfeld (Mission Specialist), Sam Durrance (Payload Specialist), Ron Parise (Payload Specialist), and Tammy Jernigan (Payload Commander). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup and launch (liftoff), the deployment of the telescope package payload (Hopkins UV telescope, Wisconsin UV polarimeter, and Astrostar Tracker) for their astronomical observations of different stellar objects, inside Shuttle shots of data collection stations, protein crystal growth experiments, medical BSO of head and eye functions in microgravity environment, storm activity over the United States and other Earth observation shots, Mid-deck Act Control Experiments, school-Shuttle direct radio communication, and descent and landing footage. This launch was a night launch and the flight was a 17 day flight (extended two days from original flight plan).

  17. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program: Arctic2003 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus,T.

    2003-01-01

    In March 2003 a coordinated Arctic sea ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea ice products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea ice products to be validated include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists making surface measurements of snow and ice properties including sea ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. Two additional flights were dedicated to making heat and moisture flux measurements over the St. Lawrence Island polynya to support ongoing air-sea-ice processes studies of Arctic coastal polynyas. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea ice edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound.

  18. B-737 flight test of curved-path and steep-angle approaches using MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J. R.; White, W. F.

    1989-01-01

    A series of flight tests were conducted to collect data for jet transport aircraft flying curved-path and steep-angle approaches using Microwave Landing System (MLS) guidance. During the test, 432 approaches comprising seven different curved-paths and four glidepath angles varying from 3 to 4 degrees were flown in NASA Langley's Boeing 737 aircraft (Transport Systems Research Vehicle) using an MLS ground station at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. Subject pilots from Piedmont Airlines flew the approaches using conventional cockpit instrumentation (flight director and Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI). The data collected will be used by FAA procedures specialists to develop standards and criteria for designing MLS terminal approach procedures (TERPS). The use of flight simulation techniques greatly aided the preliminary stages of approach development work and saved a significant amount of costly flight time. This report is intended to complement a data report to be issued by the FAA Office of Aviation Standards which will contain all detailed data analysis and statistics.

  19. A Review of the NASA MLAS Flight Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Anthony P.; Kelley, Christopher; Manger, Eldred; Peterson, David; Hahn, Jeffrey; Yuchnovicz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has tested the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as a risk-mitigation design should problems arise with the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort design. The Max in MLAS is not Maximum, but rather dedicated to Max Faget, the renowned NASA Spacecraft designer. In July 2009, the mission was flown, with great success, from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The MLAS flight test vehicle prototype consists of a boost skirt, coast skirt, and the MLAS fairing itself, which houses an Orion Command Module (CM) boilerplate. The objective of the MLAS flight test is to reorient the fairing with the CM, weighing approximately 29,000 lbs and traveling 290 fps, 180 degrees to an orientation suitable for the release of the CM during a pad abort or low altitude abort. The boost and coast skirts provide the necessary thrust and stability to establish the flight test conditions and are released prior to the reorientation of the fairing. A secondary test objective after successful release of the CM from the fairing is to demonstrate the removal of the CM forward bay cover (FBC) with the CM drogue parachutes, and subsequent deployment of the CM main parachutes attached to the FBC. Although multiple parachute deployments are used in the MLAS flight test vehicle to complete its objective, there are only two parachute types employed in the flight test. Five of the nine parachutes used for MLAS are 27.6 ft DO ribbon parachutes already proven as a spin/stall parachute for military aircraft, and the remaining four are G-12 cargo parachutes modified for increased strength and reefing. This paper presents an overview of the 27.6 ft DO ribbon parachute system employed on the MLAS flight test vehicle for coast skirt separation, fairing reorientation, and as CM drogue parachutes. Discussion will include: the process used to select this design; descriptions of all components of the parachute system; the minor modifications necessary to adapt the parachute

  20. 14 CFR 129.15 - Flight crewmember certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight crewmember certificates. 129.15 Section 129.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 129.15 Flight crewmember certificates. No person may act as a flight crewmember unless he holds...

  1. 14 CFR 129.15 - Flight crewmember certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmember certificates. 129.15 Section 129.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 129.15 Flight crewmember certificates. No person may act as a flight crewmember unless he holds...

  2. Bat wing sensors support flight control.

    PubMed

    Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M; Moss, Cynthia F

    2011-07-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats' wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed.

  3. Analysis of remote sensing data collected for detection and mapping of oil spills: Reduction and analysis of multi-sensor airborne data of the NASA Wallops oil spill exercise of November 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Airborne, remotely sensed data of the NASA Wallops controlled oil spill were corrected, reduced and analysed. Sensor performance comparisons were made by registering data sets from different sensors, which were near-coincident in time and location. Multispectral scanner images were, in turn, overlayed with profiles of correlation between airborne and laboratory-acquired fluorosensor spectra of oil; oil-thickness contours derived (by NASA) from a scanning fluorosensor and also from a two-channel scanning microwave radiometer; and synthetic aperture radar X-HH images. Microwave scatterometer data were correlated with dual-channel (UV and TIR) line scanner images of the oil slick.

  4. Lightning swept-stroke attachment patterns and flight conditions for storm hazards 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NASA Langley Research Center Storm Hazards Program, 111 thunderstorm penetrations were made in 1981 with an F-106B airplane in order to record direct-strike lightning data and the associated flight conditions. Ground-based weather radar measurements in conjunction with these penetrations were made by NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory in Oklahoma and by NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. In 1981, the airplane received 10 direct lightning strikes; in addition, lightning transient data were recorded from 22 nearby flashes. Following each flight, the airplane was thoroughly inspected for evidence of lightning attachment, and the individual lightning attachment points were plotted on isometric projections of the airplane to identify swept-flash patterns. This report shows the strike attachment patterns that were found, and tabulates the flight conditions at the time of each lightning event. Finally, this paper contains a table in which the data in this report are cross-referenced with the previously published electromagnetic waveform data recorded onboard the airplane.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of Acoustic Measurements from the NASA-Gulfstream Airframe Noise Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockhard, David D.; Humphreys, Willliam M.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Van De Ven, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The NASA-Gulfstream joint Airframe Noise Flight Test program was conducted at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility during October, 2006. The primary objective of the AFN flight test was to acquire baseline airframe noise data on a regional jet class of transport in order to determine noise source strengths and distributions for model validation. To accomplish this task, two measuring systems were used: a ground-based microphone array and individual microphones. Acoustic data for a Gulfstream G550 aircraft were acquired over the course of ten days. Over twenty-four test conditions were flown. The test matrix was designed to provide an acoustic characterization of both the full aircraft and individual airframe components and included cruise to landing configurations. Noise sources were isolated by selectively deploying individual components (flaps, main landing gear, nose gear, spoilers, etc.) and altering the airspeed, glide path, and engine settings. The AFN flight test program confirmed that the airframe is a major contributor to the noise from regional jets during landing operations. Sound pressure levels from the individual microphones on the ground revealed the flap system to be the dominant airframe noise source for the G550 aircraft. The corresponding array beamform maps showed that most of the radiated sound from the flaps originates from the side edges. Using velocity to the sixth power and Strouhal scaling of the sound pressure spectra obtained at different speeds failed to collapse the data into a single spectrum. The best data collapse was obtained when the frequencies were left unscaled.

  6. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  7. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  8. Nighttime Launch at NASA Wallops

    NASA Video Gallery

    A U.S. Air Force Minotaur 1 rocket carrying the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space office’s ORS-1 satellite was successfully launched at 11:09 p.m. EDT, June 29, 2011, from NASA...

  9. Wallops severe storms measurement capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the instrumentation system used in support of NASA'S Storm Hazards Program are described. These systems include the Radar Atmospheric Research Facility (RARF) with its Space Range Radar and a near real time display from the National Weather Service WSR-57 radar, a lightning detection and ranging system (LDAR), and a Ryan Stormscope. The RARF system can detect, track, and quantify the properties of severe storms. Simultaneous measurements in the UHF (70 cm), S (10 cm), and C (5 cm) bands can be made of clouds and precipitation to deduce particle size and characteristics, including quantitive cross sections of individual hailstones and raindrops. Relative attenuation at these wavelenghts can be used to calculate path integrated rainfall and water content. The track of an instrument aircraft can be displayed on S-band reflectivity map of the individual storm cells. The LDAR system can determine the location of lightning discharges in real time and measure and record the electric field waveform for further study. The Ryan Stormscope can detect and range lightning out to 320 kilometers.

  10. Propulsion Flight-Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Nate; Vachon, M. Jake; Richwine, Dave; Moes, Tim; Creech, Gray

    2003-01-01

    ). This hard-point has large weight margins, and, because it is located near the center of gravity of the airplane, the weight of equipment mounted there exerts a minimal effect on the stability and controllability of the airplane. The PFTF (see Figure 2) includes a one-piece aluminum structure that contains space for instrumentation, propellant tanks, and feed-system components. The PFTF also houses a force balance, on which is mounted the subscale engine or other experimental apparatus that is to be the subject of a flight test. The force balance measures a combination of inertial and aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the experimental apparatus.

  11. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  12. Flight projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Jack

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the activities of the Flight Projects Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Information is given on space research and technology strategy, current space flight experiments, the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the Orbiter Experiment Program, the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment, the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System, the Arcjet Flight Experiment, the Telerobotic Intelligent Interface Flight Experiment, the Cryogenic Fluid Management Flight Experiment, the Industry/University In-Space Flight Experiments, and the Aeroassist Flight Experiment.

  13. Animal flight dynamics II. Longitudinal stability in flapping flight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G K; Thomas, A L R

    2002-02-01

    Stability is essential to flying and is usually assumed to be especially problematic in flapping flight. If so, problems of stability may have presented a particular hurdle to the evolution of flapping flight. In spite of this, the stability of flapping flight has never been properly analysed. Here we use quasi-static and blade element approaches to analyse the stability provided by a flapping wing. By using reduced order approximations to the natural modes of motion, we show that wing beat frequencies are generally high enough compared to the natural frequencies of motion for a quasi-static approach to be valid as a first approximation. Contrary to expectations, we find that there is noting inherently destabilizing about flapping: beating the wings faster simply amplifies any existing stability or instability, and flapping can even enhance stability compared to gliding at the same air speed. This suggests that aerodynamic stability may not have been a particular hurdle in the evolution of flapping flight. Hovering animals, like hovering helicopters, are predicted to possess neutral static stability. Flapping animals, like fixed wing aircraft, are predicted to be stable in forward flight if the mean flight force acts above and/or behind the centre of gravity. In this case, the downstroke will always be stabilizing. The stabilizing contribution may be diminished by an active upstroke with a low advance ratio and more horizontal stroke plane; other forms of the upstroke may make a small positive contribution to stability. An active upstroke could, therefore, be used to lower stability and enhance manoeuvrability. Translatory mechanisms of unsteady lift production are predicted to amplify the stability predicted by a quasi-static analysis. Non-translatory mechanisms will make little or no contribution to stability. This may be one reason why flies, and other animals which rely upon non-translatory aerodynamic mechanisms, often appear inherently unstable.

  14. The aerodynamics of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P

    2003-12-01

    The flight of insects has fascinated physicists and biologists for more than a century. Yet, until recently, researchers were unable to rigorously quantify the complex wing motions of flapping insects or measure the forces and flows around their wings. However, recent developments in high-speed videography and tools for computational and mechanical modeling have allowed researchers to make rapid progress in advancing our understanding of insect flight. These mechanical and computational fluid dynamic models, combined with modern flow visualization techniques, have revealed that the fluid dynamic phenomena underlying flapping flight are different from those of non-flapping, 2-D wings on which most previous models were based. In particular, even at high angles of attack, a prominent leading edge vortex remains stably attached on the insect wing and does not shed into an unsteady wake, as would be expected from non-flapping 2-D wings. Its presence greatly enhances the forces generated by the wing, thus enabling insects to hover or maneuver. In addition, flight forces are further enhanced by other mechanisms acting during changes in angle of attack, especially at stroke reversal, the mutual interaction of the two wings at dorsal stroke reversal or wing-wake interactions following stroke reversal. This progress has enabled the development of simple analytical and empirical models that allow us to calculate the instantaneous forces on flapping insect wings more accurately than was previously possible. It also promises to foster new and exciting multi-disciplinary collaborations between physicists who seek to explain the phenomenology, biologists who seek to understand its relevance to insect physiology and evolution, and engineers who are inspired to build micro-robotic insects using these principles. This review covers the basic physical principles underlying flapping flight in insects, results of recent experiments concerning the aerodynamics of insect flight, as well

  15. X-33 Flight Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

  16. Design and Analysis of Outer Mold Line Close-outs for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Schuster, David M.; Tyler, Erik D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale, passive aerodynamically stabilized Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) pad abort demonstrator was successfully launched from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Aerodynamic close-outs were required to cover openings on the MLAS fairing to prevent aerodynamic flow-through and to maintain the MLAS OML surface shape. Two-ply duct tape covers were designed to meet these needs. The duct tape used was a high strength fiber reinforced duct tape with a rubberized adhesive that demonstrated 4.6 lb/in adhesion strength to the unpainted fiberglass fairing. Adhesion strength was observed to increase as a function of time. The covers were analyzed and experimentally tested to demonstrate their ability to maintain integrity under anticipated vehicle ascent pressure loads and to not impede firing of the drogue chute mortars. Testing included vacuum testing and a mortar fire test. Tape covers were layed-up on thin Teflon sheets to facilitate installation on the vehicle. Custom cut foam insulation board was used to fill mortar hole and separation joint cavities and provide support to the applied tape covers. Flight test results showed that the tape covers remained adhered during flight.

  17. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  18. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  19. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  20. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  1. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  2. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  3. 'Mighty Eagle' Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, had a successful first untethered flight Aug. 8 at the Marshall Center. During the 34-second flight, the Mighty Eagle soared and hovered at 30 f...

  4. Electric flight systems, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

  5. A high temperature superconductivity communications flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, P.; Krishen, K.; Arndt, D.; Raffoul, G.; Karasack, V.; Bhasin, K.; Leonard, R.

    1992-01-01

    The proposed high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) millimeter-wave communications flight experiment from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) in geosynchronous orbit is described. The experiment will use a Ka-band HTSC phased array antenna and front-end electronics to receive a downlink communications signal from the ACTS. The discussion covers the system configuration, a description of the ground equipment, the spacecraft receiver, link performance, thermal loading, and the superconducting antenna array.

  6. The NASA MLAS Flight Demonstration - A Review of a Highly Successful Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Anthony P.; Kelley, Christopher; Magner, Eldred; Peterson, David; Hahn, Jeffrey; Yuchnovicz, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    NASA has tested the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as a risk-mitigation design should problems arise with the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort design. The Max in MLAS is not Maximum, but rather dedicated to Max Faget, The renowned NASA Spacecraft designer. In the fall of 2009, the mission was flown, with great success, from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The MLAS flight test vehicle prototype consists of a boost ring, coast ring, and the MLAS fairing itself, which houses an Orion Command Module (CM) boilerplate. The objective of the MLAS flight test is to reorient the fairing with the CM, weighing approximately 29,000 lbs and traveling 290 fps, 180 degrees to an orientation suitable for the release of the CM during a pad abort and low altitude abort. Although multiple parachute deployments are used in the MLAS flight test vehicle to complete its objective, there are only two parachute types employed in the flight test. Five of the nine parachutes used for MLAS are 27.6 ft DO ribbon parachutes, and the remaining four are standard G-12 cargo parachutes. This paper presents an overview of the 27.6 ft DO ribbon parachute system employed on the MLAS flight test vehicle for coast ring separation, fairing reorientation, and as drogue parachutes for the CM after separation from the fairing. Discussion will include: the process used to select this design, previously proven as a spin/stall recovery parachute; descriptions of all components of the parachute system; the minor modifications necessary to adapt the parachute to the MLAS program; the techniques used to analyze the parachute for the multiple roles it performs; a discussion of the rigging techniques used to interface the parachute system to the vehicle; a brief description of how the evolution of the program affected parachute usage and analysis; and a summary of the results of the flight test, including video of the flight test and subsequent summary analysis. . A discussion of the flight test which was

  7. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  8. In Flight, Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  9. Data Mining Tools Make Flights Safer, More Efficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    A small data mining team at Ames Research Center developed a set of algorithms ideal for combing through flight data to find anomalies. Dallas-based Southwest Airlines Co. signed a Space Act Agreement with Ames in 2011 to access the tools, helping the company refine its safety practices, improve its safety reviews, and increase flight efficiencies.

  10. Gene Kranz Visits Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On October 19, 2006, former NASA director of Mission Operations Gene Kranz was a keynote speaker at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 2006 Annual Safety Day program. The best selling author of 'Failure Is Not An Option' and past Apollo flight director was featured during a morning session called 'Coffee and Kranz'. Marshall employees hung on his every word as he told the fascinating story of Apollo 13. Kranz was the acting flight director during the Apollo 13 mission, a mission that seemed doomed to fail due to an onboard explosion. Kranz and his flight control team worked around the clock relentlessly, solving problem after problem, until the crew was returned safely to Earth.

  11. Alertness management in flight operations - Strategic napping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Dinges, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Strategic napping in two different flight operation environments is considered to illustrate its application as a fatigue countermeasure. Data obtained from commercial short-haul and long-haul operations demonstrated the utility and current practices of strategic napping. A preplanned cockpit nap acted as an acute 'safety valve' for the sleep loss, circadian disruption, and fatigue that occurs in long-haul flying.

  12. A Flight Simulator Program Takes Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Don

    2003-01-01

    Aviation concepts, including forces acting on an airplane, navigation, correct aircraft terminology, and general aviation vocabulary, are often part of a comprehensive fifth-grade aviation curriculum. But in one school district, students also learned about flying planes and even trained in a flight simulator. This article describes how industry…

  13. ACT: Acting Out Central Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Joan Duff

    1982-01-01

    The author describes ACT (Acting Out Central Theme), a method for dealing with psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains in slow readers. The ACT approach involves three sessions which focus on discussion of a theme such as friendship, presentaton of the theme as a skit, and assignment of topics to individual students. (SW)

  14. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  15. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  16. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  17. Juggling Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudalevige, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Two education bills from George W. Bush's first term are long overdue for reauthorization. One, of course, is the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), passed in late 2001. The other is the Education Sciences Reform Act (ESRA), which in November 2002 replaced the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) with a new Institute of Education…

  18. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  19. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher engines of the prototype Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo of the aircraft during a 1996 research flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  20. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher propeller-driven engines of the Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken during a 1996 research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  1. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus research aircraft in flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Edwards, California, during a 1996 research flight. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

  2. Theseus in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its unique design as it flies low over Rogers Dry Lake during a 1996 test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global

  3. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  4. Digital flight control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  5. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  6. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  7. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1988-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic R and D chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing have been the crucible in which aeronautical concepts have advanced and been proven to the point that engineers and companies have been willing to stake their future to produce and design new aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress made and the challenges to come.

  8. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  9. Bat wing sensors support flight control

    PubMed Central

    Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats’ wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed. PMID:21690408

  10. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  11. X-43A Flight Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.

  12. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

  13. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  14. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  15. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  16. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  17. Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), an experiment with the objective of investigating critical vehicle design and environmental technologies applicable to the design of aeroassisted space transfer vehicles. Information is given on design, simulation, flight regime, mission requirements and objectives, instrumentation, and the project schedule.

  18. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  19. ACT Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: ACT; Activated Coagulation Time Formal name: Activated Clotting Time Related tests: ... in the blood called platelets and proteins called coagulation factors are activated in a sequence of steps ...

  20. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  1. Vortex attenuation flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, M. R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Champine, R. A.; Tymczyszyn, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests evaluating the effects of altered span loading, turbulence ingestion, combinations of mass and turbulence ingestion, and combinations of altered span loading turbulance ingestion on trailed wake vortex attenuation were conducted. Span loadings were altered in flight by varying the deflections of the inboard and outboard flaps on a B-747 aircraft. Turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by mounting splines on a C-54G aircraft. Mass and turbulence ingestion was achieved in flight by varying the thrust on the B-747 aircraft. Combinations of altered span loading and turbulence ingestion were achieved in flight by installing a spoiler on a CV-990 aircraft and by deflecting the existing spoilers on a B-747 aircraft. The characteristics of the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes were determined by probing them with smaller aircraft. Acceptable separation distances for encounters with the attenuated and unattenuated vortexes are presented.

  2. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  3. Flight Investigation of 6.25-Inch-Diameter Deacon Rocket and 10-Inch-Scale Model Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. S.

    1949-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted at the NACA Pilotless Aircraft Research Station, Wallops Island, to determine the characteristics of the Allegany Ballistics Laboratory's 6.2inch-diameter Deacon and lO-inch-scale model solid-propellant rocket motors. The tests were performed to assist in the development of these rockets which were designed for, and urgently needed to propel supersonic research models and pilotless aircraft. The tests showed that the rocket motors functioned properly under various flight- acceleration loads over a range of pre-ignition grain temperatures. A maximum velocity of 4180 feet per second was obtained at an elapsed time of 2.9 seconds with the 6.25-inch Deacon rocket motor at a gross weight of l9O pounds. Free-flight data of drag coefficient for the Deacon configuration for a Mach number range of 1.1 to 3.6 have been obtained from flight tests of several pounds. Camera studies of the take-off and flights of the Deacon rocket shared no evidence of breakup of propellant grains. An analysis of the forces to which the Deacon rocket grain is subjected was made. The analysis shows that the grain loading is most severe near the beginning and near the end of the rocket action time. The 10-inch-scale model rocket motor is a scaled model of the l6-inch- diameter multi-perforated, cast-grain rocket motor. A maximum velocity of 1625 feet per second at a time of 1.075 seconds was obtained at a gross weight of 309 pounds.

  4. Flight effects of fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestnutt, D.

    1982-09-01

    Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

  5. Flight effects of fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chestnutt, D. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Simulation of inflight fan noise and flight effects was discussed. The status of the overall program on the flight effects of fan noise was reviewed, and flight to static noise comparisons with the JT15D engine were displayed.

  6. Magnesium and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  7. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  8. Automated flight test management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.; Agarwal, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Phase 1 development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight concepts is discussed. The ATMS provides a flight engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight test planning, monitoring, and simulation. The system is also capable of controlling an aircraft during flight test by performing closed loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The ATMS is being used as a prototypical system to develop a flight research facility for AI based flight systems concepts at NASA Ames Dryden.

  9. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  10. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  11. Toward intelligent flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Flight control systems can benefit by being designed to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories: declarative, procedural, and reflexive. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are more-or-less spontaneous and are similar to inner-loop control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems will contain a hierarchy of expert systems, procedural algorithms, and computational neural networks, each expanding on prior functions to improve mission capability to increase the reliability and safety of flight and to ease pilot workload.

  12. Columbia's first shakedown flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The space shuttle orbiter Columbia, first of the planned fleet of spacecraft in the nation's space transportation system, will liftoff on its first orbital shakedown flight on or about the 10th of April 1981. Launch will be from the NASA Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39A, no earlier than 45 minutes after sunrise. Crew for the first orbital flight will be John W. Young, commander, veteran of two Gemini and two Apollo space flights, and U.S. Navy Capt. Robert L. Crippen, pilot. Crippen has not flown in space.

  13. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  14. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea-Ice Validation Program: Arctic2006 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus, T.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a coordinated Arctic sea-ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was the second Alaskan Arctic field campaign for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea-ice products. The first campaign was completed in March 2003. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese Space Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea-ice products to be validated include sea-ice concentration, sea-ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The focus of this campaign was on the validation of snow depth on sea ice and sea-ice temperature. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the six flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements.

  15. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  16. CID flight/impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, R.

    1986-01-01

    The planned versus the actual results of the controlled impact demonstration of a transport aircraft are discussed. Remote control systems, site selection, manned flight tests, and wreckage distribution are discussed.

  17. SR-71 Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  18. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  19. Real-time atmospheric absorption spectra for in-flight tuning of an airborne dial system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombrowski, M.; Walden, H.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Milrod, J.; Korb, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Real-time measurements of atmospheric absorption spectra are displayed and used to precisely calibrate and fix the frequency of an Alexandrite laser to specific oxygen absorption features for airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature. The DIAL system used contains two narrowband tunable Alexandrite lasers: one is electronically scanned to tune to oxygen absorption features for on-line signals while the second is used to obtain off-line (nonabsorbed) atmospheric return signals. The lidar operator may select the number of shots to be averaged, the altitude, and altitude interval over which the signals are averaged using single key stroke commands. The operator also determines exactly which oxygen absorption lines are scanned by comparing the line spacings and relative strengths with known line parameters, thus calibrating the laser wavelength readout. The system was used successfully to measure the atmospheric pressure profile on the first flights of this lidar, November 20, and December 9, 1985, aboard the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft.

  20. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  1. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  2. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  3. 76 FR 19122 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Authorizing the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand Resources in National Aeronautics and Space... resources in National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Wallops Flight Facility (WFF... Department of the Interior by the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA) (43 U.S.C. 1337(k)(2))....

  4. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  5. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator.

  6. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  7. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  8. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  9. Calcium signalling indicates bilateral power balancing in the Drosophila flight muscle during manoeuvring flight.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Skandalis, Dimitri A; Berthé, Ruben

    2013-05-01

    Manoeuvring flight in animals requires precise adjustments of mechanical power output produced by the flight musculature. In many insects such as fruit flies, power generation is most likely varied by altering stretch-activated tension, that is set by sarcoplasmic calcium levels. The muscles reside in a thoracic shell that simultaneously drives both wings during wing flapping. Using a genetically expressed muscle calcium indicator, we here demonstrate in vivo the ability of this animal to bilaterally adjust its calcium activation to the mechanical power output required to sustain aerodynamic costs during flight. Motoneuron-specific comparisons of calcium activation during lift modulation and yaw turning behaviour suggest slightly higher calcium activation for dorso-longitudinal than for dorsoventral muscle fibres, which corroborates the elevated need for muscle mechanical power during the wings' downstroke. During turning flight, calcium activation explains only up to 54 per cent of the required changes in mechanical power, suggesting substantial power transmission between both sides of the thoracic shell. The bilateral control of muscle calcium runs counter to the hypothesis that the thorax of flies acts as a single, equally proportional source for mechanical power production for both flapping wings. Collectively, power balancing highlights the precision with which insects adjust their flight motor to changing energetic requirements during aerial steering. This potentially enhances flight efficiency and is thus of interest for the development of technical vehicles that employ bioinspired strategies of power delivery to flapping wings.

  10. Calcium signalling indicates bilateral power balancing in the Drosophila flight muscle during manoeuvring flight.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Skandalis, Dimitri A; Berthé, Ruben

    2013-05-01

    Manoeuvring flight in animals requires precise adjustments of mechanical power output produced by the flight musculature. In many insects such as fruit flies, power generation is most likely varied by altering stretch-activated tension, that is set by sarcoplasmic calcium levels. The muscles reside in a thoracic shell that simultaneously drives both wings during wing flapping. Using a genetically expressed muscle calcium indicator, we here demonstrate in vivo the ability of this animal to bilaterally adjust its calcium activation to the mechanical power output required to sustain aerodynamic costs during flight. Motoneuron-specific comparisons of calcium activation during lift modulation and yaw turning behaviour suggest slightly higher calcium activation for dorso-longitudinal than for dorsoventral muscle fibres, which corroborates the elevated need for muscle mechanical power during the wings' downstroke. During turning flight, calcium activation explains only up to 54 per cent of the required changes in mechanical power, suggesting substantial power transmission between both sides of the thoracic shell. The bilateral control of muscle calcium runs counter to the hypothesis that the thorax of flies acts as a single, equally proportional source for mechanical power production for both flapping wings. Collectively, power balancing highlights the precision with which insects adjust their flight motor to changing energetic requirements during aerial steering. This potentially enhances flight efficiency and is thus of interest for the development of technical vehicles that employ bioinspired strategies of power delivery to flapping wings. PMID:23486171

  11. Calcium signalling indicates bilateral power balancing in the Drosophila flight muscle during manoeuvring flight

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Skandalis, Dimitri A.; Berthé, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Manoeuvring flight in animals requires precise adjustments of mechanical power output produced by the flight musculature. In many insects such as fruit flies, power generation is most likely varied by altering stretch-activated tension, that is set by sarcoplasmic calcium levels. The muscles reside in a thoracic shell that simultaneously drives both wings during wing flapping. Using a genetically expressed muscle calcium indicator, we here demonstrate in vivo the ability of this animal to bilaterally adjust its calcium activation to the mechanical power output required to sustain aerodynamic costs during flight. Motoneuron-specific comparisons of calcium activation during lift modulation and yaw turning behaviour suggest slightly higher calcium activation for dorso-longitudinal than for dorsoventral muscle fibres, which corroborates the elevated need for muscle mechanical power during the wings’ downstroke. During turning flight, calcium activation explains only up to 54 per cent of the required changes in mechanical power, suggesting substantial power transmission between both sides of the thoracic shell. The bilateral control of muscle calcium runs counter to the hypothesis that the thorax of flies acts as a single, equally proportional source for mechanical power production for both flapping wings. Collectively, power balancing highlights the precision with which insects adjust their flight motor to changing energetic requirements during aerial steering. This potentially enhances flight efficiency and is thus of interest for the development of technical vehicles that employ bioinspired strategies of power delivery to flapping wings. PMID:23486171

  12. Post Flight Dynamic Analysis Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, B. R.

    1970-01-01

    Digital six-degrees-of-freedom, open loop Saturn 5 first stage flight evaluation simulation program obtains post flight simulation of the launch vehicle using actual flight data as input. Results are compared with measured data. For preflight analysis, the program uses predicted flight data as input.

  13. DAST in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  14. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  15. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  16. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  17. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  18. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  19. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  20. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  1. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  2. Human Space Flight Capability Assurance and Enhancement Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Hutchison, Kay Bailey [R-TX

    2010-03-03

    03/03/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1026-1030) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Shuttle flight data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walberg, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    As the STS moves into routine operations, the direction of the work is shifting to an in-depth assessment of performance and its impact on the design and development of a future generation of vehicles. Particular emphasis is placed on providing an accurate physical explanation of anomalies, assessing the quality of simulation provided by the ground test facilities utilized, understanding the ground to flight extrapolation procedures, and the limitations of theoretical prediction techniques. The results are expected to provide direction and focus for future research and technology programs to enable substantial technological improvements in the next generation vehicles. The recent approval of the Orbital Experiments (OEX) Program's Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS), Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS), and Shuttle Upper Atmospheric Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiments to be integrated for flight on OV-102 in late 1985 is a firm indication of a strong commitment to a continuing and vigorous program in shuttle flight data analysis.

  4. 75 FR 2893 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Connection Flight 3407, Bombardier DHC-8-400, N200WQ, Clarence Center, New York, February 12, 2009. News... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Sunshine Act Meeting Time and Date: 9:30 a.m., Tuesday, February 2, 2010. Place:...

  5. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's solar cell arrays are prominently displayed as it touches down on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following a test flight. The solar arrays covered more than 75 percent of Pathfinder's upper wing surface, and provided electricity to power its six electric motors, flight controls, communications links and a host of scientific sensors. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  6. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  7. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  8. Soaring flight in Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idrac, P

    1920-01-01

    The term soaring is applied here to the flight of certain large birds which maneuver in the air without moving their wings. The author explains the methods of his research and here gives approximate figures for the soaring flight of the Egyptian Vulture and the African White backed Vulture. Figures are given in tabular form for relative air speed per foot per second, air velocity per foot per second, lift/drag ratio, and selected coefficients. The author argues that although the figures given were taken from a very limited series of observations, they have nevertheless thrown some light on the use by birds of the internal energy of the air.

  9. Technologies for hypersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinheil, Eckart; Uhse, Wolfgang

    An account is given of the technology readiness requirements of the West German Saenger II air-breathing first-stage, two-stage reusable launcher system. The present, five-year conceptual development phase will give attention to propulsion, aerothermodynamic, materials/structures, and flight guidance technology development requirements. The second, seven-year development phase will involve other West European design establishments and lead to the construction of a demonstration vehicle. Attention is presently given to the air-breathing propulsion system, and to flight-weight structural systems under consideration for both external heating and internal cryogenic tankage requirements.

  10. VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FLIGHT CREW SYSTEMS, FLIGHT KITS FACILITY, ROOM NO. 1N12, FACING SOUTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  13. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  14. F-106 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Convair NF-106B designated #816 in level flight over cloud cover. This side view shows the tandem seating arrangement in the cockpit for two pilots and the relationship of the inlet to the cockpit area and leading edge of the wing.

  15. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  16. F-104 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    F-104G N826NA during a 1993 flight over the Mojave desert, outfitted with an experiment pylon under the center fuselage and wing racks. The F-104 was originally designed by Kelly Johnson of the Lockheed Skunk Works as a day fighter. The aircraft soon proved ideal for both research and training. For instance, a modified F-104 tested the reaction control jets for the X-15. The F-104's short wings and low lift to drag ratio made it ideal to simulate the X-15 landing profile, which the F-104s often undertook before X-15 flights in order to acquaint pilots with the rocket plane's landing characteristics. This training role continued with the lifting bodies. NASA F-104s were also used for high-speed research after the X-1E was retired. Finally, the F-104s were also used as chase planes for research missions. The F-104G was a late model designed as a fighter bomber for low-level strike missions. It was built for use by the West German Air Force and other foreign governments. N826NA accomplished a wide-range of research activities, including tests of the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles. The aircraft made 1,415 flights before being retired. It is now on display at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  17. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  18. Pegasus hypersonic flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.

  19. Spacewedge #1 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Spacewedge subscale model, built to help develop potential autonomous recovery systems for spacecraft as well as methods for delivering large Army cargo loads to precision landings, maneuvers through the air under its steerable parafoil during 1992 flight testing. From October 1991 to December 1996, NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) conducted a research program know as the Spacecraft Autoland Project. This Project was designed to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of flight, including a precision landing. The Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Army participated in various phases of the program. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory developed the software for Wedge 3 under contract to the Army. Four generic spacecraft (each called a Spacewedge or simply a Wedge) were built; the last one was built to test the feasibility of a parafoil for delivering Army cargoes. Technology developed during this program has applications for future spacecraft recovery systems, such as the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle demonstrator. The Spacewedge program demonstrated precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. The program showed that a flexible, deployable system using autonomous navigation and landing was a viable and practical way to recover spacecraft. NASA researchers conducted flight tests of the Spacewedge at three sites near Dryden, a hillside near Tehachapi, the Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, and the California City Airport Drop Zone. During the first phase of testing 36 flights were made. Phase II consisted of 45 flights using a smaller parafoil. A third Phase of 34 flights was conducted primarily by the Army and resulted in the development of an Army guidance system for precision offset cargo delivery. The wedge used during the Army phase was not called a Spacewedge but simply a

  20. Human Factors in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

    2005-01-01

    After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and

  1. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft heads for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  2. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  3. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  4. NASA Dryden Flight Loads Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Dryden Flight Loads Laboratory. The capabilities and research interests of the lab are: Structural, thermal, & dynamic analysis; Structural, thermal, & dynamic ground-test techniques; Advanced structural instrumentation; and Flight test support.

  5. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Harty

    1990-01-01

    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  6. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  7. YF-12 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the Blackbirds, were designed by Clarence 'Kelly' Johnson. They were constructed mostly of titanium to withstand aerodynamic heating. Fueled by JP-7, the Blackbirds were capable of cruising at Mach 3.2 and attaining altitudes in excess of 80,000 feet. The first version, a CIA reconnaissance aircraft that first flew in April 1962 was called the A-12. An

  8. NASA's Global Hawk 871 Takes Off

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Global Hawk 871 departed from a runway at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. on Sept. 25, 2013 at the close of the NASA HS3 Hurricane Mission. NASA 871 was returning to home...

  9. Sunrise Touchdown of NASA Global Hawk

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's HS3 Mission Global Hawk Makes a Sunrise Touchdown Sunrise Touchdown of NASA's Global Hawk No. 872 on Runway 04 at NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia on Sept 19, 2014 afte...

  10. Flight experience with a remotely augmented vehicle flight test technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A flight technique which uses the remotely augmented vehicle (RAV) concept is developed to flight test advanced control law concepts. The design, development and flight test validation of a RAV system mechanized on a digital fly-by-wire aircraft are described, and future applications are discussed. Flight experiments investigate complete inner loop, low sample rate, and adaptive control system mechanisms. The technique, which utilizes a ground-based FORTRAN programmable digital computer and up and down telemetry links is found to provide the flexibility necessary to effectively investigate alternate control law mechanisms in flight.

  11. Flight crew health stabilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.; Mccollum, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The flight crew health stabilization program was developed to minimize or eliminate the possibility of adverse alterations in the health of flight crews during immediate preflight, flight, and postflight periods. The elements of the program, which include clinical medicine, immunology, exposure prevention, and epidemiological surveillance, are discussed briefly. No crewmember illness was reported for the missions for which the program was in effect.

  12. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This DVD has several short videos showing some of the work that Dryden is involved in with experimental aircraft. These are: shots showing the Active AeroElastic Wing (AAW) loads calibration tests, AAW roll maneuvers, AAW flight control surface inputs, Helios flight, and takeoff, and Pathfinder takeoff, flight and landing.

  13. Act resilient.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Genie; Bice-Stephens, Wynona

    2014-01-01

    Attendees have reported changing from being fearful to serene, from listless to energized, from disengaged to connected, and becoming markedly less anxious in a few weeks. Anecdotally, self-reported stress levels have been reduced by over 50% after just one class. Attendees learn not to be afraid of their feelings by working with emotions in a playful manner. When a person can act angry, but separate himself from his personal story, the emotional energy exists in a separate form that is not attached to specific events, and can be more easily dealt with and neutralized. Attendees are taught to "take out the emotional trash" through expressive comedy. They become less intimated by their own emotional intensity and triggers as they learn how even metaphorical buckets of anger, shame, guilt and hurt can be emotionally emptied. The added benefit is that this is accomplished without the disclosure of personal information of the requirement to reexperience past pain which can trigger its own cascade of stress. PMID:24706248

  14. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+<2 week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  15. FMS flight plans in synthetic vision primary flight displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wyatt, Sandy

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes display concepts and flight tests evaluations of flight management system (FMS) flight plan integration into Honeywell's synthetic vision (SV) integrated primary flight display systems (IPFD). The prototype IPFD displays consist of primary flight symbology overlay with flight path information and flight director guidance cues on the SV external 3D background scenes. The IPFD conformal perspective-view background displays include terrain and obstacle scenes generated with Honeywell's enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) databases, runway displays generated with commercial FMS databases, and 3D flight plan information coming directly from on-board FMS systems. The flight plan display concepts include 3D waypoint representations with altitude constraints, terrain tracing curves and vectors based on airframe performances, and required navigation performance (RNP) data. The considerations for providing flight crews with intuitive views of complex approach procedures with minimal display clutter are discussed. The flight test data on-board Honeywell Citation Sovereign aircraft and pilot feedback are summarized with the emphasis on the test results involving approaches into terrainchallenged air fields with complex FMS approach procedures.

  16. 29 CFR 825.801 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, hours of service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable... personal commute time or time spent on vacation, medical, or sick leave. (c) An airline flight crew... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special rules for airline flight crew employees, hours...

  17. 29 CFR 825.801 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, hours of service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable... personal commute time or time spent on vacation, medical, or sick leave. (c) An airline flight crew... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special rules for airline flight crew employees, hours...

  18. 78 FR 32078 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model G280 Airplane, Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478..., Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) With Head-Up Display (HUD) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Aerospace Corporation, will have an advanced, enhanced-flight-vision system (EFVS). The EFVS is a novel...

  19. 77 FR 60619 - Removal of Obsolete Regulation: Use of the Centennial of Flight Commission Name

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). Review Under EO 13132 EO 13132, ``Federalism,'' 64 FR 43255... CFR Part 1204 RIN 2700-AD78 Removal of Obsolete Regulation: Use of the Centennial of Flight Commission... License the Use of the Centennial of Flight Commission Name.'' Section 506, Delegation of Authority...

  20. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yan; Sun, Mao

    2008-02-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion. The primary findings are as the following. The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one (or two) unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion. At hovering to medium flight speed [flight speed u e = (0-3.5) m s-1; advance ratio J = 0-0.44], the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable; at high speed ( u e = 4.5 m s-1; J = 0.57), the flight becomes strongly unstable (initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  1. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). Link to... may any person serve as a flight instructor unless— (1) That person has satisfactorily...

  2. Effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance in sleep-deprived military pilot students.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Jouni J; Huttunen, Kerttu H; Lahtinen, Taija M M; Kilpeläinen, Airi A; Muhli, Arto A; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-09-01

    Caffeine has been suggested to act as a countermeasure against fatigue in military operations. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance was examined in 13 military pilots during 37 hours of sleep deprivation. Each subject performed a flight mission in simulator four times. The subjects received either a placebo (six subjects) or 200 mg of caffeine (seven subjects) 1 hour before the simulated flights. A moderate 200 mg intake of caffeine was associated with higher axillary temperatures, but it did not affect subjectively assessed sleepiness. Flight performance was similar in both groups during the four rounds flown under sleep deprivation. However, subjective evaluation of overall flight performance in the caffeine group tended to be too optimistic, indicating a potential flight safety problem. Based on our results, we do not recommend using caffeine pills in military flight operations.

  3. Effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance in sleep-deprived military pilot students.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Jouni J; Huttunen, Kerttu H; Lahtinen, Taija M M; Kilpeläinen, Airi A; Muhli, Arto A; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-09-01

    Caffeine has been suggested to act as a countermeasure against fatigue in military operations. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance was examined in 13 military pilots during 37 hours of sleep deprivation. Each subject performed a flight mission in simulator four times. The subjects received either a placebo (six subjects) or 200 mg of caffeine (seven subjects) 1 hour before the simulated flights. A moderate 200 mg intake of caffeine was associated with higher axillary temperatures, but it did not affect subjectively assessed sleepiness. Flight performance was similar in both groups during the four rounds flown under sleep deprivation. However, subjective evaluation of overall flight performance in the caffeine group tended to be too optimistic, indicating a potential flight safety problem. Based on our results, we do not recommend using caffeine pills in military flight operations. PMID:17937364

  4. Engineering flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine if the two-segment profile equipment, and operational procedures as defined by the B-727 Simulation Evaluation are operationally sound under all flight conditions expected to be encountered in line service. The evaluation was divided into the following areas: (1) to verify that the two-segment system operates as it was designed; (2) to conduct sufficient tests to secure a supplemental type certificate for line operation of the system; (3) to evaluate the normal operation of the equipment and procedures; (4) to evaluate the need for an autothrottle system for two-segment approaches; (5) to investigate abnormal operation of the equipment and procedures, including abused approaches and malfunctions of airborne and ground components; (6) to determine the accuracy and ease of flying the two-segment approach; (7) to determine the improvement in ground noise levels; and (8) to develop a guest pilot flight test syllabus.

  5. Optimal symmetric flight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Menon, P. K. A.; Bilimoria, K. D.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Several topics in optimal symmetric flight of airbreathing vehicles are examined. In one study, an approximation scheme designed for onboard real-time energy management of climb-dash is developed and calculations for a high-performance aircraft presented. In another, a vehicle model intermediate in complexity between energy and point-mass models is explored and some quirks in optimal flight characteristics peculiar to the model uncovered. In yet another study, energy-modelling procedures are re-examined with a view to stretching the range of validity of zeroth-order approximation by special choice of state variables. In a final study, time-fuel tradeoffs in cruise-dash are examined for the consequences of nonconvexities appearing in the classical steady cruise-dash model. Two appendices provide retrospective looks at two early publications on energy modelling and related optimal control theory.

  6. Becoming a flight surgeon.

    PubMed

    Gallé-Tessonneau, J R

    1988-12-01

    This text is the inaugural lesson given by the Professor of Aeronautic Psychiatry and starts the training period for new flight surgeons in the French Air Force. Introducing the French Air Force Medicine Training Session, the author speaks about the psychological aspects in aviation medicine. Three points of pilots' psychology are developed: 1) the pilot's body as the source of intense sensations and as an object of important value; 2) the libidinal, narcissistic, and defensive aspects of the pilot's spirit; and 3) the pilot's environment with its characteristic relationships. These facts influence the medical approach and modify the physician-pilot relationship. The flight surgeon must pay attention and get ready for this specific practice.

  7. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  8. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE... specific National Aeronautics and Space Act purposes to which this opportunity is directed,...

  9. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE... specific National Aeronautics and Space Act purposes to which this opportunity is directed,...

  10. 14 CFR 1214.1705 - Selection of space flight participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of space flight participants. 1214.1705 Section 1214.1705 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE... specific National Aeronautics and Space Act purposes to which this opportunity is directed,...

  11. MARS Flight Engineering Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2010-04-06

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.

  12. Infrared Thermography Flight Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Carter, Matthew L.; Kirsch, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analysis was done on IR data collected by DFRC on May 8, 2002. This includes the generation of a movie to initially examine the IR flight data. The production of the movie was challenged by the volume of data that needed to be processed, namely 40,500 images with each image (256 x 252) containing over 264 million points (pixel depth 4096). It was also observed during the initial analysis that the RTD surface coating has a different emissivity than the surroundings. This fact added unexpected complexity in obtaining a correlation between RTD data and IR data. A scheme was devised to generate IR data near the RTD location which is not affected by the surface coating This scheme is valid as long as the surface temperature as measured does not change too much over a few pixel distances from the RTD location. After obtaining IR data near the RTD location, it is possible to make a direct comparison with the temperature as measured during the flight after adjusting for the camera s auto scaling. The IR data seems to correlate well to the flight temperature data at three of the four RID locations. The maximum count intensity occurs closely to the maximum temperature as measured during flight. At one location (RTD #3), there is poor correlation and this must be investigated before any further progress is possible. However, with successful comparisons at three locations, it seems there is great potential to be able to find a calibration curve for the data. Moreover, as such it will be possible to measure temperature directly from the IR data in the near future.

  13. Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostyk, Christopher Barry

    2007-01-01

    As part of a session at the 2007 Thermal & Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), an overview of the operations at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was given. Mission support at this site includes the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD); Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), Science - ER-2; Science - G3 UAVSAR; Science - Ikhana and Space Operations. In addition, the presentation describes TFAWS related work at Dryden.

  14. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  15. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  16. Flight Software Math Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  17. ATS-6 - Flight accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, R.; Honeycutt, G.; Lindner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) flight accelerometers were designed to provide data for verifying the basic spacecraft vibration modes during launch, to update the analytical model of the ATA structure, and to provide a capability for detection and diagnosis of inflight and anomalies. The experiment showed accelerations less than 2.5 g during liftoff and 1.1 g or less during staging with frequencies below 80 Hz. Measured values were generally within 1 g of predicted.

  18. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  19. Thermal contouring of forestry data: Wallops Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    The contouring of 8-13.5 micrometer thermal data collected over a forestry site in Virginia is described. The data were collected at an altitude of 1000 ft above terrain on November 4, 1970. The site was covered on three approximately parallel lines. The purpose of the contouring was to attempt to delineate pine trees attacked by southern pine bark beetle, and to map other important terrain categories. Special processing steps were required to achieve the correct aspect ratio of the thermal data. The reference for the correction procedure was color infrared photography. Data form and quality are given, processing steps are outlined, a brief interpretation of results is given, and conclusion are presented.

  20. NASA Sounding Rockets and Hi-C

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Sounding Rockets Program Office (SRPO), located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, provides suborbital launch vehicles, payload development, and field operations sup...

  1. Flight experience with windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifel, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Windshear alerts resulting from the Honeywell Windshear Detection and Guidance System are presented based on data from approximately 248,000 revenue flights at Piedmont Airlines. The data indicate that the detection system provides a significant benefit to the flight crew of the aircraft. In addition, nuisance and false alerts were found to occur at an acceptably low rate to maintain flight crew confidence in the system. Data from a digital flight recorder is also presented which shows the maximum and minimum windshear magnitudes recorded for a representative number of flights in February, 1987. The effect of the boundary layer of a steady state wind is also discussed.

  2. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  3. Radioastron flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunin, V. I.; Sukhanov, K. G.; Altunin, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Radioastron is a space-based very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission to be operational in the mid-90's. The spacecraft and space radio telescope (SRT) will be designed, manufactured, and launched by the Russians. The United States is constructing a DSN subnet to be used in conjunction with a Russian subnet for Radioastron SRT science data acquisition, phase link, and spacecraft and science payload health monitoring. Command and control will be performed from a Russian tracking facility. In addition to the flight element, the network of ground radio telescopes which will be performing co-observations with the space telescope are essential to the mission. Observatories in 39 locations around the world are expected to participate in the mission. Some aspects of the mission that have helped shaped the flight operations concept are: separate radio channels will be provided for spacecraft operations and for phase link and science data acquisition; 80-90 percent of the spacecraft operational time will be spent in an autonomous mode; and, mission scheduling must take into account not only spacecraft and science payload constraints, but tracking station and ground observatory availability as well. This paper will describe the flight operations system design for translating the Radioastron science program into spacecraft executed events. Planning for in-orbit checkout and contingency response will also be discussed.

  4. Flight Project Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) is responsible for the overall planning, directing, executing, and evaluating that part of the overall NASA program that has the goal of using the unique characteristics of the space environment to conduct a scientific study of the universe, to understand how the Earth works as an integrated system, to solve practical problems on Earth, and to provide the scientific and technological research foundation for expanding human presence beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. OSSA guides its program toward leadership through its pursuit of excellence across the full spectrum of disciplines. OSSA pursues these goals through an integrated program of ground-based laboratory research and experimentation, suborbital flight of instruments on airplanes, balloons, and sounding rockets; flight of instruments and the conduct of research on the Shuttle/Spacelab system and on Space Station Freedom; and development and flight of automated Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft. The OSSA program is conducted with the participation and support of other Government agencies and facilities, universities throughout the United States, the aerospace contractor community, and all of NASA's nine Centers. In addition, OSSA operates with substantial international participation in many aspects of our Space Science and Applications Program. OSSA's programs currently in operation, those approved for development, and those planned for future missions are described.

  5. The IBEX Flight Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, J.; Carrico, J.; Crock, J.; Cross, W.; Delossantos, A.; Dunn, A.; Dunn, G.; Epperly, M.; Fields, B.; Fowler, E.; Gaio, T.; Gerhardus, J.; Grossman, W.; Hanley, J.; Hautamaki, B.; Hawes, D.; Holemans, W.; Kinaman, S.; Kirn, S.; Loeffler, C.; McComas, D. J.; Osovets, A.; Perry, T.; Peterson, M.; Phillips, M.; Pope, S.; Rahal, G.; Tapley, M.; Tyler, R.; Ungar, B.; Walter, E.; Wesley, S.; Wiegand, T.

    2009-08-01

    IBEX provides the observations needed for detailed modeling and in-depth understanding of the interstellar interaction (McComas et al. in Physics of the Outer Heliosphere, Third Annual IGPP Conference, pp. 162-181, 2004; Space Sci. Rev., 2009a, this issue). From mission design to launch and acquisition, this goal drove all flight system development. This paper describes the management, design, testing and integration of IBEX’s flight system, which successfully launched from Kwajalein Atoll on October 19, 2008. The payload is supported by a simple, Sun-pointing, spin-stabilized spacecraft with no deployables. The spacecraft bus consists of the following subsystems: attitude control, command and data handling, electrical power, hydrazine propulsion, RF, thermal, and structures. A novel 3-step orbit approach was employed to put IBEX in its highly elliptical, 8-day final orbit using a Solid Rocket Motor, which provided large delta-V after IBEX separated from the Pegasus launch vehicle; an adapter cone, which interfaced between the SRM and Pegasus; Motorized Lightbands, which performed separation from the Pegasus, ejection of the adapter cone, and separation of the spent SRM from the spacecraft; a ShockRing isolation system to lower expected launch loads; and the onboard Hydrazine Propulsion System. After orbit raising, IBEX transitioned from commissioning to nominal operations and science acquisition. At every phase of development, the Systems Engineering and Mission Assurance teams supervised the design, testing and integration of all IBEX flight elements.

  6. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  7. NASA's Earth science flight programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

    2008-10-01

    NASA's strategic goal in Earth science is motivated by the fundamental question: "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" NASA's mission in Earth science, as mandated by the Space Act, is to "... conduct aeronautical and space activities so as to contribute materially to ...the expansion of human knowledge of the Earth and of phenomena in the atmosphere and space". Therefore NASA's role is unique and highly complements those of other U.S. Federal agencies (such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, and Environmental Protection Agency) by continually advancing Earth system science from space, creating new remote sensing capabilities, and enhancing the operational capabilities of other agencies and collaborating with them to advance national Earth science goals. Continuous global observations of variability and change are required to reveal natural variability and the forces involved, the nature of the underlying processes and how these are coupled within the Earth system. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) provides these observations through its orbital and suborbital Flight Programs. In the decade 2007-2016, ESD will develop and demonstrate new sensors and interacting constellations of satellites to address critical science questions and enable advances in operational capabilities in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey of Earth Science and Applications.

  8. 14 CFR 63.42 - Flight engineer certificate issued on basis of a foreign flight engineer license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cannot read, speak, or understand the English language, the Administrator may place any limitation on the.... registry subject to the limitations of this part and any additional limitations placed on his certificate by the Administrator. He is subject to these limitations while he is acting as a flight engineer...

  9. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  10. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  11. Flight test experience with the F-8 digital fly-by-wire system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    Flight test results of the F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) control system are presented and the implications for application to active control technology (ACT) are discussed. The F-8 DFBW system has several of the attributes of proposed ACT systems, so the flight test experience is helpful in assessing the capabilities of those systems. Topics of discussion include the predicted and actual flight performance of the control system, assessments of aircraft flying qualities and other piloting factors, software management and control, and operational experience.

  12. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in...

  13. Flight Mechanics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  14. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  15. Positron annihilation in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor Jones, Goronwy

    1999-09-01

    In this resource article, an exceptional bubble chamber picture - showing the annihilation of a positron (antielectron e+ ) in flight - is discussed in detail. Several other esoteric phenomena (some not easy to show on their own!) also manifest themselves in this picture - pair creation or the materialization of a high energy photon into an electron-positron pair; the `head-on' collision of a positron with an electron, from which the mass of the positron can be estimated; the Compton Effect ; an example of the emission of electromagnetic radiation (photons) by accelerating charges (bremsstrahlung ).

  16. The Third Flight Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    A self-shielded superconducting magnet was designed for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator Program. This is the third magnet built from this design. The magnets utilize Cryomagnetics' patented ultra-low current technology. The magnetic system is capable of reaching a central field of two tesla at slightly under two amperes and has a total inductance of 1068 henries. This final report details the requirements of the magnet, the specifications of the resulting magnet, the test procedures and test result data for the third magnet (Serial # C-654-M), and recommended precautions for use of the magnet.

  17. Statistical analysis of flight times for space shuttle ferry flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, M. E.; Perlmutter, M.

    1974-01-01

    Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.

  18. KC-135 winglet flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Three KC-135 winglet configurations were flight tested for cant/incidence angles of 15 deg/-4 deg, 15 deg/-2 deg, and 0 deg/-4 deg, as well as the basic wing. The flight results for the 15 deg/-4 deg and basic wing configurations confirm the wind tunnel predicted 7% incremental decrease in total drag at cruise conditions. The 15 deg/-4 configuration flight measured wing and winglet pressure distributions, loads, stability and control, flutter, and buffet also correlate well with predicted values. The only unexpected flight results as compared with analytical predictions is a flutter speed decrease for the 0 deg/-4 deg configuration. The 15 deg/-2 deg configuration results show essentially the same incremental drag reduction as the 15 deg/-4 deg configuration; however, the flight loads are approximately 30% higher for the 15 deg/-2 deg configuration. The drag data for the 0 deg/-4 deg configuration show only a flight drag reduction.

  19. New Theory of Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  20. LACE flight dynamics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1989-01-01

    The Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) is scheduled for launch in late 1989 into a 556 km altitude circular orbit of 43 deg inclination. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is an experiment secondary to the primary LACE mission. The purpose of the experiment is to provide on-orbit systems identification of the LACE spacecraft. The structure of the LACE spacecraft is of special interest to the CSI community. It incorporates 3 deployable/retractable booms of maximum length 45.72 m (150 ft) mounted on a rectangular parallelepiped bus of mass 1,200 kg. The zenith directed gravity gradient boom is mounted on the top of the bus; the retroreflector boom is mounted forward and deployed along the velocity vector, the balance boom is mounted and pointed aft. Attitude stabilization is accomplished by means of gravity gradient torques and by a momentum wheel. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is designed to measure modal frequencies, damping ratios, and oscillation amplitudes of the LACE spacecraft, as well as the vibration intensity generated by boom deployments and retractions. It is anticipated that this experiment will provide an opportunity for improvements in the accuracy of computer simulations of flexible structures and multibody dynamics.

  1. NASA - Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).

  2. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed just-in-time training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This just-in-time concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete medical examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). An American md Russian ISS crewmember received 2-hours of hands on ultrasound training 8 months prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember six days prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. Results of the CD ROM based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35 minute real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and adequate for clinical decision-making. Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited pre-flight training and CD-ROM-based in-flight review, despite a 2-second communication latency.

  3. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  4. Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an authentic aircraft environment by generating the appropriate physical cues that provide the sensations of flight.

  5. Information Display System for Atypical Flight Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris J. (Inventor); Rosenthal, Loren J. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Andrei, Adi (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor); Robin, Daniel E. (Inventor); Prothero, Jason W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for displaying information on one or more aircraft flights, where at least one flight is determined to have at least one atypical flight phase according to specified criteria. A flight parameter trace for an atypical phase is displayed and compared graphically with a group of traces, for the corresponding flight phase and corresponding flight parameter, for flights that do not manifest atypicality in that phase.

  6. Endo LEAP flight test planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, E. T.; Huhlein, Mike

    1993-06-01

    The Atmospheric Interceptor Technology (AIT) program (formerly Endo LEAP) is focused on demonstrating strapdown seekers and strapdown guidance for very small miss distance intercepts at very high velocities against ballistic missiles within the atmosphere. This is being accomplished by advancing state-of-the-art technologies for small, lightweight, highly integrated kinetic energy kill vehicles (KV). Ground testing cannot fully duplicate the simultaneous interaction of the severe aerodynamic, aerothermal, and aero-optical conditions of hypervelocity flight within the atmosphere. Therefore, flight testing is required to fully validate the integrated technologies. The electro-optical (EO) flight testing is the impetus of this paper and can be broken down into two major elements: component flights and intercept flights. The component flights are utilized to resolve critical issues which will enable intercept flights, gather phenomenology data, and validate (EO) window concepts. In the intercept flights, prime contractor KV's will be flown against representative targets to demonstrate hit-to-kill (HTK) with aimpoint selection on the target lethal package. Initial studies indicate that both types of flights can be implemented utilizing boosters, launchers, and the, organizational framework of existing interceptor systems.

  7. Shuttle Risk Progression by Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri; Kahn, Joe; Thigpen, Eric; Zhu, Tony; Lo, Yohon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the early mission risk and progression of risk as a vehicle gains insights through flight is important: . a) To the Shuttle Program to understand the impact of re-designs and operational changes on risk. . b) To new programs to understand reliability growth and first flight risk. . Estimation of Shuttle Risk Progression by flight: . a) Uses Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and current knowledge to calculate early vehicle risk. . b) Shows impact of major Shuttle upgrades. . c) Can be used to understand first flight risk for new programs.

  8. Metabolic 'engines' of flight drive genome size reduction in birds.

    PubMed

    Wright, Natalie A; Gregory, T Ryan; Witt, Christopher C

    2014-03-22

    The tendency for flying organisms to possess small genomes has been interpreted as evidence of natural selection acting on the physical size of the genome. Nonetheless, the flight-genome link and its mechanistic basis have yet to be well established by comparative studies within a volant clade. Is there a particular functional aspect of flight such as brisk metabolism, lift production or maneuverability that impinges on the physical genome? We measured genome sizes, wing dimensions and heart, flight muscle and body masses from a phylogenetically diverse set of bird species. In phylogenetically controlled analyses, we found that genome size was negatively correlated with relative flight muscle size and heart index (i.e. ratio of heart to body mass), but positively correlated with body mass and wing loading. The proportional masses of the flight muscles and heart were the most important parameters explaining variation in genome size in multivariate models. Hence, the metabolic intensity of powered flight appears to have driven genome size reduction in birds.

  9. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    In this 1965 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) number 1 is shown in flight. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs, gave the pilot control in pitch, yaw, and roll. On the

  10. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  11. Sounding rocket flight report, MUMP 9 and MUMP 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grassl, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the launching of two-Marshall-University of Michigan Probes (MUMP 9 and MUMP 10), Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket payloads, are summarized. The MUMP is similar to the thermosphere probe, an ejectable instrument package for studying the variability of the earth's atmospheric parameters. The MUMP 9 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, a molecular fluorescence densitometer, a mini-tilty filter, and a lunar position sensor. This complement of instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 143 to 297 km over Wallops Island, Virginia, during January 1971. The MUMP 10 payload included an omegatron mass analyzer, an electron temperature probe, a cryogenic densitometer, and a solar position sensor. These instruments permitted the determination of the molecular nitrogen density and temperature and the charged particle density and temperature in the altitude range from approximately 145 to 290 km over Wallops Island during the afternoon preceding the MUMP 9 launch.

  12. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  13. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  14. Do birds sleep in flight?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2006-09-01

    The following review examines the evidence for sleep in flying birds. The daily need to sleep in most animals has led to the common belief that birds, such as the common swift ( Apus apus), which spend the night on the wing, sleep in flight. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings required to detect sleep in flight have not been performed, however, rendering the evidence for sleep in flight circumstantial. The neurophysiology of sleep and flight suggests that some types of sleep might be compatible with flight. As in mammals, birds exhibit two types of sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. Whereas, SWS can occur in one or both brain hemispheres at a time, REM sleep only occurs bihemispherically. During unihemispheric SWS, the eye connected to the awake hemisphere remains open, a state that may allow birds to visually navigate during sleep in flight. Bihemispheric SWS may also be possible during flight when constant visual monitoring of the environment is unnecessary. Nevertheless, the reduction in muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep makes it unlikely that birds enter this state in flight. Upon landing, birds may need to recover the components of sleep that are incompatible with flight. Periods of undisturbed postflight recovery sleep may be essential for maintaining adaptive brain function during wakefulness. The recent miniaturization of EEG recording devices now makes it possible to measure brain activity in flight. Determining if and how birds sleep in flight will contribute to our understanding of a largely unexplored aspect of avian behavior and may also provide insight into the function of sleep.

  15. X-38 - First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, NASA's B-52 mothership lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also

  16. X-38 - First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In a scene reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, this photo shows a close-up view of NASA's B-52 mothership as it lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the

  17. Flight deck engine advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shontz, W. D.; Records, R. M.; Antonelli, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this project is on alerting pilots to impending events in such a way as to provide the additional time required for the crew to make critical decisions concerning non-normal operations. The project addresses pilots' need for support in diagnosis and trend monitoring of faults as they affect decisions that must be made within the context of the current flight. Monitoring and diagnostic modules developed under the NASA Faultfinder program were restructured and enhanced using input data from an engine model and real engine fault data. Fault scenarios were prepared to support knowledge base development activities on the MONITAUR and DRAPhyS modules of Faultfinder. An analysis of the information requirements for fault management was included in each scenario. A conceptual framework was developed for systematic evaluation of the impact of context variables on pilot action alternatives as a function of event/fault combinations.

  18. Space flight rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment.

  19. Flight Operations Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easter, Robert; Herrell, Linda; Pomphrey, Richard; Chase, James; Wertz Chen, Julie; Smith, Jeffrey; Carter, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Flight Operations Analysis Tool (FLOAT) is a computer program that partly automates the process of assessing the benefits of planning spacecraft missions to incorporate various combinations of launch vehicles and payloads. Designed primarily for use by an experienced systems engineer, FLOAT makes it possible to perform a preliminary analysis of trade-offs and costs of a proposed mission in days, whereas previously, such an analysis typically lasted months. FLOAT surveys a variety of prior missions by querying data from authoritative NASA sources pertaining to 20 to 30 mission and interface parameters that define space missions. FLOAT provides automated, flexible means for comparing the parameters to determine compatibility or the lack thereof among payloads, spacecraft, and launch vehicles, and for displaying the results of such comparisons. Sparseness, typical of the data available for analysis, does not confound this software. FLOAT effects an iterative process that identifies modifications of parameters that could render compatible an otherwise incompatible mission set.

  20. Digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  1. Space flight rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Michael W C; Williams, David R; Trudel, Guy

    2007-07-01

    The weightless environment of space imposes specific physiologic adaptations on healthy astronauts. On return to Earth, these adaptations manifest as physical impairments that necessitate a period of rehabilitation. Physiologic changes result from unloading in microgravity and highly correlate with those seen in relatively immobile terrestrial patient populations such as spinal cord, geriatric, or deconditioned bed-rest patients. Major postflight impairments requiring rehabilitation intervention include orthostatic intolerance, bone demineralization, muscular atrophy, and neurovestibular symptoms. Space agencies are preparing for extended-duration missions, including colonization of the moon and interplanetary exploration of Mars. These longer-duration flights will result in more severe and more prolonged disability, potentially beyond the point of safe return to Earth. This paper will review and discuss existing space rehabilitation plans for major postflight impairments. Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment. PMID:17167347

  2. The Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Nelson, Anthony; Salazar, Anthony; Roussel - Dupre, Diane; Katko, Kim; Palmer, Joseph; Robinson, Scott; Wirthlin, Michael; Howes, William; Richins, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  3. Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Caffrey, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building the Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE), a reconfigurable processor payload intended for a Low Earth Orbit system. It will survey portions of the VHF and UHF radio spectra. The experiment uses networks of reprogrammable, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to process the received signals for ionospheric and lightning studies. The objective is to validate the on-orbit use of commercial, reconfigurable FPGA technology utilizing several different single-event upset mitigation schemes. It will also detect and measure impulsive events that occur in a complex background. Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd (SSTL) is building the small host satellite, CFESat, based upon SSTL's disaster monitoring constellation (DMC) and Topsat mission satellite designs. The CFESat satellite will be launched by the Space Test Program in September 2006 on the US Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) using the EELV's Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) that allows up to six small satellites to be launched as 'piggyback' passengers with larger spacecraft.

  4. Flight plan optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmaseelan, Anoop; Adistambha, Keyne D.

    2015-05-01

    Fuel cost accounts for 40 percent of the operating cost of an airline. Fuel cost can be minimized by planning a flight on optimized routes. The routes can be optimized by searching best connections based on the cost function defined by the airline. The most common algorithm that used to optimize route search is Dijkstra's. Dijkstra's algorithm produces a static result and the time taken for the search is relatively long. This paper experiments a new algorithm to optimize route search which combines the principle of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. The experimental results of route search, presented are shown to be computationally fast and accurate compared with timings from generic algorithm. The new algorithm is optimal for random routing feature that is highly sought by many regional operators.

  5. 14 CFR 61.187 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.187 Section 61.187... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.187 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who is applying for...

  6. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator

  7. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  8. X-1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  9. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  10. STS-80 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of STS-80, Cmdr. Kenneth D. Cockrell, Pilot Kent V. Rominger, Mission Specialists, Tamara E. Jernigan, Thomas D. Jones, and F. Story Musgrave give a post flight presentation of their mission. This presentation is divided into two parts first a slide presentation of still shots, and the second is a video presentation.

  11. Laminar-flow flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Richard D.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Bartlett, D. W.; Collier, F. S., Jr.; Braslow, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The flight testing conducted over the past 10 years in the NASA laminar-flow control (LFC) will be reviewed. The LFC program was directed towards the most challenging technology application, the high supersonic speed transport. To place these recent experiences in perspective, earlier important flight tests will first be reviewed to recall the lessons learned at that time.

  12. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Amit; Conry, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet. Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion. Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. PMID:24106549

  13. Applications of Payload Directed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Yeh, Yoo Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aviation flight control concepts require autonomous and intelligent control system architectures that close control loops directly around payload sensors in manner more integrated and cohesive that in traditional autopilot designs. Research into payload directed flight control at NASA Ames Research Center is investigating new and novel architectures that can satisfy the requirements for next generation control and automation concepts for aviation. Tighter integration between sensor and machine requires definition of specific sensor-directed control modes to tie the sensor data directly into a vehicle control structures throughout the entire control architecture, from low-level stability- and control loops, to higher level mission planning and scheduling reasoning systems. Payload directed flight systems can thus provide guidance, navigation, and control for vehicle platforms hosting a suite of onboard payload sensors. This paper outlines related research into the field of payload directed flight; and outlines requirements and operating concepts for payload directed flight systems based on identified needs from the scientific literature.'

  14. Energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  15. Radiation protection during space flight.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, E E

    1983-12-01

    The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew.

  16. Making flight motion tables invisible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMore, Louis A.; Hollinger, Paul; Hirsh, Gary

    2009-05-01

    Flight tables can add unwanted dynamics with increased phase lag and gain attenuation to the Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) simulation. By making flight tables "invisible" we reduce the effects of these unwanted dynamics on the simulation giving the simulation engineer a much clearer picture of the test unit's capabilities. Past methods[1] relied on clever servo techniques to reduce these effects. In this paper we look at the mechanical aspects of the flight table; in particular, we study the effects of using composite materials in the fabrication of the flight table gimbals. The study shows that the use of composite gimbals significantly increases the invisibility of the flight table with the potential added benefit of reduced cost.

  17. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    An inflight view from the left side of the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, is shown in this 1964 NASA Flight Research Center photograph. The photograph was taken in front of the old NACA hangar located at the South Base, Edwards Air Force Base. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal

  18. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    In this 1965 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) is shown at near maximum altitude over the south base at Edwards Air Force Base. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs

  19. Workshop on Exercise Prescription for Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Bernard A., Jr. (Editor); Stewart, Donald F. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a dedicated history of ensuring human safety and productivity in flight. Working and living in space long term represents the challenge of the future. Our concern is in determining the effects on the human body of living in space. Space flight provides a powerful stimulus for adaptation, such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. Extended-duration space flight will influence a great many systems in the human body. We must understand the process by which this adaptation occurs. The NASA is agressively involved in developing programs which will act as a foundation for this new field of space medicine. The hallmark of these programs deals with prevention of deconditioning, currently referred to as countermeasures to zero g. Exercise appears to be most effective in preventing the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal degradation of microgravity.

  20. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 1: aerodynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    Iosilevskii, G

    2014-10-01

    This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance-at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small. PMID:26064548

  1. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 1: aerodynamics and performance

    PubMed Central

    Iosilevskii, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance—at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small. PMID:26064548

  2. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 1: aerodynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    Iosilevskii, G

    2014-10-01

    This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance-at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small.

  3. NACA Flight-Path Angle and Air-Speed Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Donald G

    1926-01-01

    A new trailing bomb-type instrument for photographically recording the flight-path angle and air speed of aircraft in unaccelerated flight is described. The instrument consists essentially of an inclinometer, air-speed meter and a film-drum case. The inclinometer carries an oil-damped pendulum which records optically the flight-path angle upon a rotating motor-driven film drum. The air-speed meter consists of a taut metal diaphragm of high natural frequency which is acted upon by the pressure difference of a Prandtl type Pitot-static tube. The inclinometer record and air-speed record are made optically on the same sensitive film. Two records taken by this instrument are shown.

  4. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator or flight training device. If an applicant for a certificate or rating uses...

  5. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator or flight training device. If an applicant for a certificate or rating uses...

  6. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator or flight training device. If an applicant for a certificate or rating uses...

  7. Integrated Approach to Flight Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The computer based approach used by United Airlines for flight training is discussed. The human factors involved in specific aircraft accidents are addressed. Flight crew interaction and communication as they relate to training and flight safety are considered.

  8. Foreign technology summary of flight crucial flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of foreign technology in flight crucial flight controls is being conducted to provide a data base for planning future research and technology programs. Only Free World countries were surveyed, and the primary emphasis was on Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications, and a tour of several companies, government organizations, and research laboratories in the United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany. A summary of the survey results to date is presented.

  9. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  10. Flight Tests Validate Collision-Avoidance System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flights tests of a smartphone-assisted automatic ground collision avoidance system at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center consistently commanded evasive maneuvers when it sensed that the unmanned ...

  11. Uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Steurer, John W.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating the measurement error or uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination in aircraft employing conventional turbofan/turbojet engines are reviewed. While the term 'in-flight thrust determination' is used synonymously with 'in-flight thrust measurement', in-flight thrust is not directly measured but is determined or calculated using mathematical modeling relationships between in-flight thrust and various direct measurements of physical quantities. The in-flight thrust determination process incorporates both ground testing and flight testing. The present text is divided into the following categories: measurement uncertainty methodoogy and in-flight thrust measurent processes.

  12. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  13. SR-71 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The movie clip shown here runs about 13 seconds and shows an air-to-air shot of the front of the SR-71 aircraft and a head-on view of it coming in for a landing. Two SR-71A aircraft on loan from the U.S. Air Force have been used for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, since 1991. One of them was later returned to the Air Force. A third SR-71 on loan from the Air Force is an SR-71B used for training but not for flight research. Developed for the U.S. Air Force as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71 aircraft are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. These aircraft can fly more than 2200 miles per hour (Mach 3+ or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. This operating environment makes the aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas--aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic-boom characterization. Data from the SR-71 high-speed research program may be used to aid designers of future supersonic or hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems, including a possible high-speed civil transport. The SR-71 program at Dryden has been part of the NASA overall high-speed aeronautical research program, and projects have involved other NASA research centers, other government agencies, universities, and commercial firms. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air-data collection system. This system used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data such as angle of attack and angle of sideslip. These data are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the air stream, or from tubes with flush openings on the aircraft outer skin. The flights provided information on the presence of

  14. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  15. SR-71 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The movie clip shown here runs about 13 seconds and shows an air-to-air shot of the front of the SR-71 aircraft and a head-on view of it coming in for a landing. Two SR-71A aircraft on loan from the U.S. Air Force have been used for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, since 1991. One of them was later returned to the Air Force. A third SR-71 on loan from the Air Force is an SR-71B used for training but not for flight research. Developed for the U.S. Air Force as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71 aircraft are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. These aircraft can fly more than 2200 miles per hour (Mach 3+ or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. This operating environment makes the aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas--aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic-boom characterization. Data from the SR-71 high-speed research program may be used to aid designers of future supersonic or hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems, including a possible high-speed civil transport. The SR-71 program at Dryden has been part of the NASA overall high-speed aeronautical research program, and projects have involved other NASA research centers, other government agencies, universities, and commercial firms. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air-data collection system. This system used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data such as angle of attack and angle of sideslip. These data are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the air stream, or from tubes with flush openings on the aircraft outer skin. The flights provided information on the presence of

  16. Flight initiation and maintenance deficits in flies with genetically altered biogenic amine levels.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn; Christiansen, Frauke; Pflüger, Hans Joachim; Duch, Carsten

    2007-10-10

    Insect flight is one of the fastest, most intense and most energy-demanding motor behaviors. It is modulated on multiple levels by the biogenic amine octopamine. Within the CNS, octopamine acts directly on the flight central pattern generator, and it affects motivational states. In the periphery, octopamine sensitizes sensory receptors, alters muscle contraction kinetics, and enhances flight muscle glycolysis. This study addresses the roles for octopamine and its precursor tyramine in flight behavior by genetic and pharmacological manipulation in Drosophila. Octopamine is not the natural signal for flight initiation because flies lacking octopamine [tyramine-beta-hydroxylase (TbetaH) null mutants] can fly. However, they show profound differences with respect to flight initiation and flight maintenance compared with wild-type controls. The morphology, kinematics, and development of the flight machinery are not impaired in TbetaH mutants because wing-beat frequencies and amplitudes, flight muscle structure, and overall dendritic structure of flight motoneurons are unaffected in TbetaH mutants. Accordingly, the flight behavior phenotypes can be rescued acutely in adult flies. Flight deficits are rescued by substituting octopamine but also by blocking the receptors for tyramine, which is enriched in TbetaH mutants. Conversely, ablating all neurons containing octopamine or tyramine phenocopies TbetaH mutants. Therefore, both octopamine and tyramine systems are simultaneously involved in regulating flight initiation and maintenance. Different sets of rescue experiments indicate different sites of action for both amines. These findings are consistent with a complex system of multiple amines orchestrating the control of motor behaviors on multiple levels rather than single amines eliciting single behaviors.

  17. Flight initiation and maintenance deficits in flies with genetically altered biogenic amine levels.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn; Christiansen, Frauke; Pflüger, Hans Joachim; Duch, Carsten

    2007-10-10

    Insect flight is one of the fastest, most intense and most energy-demanding motor behaviors. It is modulated on multiple levels by the biogenic amine octopamine. Within the CNS, octopamine acts directly on the flight central pattern generator, and it affects motivational states. In the periphery, octopamine sensitizes sensory receptors, alters muscle contraction kinetics, and enhances flight muscle glycolysis. This study addresses the roles for octopamine and its precursor tyramine in flight behavior by genetic and pharmacological manipulation in Drosophila. Octopamine is not the natural signal for flight initiation because flies lacking octopamine [tyramine-beta-hydroxylase (TbetaH) null mutants] can fly. However, they show profound differences with respect to flight initiation and flight maintenance compared with wild-type controls. The morphology, kinematics, and development of the flight machinery are not impaired in TbetaH mutants because wing-beat frequencies and amplitudes, flight muscle structure, and overall dendritic structure of flight motoneurons are unaffected in TbetaH mutants. Accordingly, the flight behavior phenotypes can be rescued acutely in adult flies. Flight deficits are rescued by substituting octopamine but also by blocking the receptors for tyramine, which is enriched in TbetaH mutants. Conversely, ablating all neurons containing octopamine or tyramine phenocopies TbetaH mutants. Therefore, both octopamine and tyramine systems are simultaneously involved in regulating flight initiation and maintenance. Different sets of rescue experiments indicate different sites of action for both amines. These findings are consistent with a complex system of multiple amines orchestrating the control of motor behaviors on multiple levels rather than single amines eliciting single behaviors. PMID:17928454

  18. Dynamic Flight Envelope Assessment with Flight Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandita, Rohit

    Aircraft have a manufacturer prescribed operating flight envelope for safe operation, exceeding these limits can result in unrecoverable departures or even structural failure. Numerous commercial aircraft accidents in the past have been attributed to loss-of-control (LOC) resulting from exceeding the safe operating flight envelope. Hence, real-time knowledge of the safe operating flight envelope is essential for safe flight operation, a problem known as dynamic flight envelope assessment. This dissertation explores dynamic flight envelope assessment from a control theoretic perspective. Two notions of the flight envelope, namely, the reachable sets and the region-of-attraction analysis are investigated. The NASA generic transport model (GTM) aircraft dynamics is used as an application problem. Linear and nonlinear techniques for flight envelope assessment are formulated in the linear matrix inequality (LMI) and sum-of-squares (SOS) framework, respectively. LMI and SOS problems are computationally tractable convex optimization problems for which many semi-definite programming solvers are available. This thesis also investigated fault detection and isolation strategies. Commercial jet transport aircrafts make extensive use of active controls. Faults or failures in the flight control system (FCS) elements like sensors or control effectors can lead to catastrophic failure. Model-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) filters can provide analytical redundancy by reliably detecting such faults in the system. Practical application of model-based FDI filters is limited so far due to poor performance, false alarms and missed detection arising out of uncertain dynamics of the aircraft, effect of nonlinearities in the system and the influence of closed-loop controllers. An application of closed-loop metrics to assess worst case FDI filter performance in the presence of a controller and uncertain dynamics is presented. Longitudinal GTM dynamics are considered. An Hinfinity

  19. Bumblebee Flight in Heavy Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Engels, T; Kolomenskiy, D; Schneider, K; Lehmann, F-O; Sesterhenn, J

    2016-01-15

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments, or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  20. Bumblebee Flight in Heavy Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, T.; Kolomenskiy, D.; Schneider, K.; Lehmann, F.-O.; Sesterhenn, J.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments, or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  1. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  2. Theseus Landing Following Maiden Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its high aspect-ratio wing as it comes in for a landing on Rogers Dry Lake after its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able

  3. Peanut allergy in-flight.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B

    2002-05-01

    An unknown but probably significant number of airline passengers are allergic to peanuts. Reactions can be mild, moderate, or severe (life threatening). Because peanuts are sometimes dispensed by flight attendants on commercial flights, there is public concern that passengers are at risk of an in-flight allergic reaction. Although there is little in the medical literature to substantiate this concern, there are anecdotal cases of inflight allergic reactions to peanuts from ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation of airborne peanut particles. Consequently, there are several options among which the airlines must choose in order to satisfy passenger concerns.

  4. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  5. Cardiovascular function in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.; Leach-Huntoon, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Postflight orthostatic intolerance and cardiac hemodynamics associated with manned space flight have been investigated on seven STS missions. Orthostatic heart rates appear to be influenced by the mission duration. The rates increase during the first 7-10 days of flight and recover partially after that. Fluid loading is used as a countermeasure to the postflight orthostatic intolerance. The carotid baroreceptor function shows only slight responsiveness to orthostatic stimulation. Plots of the baroreceptor function are presented. It is concluded that an early adaptation to the space flight conditions involves a fluid shift and that the subsequent alterations in the neutral controlling mechanisms contribute to the orthoststic intolerance.

  6. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium kinetics data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning

  7. Flight Rules Critical Readiness Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E.; Knudsen, F.; Rice, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review (CRR) flight rules are presented. The topics include: 1) B13-152 Acoustic Constraints; 2) B13-113 IFM/Corrective Action Prioritization Due to Loss of Exercise Capability; 3) B13-116 Constraints on Treadmill VIS Failure; 4) B13-201 Medical Management of ISS Fire/Smoke Response; 5) ARED and T2 Exercise constraints Flight rules (flight and stage specific); 6) FYI: B14 FR to be updated with requirement to sample crew sleep locations prior to receiving a "recommendation" from SRAG on where to sleep.

  8. Flight decks and free flight: where are the system boundaries?

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2007-07-01

    The change from managed to free flight is expected to have large effects, over and above the intended efficiency gains. Human factor concerns have understandably focused on how free flight may affect the pilots in the cockpit. Yet it is necessary to see the change from managed to free flight as more than just an increment to the pilots' work. Despite the best intentions the transition will not be a case of a smooth, carefully planned and therefore uneventful introduction of a new technology. It is more likely to be a substantial change to an already challenging working environment, in the air as well as on the ground. The significant effects will therefore not just happen within the existing structure or distribution of work and responsibilities, but affect the structure of work itself. This paper takes a look at free flight from a cognitive systems engineering perspective and identifies two major concerns: first what effects free flight has on the boundaries of the joint cognitive systems, and second how this affects demands to control. The conclusion is that both will change considerably and that we need to understand the nature of these changes before focusing on the possible effects of free flight on pilots' performance.

  9. Flight control design considerations for STOVL powered-lift flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.; Anex, Rob

    1990-01-01

    Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft rely on the propulsion system for the lift and control functions during slow speed flight. The propulsion system provides the entire lifting force and all of the control power for hovering flight at zero airspeed. STOVL designs such as the General Dynamics E-7D ejector configuration incorporate an integrated flight/propulsion control system to manage the aerodynamic and propulsive-lift control effectors and to reduce the pilot's workload for powered-lift flight. Desired flying qualities characteristics are implemented through the utilization of an explicit model following flight control system. With the model following control system, the pilot commands the desired response (e.g., throttle commands vertical velocity in hover, instead of power lever angle). Design considerations for developing a multivariable model-following flight control system are presented in this paper. When the regulator gains are defined in terms of generalized controls, the design problem becomes how to best transform the generalized controls to aerodynamic control surface, thrust and thrust vectoring commands.

  10. Future ultra-speed tube-flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Robert M.

    1994-05-01

    Future long-link, ultra-speed, surface transport systems will require electromagnetically (EM) driven and restrained vehicles operating under reduced-atmosphere in very straight tubes. Such tube-flight trains will be safe, energy conservative, pollution-free, and in a protected environment. Hypersonic (and even hyperballistic) speeds are theoretically achievable. Ultimate system choices will represent tradeoffs between amoritized capital costs (ACC) and operating costs. For example, long coasting links might employ aerodynamic lift coupled with EM restraint and drag make-up. Optimized, combined EM lift, and thrust vectors could reduce energy costs but at increased ACC. (Repulsive levitation can produce lift-over-drag l/d ratios a decade greater than aerodynamic), Alternatively, vehicle-emanated, induced-mirror fields in a conducting (aluminum sheet) road bed could reduce ACC but at substantial energy costs. Ultra-speed tube flight will demand fast-acting, high-precision sensors and computerized magnetic shimming. This same control system can maintain a magnetic 'guide way' invariant in inertial space with inertial detectors imbedded in tube structures to sense and correct for earth tremors. Ultra-speed tube flight can complete with aircraft for transit time and can provide even greater passenger convenience by single-model connections with local subways and feeder lines. Although cargo transport generally will not need to be performed at ultra speeds, such speeds may well be desirable for high throughput to optimize channel costs. Thus, a large and expensive pipeline might be replaced with small EM-driven pallets at high speeds.

  11. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  12. Design implications from AFTI/F-16 flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishmael, S. D.; Regenie, V. A.; Mackall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced fighter technologies are evolving into highly complex systems. Flight controls are being integrated with advanced avionics to achieve a total system. The advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16 aircraft is an example of a highly complex digital flight control system integrated with advanced avionics and cockpit. The architecture of these new systems involves several general issues. The use of dissimilar backup modes if the primary system fails requires the designer to trade off system simplicity and capability. This tradeoff is evident in the AFTI/F-16 aircraft with its limited stability and fly-by-wire digital flight control systems. In case of a generic software failure, the backup or normal mode must provide equivalent envelope protection during the transition to degraded flight control. The complexity of systems like the AFTI/F-16 system defines a second design issue, which can be divided into two segments: the effect on testing, and the pilot's ability to act correctly in the limited time available for cockpit decisions. The large matrix of states possible with the AFTI/F-16 flight control system illustrates the difficulty of both testing the system and choosing real-time pilot actions.

  13. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  14. Rocket ozone sounding network data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. U.; Krueger, A. J.; Foster, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    During the period March 1977 through May 1977, three regular monthly ozone profiles were measured at Wallops Flight Center and three regular monthly ozone profiles were measured at the Churchill Research Range. One additional flight was conducted at Wallops Flight Center in support of Nimbus 4 SBUV. Data results and flight profiles for the period covered are presented.

  15. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in spaced and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  16. Technical Seminar: "Flight Deck Technologies"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    Reduced visibility affects the safety and efficiency of nearly all flight operations. As a result, researchers are improving ways to give pilots a vision capability that is independent of actual vi...

  17. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  18. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in space and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  19. NASA's Robotic Lander Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Wednesday, June 8, the lander prototype managed by the Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., hovered autonomously for 15 seconds at...

  20. Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA'€™s Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program gives students and educators the opportunity to design, build and fly an experiment in microgravity and get a look at what it takes to be a NASA en...

  1. Counterconditioning for a Flight Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sank, Lawrence I.

    1976-01-01

    This article describes a concentrated program of desensitization used to treat flight phobia. A case history illustrates the use of expanded emotive imagery, stimulus breakdown and techniques of covert positive reinforcement. (SJL)

  2. The Simple Science of Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennekes, Henk

    1997-05-01

    From the smallest gnat to the largest aircraft, all things that fly obey the same aerodynamic principles. The Simple Science of Flight offers a leisurely introduction to the mechanics of flight and, beyond that, to the scientific attitude that finds wonder in simple calculations, forging connections between, say, the energy efficiency of a peanut butter sandwich and that of the kerosene that fuels a jumbo jet. It is the product of a lifetime of watching and investigating the way flight happens. The hero of the book is the Boeing 747, which Tennekes sees as the current pinnacle of human ingenuity in mastering the science of flight. Also covered are paper airplanes, kites, gliders, and human-powered flying machines as well as birds and insects. Tennekes explains concepts like lift, drag, wing loading, and cruising speed through many fascinating comparisons, anecdotes, and examples.

  3. Flight selection at United Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  4. Flight of the smallest insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Hedrick, Tyson; Robinson, Alice

    2009-11-01

    A vast body of research has described the complexity of flight in insects ranging from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to the hawk moth, Manduca sexta. Over this range of scales, flight aerodynamics as well as the relative lift and drag forces generated are surprisingly similar. The smallest flying insects (Re˜10) have received far less attention, although previous work has shown that flight kinematics and aerodynamics can be significantly different. In this presentation, we have used a three-pronged approach that consists of measurements of flight kinematics in the tiny insect Thysanoptera (thrips), measurements of flow velocities using physical models, and direct numerical simulations to compute lift and drag forces. We find that drag forces can be an order of magnitude larger than lift forces, particularly during the clap and fling motion used by all tiny insects recorded to date.

  5. Bird flight and airplane flight. [instruments to measure air currents and flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A.

    1980-01-01

    Research was based on a series of mechanical, electrical, and cinematographic instruments developed to measure various features of air current behavior as well as bird and airplane flight. Investigation of rising obstruction and thermal currents led to a theory of bird flight, especially of the gliding and soaring types. It was shown how a knowledge of bird flight can be applied to glider and ultimately motorized aircraft construction. The instruments and methods used in studying stress in airplanes and in comparing the lift to drag ratios of airplanes and birds are described.

  6. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  7. STS-79 Flight Day 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis glided into the Kennedy Space Center to mark the ending of the fourth docking flight with Mir and the end of Shannon Lucid's record setting 188 day stay on board the Russian space station.

  8. Space Flight Safety - Discussing perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.

    2016-09-01

    The present section accumulates selected papers from the Second IAA Space Flight Safety Symposium - the international action consolidating the international efforts on safety of space flights at new scientific and technological level. It was held in St. Petersburg in the period since June 29 till July 3, 2015. Venue - the congress-hall and Proving ground of «Special Materials Corp»- Scientific and production association of special materials (St. Petersburg, Sampsonievsky pr. 28a) (Figs. 1 and 2).

  9. In-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

  10. Long-Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session WA1 includes short reports concerning: (1) Medical and Physiological Studies During 438-Day Space Flights: (2) Human Performance During a 14 Month Space Mission: (3) Homeostasis in Long-Term Microgravity Conditions; (4) Strategy of Preservation of Health of Cosmonauts in Prolonged and Superprolonged Space Flights; (5) Rehabilitation of Cosmonauts Health Following Long-Term Space Missions; and (6) Perfect Cosmonauts: Some Features of Bio-Portrait.

  11. Optical feather and foil for shape and dynamic load sensing of critical flight surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad; Pakmehr, Mehrdad; Schlavin, Jon; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Zagrai, Andrei

    2014-04-01

    Future flight vehicles may comprise complex flight surfaces requiring coordinated in-situ sensing and actuation. Inspired by the complexity of the flight surfaces on the wings and tail of a bird, it is argued that increasing the number of interdependent flight surfaces from just a few, as is normal in an airplane, to many, as in the feathers of a bird, can significantly enlarge the flight envelope. To enable elements of an eco-inspired Dynamic Servo-Elastic (DSE) flight control system, IFOS is developing a multiple functionality-sensing element analogous to a feather, consisting of a very thin tube with optical fiber based strain sensors and algorithms for deducing the shape of the "feather" by measuring strain at multiple points. It is envisaged that the "feather" will act as a unit of sensing and/or actuation for establishing shape, position, static and dynamic loads on flight surfaces and in critical parts. Advanced sensing hardware and software control algorithms will enable the proposed DSE flight control concept. The hardware development involves an array of optical fiber based sensorized needle tubes for attachment to key parts for dynamic flight surface measurement. Once installed the optical fiber sensors, which can be interrogated over a wide frequency range, also allow damage detection and structural health monitoring.

  12. Investigation of the Performance of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesters Under Real Flight Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elefsiniotis, A.; Samson, D.; Becker, Th.; Schmid, U.

    2013-07-01

    Energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) in aircraft, acting as health monitoring systems (HMS), have the potential to reduce aircraft maintenance costs. Thermoelectric energy harvesting is a solution for self-powered systems, since it captures enough energy to power up a WSN. The energy harvesting device used in this work consists of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) attached to the inner part of the fuselage and to a thermal storage device, in order to artificially enhance the temperature difference between the bottom and the top surface of the TEG during take-off and landing. In this study, the results of 28 flight tests during a 6-month flight campaign of two identical energy harvesting devices are presented. The results are clustered into two different classes, each having its own characteristics. The two classes comprise typical, similar to standard European short/mid-range flights, as well as atypical flight profiles, where specific flight tests have been performed. In addition, for each class, different parameters such as flight altitudes, flight duration, and temperature profiles are investigated. Moreover, a detailed comparison between a typical and an atypical flight profile is given. In general, for a typical flight profile, the experimental results are in good agreement with simulations predicting the energy output. The average energy output is sufficient to power up a wireless sensor.

  13. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  14. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  15. Measurement of the Correlation and Coherence Lengths in Boundary Layer Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Wall pressure data acquired during flight tests at several flight conditions are analyzed and the correlation and coherence lengths of the data reported. It is shown how the frequency bandwidth of the analysis biases the correlation length and how the convection of the flow acts to reduce the coherence length. Coherence lengths measured in the streamwise direction appear much longer than would be expected based on classical results for flow over a flat plat.

  16. 14 CFR 61.187 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.187 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who is applying for a flight instructor certificate must receive and log flight and ground training from an authorized...) Postflight procedures. (c) The flight training required by this section may be accomplished: (1) In...

  17. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  18. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  19. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  20. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  1. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  2. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  3. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  4. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a..., or preload. (b) Control system forces and free play may not inhibit a smooth, direct...

  5. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  6. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  7. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  8. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  9. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  10. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  11. 49 CFR 1552.3 - Flight training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... compliance dates identified in this part, individuals and flight schools who comply with 28 CFR part 105 up... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and...

  12. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  13. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  14. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  15. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that...

  16. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  17. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  18. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that...

  19. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  20. 14 CFR 61.157 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.157 Section 61.157... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight... and log ground and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation under...

  1. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269....269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide at least the following flight... passengers—one flight attendant. (2) For airplanes having more than 50 but less than 101...

  2. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that...

  3. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  4. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  5. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's safety review document must describe each analysis method employed to meet the flight safety...

  6. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls....

  7. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls....

  8. 14 CFR 61.127 - Flight proficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.127 Section 61.127... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Commercial Pilots § 61.127 Flight proficiency... flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that apply to...

  9. Approach for Structurally Clearing an Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric J.; Lokos, William A.; Cruz, Josue; Crampton, Glen; Stephens, Craig A.; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Flick, Pete

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap was flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Gulfstream GIII testbed at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. This smoothly curving flap replaced the existing Fowler flaps creating a seamless control surface. This compliant structure, developed by FlexSys Inc. in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory, supported NASA objectives for airframe structural noise reduction, aerodynamic efficiency, and wing weight reduction through gust load alleviation. A thorough structures airworthiness approach was developed to move this project safely to flight. A combination of industry and NASA standard practice require various structural analyses, ground testing, and health monitoring techniques for showing an airworthy structure. This paper provides an overview of compliant structures design, the structural ground testing leading up to flight, and the flight envelope expansion and monitoring strategy. Flight data will be presented, and lessons learned along the way will be highlighted.

  10. F-8 DFBW in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft in flight. The computer-controlled flight systems pioneered by the F-8 DFBW created a revolution in aircraft design. The F-117A, X-29, X-31, and many other aircraft have relied on computers to make them flyable. Built with inherent instabilities to make them more maneuverable, they would be impossible for human pilots to fly if the computers failed or received incorrect data. The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide. Digital-fly-by-wire is more efficient because it is lighter and takes up less space than the hydraulic systems it replaced. This either reduces the fuel required to fly or increases the number of passengers or pounds of cargo the aircraft can carry

  11. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments. PMID:27330173

  12. F-15B transonic flight research testbed aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is flying a modified McDonnell-Douglas F-15B aircraft as a testbed for a variety of transonic flight experiments. The two-seat aircraft, bearing NASA tail number 836, is shown during a recent flight over the high desert carrying a Drdyen-designed Flight Test Fixture (FTF) upon which aerodynamic experiments are mounted. The FTF is a heavily instrumented fin-like structure which is mounted on the F-15B's underbelly in place of the standard external fuel tank. Since being aquired by NASA in 1993, the aircraft has been modified to include video recording, telemetry and data recording capabilities. The twin-engine aircraft flew several flights recently in support of an experiment to determine the precise location of sonic shockwave development as air passes over an airfoil. The F-15B is currently being prepared for the Boundary Layer Heat Experiment, which will explore the potential drag reduction from heating the turbulent portion of the air that passes over the fuselage of a large aircraft.

  13. Extending a Flight Management Computer for Simulation and Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.; Sugden, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    In modern transport aircraft, the flight management computer (FMC) has evolved from a flight planning aid to an important hub for pilot information and origin-to-destination optimization of flight performance. Current trends indicate increasing roles of the FMC in aviation safety, aviation security, increasing airport capacity, and improving environmental impact from aircraft. Related research conducted at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) often requires functional extension of a modern, full-featured FMC. Ideally, transport simulations would include an FMC simulation that could be tailored and extended for experiments. However, due to the complexity of a modern FMC, a large investment (millions of dollars over several years) and scarce domain knowledge are needed to create such a simulation for transport aircraft. As an intermediate alternative, the Flight Research Services Directorate (FRSD) at LaRC created a set of reusable software products to extend flight management functionality upstream of a Boeing-757 FMC, transparently simulating or sharing its operator interfaces. The paper details the design of these products and highlights their use on NASA projects.

  14. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments.

  15. Mars Balloon Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffery L.; Pauken, Michael T.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Walsh, Gerald J.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Lachenmeier, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a set of four Earth atmosphere flight test experiments on prototype helium superpressure balloons designed for Mars. Three of the experiments explored the problem of aerial deployment and inflation, using the cold, low density environment of the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 30-32 km as a proxy for the Martian atmosphere. Auxiliary carrier balloons were used in three of these test flights to lift the Mars balloon prototype and its supporting system from the ground to the stratosphere where the experiment was conducted. In each case, deployment and helium inflation was initiated after starting a parachute descent of the payload at 5 Pa dynamic pressure, thereby mimicking the conditions expected at Mars after atmospheric entry and high speed parachute deceleration. Upward and downward looking video cameras provided real time images from the flights, with additional data provided by onboard temperature, pressure and GPS sensors. One test of a 660 cc pumpkin balloon was highly successful, achieving deployment, inflation and separation of the balloon from the flight train at the end of inflation; however, some damage was incurred on the balloon during this process. Two flight tests of 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloons were not successful, although some lessons were learned based on the failure analyses. The final flight experiment consisted of a ground-launched 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloon that ascended to the designed 30.3 km altitude and successfully floated for 9.5 hours through full noontime daylight and into darkness, after which the telemetry system ran out of electrical power and tracking was lost. The altitude excursions for this last flight were +/-75 m peak to peak, indicating that the balloon was essentially leak free and functioning correctly. This provides substantial confidence that this balloon design will fly for days or weeks at Mars if it can be deployed and inflated without damage.

  16. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  17. Flight test experience with the F-8 digital fly-by-wire system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test results of the F-8 digital fly by wire control system are presented and the implications for application to active control technology are discussed. The F-8 DFBW system has several of the attributes of proposed ACT systems, so the flight test experience is helpful in assessing the capabilities of those systems. Topics of discussion include the predicted and actual flight performance of the control system, assessments of aircraft flying qualities and other piloting factors, software management and control, and operational experience.

  18. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  19. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  20. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  1. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  2. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  3. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data loss flight time and planned safe... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b)...

  4. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  5. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  6. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  7. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  8. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  9. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  10. 14 CFR 91.143 - Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations. 91.143 Section 91.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Flight Rules General § 91.143 Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations....

  11. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  12. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  13. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  14. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  15. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). 121.414 Section 121... training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator). (a) No.... The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator,...

  16. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices....

  17. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS Personnel and Flight Training Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for,...

  18. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Flight Rules Area within the following flight-free zones: (a) Desert View Flight-free Zone. That airspace... west between the Desert View and Bright Angel Flight-free Zones, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor... zone and the Desert View Flight-free Zone, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor.” The corridor to...

  19. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Flight Rules Area within the following flight-free zones: (a) Desert View Flight-free Zone. That airspace... west between the Desert View and Bright Angel Flight-free Zones, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor... zone and the Desert View Flight-free Zone, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor.” The corridor to...

  20. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Flight Rules Area within the following flight-free zones: (a) Desert View Flight-free Zone. That airspace... west between the Desert View and Bright Angel Flight-free Zones, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor... zone and the Desert View Flight-free Zone, is designated the “Zuni Point Corridor.” The corridor to...

  1. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  2. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  3. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  4. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  5. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  6. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  7. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  8. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST

  9. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  10. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  11. ACTS data center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syed, Ali; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on ACTS Data Center status report are included. Topics covered include: ACTS Data Center Functions; data flow overview; PPD flow; RAW data flow; data compression; PPD distribution; RAW Data Archival; PPD Audit; and data analysis.

  12. Flight simulation software at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norlin, Ken A.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a versatile simulation software package that is applicable to a broad range of fixed-wing aircraft. This package has evolved in support of a variety of flight research programs. The structure is designed to be flexible enough for use in batch-mode, real-time pilot-in-the-loop, and flight hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Current simulations operate on UNIX-based platforms and are coded with a FORTRAN shell and C support routines. This paper discusses the features of the simulation software design and some basic model development techniques. The key capabilities that have been included in the simulation are described. The NASA Dryden simulation software is in use at other NASA centers, within industry, and at several universities. The straightforward but flexible design of this well-validated package makes it especially useful in an engineering environment.

  13. The dermatology acting internship.

    PubMed

    Stephens, John B; Raimer, Sharon S; Wagner, Richard F

    2011-07-15

    Acting internships are an important component of modern day medical school curriculum. Several specialties outside of internal medicine now offer acting internship experiences to fourth year medical students. We have found that a dermatology acting internship is a valuable experience for fourth year medical students who are interested in pursuing a residency in dermatology. Our experience with the dermatology acting internship over the 2010-2011 academic year is described.

  14. Forgetting ACT UP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    When ACT UP is remembered as the pinnacle of postmodern activism, other forms and forums of activism that were taking place during that time--practices that were linked, related, just modern, in dialogue or even opposition to ACT UP's "confrontational activism"--are forgotten. In its time, ACT UP was embedded in New York City, and a larger world,…

  15. Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Smith L.

    2010-01-01

    This document establishes the policy and procedures for the HSP and is authorized through the Director, Johnson Space Center (JSC). This document delineates the medical operations requirements for the HSP. The HSP goals are accomplished through an awareness campaign and procedures such as limiting access to flight crewmembers, medical screening, and controlling flight crewmember activities. NASA's Human Space Flight Program uses strategic risk mitigation to achieve mission success while protecting crew health and safety. Infectious diseases can compromise crew health and mission success, especially in the immediate preflight period. The primary purpose of the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program (HSP) is to mitigate the risk of occurrence of infectious disease among astronaut flight crews in the immediate preflight period. Infectious diseases are contracted through direct person-to-person contact, and through contact with infectious material in the environment. The HSP establishes several controls to minimize crew exposure to infectious agents. The HSP provides a quarantine environment for the crew that minimizes contact with potentially infectious material. The HSP also limits the number of individuals who come in close contact with the crew. The infection-carrying potential of these primary contacts (PCs) is minimized by educating them in ways to avoid infections and avoiding contact with the crew if they are or may be sick. The transmission of some infectious diseases can be greatly curtailed by vaccinations. PCs are strongly encouraged to maintain updated vaccinations.

  16. Hypersonic trans-Pacific flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Aeronautics Design Program at The Ohio State University was to design a vehicle for hypersonic passenger flight across the Pacific Ocean. The specifications were as follows: (1) hypersonic flight; (2) range of 8000 nm; (3) passenger seating greater than 250; (4) operation from 15000 ft runways Mach number and altitude of operation were at the discretion of the design teams as were the propulsion system and type of fuel. The advanced aeronautics design sequence established specifically for this program consisted of a three quarter sequence as follows: Fall: ME 694 Senior Design Seminar - one quarter hour. Designers and specialists met one hour each week for ten weeks on relevant flight vehicle design topics. Winter: ME 515H Flight Vehicle Design - four quarter hours. Three design teams of six students each performed preliminary design studies of hypersonic configurations and potential propulsion systems. Each team's results were summarized in a final presentation to NASA Lewis Research Center personnel. The presentations resulted in the selection of the most promising design for additional development. Spring: AAE 516H Advanced Flight Vehicle Design - four quarter hrs. The class was reorganized to focus upon the specific design selected from the Winter configuration studies. Detailed analyses of thermal protection systems, costs, mission refinements, etc., completed the design task and final presentations were made to NASA Lewis Research Center staff.

  17. Immune function during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  18. High altitude aircraft flight tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David

    1996-03-01

    In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.

  19. Stability in hovering ornithopter flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model is coupled to a dynamic model of ornithopter flight. Previously, the combined model has been used to calculate forward flight trajectories, each a limit cycle in the vehicle's states. The limit cycle results from the periodic wing beat, producing a periodic force while on the cycle's trajectory. This was accomplished using a multiple shooting algorithm and numerical integration in MATLAB. An analysis of hover, a crucial element to vertical takeoff and landing in adverse conditions, follows. A method to calculate plausible wing flapping motions and control surface deflections for hover is developed, employing the above flight dynamics model. Once a hovering limit cycle trajectory is found, it can be linearized in discrete time and analyzed for stability (by calculating the trajectory's Floquet multipliers a type of discrete-time eigenvalue) are calculated. The dynamic mode shapes are discussed.

  20. Human tolerance to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Medical studies of astronauts and cosmonauts before, during, and after space missions have identified several effects of weightlessness and other factors that influence the ability of humans to tolerate space flight. Weightlessness effects include space motion sickness, cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in immune system function, loss of red blood cells, loss of bone mass, and muscle atrophy. Extravehicular activity (EVA) increases the likelihood that decompression sickness may occur. Radiation also gives reason for concern about health of crewmembers, and psychological factors are important on long-term flights. Countermeasures that have been used include sensory preadaptation, prebreathing and use of various air mixtures for EVA, loading with water and electrolytes, exercise, use of pharmacological agents and special diets, and psychological support. It appears that humans can tolerate and recover satisfactorily from at least one year of space flight, but a number of conditions must be further ameliorated before long-duration missions can be considered routine.

  1. CREAM Balloon Flights and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2012-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload was launched from McMurdo Station in Antarctica on December 21, 2010 for its sixth flight. A cumulative exposure of ~ 161 days was achieved when this almost 6-day flight was terminated on December 26, 2010. The calorimeter module was recovered in one piece on the pallet without dis-assembly, despite the challenging recovery location at high altitude on the opposite side of the Antarctic continent from McMurdo Station. The recovered CREAM-VI instrument was calibrated at CERN in October 2011, and it is being integrated for a CREAM-VII flight in Antarctica. The CREAM-V instrument recovered previously was refurbished, and it is being re-configured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). The instrument performance, results from the ongoing data analysis, and future plans will be presented.

  2. X-31 #2 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The second X-31 (Bu. No. 164585) Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) aircraft flies over Edwards Air Force Base, California. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air

  3. Vision Aspects of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, Keith; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Vision, being one of our most important senses, is critically important in the unique working environment of space flight. Critical evaluation of the astronauts visual system begins with pre-selection examinations resulting in an average of 65% of all medical disqualification's caused by ocular findings. With an average age of 42, approximately 60% of the astronaut corps requires vision correction. Further demands of the unique training and working environment of microgravity, variable lighting from very poor to extreme brightness of sunlight and exposure to extremes of electromagnetic energy results in unique eyewear and contact lens applications. This presentation will describe some of those unique eyewear and contact lens applications used in space flight and training environments. Additionally, ocular findings from 26 shuttle and 5 MIR mission post-flight examinations will be presented.

  4. Unsteady Aerodynamics of Insect Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2000-03-01

    The myth `bumble-bees can not fly according to conventional aerodynamics' simply reflects our poor understanding of unsteady viscous fluid dynamics. In particular, we lack a theory of vorticity shedding due to dynamic boundaries at the intermediate Reynolds numbers relevant to insect flight, typically between 10^2 and 10^4, where both viscous and inertial effects are important. In our study, we compute unsteady viscous flows, governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, about a two dimensional flapping wing which mimics the motion of an insect wing. I will present two main results: the existence of a prefered frequency in forward flight and its physical origin, and 2) the vortex dynamics and forces in hovering dragonfly flight.

  5. Readiness for First Crewed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to develop a generic framework for evaluating whether any given program has sufficiently complete and balanced plans in place to allow crewmembers to fly safely on a human spaceflight system for the first time (i.e., first crewed flight). The NESC assembled a small team which included experts with experience developing robotic and human spaceflight and aviation systems through first crewed test flight and into operational capability. The NESC team conducted a historical review of the steps leading up to the first crewed flights of Mercury through the Space Shuttle. Benchmarking was also conducted with the United States (U.S.) Air Force and U.S. Navy. This report contains documentation of that review.

  6. F-111 TACT in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The General Dynamics TACT/F-111A Aardvark is seen In a banking-turn over the California Mojave desert. This photograph affords a good view of the supercritical wing airfoil shape. Starting in 1971 the NASA Flight Research Center and the Air Force undertook a major research and flight testing program, using F-111A (#63-9778), which would span almost 20 years before completion. Intense interest over the results coming from the NASA F-8 supercritical wing program spurred NASA and the Air Force to modify the General Dynamics F-111A to explore the application of supercritical wing technology to maneuverable military aircraft. This flight program was called Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT).

  7. JetStar in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This 18-second movie clip shows the NASA Dryden Lockheed C-140 JetStar in flight with its pylon-mounted air-turbine-drive system used to gather information on the acoustic characteristics of subscale advanced design propellers. Data was gathered through 28 flush-mounted microphones on the skin of the aircraft. From 1976 to 1987 the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio -- today known as the Glenn Research Center -- engaged in research and development of an advanced turboprop concept in partnership with Hamilton Standard, Windsor Locks, Connecticut, the largest manufacturer of propellers in the United States. The Advanced Turboprop Project took its impetus from the energy crisis of the early 1970's and sought to produce swept propeller blades that would increase efficiency and reduce noise. As the project progressed, Pratt & Whitney, Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors, General Electric, Gulfstream, Rohr Industries, Boeing, Lockheed, and McDonnell Douglas, among others, also took part. NASA Lewis did the much of the ground research and marshaled the resources of these and other members of the aeronautical community. The team came to include the NASA Ames Research Center, Langley Research Center, and the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (before and after that time, the Dryden Flight Research Center). Together, they brought the propeller to the flight research stage, and the team that worked on the project won the coveted Collier Trophy for its efforts in 1987. To test the acoustics of the propeller the team developed, it mounted propeller models on a C-140 JetStar aircraft fuselage at NASA Dryden. The JetStar was modified with the installation of an air-turbine-drive system. The drive motor, with a test propeller, was mounted on a pylon atop the JetStar. The JetStar was equipped with an array of 28 microphones flush-mounted in the fuselage of the aircraft beneath the propeller. Microphones mounted on the wings and on an accompanying Learjet chase

  8. 76 FR 16236 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 RIN 2120-AJ93 Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action prohibits flight...

  9. Evaluation of the Hinge Moment and Normal Force Aerodynamic Loads from a Seamless Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric J.; Cruz, Josue; Lung, Shun-Fat; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Lu, Kerr-Jia; Flick, Pete

    2016-01-01

    A seamless adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap was demonstrated in flight on a Gulfstream III aircraft at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The trailing edge flap was deflected between minus 2 deg up and plus 30 deg down in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The interface hardware instrumentation layout and load calibration are discussed. Twenty-one applied calibration test load cases were developed for each individual fitting. The 2-sigma residual errors for the hinge moment was calculated to be 2.4 percent, and for normal force was calculated to be 7.3 percent. The hinge moment and normal force generated by the ACTE flap with a hinge point located at 26-percent wing chord were measured during steady state and symmetric pitch maneuvers. The loads predicted from analysis were compared to the loads observed in flight. The hinge moment loads showed good agreement with the flight loads while the normal force loads calculated from analysis were over-predicted by approximately 20 percent. Normal force and hinge moment loads calculated from the pressure sensors located on the ACTE showed good agreement with the loads calculated from the installed strain gages.

  10. Calbindins decreased after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins

  11. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  12. STS-75 Flight Day 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-75 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Andrew Allen, Pilot Scott Horowitz, Payload Cmdr. Franklin Chang-Diaz, Payload Specialist Umberto Guidoni (Italy), and Mission Specialists Jeffrey Hoffman, Maurizio Cheli (ESA) and Claude Nicollier (ESA), are shown performing several of the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3) experiments. There is an in-orbit interview by several of the astronauts with newspaper reporters. An announcement is made by Mission Control that Cmdr. Allen has become the first American Astronaut to log 1000 flight hours in space, with Payload Cmdr. Franklin Chang-Diaz coming in second.

  13. V/STOL flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The requirements for a new research aircraft to provide in-flight V/STOL simulation were reviewed. The required capabilities were based on known limitations of ground based simulation and past/current experience with V/STOL inflight simulation. Results indicate that V/STOL inflight simulation capability is needed to aid in the design and development of high performance V/STOL aircraft. Although a new research V/STOL aircraft is preferred, an interim solution can be provided by use of the X-22A, the CH-47B, or the 4AV-8B aircraft modified for control/display flight research.

  14. NAL's research for hypersonic flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Tatsuo

    NAL's hypersonic flight-related research activities, which began in 1966 with the construction of a hypersonic wind tunnel and have encompassed CFD investigations into hypersonic flows, were in 1987 expanded to undertake the conceptual development of aerospaceplanes. Efforts are simultaneously being made toward the development of hypersonic airframes and airbreathing powerplants, with a view to their integration at a more advanced design stage. An unmanned hypersonic experimental aircraft will in due course be built and flight tested to verify the materials, structures, control system, etc., technologies chosen during the current development program.

  15. Flight simulator with spaced visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, Richard D. (Inventor); Thurston, Marlin O. (Inventor); Olson, Karl W. (Inventor); Ventola, Ronald W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulator arrangement wherein a conventional, movable base flight trainer is combined with a visual cue display surface spaced a predetermined distance from an eye position within the trainer. Thus, three degrees of motive freedom (roll, pitch and crab) are provided for a visual proprioceptive, and vestibular cue system by the trainer while the remaining geometric visual cue image alterations are developed by a video system. A geometric approach to computing runway image eliminates a need to electronically compute trigonometric functions, while utilization of a line generator and designated vanishing point at the video system raster permits facile development of the images of the longitudinal edges of the runway.

  16. Advanced flight computer. Special study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coo, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    This report documents a special study to define a 32-bit radiation hardened, SEU tolerant flight computer architecture, and to investigate current or near-term technologies and development efforts that contribute to the Advanced Flight Computer (AFC) design and development. An AFC processing node architecture is defined. Each node may consist of a multi-chip processor as needed. The modular, building block approach uses VLSI technology and packaging methods that demonstrate a feasible AFC module in 1998 that meets that AFC goals. The defined architecture and approach demonstrate a clear low-risk, low-cost path to the 1998 production goal, with intermediate prototypes in 1996.

  17. STS-79 Flight Day 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, share a brief video tour of the Mir Space Station with flight controllers, taking a break from the transfer activities that has occupied the astronauts' time during three days of docked operations. Readdy and Apt floated through several of Mir's modules and back into Atlantis' double Spacehab module during the tour pointing out the numerous transfer items stowed on both spacecraft. Readdy, Wilcutt, Lucid and Blaha are seen discussing their mission in an interview with CNN's John Holliman.

  18. STS-79 Flight Day 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this tenth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz spent the day stowing equipment and deactivating experiments in preparation for the planned landing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. All systems aboard the orbiter were checked out overnight in preparation for landing day, including testing the flight control surfaces and thruster jets that will be used to maneuver the spacecraft through the atmosphere.

  19. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  20. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Description of current ARMD projects; Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project (new ARMD reorg), sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.